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date: 20 September 2019

(p. 1289) Index

(p. 1289) Index

Abbott, A. 78, 82
Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act (1976) 964, 965
Aborigines see Australian Aborigines
accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating 458, 508, 509, 516, 733 see also radiocarbon dating
Aché (Guayakí) people 79, 1040–1
Acheulian culture 196, 310, 496
Africa 229, 230, 611–13
cognitive requirements 620
hand axes and cleavers 183, 184, 611–13
south Asia 332, 339
Acheulean-Mousterian culture 310
Ackerman, L. A. 1253
Ackerman, R. E. 701–2
acorns 1267, 1268, 1270
actor network theory 135, 1195
Adachi, N. 411
adaptive and ecological approaches 33, 36–7, 69–84, 92, 443
ideas about adaptation before advent of ecological approaches (1600-1930) 70–2
advent of ecological approaches 73–6
Neo-Darwinian approaches 78–84
New Archaeology 76–8
Adovasio, J. M. 168
Afontov culture 318
Africa
Acheulian culture 229, 230, 611–13
archaeogenetics 1101–2, 1145–7, 1146 Fig. 55.2, 1147–53, 1154
‘back to Africa’ migrations 1147, 1154
earliest evidence for Levallois and bladelet technologies 608, 614
earliest stone artefacts 610–11
early coastal exploitation, South Africa 596, 698
egalitarianism 645
microlithic industry, Later Stone Age 484
Middle Palaeolithic-Upper Palaeolithic transition 616
Neolithic farming 483
‘out of Africa’ dispersal 310, 346, 358, 369, 440, 498, 1145–6, 1154
‘proto-Khoisan-Pygmy’ population 1154
rock art 108–9
Africa, contemporary hunter gatherers 1147
genetic legacy 1149–53
marital exchanges 1149
physical features 1147–8
population constancy 1149–50
reproduction 1148–9
Africa, Middle Stone Age 484
archaeological record 216, 233
artefacts and cognitive processes and behaviour 230–2
and modern human behaviour 229–30, 237
stone tool technology 229–30, 614–15
and symbolic expression 231
toolkits 236, 237
transition to agriculture 739
Africa, post-glacial period 446–7, 479–87
animal domestication 483, 484
east Africa 482–3
north Africa 480–2
southern Africa 447, 484–5
terminal Pleistocene/early Holocene environments 479–80
timeline 486 Fig. 20.1
tropical Africa 485–7
agency 444, 1193
belief, spirituality and ethnoarchaeology 132–4
children 1197
hunter-gatherer 604–5, 916, 1192
(p. 1290) and Neolithicization 772
non-human 1195–6
agriculture and farming
Africa, arrival of 447, 472, 481–2, 483, 485
Cyprus, arrival of 463
Neolithic transition to farming 769–75
role of hunter-gatherers in transition 767–8, 916
slash-and-burn, Finland 1076–9
south Asia, post-glacial 447, 497, 501
south-east Europe, arrival of 466–8
spread from the Adriatic to the Atlantic 471–2
spread out of western Asia 461–2
spread throughout the Mediterranean 473
social complexity pre-dating 593, 602, 603, 643, 654
south-east Europe, arrival 466–7
transition to agriculture 586, 738–9, 767–8
western Asia/near east, beginnings of 438, 445, 458–9
Agta people 14, 158–9, 1020, 1022, 1024, 1016, 1246
Ahrensburgian culture 541, 466–7, 699
Aiello, C. 184–5
Ainu people 165, 656–7, 771, 913–14, 1054–66, 1055 Fig. 50.1
‘bear cult’ 1279
bear ceremony (iyomante) 914, 1065
‘dual structure model’ 1057
history and ethnogenesis 1057–9
and hunter-gatherer definitions 1059–60
population levels 1054
regional variations 1064–5
ritual and worldview 1065
settlement patterns 1062
social organization and complexity 1062–4
subsistence and economy 1060–1
trade 1061
whale hunting 1267
‘Ainu culture period’ 1054, 1055–6, 1059
Aka people 167, 940–1, 943, 947, 1152
Akazawa, T. 514
Akie people 166
Alacauf sea nomads 703
Al-Azmeh. A, 61
Aleut people 651
Alfred, King 1080
Algonquian/Iroquois interaction 781, 884 Fig. 41.2, 885–6
prehistoric 886–7
Allard, P. 792
altered states of consciousness (ASCs) 589, 632, 637–8, 1194
and jimson weed 1229
and rock art 1233–4
and shamanism 1225
and vision quests 1228
alterity/otherness and defining of hunter-gatherers 35, 56–65
axes of 57–8
barbarians and tribals 59–61
and Chinese historiography 60–1
and the cultivation of difference 64–5
English portrayals 62–3
Greeks and barbarians 58–9
and Hindu thought 60
invention of the concept 63–4
normalcy and the Self 62
precursors to hunter-gatherers 61–5
Altman, Jon 964, 965
Alu Kurumba people 164–5
Alune people 1013
amber 288, 563
Ambrose, S. H. 482–3
American Anthropological Association 156
Americas
Barnes complex 414
Clovis foragers and their contemporaries 412–14, 413 Fig. 17.2
earliest hunter-gatherers 405–20
early coastal exploitation 698
early foragers, North America 414–17
early foragers, South America 417–19
gender roles in early foragers 416–17
post glacial coastline submersion 696
pre-11000 BP craneometric studies 411
pre-11000 BP genetic studies 411–12
pre-11000 BP linguistic evidence 412
pre-11000 BP peopling models 406–11, 407 Fig. 17.1, 409 Fig. 17.2, 410 Fig. 17.3, 410 Fig. 17.4
pre-11000 BP skeletal morphology 411
transition to agriculture 738–9
(p. 1291) Ames, K. M. 992, 1004, 1006
Ames, O. 730
Amick, D. S. 415
Ammerman, A. J. 462, 771
Anadara granosa 387
analogical reasoning 33, 39, 40, 105–9
arguments by anomaly 106–7
boundary conditions 106
‘core universals’ 108, 109
cross-cultural analysis of data 106
‘historical analogy’ 108
and middle range theory 107–9, 138
‘tyranny of the ethnographic record’ 106
Ananino culture 849
ancestor worship 649, 653
Andamanese people 165
DNA studies 374
Anderson, A. 500
Anderson, D. G. 165–6
Anderson, E. 730
Anderson, J. C. 964
Anderson, M. 981
animal domestication 600–1, 749–59, 767
defining 749–50
DNA analysis 752–3
earliest livestock 264
‘founders’ effects 751, 752
as a hunter-gatherer innovation 755–9
identifying domestication 751–5, 751 Fig. 34.1, 754 Fig. 34.2, 755 Fig. 34.3
morphological changes in animals 752
Neolithic transition, Britain and Ireland 826, 827, 832
osteological evidence 753
post-glacial east Africa 483
post-glacial southern Africa 484
reduction in size 751–2
as response to pressure to increase production 658
animal-human relations see human-animal relations
animism 444, 825, 1193, 1222
Ankel, C. 789
Annales school 1165
Antap cult 1229
Anthony, D. W. 757
antler frontlets, Star Carr 719, 1194, 1212
Appadurai, A. 1208
Applegate, R. 980
Arafura Plain, south-west Asia 369–70, 372
Arcand, B. 52
archaeastronomy, north Africa 482
archaeobiographies 1196
archaeogenetics 1101–2, 1143–54
Africa 1145–7, 1146 Fig. 55.2, 1154
African hunter-gatherers 1101–2, 1147–53, 1154
ancient and modern DNA 1101, 1143
concepts and terminology 1143–5
L3 haplogroup 1145–6
Ardipithecus 179, 181
form indicating function 180
Arikara people 781, 882, 887, 888
Aristotle 59, 64, 1205
Arnold, J. 1004, 1064
Arrernte Aborigines 961, 962
art 588–90, 625–39
Blombos Cave pieces 588–9, 626–8, 627 Fig. 28.1
central and western Mediterranean Mesolithic 470
Danubian Europe 531–2, 532 Fig. 23.5
disenchantment with interpretation 635–6
early explanations 589, 632–5
European Upper Palaeolithic 296, 297
as ‘image-making’ 588, 625–6
Magdalenian figurative art 293–5
neurological approach 589–90, 636–8, 639
social situatedness 633, 639
south Asia, post-glacial 447, 496, 501–2
Sulawesi sites 354
Upper Palaeolithic 289–90, 589, 628–32, 629 Fig. 28.2, 629 Fig. 28.3, 630 Fig. 28.4, 631 Fig. 28.5
see also rock art
Arthur, B. 376
asbestos ware 849
Assiniboine people 781, 887–8
Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East 1085
Aterian culture 230
Athabascan people 890, 891
Augy-Sainte-Pallaye culture (ASP) 793, 794
Aunger, R. V. 943
(p. 1292) Aurignacian culture 279, 286–7, 312, 314, 1172
art 589, 628, 629 Fig. 28.2, 631
Classic Aurignacian 284, 285–6
clay-lined basins 664
Europe 336
Levant 257
‘lion-man’ statuettes 1195
material indicators of complexity 646
rock art 287
Zagros mountains 255, 264
aurochs 753
Austin-Broos, D. 964
Australian Aborigines 109, 160, 161–2, 162–3, 368–90, 903, 909, 958–68, 1149
amateur observers, 1788–1880 958
anthropology of Aboriginal religion 966
approaches to Aboriginal economy 964
art and belief 377
chronometric evidence for earliest human habitation 357–8
cultural and linguistic anthropology 965
demographic pattern of colonization 377–9, 379–84, 381–2 Fig. 16.4, 382 Fig. 16.5, 383 Tab. 16.2, 383 Tab. 16.3
the Dreaming/Dreamtime 376–7, 966, 1179, 1199, 1236
Durkheim’s synthesis 959–60
earliest people 348, 368–9, 441
early coastal exploitation 596, 698
early theoretically oriented ethnography 958–9
ecology and the ‘Man the Hunter’ programme 909, 962–3
eel habitat manipulation 1269
egalitarianism 645
evidence for early symbolic expression 360
environmental conditions (last 45000 years) 369–73, 370 Fig. 16.1, 370 Tab. 16.1, 371 Fig. 16.2, 372 Fig. 16.3
and extinctions 385
‘fourth world’ communities 966–7
Freudian research 962
gender and food restrictions 1270
gender studies and feminist anthropology 965–6
genetic lineage evidence 373–4
human impacts on megafauna 384–5, 386 Fig. 16.6
impact of fire and ‘firestick farming’ 385–6
language at contact 374–6
languages 368
Marxist and neo-Marxist approaches 962, 963
material culture 376
music, art and performance 967–8
niche construction 1268
plant food production 387
regionalization of symbolic communication 388
religion 632
research relation with social policy 909, 964–5
research in south-east/south-west 967
responses to colonization 386–8
ritual and social organization 376–77
rock art 589, 632, 1234
spear ownership 387
structural-functional ethnography 960–1
structuralism: Lévi-Strauss’ synthesis 962
Tasmanian food-getting technology 1110
‘totemism’ 1232
urban areas and social change 961–2
Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies 963, 964
australopithecines 185
gathering 155–6
Australopithecus 155–6, 178, 179
form indicating function 180, 181
Australopithecus afarensis 181, 185
mortuary behaviour 713
Australopithecus africanus 183
Avikwame 1227
Awa people 135
Ayorea people 1037
Azilian culture 279, 295–6, 469
Babylonian Paradise texts 58
Bacsonian culture 361
Badegoulian culture 292, 558
Bahuchet, S. 940–1, 943, 944, 945
Bailey, G. N. 696, 698
Bailey, R. 942–3, 943–4, 946, 947
Bain, A. C. (Donald) 922
Bajau ‘sea nomads’ 1017
(p. 1293) Baka people 163, 167, 940, 942, 948
Bakker, R. 814
Baldwin Spencer, W. 958, 959, 964, 966
Balée, W. 1033, 1041
Bali, genetic studies 378
Ballard, C. 1175
Balsan, F. 923
Baltic Mesolithic 1276
cemeteries 720–1
mortuary practices 597, 714–23
social relationships 715–16
symbols and cosmology 716–18
Baltic Sea formation 557
Bamforth, D. B. 124
Ban Rai, Thailand 349
Bann Flakes 825, 1215
Bantu farmers 938, 946, 1149, 1151, 1152
genetic studies 1152–3
Bantu languages 483
Baradostian culture 256, 264
‘Barbary Sheep’, Tamar Hat, Algeria 665 Fig. 30.1, 666
Barnard, A. 22, 63
Barnes complex in the Americas 414
Barnes, J. A. 960–1
Bárta, J. 529
Barton, H. 501
Basarwa San people 1255
Batak people 871, 1016
Batchelor, J. 1060
Batek people 1021, 1024, 1025
Bates, D. 894, 958
Batianova, E. P. 162
Battle Axe groups 842–3
Bayliss, A. 833
Beagle Chanel, Tierra del Fuego project 137
Beaker groups 842–3
Bean, J, L. 980, 1229, 1230
Bean, T. 980
bear burials, Sámi 1279
bear ceremony (iyomante), Ainu 914, 1065
‘bear cult’, Ainu 1279
bear hunting, Ainu 1062
bear shamans 1227
bears, human relations with 1195
Beaune, S. 646
beavers 810, 1279
Beck, C. 413
Beckhampton Road long barrow, Wiltshire 1175
Behar, D. M. 1151
behavioural ecology see human behavioural ecology
Bell, C. 712
Bell, D. 966
Bella Coola people 994, 995, 1195
Bellwood, P. 360, 501, 858
Bender, B. 65, 771
Benedict, R. 997, 998
Bentley, R. A. 792
berdacheor ‘two spirits’ 1256
Berger, J. 543
Beringia, North American Pacific 701–2
Bern, J. 963, 966
Bernbeck, R. 635
Berndt, C. H. 960, 961, 965, 966
Berndt, R. M. 960, 961, 964, 965, 967
Bettinger, R. L. 1001, 1119, 1134, 1135
Bhuket people 1019
Biagi, P. 462, 471
Bidayuh farmers 860
Biesele, M. 927
Biological Species Concept (BSC) (Mayr) 238
biomolecular archaeology 1279–80
Bird, I. 1063
Bird-David, N. 15–16, 65, 167, 1193, 1197
bison hunting 888, 1267
farmer/hunter-farmers’ return to 882, 889, 891–3
bison meat and hide trading 781, 887, 889, 890, 893, 894, 895
Bjerck, H. 698, 704
‘Black Venus’ Dolní Vĕstonice, Czech Republic 290, 665 Fig. 30.1, 666
Blackburn, T. 980–1
Blackman, M. B. 1254
blade and bladelet technologies 588, 608, 616, 618, 649
Caucasus, Upper Palaeolithic 265–6
European Upper Palaeolithic 279, 283–6, 288, 291, 292, 295, 616
(p. 1294) lag between first appearance and widespread adoption 608
Levantine Upper Palaeolithic 257, 258
northern Asia, Palaeolithic 311, 312–14, 313 Fig. 13.1, 317–18, 320–1, 322 Fig. 13.2, 323 Fig. 13.3, 324 Fig. 13.4
northern Europe, post-glacial 561, 564, 565–6
parallel development in Africa and Eurasia 608–10
Zagros, Upper Palaeolithic 264–5
Blakeslee, D. 888
Blankholm, H. P. 544
Bleed, P. 123, 1118
Bleek, W. 632, 921
Bliquy culture 793, 794
Blombos Cave, South Africa 230, 231, 588–9, 626–8, 627 Fig. 28.1
Boas, F. 3, 5, 13, 15, 18,34, 36, 47, 49, 71–2, 73, 585–6, 590, 601, 602, 644, 978, 995–6, 998, 1131
boats 567, 695, 697–8, 699, 700, 704
Ainu 1054
Chinese Mesolithic watercraft 654
skin 566
Bodo cranium, Ethiopia 224, 235
body decoration see personal ornaments
Boemus, J. 63
Bofi people 943
Bole-Maru cult, California 983
Bølling-Allerød interstadial 440, 492, 494, 498, 499, 500, 502
bone and antler technology and artefacts 257, 265–6, 312, 314
China 654
European Upper Palaeolithic 283, 284, 286
Mesolithic Mediterranean 465
Natufian 653
Neolithic 466
Niah Cave, Borneo 352
northern Asia 317, 318, 322 Fig. 13.2
post-glacial Danubian Europe 530
post-glacial south Asia 496
post-glacial south-east Asia 447, 500–1
south Asia 336
Bonsall, C. 697
‘Boomerang Culture’ 48
Bordes, F. 255
Bordes, J.-G. 264
Borić, D. 1213, 1215
Borneo 351–3, 358, 360, 378
forager-farmer relationships 865
inter-group violence 869
see also Niah Caves
Boscana, G. 975
Botai culture, horse husbandry 757–8, 759 Fig. 34.4
Boule, M. 192
Bourdieu, P. 135
bows and arrows 1003, 1004
bifacial arrowheads 848
evidence of, Terminal Upper Palaeolithic 297
introduction 1120–1
possible evidence, Niah Caves, Borneo 352
spread of 617
Boyd, R. 1132
Boyette, A. H. 943
Bradley, J. J. 1176
Bradley, R. 1192–3
brain size, and modern human origins 217–19
Brantingham, P. 1171–2
Braudel, F. 1165
bride-wealth, southern Africa 485
Briggs, A. W. 195
Briggs, J. L. 1254
Brightman, R. 1252
Brinch Peterson, E. 546, 721
Britain and Ireland, Neolithic transition 777, 824–34
animal husbandry 826, 827
animals, diet and hunting 829–30
axes and pottery technologies 831–2
cereal production 826, 831
chronology 833
colonization from abroad argument 777, 828–9
dairy products 832
diet Mesolithic/Neolithic 829–30
indigenous development argument 777, 828
Mesolithic background 825–6
monuments 826–7, 830, 832, 833
Neolithic background 826–7
(p. 1295) plant food, diet and gathering 830–1
pottery 826
transition debate 777, 827–9
Bromme culture 565
Bronze Age (BA) 769, 838, 847, 849, 850
Brooks, A. S 229
Brosowke, S. D. 890–1, 892
Brown, E. R. 569
Brown, J. A. 1170
Brumbach, H. J. 123, 131, 132, 133, 151, 168
Bukat people 1024
Bukitan people 869
Bunn, H. T. 184
Burbank, V. K. 160
Bureau of American Ethnology 977–8
Bureau of Indian Affairs, US 977, 982
Burroughs, W. J. 557
Bushmen 163, 484, 485 see also San
butchery practices
and cutmarks 127
faunal assemblages and optimal foraging 127–8
and faunal distributions 124–8
forager/collector model 124–8
inter-site and intra-site variations in faunal assemblages 125–6
carcass processing, marrow extraction and sharing 126–7
women’s role 1247, 1269
Butler, J. 164, 1212
Buttler, W. 789
Cabrillo, J. 974
Cahuilla people 980
California and the Great Basin 36, 73, 74–5
Bureau of American Ethnology 977–8
Bureau of Indian Affairs 977
cultural anthropology 909–10, 973–86
Department and Museum of Anthropology, Berkeley 978
‘ethnie’ term 983
ethnohistorical origins 974–6
Ethnological and Archaeological Survey 978
Ghost Dance movement 977, 983–4
Gold Rush (1849) 976
Great Basin point types 1100, 1135–7, 1136 Fig. 54.1
hunter-gatherer ethnogenesis 984–5
Indian Claims Commission Proceedings (1970s) 982
Kroeberian anthropology 978–9
linguistic studies 979–80
memory anthropology and its critique 981–3
Mexican rancho system 976
plant management 1268
Point Conception gas terminal 985
populations at European contact 973
post ethnographic fieldwork 980–1
reliance on acorns 1267, 1270
religion and ritual 1221–2, 1223, 1225, 1228–30, 1231
shamanism, California 1226–8
Spanish Franciscan Mission System 974–6
Steward and the Great Basin 979–80
Calley, Malcolm 966
Camelid domestication 758–9
candlenuts 1019
Cane, S. 110
Cann, R. L. 214
Canny, N. 62
Capsian industry 470, 472
Cardial tradition pottery (Impressed Ware) 790
Carlson, R. L. 992
Carpelan, C. 1080
Carson, R. 76
Cartmill, M. 228
carvings
southern Germany 628–31
stone objects, Neolithic western Asia 459
see also figurines
Cashinahua people 1245
Castel, J-C. 1177–8
Castelnovian culture 469–70
Castiglione, Baldassare 62
Çatal Hüyük 445, 461
cattle, DNA analysis 810
cattle domestication 759
Neolithic Britain and Ireland 825, 826, 827, 829
north Africa 446, 481
Cauwe, N. 723
Cavalli-Sforza, L. 771, 934, 1150–1, 1152
(p. 1296) Caverna da Pinta Pintada, Brazil 409, 410 Fig. 17.4
cemeteries see under mortuary practices
central Africa (Congo basin) hunter-gatherer research 908, 936–50, 937 Fig. 44.1, 937 Tab. 44.1
British traditions 939–40
comparing traditions 944–5
conservation issues 948
divergence of people 938
ecological and evolutionary bias 949
ethnographic research needs 950
forager-farmer relations 946–8
French traditions 940–1
future research 949–50
gender and nationality biases 949
Harvard Ituri Project 943
Japanese traditions 941–2
oral histories 950
origins and human stature 938
subsistence and settlement 946
US tradition 942–4
‘wild yam’ hypothesis 946, 947
Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research 965
ceramic technology 438, 593–5, 663–85, 776
association with farming 593, 663, 770
basketry associations 594, 667–8
Cardial/Epi-Cardial (Impressed Ware) 471, 472, 790
China 654
chronology, Jomon and Chulmun 508–9
clay/ceramic/pottery distinctions 663
container technology 593, 666–7
culinary ceramics 681–3, 1276–7
earliest ceramics 664–6, 665 Fig. 30.1
emergence and spread of pottery 604, 669–78, 677 Fig. 30.5
Ertebølle 809, 1276
as evidence of Iroquois-Alconquin interaction 886–7
feasting role 657
Gasya site vessel, Russian Far East 667 Fig. 30.2
Glazed Ware, North America 890
and ‘horticultural’ societies 679, 680
Impressa tradition 790
La Hoguette pottery culture 775, 787, 789 Fig. 36.2, 790, 792, 794, 797
Limburg pottery culture 787, 789 Fig. 36.2, 790
Linear pottery 521, 523
Linearband Pottery culture (LBK) 775, 776, 778, 787, 788–94, 796–7, 805, 809, 840
Khartoum Mesolithic pottery 481
‘moist’ cookery techniques 681–2
Middle Jomon vessels, Japan 667–8, 668 Fig. 30.3
Neolithic south east Europe 466
New World and Far North, emergence and spread 594, 674–5 Tab. 30.5, 676 Tab. 30.6, 679–80
Old World, emergence and spread 594, 670 Tab. 30.1, 671 Tab. 30.2, 672 Tab. 30.3, 673 Tab. 30.4, 678–9
origins of pottery 666–9
Owens Valley ceramic technologies, California 1100–1, 1137 Fig. 54.2, 1138
post-glacial Africa 483, 484, 485, 486
post-glacial Mediterranean and western Asia 458
presenting prestige 683–4
protohistoric American Plains 893, 895
San Jacinto pottery sequence, Columbia 668, 669 Fig. 30.4
and seasonally abundant plant foods 595, 682, 683
for surplus storing 683
women’s prominence in manufacture and use 1248
cereal introduction (4200 BC), north-west Europe 814
ceremonial buildings, Neolithic western Asia 459–61
ceremonies in caves 638
Chagnon, N. 943
chaînes opératoires 129–30, 135, 256, 317, 444, 499, 617, 1197, 1208, 1214
Chaná-Timbú peoples 1035
Chapman, A. 1037
Chapman, J. 1175
Charnov, E. L. 1167–8
Charrúas people 1035
Châtelperron points 197, 198 Fig. 9.3
(p. 1297) Chauchat, C. 419
Chauvet Cave art 287, 294, 589, 628, 631, 646
Cherum (Great Basin chief, US) 983
chestnuts 1267, 1268, 1270
Cheyenne people 781, 887
child burials 465, 470, 646–9, 1197, 1253
Final Palaeolithic northern Asia 320, 321
Neolithic 466
Childe, V. Gordon 34, 51, 586, 442, 601, 650, 770, 788–9, 827, 1098, 1166
childhood 167, 1258
children 158, 159, 161, 548–9
as subjects of hunter-gatherer studies 1196, 1197
gender socialization 1253, 1258
genders 168
see also child burials
childscapes 1107
Chilton E. 882, 886–7
chimpanzees 180, 183, 186, 195
compared with archaic hominins 187–8
tool use 610
China 60–1
bone and antler technology 654
ceramic technology 654
Mesolithic feasting 656–7
social complexity 655–8
trade with south-east Asia 862–4
Chindina, L. A. 162
Chingichngish cult 1229–30
Chinigchinich people 975
Chipewyan people 122–3, 133, 161
gender dynamics and subsistence 131, 132 Tab. 6.6, 1248–50, 1251
human-prey animal relationship 1279
inkonze 1250–1
marriage and women’s Treaty status 1256
Chisholm, B. 515
Chisholm, J. S. 160
Cho, D. 509
Chonos people 1036–7
Christianity, Russian Orthodox 1056
Chua, L. 860
Chulmun culture 448, 507–16
Chumash people 974, 980–1, 985
Antap cult 1229
‘clam gardens’ 1268, 1273
Clark, D. 255
Clark, G. 6, 7, 11, 105–6, 442–3
Clark, W. 887–8
Clarke, D. L. 13
Clarkson, C. 1173
cleavers 196, 611–12, 613 Fig. 27.3
Clemmer, R. 982–3
Clendon, M. 375
clothing 265, 588, 615, 616
elaborately decorated 650
tailored skin 656
women’s manufacture 1247–8, 1269
Clovis culture 406, 411, 412–14, 413 Fig. 17.5, 418
coalescence theory, and modern human origins 235
coastal adaptation 596, 694–705
development of technology 697–8
disadvantages of the coast 695–6
East Timor 355–6
edible resources 694
first users 698–700
and fresh water 695
limitations of the evidence 457, 696–7
north-west Europe 700–1
possible link with bone technology rise, south-east Asia 447, 500
and shelter 694–5
south-east Asia and Indonesia 352
south-east Asia, post-glacial sites showing no evidence 447, 498–9, 502
and transport 695
value of the coast 694–5
coefficient of variation (CV), and cultural transmission 1135–7, 1136 Fig. 54.1
Cold War 904
Coleman, J. 58
Collier, J. 156–7
colonialism 14, 35, 165, 1256, 1258
Colville Indian people 1253
Combe-Grenal rock shelter, France 199–200
‘composite band’ societies 51
composite (hafted) tools 616
appearance 615
cognitive requirements 620
geometric inserts 610 Fig. 27.1
Niah Cave, Borneo 352
south-east Asia 361
(p. 1298) cone point armatures 499
Conferences on Hunting and Gathering Studies (CHAGS) 9, 22–3, 41, 151, 153, 156, 167, 1023
effects of gender studies 157–67
conflict:
Borneo 869
ritualization of 158
symbolised 633
see also violence
Conkey, M. W. 157, 160, 1207, 1244
Conneller, C. 547, 719, 1112–13, 1194, 1214, 1216
consciousness, evolution of 636–7 see also altered states of consciousness
contingent historical sequences 33
‘Continuity’ model 214–15, 228, 232
Cook, Captain James 374
Cook, S. 980, 984
Coolidge, F. L. 620
Cooper, Z. 110
copper 794
distribution on Northwest Plateau of North America 647 Fig. 29.1
first use 653
Corded Ware culture 844 Fig. 39.2
corporate kinship groups 649, 650, 653, 656
cosmology/ies 1222, 1277–9
Baltic Mesolithic 716–18
European upper Palaeolithic 290
and foodways 513–15
and gender 1250–2, 1257–8
Kelabit farmers 859–60
and mortuary practices 598, 712–13, 714
Penan people 859–60
and social relations 1199
Coso rock engravings, California 1234
Cowlishaw, G. 967
Crass, B. 1253
Crate, S. A. 549
Crawford, G. 658, 1060
Crepi, Father Juan 974
Creswellian culture 560, 561, 564, 568
Croes, D. 1005
Crombé, P. 809
Crow people 781, 887, 888
Crow-Hidatsa split 889, 894
Cruikshank, J. 1254
Cueva de los Aviones, Spain 201–2
cults and secret societies 646, 650, 1228–30, 1236
cultural bottlenecks 618
cultural ecology 36–7, 73–5, 77, 586, 601, 603, 604, 905, 915, 979, 999–1001, 1098
cultural evolution 72, 73, 74, 75, 82
Boas’ rejection of 590, 644
identifying general patterns 602–3
and social complexity 591, 643, 658
cultural relativism 586, 590, 601, 602, 644
cultural transmission (CT) 587, 588, 604, 617, 619, 620, 698, 1098–1101, 1127
and archaeology 1100, 1131–2
coefficient of variation (CV) 1135–7, 1136 Fig. 54.1
cognitive/psychological biases 1130–1, 1131 Tab. 54.2
defined 1128–31, 1130 Tab. 54.1, 1131 Tab. 54.2
effects of information content and complexity 1133–4
effects of population size and density 1132–3
effects of social organization 1134
and genetic transmission (GT) 1128
Great Basin point types 1100, 1135–7, 1136 Fig. 54.1
Markov Chains, equations and processes 1128–9
modes of 82
Owens Valley ceramic technology, California 1100–1, 1137 Fig. 54.2, 1138
potential for application 1135–8
process of 83
testing the theory 1132, 1134
‘culture areas’ 72, 73
culture, intersection with environment 36–7, 70, 71–2, 73–5, 603–4
east Asia 512–13
culture change, understanding long-term, east Asia 512–16
culture-historical framework 770, 782
Cumberland culture 414
Cummings, V. 95, 444, 774, 777, 779, 825, 828, 830, 83
Cunningham, J. J. 108
Cybulski, J. 1001–2
Dadiwan, China 735
Dahlberg, F. 155
Dalrymple, Sir John 46
Daly, P. 65
Daly, R. 22
Danubian Europe, post-glacial transformations 448–9, 521–34
aquatic diet resources 528
architecture and pyrotechnology 530–1, 531 Fig. 23.4
art and symbolism 531–2, 532 Fig. 23.5
bone technology 530
cemeteries, burials and scattered human remains 532–3
chronology and archaeology 522–3
chronology and environment 522
geographic characteristics 521
karstic caves and rock shelters 525
lithic resources 526–8
lithic technology 529
open-air settlement sites 524–5, 524 Fig. 23.1
pseudokarstic (sandstone) rock shelters 525–6, 526 Fig. 23.2, 527 Fig. 23.3
terrestrial diet resources 528–9
wood technology 529–30
Danubian Europe, Upper Palaeolithic 521
Darkinyung people 374
Darnell, R. 977
Dart, R. A. 179
Daruk language 374
Darwin, Charles 50, 70–1, 83, 704, 730, 756
David, E. 542
David, N. 137
Davidson, I. 1234
Dawson, J. 958–9
Day, M. H. 219
De Bie, M. 541
De Bruin culture 810, 811–12 Tab. 37.1, 814
de Candolle, A. 730
de Saussure, F. 633
Dean, J. 890
Deger, Jennifer 968
delayed return economic system 119 Tab. 6.3, 544, 994, 995, 1003, 1272
delayed vs. immediate return hunter gatherers (Woodburn) 11, 115, 992,
demography, prehistoric 160
Denig, E. 888
Denisova cave, Altai, Siberia 310, 311, 312, 313 Fig. 13.1, 314, 317
Denisovans, DNA admixture with early human 215
dentalium shell artefacts 201, 260, 653, 888, 1231
Denver African Expedition 924
Developed Northwest Coast Pattern 1003
DeVore, I. 8–10, 16, 65, 154, 942, 943, 945
Dewing, E. 1215
Di Lernia, S. 481
Diamond, J. 1133
diet, subsistence and foodways 1106–7, 1266–81
aDNA research 1267, 1273, 1280
age-based differences 1270–1
cooking technology changes (5000 BC) 809–10
cosmologies and foodways 1277–9
diet breadth model 1118–19, 1120
diet diversity, post-glacial east Asia 513–15
‘delayed return’ strategy 544, 1272
food for status 1276–7
future of research 1279–81
hunter-gatherer/farmer differences in diet 813 Fig. 37.4
‘immediate return’ strategy 1271
and landscape 1272–3
Levantine Upper and Epipalaeolithic 254, 260–4, 270
Neolithic 829–31
ownership and territoriality 1271–4
post-glacial 528–9
and radiocarbon dating 1280–1
south-east Asia, post-glacial 498–9
stable-isotope analysis 734–5, 1270–1, 1276, 1279–80
transition to Neolithic diet 814
(p. 1300) diffusion vs. migration arguments 1166
Dikov, N. N. 319–20
Djungan Aboriginal group, Australia 1178
Dobres, M. 1207
Dobyns, H. 983
Dobzhansky, T. 192
Doggerland 440, 539, 539 Fig. 24.4, 560, 569, 696, 701
dogs:
burials 320, 713, 718, 1195
domestication 264, 542, 566, 567, 600, 749, 756–7, 881, 1064, 1267
human relations with 1195
Dolní Vĕstonice, Czech Republic 664–6, 665 Fig. 30.1
Donald, L. 646, 1005
Donald, M. 1133
donkey domestication, Africa 487
Dounias, E. 941
Dousset, L. 961
Dowson, T. A. 1234
Drake, Sir Francis 974
Draper, P. 927
Dreaming, the/Dreamtime 376–7, 966, 1179, 1199, 1236
Drucker, P. 992
dry-and wet-season camps, Botswana 113–14, 113 Fig. 6.2
Du Bois, C. 983
dual inheritance theory (DIT) 20, 37, 81, 82–3, 84, 1098–1100
Dubois, C. G. 1229
Dufour bladelets 285, 286
Dulong people 1015, 1018
dune sites, Danubia 524–5
Dunnell, R. 81
Durkheim, E. 3, 959–60, 962, 966, 1182
Dussart, L. 966
dwellings
Late Upper Palaeolithic Europe 292
Neolithic south-east Europe 466
Palaeolithic northern Asia 319–20, 323 Fig. 13.3
‘polinary’ structures 319
rectangular houses, Neolithic western Asia 461
Dzudzuana, Caucasus 265–6, 270
‘early farming in Dalmatia’ project 472
‘early Iron Age’, southern Africa 485
Early Stone Age 484, 614
Earth Lodge Cult 983
east Asia, independent technological evolution 608, 616–17
east Asia, post-glacial 448, 507–16, 511 Fig. 22.1
chronology 508–9, 508 Tab. 22.1
environmental change 512–13
mechanism of long-term culture change 512–16
settlement 515
site density and size 510
society 515
subsistence 513–15
temporal and regional variability 509–12
ecological approaches see adaptive and ecological approaches
‘economic school’ of archaeology 1166
ecosystems concept 77
Eder, J. F. 14
Eerkens, J. W. 83, 1134, 1135
Efe people 14, 939, 942, 943, 947
‘egalitarian’, definition 643, 591
egalitarianism, assumed in hunter-gatherers 992
‘Egbert’ 257
Egypt, dynastic 487
Ehrlich, Paul 76
El Jobo projectile points 413 Fig. 17.5, 418
El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events 373
Eliade, M. 1224
Elkin, A. P. 960, 967
Emmerloord fish traps, Netherlands 814, 816 Fig. 37.6
en éperon style 560
Endicott, K. L. 1025
Endicott, K. M. 1025
Endicott, P. 235
Engelbrecht, T. H. 730
Enlightenment, the 35, 71, 84
Enloe, J. G. 126
‘entoptic patterns’ 637, 1233–4
environment:
human-environment interactions 76–7
(p. 1301) intersection with culture 70, 71–2, 73–5, 512–13, 603–4
relationship with technology 74–5, 586
environmental determinism 36–7, 74, 80, 443–4, 512, 603
‘environmental possibilism’ 36, 72, 1000
Epi-Cardial pottery 790
Epigravettian culture 266, 291, 292, 295, 522, 558
toolkits 556
Epi-Jōmon culture 510, 1058
Epimagdalenian culture 522
Epipaleolithic 256–64, 270, 442, 445, 459, 480
use of term 255
Erin, M. I. 22
Erlandson J. M. 697, 698, 702–3
Ertebølle culture 449–50, 451, 542, 544–5, 547, 700–1, 778, 794, 807, 819, 825, 841
burials 545
ceramics 809, 1276
Escalante, Fray 975
Estévez, J. 137
‘ethnie’ term 983
ethnoarchaeology 12–13, 18, 33, 39–41, 104–40, 168, 1197, 1255
and agency, belief and spirituality 132–4
alternative and emergent approaches 128–38
chaînes opératoires 129–30
Congo basin research 943
forager vs.collector model (Binford, 1980) 12=13, 115–23, 117 Fig. 6.2, 118 Fig. 6.3, 119–20, Tab. 6.3, 121 Tab. 6.4, 992
and gender dynamics 130–2, 132 Tab. 6.6, 168, 1243, 1247, 1248–50, 1257
and histories and intimacies of things 134–6
integrating historical and archaeological perspectives 136–8
material style and identity 128–9
research biases 110–12
research patterns 109–10, 110 Tab. 6.1
Ring Model (Yellen) 112–14, 114 Fig. 1
‘toss’ and ‘drop’ zones (Binford) 114 Fig. 6.1, 114–15
ethnographic analogy 12, 105–7, 633, 635, 772, 783, 905 see also analogical reasoning
‘ethnographic riddles’ 75
Ethnological and Archaeological Survey, US 978
ethnology 93, 441–2, 769–70
Euler, R. 983
Eurasia:
earliest evidence for Levallois and bladelet technologies 608, 614
earliest stone tools 613
Middle Palaeolithic stone tool technology 614, 615
modern human dispersal into 440
transition to agriculture 738
Upper Palaeolithic stone tool technology 616
Eurasian grey wolf, and domestic dogs 756
Europe:
colonial expansion 903
modern human dispersal into 441
Europe, Mesolithic 444, 448–51
arrival of farming in south-east 466–8
bone and antler technology 465
coastline submersion 696
fishing equipment 697
future research areas 452–3
gender difference in diet 1245
maritime sites 700
plant foods 1270
social complexity 650–1
spread of farming from south west Asia 462
Europe, Upper Palaeolithic 224, 279–97, 336
archaeological record 233
artefacts 231, 232
chronology and environments 281–3
climatic instability 282
dispersals 282–3
Early (EUP) (~35/32–29 000 BP) 280, 281, 285–7
Early Period personal ornamentation 286–7
Early Period rock art 287
(p. 1302) Initial (IUP) (~50–35 000 BP) 280, 281, 282, 283–5
Late Period (LUP) 280, 291–5
Late Period burials 293
Late Period Magdalenian figurative art 293–5
Late Period portable art 294–5
Late Period rock art 291–2, 293–4
material indicators of complexity 590, 591–2, 645–50,
Mid (MUP) Upper Palaeolithic 280, 281, 288–91
Mid Period burials 290–1
Mid Period refuges in 289
Mid Period rock art 289–90
Mid Period settlement and distribution 288–9
Mid Period stone tools 288
population sizes 282
refuges 282–3
technology 237
Terminal Period adaptations 295–7
Terminal Period climate 295
Terminal Period burials 296
Terminal Period portable art 296
Evans, I. H. 868
Eve hypothesis 198–9
‘Evo/Devo’ approach 620
evolution 69
‘multi-linear’ 34, 51
role of hunting vs. gathering 155, 155–6
‘uni-linear’/‘stadial’ 51, 585, 602
‘universal’ 51
evolutionary psychology 636
Evolutionary Species Concept (Simpson) 238
Ewes, John 888
exaptations 79–80
excarnation practices 825
‘expensive tissue hypothesis’ 185–7
extinctions:
Africa 480
Australia 385
Neanderthals 204–6
Fabre, V. 195
family bands 73
social complexity, Jomon of Japan 654
feasting 658, 818
Chinese Mesolithic 656–7
funerary 654
and social complexity 645, 653, 654, 656–7, 994, 1004
Federmessergruppen culture 541, 564, 568
Federova, E. G. 163, 165
feminism 152, 154
as inspiration for anthropological reserach 156–7
corrective phase of anthropological critique 155–6
critique of anthropology 157, 167
rise of second-wave 153
feminist anthropology 1193, 1196
Aboriginal societies 965–6
Ferguson, A. 46–7
Fewster, K. 132–3, 1255
figurines 466, 589, 628, 629 Fig. 28.2
Final Palaeolithic northern Asia 321
Palaeolithic northern Asia 322 Fig. 13.2
Upper Palaeolithic Europe 290
Venus 287, 290, 560
Finlay, N. 549, 1211, 1212, 1215
Finlayson, J. 160
fire, and ‘niche construction’ 501, 750, 1268
fire-cracked rocks 651
Fisher. J. W. 122, 943
fishing 465–6, 1119
capture technology, Niah Cave, Borneo 352
deep-water 471, 697, 702
dried fish trade, Algonquian/Iroquois 885
Emmerloord fish traps, Netherlands 814, 816 Fig. 37.6
evolution of equipment 697
northern Europe, post-glacial 564
open-water, East Timor 355–6, 356 Fig. 15.4
and production of surpluses, European Mesolithic 650–1
(p. 1303) fishtail projection point (FPP) ‘horizon’ 413 Fig. 17.5, 417–18
Fitzpatrick, S. M 697
Flad, R. 656
Flannery, K. 1267
Flores 348, 357, 360, 500
Florisbad cranium, South Africa 224
Folsom culture 414, 415–16, 418
forager vs. collector model (Binford, 1980) 12=13, 115–23, 117 Fig. 6.2, 118 Fig. 6.3, 119–20, Tab. 6.3, 121 Tab. 6.4, 992
butchery practices and faunal distributions 124–8
‘constrained mobility’ 122
criticisms and modifications 116–23
food storage 122
seasonal availability of resources 122–3
sedentism 116–21
‘simple’ and ‘complex’ systems 116, 121 Tab. 6.4
‘tethered mobility’ 122
forager-farmer interactions 38, 97–8, 133, 768
Botswana 1255
comparative approach suggested 783
complexity of 772
early historic period, Finland 1076–9, 1083–4
future directions 782–3
eränkäynti, medieval Fennoscandia 1074–5
importance of understanding 771
influence of older models 769–70, 778–9, 782
North America 780–1, 881–96
northern Fennoscandia 777–8, 838–51
prehistoric 16–17
south-east Asia 779–80, 857–75
western and central Europe, sixth and fifth millennia 788–95
‘foragers’/‘collectors’ distinction 115–16
Fosna culture 567
Fosna-Hensbacka culture 700
Fout, H. N. 943
Fouts, V. 949
Fowler, C. 718
Fox, R. G. 338
FOX-P2 gene mutations 233
Franchthi Cave, Greece 445, 465, 468
Franciscus de Victoria 63
free will 84
Freedman, P. 62
Freeman, M. 75
Fremont people 882
Frink, L. 131, 1250, 1253
Fruth, B. 184
Fuca, Juan de 1003
Fuhlrott, J. C. 191
Fukusawa, Y. 1064, 1065
Fuller, D. 657, 658, 731
functionalism 960–1
Funk, R. 886
Funnel Beaker (TRB) culture 795, 840, 841, 842, 844 Fig. 39.2
mixed Funnel-Beaker Mesolithic burial site, Ostorf 797
fur trade 650, 1074, 1077, 1081, 1084
G//ana people 919–20, 928
G/ui people 919–20, 928
Gaffney, V. 701
Gamble, C. 136, 282, 558, 559, 563, 564, 568, 1197
‘Garden of Eden’/Paradise 57–8
Gardner, P. M. 159
Garrod, D. 255, 560
Gasya site vessel, Russian Far East 667 Fig. 30.2
gathering:
importance in caloric terms 161, 1269
role in evolution 155–6
social factors 153
Woman the Gatherer 154–6
Gauicurú linguistic family 1037
Gauicurú ‘proper’ people 1038
Gayton, A. 978
Geertz, C. 18
Gehlen, B. 791
Geis, Sally 155
Gendel, P. A. 1210
gender:
and accessing cosmological and sacred power 1250–2, 1257–8
and ancestral myth 1182
(p. 1304) appearance of concept in hunter-gatherer studies 156–7
biases, Congo Basin research 949
and colonial transformations 1256, 1258
concept absent in early hunter-gatherer studies 153–6
concept absent from Man the Hunter 153–4
cultural conduction 151
and diet and subsistence 1269–70
and ethnoarchaeology 130–1, 132 Tab. 6.6
equality/inequality 156–7, 157–8, 163, 164–5, 1253
evidence/assumption distinction 1244
and food restrictions 1270
future research directions 1248–56
and grief 167
and identity 1106, 1211–12, 1243–58
as inseparable part of daily life 165
integration into wider analysis 161
Iñupiaq people, and subsistence 1248–50
Khanty people 1248–50, 1251, 1252
male/female opposition in Upper Palaeolithic art 589, 633, 634
nature/culture debate 152
norms, and Mesolithic mortuary practices 718
not exclusively about women 152–3
personality and politics 1253–5, 1258
recent themes and directions 1244–8
in relation to Mesolithic studies 444
research needs 1257–8
and ‘sex’ 152, 158, 164, 1256
and shamanism 1225, 1231
socializing 1253
and technology 1120–1
gender-based division of labour 131–2, 158, 161, 165, 167
‘gendered landscapes’ 1249, 1257
harvesting, processing and asymmetries of power 1247–8
household organization and activity areas 1246
‘meat for sex’ hypothesis 1245
Neanderthal 199–200
rethinking 1248–50
skeletal evidence 1106, 1244–5
suggested origins 184
tools and toolkits 1246–7
variability and flexibility 132, 1244–6, 1252, 1253, 1269
gender identity/ies 158, 164
alternative 1255–6, 1258
fluidity, and materials 1211–12
gender relations 159, 160, 164–5
Aboriginal 965–6
and contact with Europeans 158
imposition of Western gender ideology 1248
and marriage 157–8
gender roles 162–3, 164, 165, 166
Ainu 1061
analysis 8
and lithic technology 1177
in early North American foraging communities 416–17
gender studies 33, 41, 151–68
Aborigine societies 965–6
influence on Conferences on Hunting and Gathering Societies (CHAGS) 151, 157–67
gene lineages/trees, and modern human origins 235–6
Geneste, J.-M. 1177–8
genetic transmission 1128, 1129, 1130
genetics see archaeogenetics
Geometric Kebaran culture 255, 258, 259, 261, 269
Gero, J. 416, 1177
Ghost Dance movement, North America 977
rethinking 983–4
Giddens, A. 133
Gifford-Gonzalez, D. 483
Gillen, F. J. 958, 959, 966
‘gingerbread figure’, Maïna, Siberia 665 Fig. 30.1, 666
Glavatskaya, E. 1249, 1252
Glaze Ware ceramics, North America 890
Glover, I. C. 501
Gobekli Tepe, Anatolia 654, 658
Godelier, M. 52, 963
Gold Rush (1849) 976
gold trade:
Roman control 487
Saharan 482
(p. 1305) tropical Africa 486–7
Gomes, A. 860, 872
González-Ruibal, A. 135–6
Goodale, J. C. 1244
Goodwin, A. J. H. 484
Goody, J. 1023
Gordon, R. J. 158, 924
Gorman, C. F. 498
Gosden, C. 1181
Goshen culture 414–15
Gould, R. A. 12, 106, 963
Gould, S. 80
grave goods 497, 501, 655, 656, 717, 718, 1197
Baltic Mesolithic 714, 715
Final Palaeolithic northern Asia 320
Neanderthal 203
Gravettian culture 279, 288, 291, 295, 558, 560
material indicators of complexity 646–9
Gray Jones, A. 722
Green, R. E. 205
Greenberg, J. H. 412
Gregg, S. A. 895
Griffin, P. B. 158–9
Grinker, R. R. 947
Gronenborn, D. 541, 543, 789, 791
Grotte Chauvet, France 287, 290
Grotte de Renne, France 200, 201, 202 Fig. 9.4, 203, 283
Guahibo people 1038–9
Guaicurú-Mbayá people 1045
Guenoa-Minuanos peoples 1035
Guilaine, J. 543
Gülderman, T. 484
Gusinde, M. 1037
Gustavus Vasa 1076, 1077
Guugu-Yimidhirr vocabulary 374
Haak, W. 787, 796
Habicht-Mauche, J. 890, 893, 895
Habu, J. 166, 513, 515
Hackel, S. 975
Hadzabe (Hadza) people 109, 111, 126, 127, 137, 643, 1147, 1148, 1210
genetic studies 1150–1, 1152
Hagan people 1210
Haida people 993 Fig. 47.1, 994, 996, 999, 1254
Hajic, E. R. 1179
Halbfass, W. 60
Hale, H. 1166
Haley, B. 985
Hall, J. 58
Hall, M. E. 513
Hallowell, I. 1194
Hamburgian culture 561, 564, 568, 699
Hamilton, A. 158, 963, 965
Hamilton’s Rule 76
Hammel, E. 1062
Han dynasty, China 61
handaxes 196, 611–12, 612 Fig. 27.2, 613
east Asia 617
lag between first appearance and widespread adoption 608
handedness (laterality) and development of language 620
Hang Boi, Vietnam 498–9, 502
Hansen, L. I. 1074
Hanson, J. 889
haplogroups 1143–4, 1144 Fig. 55.1, 1145
haplotypes 1143, 1145
Harako, R. 941, 946
Hardy, B. J. 529, 530
Harlan, J. R. 731
Harrington, J. P. 979, 980, 981
Harris, M. 998
Hart, C. W. M. 960, 961
Hartog, F. 59
Hartwig, M. 963
Harvard Ituri Project 943
Harvard Kalahiri Research group 926–7, 928
Hassell, E. 959
Hather, J. G. 733
Hattori, S. 948
Haush people 703
Hauzeur, A. 790
Hawkes, C. 6–7, 18
Hawkes, K. 79
Hayden, B. 1001, 1003–4, 1121, 1269
hazelnuts 831, 1270
Hazendonk group 805, 806 Fig. 37.1, 807 Fig. 37.2, 808 Fig. 37.3, 810¸ 811–12 Tab. 37.1, 813
Head, L. 1181
(p. 1306) headhunting 869
Headland, T. N. 14, 946, 1020
Healy, F. 833
Heaney, L. R. 358
Heidegger, M. 1206
Heidenreich, C. 885, 895
Heinz, H. J. 923–4
Heizer, R. 980, 984
Hell Gap Site, Wyoming 414, 415 Fig. 17.6
Helland, Amund 1072
Hempel, C. 81
Henrich, J. 1132
Henry, D. 653
Hensbacka, Sweden 699
Herder, J. G. 47, 48
Herodotus 59
Herto cranium BOU-VP-16/1 226
Hesiod 58
heswas ceremony, North America 1227
Hewlett, B. L. 167, 949
Hewlett, B. S. 166–7, 938, 942, 943–4, 945, 947
Hiatt, B. 154–5
Hiatt, L. R. 154, 1020
Hidatsa people 781, 887, 888
Higgs, E. 77
Hildebrand, E. 759
Hill, C. 499
Hill, J. H. 412
Hill, K. 79, 1121
Hillman, G. C. 730
Hinkelstein-Group culture 794
Hinkson, M. 968
historical particularism (Boasian) 3, 4, 5, 6, 36, 71–2, 74, 586, 601, 602, 995
historical perspectives 38, 92, 93–4, 97–100
value of studies 99
Hitchcock, R. 121
Hittman, M. 984
Hiwasaki, L. 164
Hoabinhian Period, south-east Asia 348, 349, 350, 361, 496, 656
Hobbes, Thomas 44, 1110
Hodder, I. R. 108, 750, 772–3, 1205
Hofman, J. L. 415
Hohlenstein-Stadel ‘lion-man’ statuettes 1195
Holiday, F. T. 416
Holliday, T. W. 1119
Holmberg, A. R. 1041
Holmes, W. H. 1131
hominins, early 177–88
anatomy and dentition evidence of meat eating 184–7
evidence for plant-based foods 181–2
evidence for small animal protein 182–3
expansion into Europe and Asia 616
form indicates function 180–1
invention of meat-eating 182–7
large animal protein 183–7
plant-based subsistence 180–2
stone tool technology 610–11
Homo erectus 178, 179, 180, 183, 184–7, 194, 214, 224, 310, 315, 350, 611, 620, 697, 1165
Homo ergaster 184–7, 611, 613
Homo floresiensis 179, 348, 378
Homo heidelbergensis 193, 217, 219, 224, 225, 228, 332
Homo helmei 224, 238
Homo neanderthalensis see Neanderthals
Homo rhodesiensis 224
Homo sapiens see modern humans
Hooer, I. 1207–8
Hopf, M. 730
Hopi Pueblo peoples 882
horse bits 754 Fig. 34.2, 757
horses:
bison hunters’ reliance on 888
domestication 600, 757–8, 758 Fig. 34.4, 1267
Hose, C. 865
Hotï people 1033, 1038, 1039 Fig. 49.4, 1045
Houseley, R. A. 558
Howitt, A. W. 958, 959, 964
Huaorani people 1033, 1044–5
Hudson Bay Company 996, 997
Hudson, M. J. 166
Hudson, T. 980, 981
human-animal relations 444, 1013, 1112–13, 1193–6, 1199, 1222, 1277–9
human behavioural ecology (HBE) 37, 78–80, 82, 84, 1001, 1097
and mobility 1167–9
and technology 1097–8, 1117–20
Humboldt, Alexander von 48
Hummalian culture 618
hunter-gatherer archaeology and anthropology 1–25
(p. 1307) ‘balkanization’ of subject 19
colonialism and imperialism impacts 14, 35, 165
current challenges 19–20
early research 2–4
emergence of modern studies 5–8
ethnoarchaeology, emergence of (within hunter-gatherer archaeology and anthropology) 12 see also ethnoarchaeology
ethnographic parallels 12
and historical frameworks 15–16
‘nomadic style’ formulations 9–10
post-processual and interpretive approaches 17–18
research outlook 20–1
revisionist approaches and culture-contact 13–15
variability debates 10–11
hunter-gatherer research, new approaches 1093–1108
diversification in theoretical approaches 1094–5
engagement with indigenous communities 1095
growth in basic information 1094
hunter-gatherers, defining 34–5, 43–52, 55–65
and alterity/otherness 35, 56–65
definitions as an invention 63–4
Enlightenment perspectives 44, 45–7, 55, 56
evolutionist theories 49–51
Man the Hunter conference 51–2
Romantic tradition 47–9
hunter-gatherers, as outdated concept 35, 38
hunting and gathering in a farmer’s world 767–84
hunter-gatherers and the transition to agriculture 767–8
Neolithic transition to farming 769–75
hunting
privileged over gathering 161
as ‘rite of passage’ 267
seasonality, Upper Palaeolithic Caucasus 269–70
as shorthand for hunting, gathering and fishing 153, 154–5, 164
Upper and Epi-Palaeolithic Levant 262–4
Upper Palaeolithic Caucasus 266
by women 159–60, 161, 1246, 1251
Hupdu people 1044
Hurst, T. D. 1135
Hurtado, A. M. 1121
Hutton, J. 70
hxaro exchange system, San peoples 134, 926
Hyades, P. 1037
Iban people, and headhunting 869
Ichikawa, M. 941–2, 944, 945, 947
identity 444, 783
and the childscape 1107
construction of male 156
corporeal aspects 1191–2, 1198
forager, south-east Asia 1013–19, 1014 Tab. 48.1, 1019–21
gender and 1106, 1211–12, 1243–58
humans and animals 1212–13
and Mesolithic tool production 1211–12
as performance 164
and personhood 1191–2
Ikeya, K. 165–6, 929, 930
Imamura, K. 164
immediate return economic systems 119 Tab. 6.3, 1003, 1271
immediate vs. delayed return hunter gatherers (Woodburn) 11, 115, 992
Impressa pottery 790
Indian Claims Commission Proceeding (1970s) 982, 985
Indonesia see south-east Asia
Ingalls, G. W. 977
Ingbar, E. I. 415
Ingold, T. 750, 1174, 1181, 1198, 1206, 1208, 1209, 1211, 1214
Inoue, T. 164
intelligence, modular vs. generalized 636
interpretive and post-processual approaches 17–18, 20, 38–9, 443–4, 548–9, 602, 1102–5
Inuit Circumpolar Conference 549
Inuit people 49, 109, 1199, 1246
kipijuituq 1255–6
miniatures 1253
Iñupiaq people, gender dynamics and subsistence 1248–50
(p. 1308) Irish Mesolithic 543, 549
coastal adaptation 701
Iron Age 485, 769, 838, 843, 850, 1058
iron production 849
Iroquois people 50 see also Algonquian/Iroquois interaction
Isaac, G. 183–4, 187
Islam, introduction into the Sahel 482
Itani, J. 941, 945
Iyora people 374
jade, first use of 653
jadeite axes 831–2
Jain texts, and Paradise 57–8
Janik, L. 1197
Jarvenpa, R. 123, 131, 132, 133, 151, 168
jasper 466
Jebel Qafzeh hominid fossils, Israel 225, 226
Jègues-Wollkiewicz, C. 646
Jenike, M. R. 943
Jenkins, T. 918
Jennbert, K. 1279
Jericho 459, 461
Jesup North Pacific Expedition 72, 996
Jeunesse, C. 792–3
jimson weed, and altered states of consciousness 1229
Jochim, M. A. 1168
Johnson, E. 416
Johnson, J. 981
Jolles, C. Z. 1254–5, 1249
Jomon (cord-marked) culture 448, 451, 507–16, 598, 651, 678, 1057, 1058, 1268
‘biscuits’ 1276, 1278 Fig. 61.6
diet and gender 1270
diet and social identity 1276, 1278 Fig. 61.5
Middle Jomon vessels 667–8, 668 Fig. 30.3, 1276
Middle Jomon villages 1273, 1274 Fig. 61.1
possible plant management 1267
reliance on chestnuts 1267, 1270, 1276
social complexity 654
wild boar management 1267
Jonaitas, A. 998
Jones, G. T. 413
Jones, N. B. 158
Jordan, J. W. 557
Ju/’hoãnsi (!Kung) 12, 109, 112–13, 122, 126, 137, 153, 157–8, 643, 908, 918, 919, 924–6, 926–7, 1196, 1254, 1257–8
dry- and wet-season camps 113 Fig. 6.2
genetic studies 1149, 1151
hxaro system 116
and the ‘Kalahari debate’ 14, 15, 17, 18, 908, 911, 928
study of women 1244
technology 1112, 1113 Fig. 53.1, 1116
technology compared with Nuvugmiut 1112–15, 1113 Fig. 53.1, 1114 Fig. 53.2
women’s roles and reproduction rates 1148
Judge, J. J. 415
Jumping Dance, North America 1231
Junker, L. 858
Kaare, B. 166
Kaberry, P. M. 960, 965
Kabwe cranium, Zambia 224
Kador, T. 1215
Kaingáng people 1042
Kaiwari, Jack 1163, 1164, 1181, 1192
‘Kalahari Debate’ 14, 15, 17, 19, 908, 911, 928
Kamei, N. 167
Kames, Lord 46, 64
Kant, Immanuel 47
Kara-Bom tradition, northern Asia 314
Katz, R. 927
Kayano, S. 1056
Kearney, A. 1177
Keates, S. G. 353
Keatley Creek, British Columbia 98, 1273, 1274 Fig. 61.2
Kebaran culture 255, 258, 259, 261, 269
Keen, I. 160, 164, 964, 966
Kehoe, A. 983, 984, 1246–7
Keith, A. 193
Kelabit farmers, south-east Asia 859–60, 871, 872
Kelly, R. 78, 80, 82, 106, 116, 260
Kenrick, J. 940
Kensinger, K. M. 1245
Kent, S. 15, 121, 122
Kenyah people 871
Kenyanthropus 179
(p. 1309) Kereho Busang people 869–70
Kersten, L. 1037
Khanty people 109–10, 133–4, 136, 650
flexible gender roles 1252
gender and spirituality 1251
gender dynamics and subsistence 1248–50
Khartoum Mesolithic (‘Early Neolithic’), north Africa 446, 480–1
Khmu peoples 1019
Khoe langages 484
Khoekhen/Khoekhoe (‘Hottentots’) 484, 485, 918, 919 Tab. 43.1, 921, 922, 924
Khoisan people 109, 1147
archaeogenetics 1145
genetic studies 1150–2, 1153, 1154
physical features 1148
steatopygia 1148
‘Khoisan’ term 44
Khok Phanom Di communities, Gulf of Thailand 1013
Khwe (Kxoe) people 919, 920–1
Kim, A. A. 162
Kind, C.-J. 791
King, L. C. 479, 980
King, W. 192, 206
Kinrick, J. 948
Kintampo industry, Ghana 486
kipijuituq 1255–6
Kitanishi, K. 942
Klasies River, South Africa 226–7
Klassen, L. 841
Kleine Feldhofer Grotte, Germany 191
Kline, M. A. 1132
Knutsson, H. 721
Knutsson, K. 841
Ko, I. 509
Kobayashi, K. 513
Koch-Grünberg, Th. 1042–3
Kokorevo culture 318
Kolig, E. 160
Komsa culture 567
Konso women 1247
Kooijmans, L. P. 546
Kopytoff, I. 1208
Koslowski, S. K. 700
Kostenki-Avdeevo group 289
Kota Tampan, Malay Peninsula 346–8, 357
Kotias Klde, Caucusus 266, 267, 270
Koyama, S. 510
Kozlowski, S. K. 705
Kramer, C. 137
Kroeber, A. L. 3, 13, 36, 72, 73, 82, 978–9, 980, 981, 985, 1131, 1230–1
Ksar Akil, Lebanon 256, 257, 262
Kua group sites 113–14
Kua people 121, 919–20, 928
Kubiak-Martens, L. 544
Kubu peoples 1016–17, 1022
Kuhn, S. 200
kuksu cults, California 1230
Kulturkreis theory 48, 949
!Kung see Ju/’hoãnsi
Kûrnai social life, Australia 958
Kusimba, S. 65
Kwakitlan people 994, 1004
Kwakiutl potlatch, North America 76
La Hoguette pottery culture 775, 787, 789 Fig. 36.2, 790, 792, 794, 797
La Verendrye, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes de 887, 888
Lacilotto, N. 1057
Lagar Velho rock shelter, Portugal 205
Lähteenmäki, M. 1082
Lake Aggasiz event 540
Lake Baikal, Siberia 1276
Lake Mungo, Australia 227
Lake Turkana, Kenya 111
Lakota people 984
Laland, K. N. 569
Lamalera people 1013, 1025
Lamb, L. 1177
Lamb, M. E. 166–7
Laming-Emperaire, A. 634
Land of Punt 487
Landberg, L. 986
Lang Rongrien rock shelter, Thailand 1021
Langton, M. 965, 968
Langub, J. 866–8, 869, 1024–5
Larsson, A. 722
Larsson, L. 715–16, 716–17, 718, 719, 721
Lascaux Cave, France 294, 649
(p. 1310) Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) 258, 282, 288, 439–40, 512
and the Americas 406, 701
Australia 372–3, 377
Congo Basin, Africa 938
and the Late Upper Palaeolithic 291–2
northern Asia 315
northern Europe 556
south-east Asia and Indonesia 346, 348, 349, 350, 352, 354, 356, 358, 360, 361, 492
western Asia 263, 269, 445
‘Last Termination’ 492, 498
Late Ahmarian culture 257–8
late glacial climatic variance 556–7, 557 Fig. 25.1
Late Mousterian culture 265, 266, 269
Late Natufian culture 267
Late Palaeolithic African hunter-gatherers 1148
Latta, F. 979
Lattimore, O. 60
Layton, R. 750
Leacock, E. 157, 158
Leakey, M. G. 183
Leang Burung 2, Sulawesi 354, 360
Leang Sakapo 1, Sulawesi 354, 360
Leary, J. 1216
LeBlanc, S. 893
Lee, J.-J. 510
Lee, R. B. 8–10, 16, 22, 65, 77, 154, 729–30, 926, 928, 940
Lees, S. 157–8, 894
Lee-Thorp, J. A. 182
Lemonnier, P. 129, 1176
Leonard, K. 893
Lepenski Vir culture 523, 524 Fig. 23.1, 449, 529, 530, 532, 533, 1213
evidence of social complexity 651
Iron Gates sites 715, 813 Fig. 37.4
Leroi-Gourhan, A. 129, 589, 634, 635, 638, 1208
Levallois technology 196, 256, 283, 310, 312, 313, 614 Fig. 27.4, 1172
cognitive requirements 620
lag between first appearance and widespread adoption 608
parallel development in Africa and Eurasia 608–10
Sulawesi 354
take-over in south-west Asia 618
ubiquity 614
Levallois-Mousterian culture 314
Levine, M. A. 757
Lévi-Strauss, C. 3, 52, 154, 633–4, 962, 999, 1023, 1171
Lewis and Clark Expedition, North America 975
Lewis, J. 940, 948
Lewis, M. 887–8
Lewis-Williams, D. 108–19, 158, 484, 1233, 1234
Lewo Eleng community, Indonesia 1019
Lewontin, R. E. 80
Liem’s paradox 181
lifecourse studies/biographies 20–1, 1103, 1196, 1197, 1199, 1254–6, 1258
Lightfoot, K. 981
Lillie, M. 797
Limburg pottery culture 787, 789 Fig. 36.2, 790
Linear pottery 521, 523
Linearband Pottery culture (LBK) 775, 776, 778, 787, 788–94, 796–7, 805, 809, 840
lineage structures 775, 792
Near Eastern ancestry 793–4, 797
Linnaeus 56, 217
Linse, A. R. 1176
Lipo, C. 83
LiPuma, E. 1192
Little Big Horn, Battle of (1876) 1165
Lloyd, L. C. 632, 921
‘logistical mobility’ 115–16
Löhr, H. 789, 790
Lonergan, N. 179
long barrow burial sites 826, 830, 840, 1175
Lopez, C. 418
Loung, Jean-Félix 949
Lower Palaeolithic:
northern Asia 310
stone tool technology 310, 614
Lowie, R. 3, 36, 73, 978
Lu, T. 655
Lubbock, J. 4, 11, 49, 50, 51, 441, 769
‘Lucy’ 181
(p. 1311) Lüning, J. 792
Lupo, K. D. 128
Lye, T. P. 1024
Lyell, C. 70
Mace, T. 1006
MacNeish, R. S. 730
Maddocak, K. 962
Magdalenian culture 279, 292–5, 531, 541, 559–60, 562–3, 651
art 629 Fig. 28.3, 630 Fig. 28.4
clay animals 664
figurative art 293–5
indicators of social complexity 649–50
Late 296–7
toolkits 556, 559
Maglemose culture 700
Makah people 1267, 1276
Maksimov, A. N. 52
Maku people 1045
Malaysian Orang Asli people 861
mtDNA studies 374
Malinowski, B. 3, 6
Malkin, I. 58
Malmström, H. 797
Malthus, T. 70
Malville, J. M. 482
mammoths 441, 430
‘man’ as shorthand for all humans 153, 158, 159
Man the Hunter conference (1966) and volume 8–9, 17, 22, 35, 36, 37, 41, 157, 164, 260, 267, 443, 904, 905, 908, 909, 910, 913, 915, 925, 963, 979, 1110–11, 1166, 1247
absence of gender concept 153–4
Mandan people 781, 887–8
Mangelsdorf, P. C. 730
Mannerma, K. 719
Mansi people 163, 165
Mansrud, A. 1279
Mapuche (Araucanos) people 1036
Marchand, G. 542
Marginal Value Theorem, and mobility 1168
Marine Isotope Stage 2 492
maritime societies, definition of 694
Markov Chains, equations and processes 1128–9
Marlowe, F. W. 106
marriage 154, 156–7, 159, 164
and Chipewyan women’s Treaty status 1256
Marshack, A. 646
Marshall, F. 184, 759
Marshall, J. 925, 927
Marshall, L. 153, 924–5
Marshall family 918, 924, 928
Martial, L. 1037
Martius, K. F. 1041
Maruyama, J. 929
Marwick, B. 349
Marx, Karl 50
Marxist anthropology 50, 963
Maschner, H. D. 557, 992, 1003, 1004
materials, new approaches 1103–4, 1204–17
Bann Flake implications 1215
challenging materiality and material culture 1209
form/matter dichotomy 1209
and identities 1210–13
landscape and taskscape 1213–15
mind/matter dichotomy 1209
and modernity 1205
from risk and reason to biography and being 1207–9
technology, conception of 1208
tree types and objects 1213, 1214 Fig. 58.1
Mathews, R. H. 959
Matoušek, V. 533
Mauss, M. 3, 129, 998–9
Mawoung, G. N. 949
Mayer, A. 191, 192
Mayr, E. 238
Mbuti people 158, 939, 940, 941–2, 943, 945, 947, 1152
Mbywangi, M. 1046
McBreary, S. 229
McCall, G. S. 1172
McCarthy, F. 1166
McConnel, U. 960
McCowan, T. D. 193
McFadyen, Lesley 1175
McGrew, W. C. 184, 1110
McKnight, D. 967
McNichol Creek, British Columbia 1275
Mead, M. 1254
(p. 1312) Meadow, R. H. 749–50
Meadowcroft shelter, Pennsylvania 407–8
Mearns, L. 161–2, 164
Mediterranean, early coastal settlements 596, 698
Mediterranean and western Asia, post-glacial 442, 445–6, 456–73
Aegean and Greece 445–6, 463–6
arrival of farming in south-east Europe 466–7
central and western Mediterranean in the Mesolithic 468–71
climate 457
Cyprus 462–3
geography 456–7
plant domestication 767
sources of archaeological evidence 458
transition to farming from the Adriatic to the Atlantic 471–2
vegetation 458
western Asia in the early Holocene 445, 458–62
Meehan, C. 943, 949
Meggitt, M. J. 154
Meignen, L. 1172
Meiklejohn, C. 546, 721
Melanesian constructs of personhood 1103, 1192, 1193, 1197
Mellars, P. 330–1
Mellinkoff, R. 62
memory anthropology 981–3
Menraq foragers 861
Merlan, F. 967
Merriam, C. H. 979
Mesolithic 256, 267, 280, 437–8, 441, 770, 769
African hunter-gatherers 1148
challenges of defining 441–2
characterised as ‘uneventful’ 438
coastal adaptations 596
continuity and change 451
diversity and variability 443, 451
key areas of investigation 444
landscape focus in studies 444
long-tern cultural dynamism 438
regional diversity 438, 452
responses to environmental change 452
Scandinavian 442
social complexity 592, 650–8
territorial groupings and regionalization 542–3
transformations, north-west Europe 449–50, 537–50, 538 Fig. 24.1
metallurgy, northern Fennoscandia 848, 849
Métraux, A. 1043
Meyerhoff, B. 1225
Mezinian culture 292
Michelaki, K. 886
Micoquian culture 196–7
microgravettes 266
microlithic industries:
Capsian 470
history, south Asia 495–6
Khartoum Mesolithic 480–1
Late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic south Asia 335–6
Later Stone Age Africa 484
Mesolithic Mediterranean 458, 465, 473
post-glacial southern Africa 446
post-glacial tropical Africa 485, 486
Sauveterrian 469
Upper Palaeolithic western Asia 258, 265
Middle and Upper Palaeolithic hominid fossils comparisons 219, 220 Tab. 10.1
Middle Missouri 781
forager-farmer interaction 884 Fig. 41.2, 887–8
forager-farmer interaction, prehistoric 888–9
Middle Palaeolithic:
hunters 112
northern Asia 310, 311–12
stone tool technology 614–15
Middle Palaeolithic-Upper Palaeolithic ‘transition’ 618–19
Middle Range Theory 12, 17, 18, 77–8, 107–8, 138, 1206
and mobility 1170–3
Middle Stone Age see Africa, Middle Stone Age
Migliano, A. B. 938
Mikea people 1120
Mikoshiba culture 411
(p. 1313) milk and milk products 601, 754, 832
mare’s milk 757–8, 758 Fig. 34.4
reindeer milk 1080
Milner, N. 696
Minagwa, M. 514
Minter, T. 1024
Misra, V. N. 497
Mitchell, D. 646
Mitchell, P. 480
Mithen, S. 636
‘mitochondrial Eve’ hypothesis 192–3, 235
Mlabri people 110, 1015, 1019, 1022
mobility 1102–3, 1163–82
adaptive approaches 1167–9
analytical scale 1164–5
behavioural ecology models 1167–9
bounded access 1176–8
change due to climate change, Thailand 349
contextual mappings 1180
craft specialization and task differentiation 1177
and cultural complexity 1170
embeddedness of mobility 1175–6
emergence 1180
emergence of mobility studies 1165–7
emplacement 1180
flow of place 1179
forager vs. collector model (Binford, 1980) 12=13, 115–23, 117 Fig. 6.2, 118 Fig. 6.3, 119–20, Tab. 6.3, 121 Tab. 6.4, 992
frequency and distance of travel and stone artefact assemblages 1172
gender and ancestral myth 1182
gendered task differentiation 1177
historicist approaches 1173–4
intentions 1173
Marginal Value Theorem 1168
meanings 1181
and middle range research 1170–3
myth without endings 1182
and population density 563 Fig. 25.2
processualist approaches 1169–70
sacred geographies 1178–9
South Molle Island Quarry (SMIQ) 1176–7
‘taskscapes’ 1173–4
and technology 1116–17, 119
temporality of the landscape: ways of walking 1174–5
territory 1177–8
territoriality and social structure 1176–8
time and ancestral myth 1181–2
‘modern human behaviour’ 608, 617, 620
art and 626, 628
modern human origins in Africa 214–39, 234 Fig. 10.2
archaeology of modern behaviour 228–32, 233, 237
and behavioural modernity 216
coalescence theory 235
cranial morphology 217–28, 218 Fig. 10.1, 220 Tab. 10.1, 221 Tab. 10.2
DNA studies 238
fossil record and modern human morphology 217–28, 218 Fig. 10.1, 220 Tab. 10.1, 221 Tab. 10.2, 222–3 Tab. 10.3, 232–7
gene lineages/trees 235–6
Group I–after 40,000 BP 226–8
Group 2–200,000 to 40,000 BP 224–6, 238
Group 3–Pre-200,000 BP 219–24
Homo sapiens and modern humans 236–9
molecular clock model 234–5
mosaic morphology 219, 224, 225, 226, 227, 232–3
mtDNA evidence 214, 215, 219, 233–4, 235–6
‘sapient paradox’ 216
species definitions/concept debate 237–9
modern humans (Homo sapiens) 265
anthropological finds, Yenissei River 320
as carriers of Upper Palaeolithic culture 315
cognitive and physical difference from Neanderthals 617
contact with Neanderthals 281–2, 619
dependence on technology 615
dispersal 265, 440–1
dispersal and mtDNA 204
dispersal and spread of Aurignacian technology 618–19
dispersal into Eurasia 588, 616
dispersal out of Africa, archaeogenetic evidence 1145–6
evolution in Africa 617
(p. 1314) Homo sapiens idaltu 238
lineage splitting 204
polycentric hypothesis 315
replacement hypothesis 315
south Asia 328–40, 329 Fig. 14.1
south-east Asia and Indonesia 346–62
‘modern’ hunter-gatherers, ethnohistory and anthropology 903–16
as analogue to ancient peoples 905
comparative analysis 905
‘inter-dependent’ model 906
long-term culture-contact 906, 907
research trends 905–7
Moiseeff, M. 967
Moken ‘sea nomads’ 1017, 1024
‘molecular clock’ model 234–5, 734
Mono people 978
Montespan cave, France 664
Montesquieu 44
monumental architecture 1003
‘Big Houses’ 994
Britain and Ireland, Neolithic 826–7, 830, 832, 833
Gobekli 654
Mooney, J. 977–8
Morgan, L. H. 5, 34, 50, 74, 958
Morphy, H. 968
Morris, A. G. 484
Morris, B. 967
mortars and pestles 261, 651, 657
Morton, J. 962
mortuary practices 596–8, 604, 712–23
Australopithecus afarensis 713
Baltic Mesolithic 597, 714–23
British and Irish Neolithic mortuary structures 826
cave burial, Mesolithic Britain 543
cosmologies and beliefs 598, 712–13, 714
cremations 720, 722
Cyprus Neolithic 463
Danubian Europe, post-glacial 532–3
emergence of cemeteries 713–14
Europe, Upper Palaeolithic 290–1, 293, 296
Ertebølle 545
fragmentation, burning and defleshing 722–3
gender norms 718
and human-animal relationships 1195–6
as a hunter-gatherer innovation 713–14
Java 350
Levantine Epi-Palaeolithic 259–60
Mediterranean Mesolithic 465, 470
Mesolithic cemeteries, Europe 443, 444
northern Asia, Final Palaeolithic 320
and prestige and status 646–9, 651, 653–4, 656
and social relations 715–16, 1197
south Asia, post-glacial 447, 496–7
south east Europe, Neolithic 466
tombs, megalithic 826
tooth evulsion 470, 472
western Asia, Neolithic 459, 461
Motte, E. 941
Mount Carmel cave sites, Israel 192, 193
Mousterian culture 196, 229, 256, 311, 314, 323, 369
figurative art 202
Levantine 618
south Asia 332
Mousterian culture, Late 265, 266, 269
Mountford, C. 967–8
Mukhri people 1149
Müller, C. C. 61
Müller, W. 756
Munro, N. 961, 968, 1065
Murdock, G. P. 65
‘mutation rate’ 1144
Myers, F. 965
mythograms 634
Nabta Playa, Egypt 481, 482
Nagaoka, S. 513
Nakao, A. 513
Narmada hominin 332
Naro (Nharo) people 919, 923
Nassarius shells 231
Native Customary Rights 866–8
Natufian culture, Levant 259–60, 263–4, 270, 459, 651
mortuary practices 713–14, 717
social complexity 652–4
use of wild cereals 1267
Natufian culture, Late 267
natural selection 37, 70, 78, 79, 82, 83
group-level selection 37, 78, 75–6, 82
(p. 1315) Neanderthal/Modern split 195
Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) 178, 179–80, 186–7, 224, 228, 232, 237, 279, 283, 369
biology 193–5, 194 Fig. 9.1
body painting 202–3
cognitive abilities 620
cognitive and physical differences from modern humans 617
contact with modern humans 281–2, 619
cranial morphology 217
diverse stone technology 618
DNA admixture with modern humans 215, 374
evolution and palaeoecology 191–206
extinction 204–6
gendered division of labour 199–200
Iberian 199
Levant 199
material record anomalies 615
‘modern’ behaviour 280
and modern humans, assimilation scenarios 205
mortuary rituals 713
mtDNA 195
mtDNA polymorphisms 204
ornaments 201–2, 202 Fig. 9.4
northernmost range 199
physical injuries and personhood 1198
in south Asia 332, 334
social organization and symbolism 199–204, 202 Fig. 9.4
technology and subsistence 195–9, 197 Fig. 9.2, 198 Fig. 9.3
thermoregulatory models 200–1
Near East 481
dates of early farming 770
forager-farmer relations 894
new resource possibilities 651
social complexity 592
Needham, Rodney 939
Neff, H. 81
Nelson, S. M. 510
Neo-Darwinian approaches 20, 37, 76–84, 586, 1006, 1098 see also New Synthesis evolutionary theory
neofunctionalism 37, 75–6, 79
Neolithic (New Stone Age) 16–17, 18, 255, 267, 269, 437, 438, 441, 442, 465, 769
African 483
association with agriculture 770
as ‘cultural package’ 770
dispersal, south-east Asia 499, 500
as an economic transformation 771
hunter gatherer/agricultural debate 654, 657–8
Mediterranean sites 467 Fig. 19.3
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A 459–61, 654
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B 461–2
south-east Europe 466–8
visibility of sites 458
‘wave of advance’ 771
western and central Europe 787–91, 788 Fig. 36.1
western Asia 445, 459–62, 460 Fig. 19.1
‘Neolithic Revolution’ 602, 770
Neolithic transition to farming
‘availability model’ 771–2
current debates 773–5
European sequences and debates 769
fusion approaches 774, 782–3
future research directions 782–3
genetic studies 773, 793–4, 796, 797
as ideological vs. economic shift 772–3
‘indigenist’ approaches 772–3
indigenous involvement/cultural diffusion 773–4
integrationist approaches 774, 782
migration/demic diffusion 773
and nature/culture fault line 1192–3
research framework 769–75
shifts in interpretation 771–2
stable isotope analysis 773
strontium isotope analysis 773, 792
Neolithicization 769, 772
and migration dynamics, western and central Europe 795–7
Netting, R. M. 1000
neuropsychologocal (N-P) model 1233–5
New Archaeology (‘processualism’) 7–8, 11–13, 17, 18, 21, 37, 76–8, 81, 443, 771, 772, 1167
approaches to mobility 1169–70
New Guinea 348, 368, 369, 370, 371, 386
early agriculture and cultivation 387
languages 375
mtDNA studies 374
(p. 1316) population and growth rates 380
sex and temperament 1254
transition to agriculture 738, 739
New Synthesis evolutionary theory 74, 75–6, 83–4 see also Neo-Darwinian approaches
Ngandi people 167
Ngarrabullgan sacred mountain, Australia 1178
Ngatatjara Aboriginals 127
Niah Caves, Borneo 351–2, 351 Fig. 15.2, 361, 498, 499, 500, 501
starch-grain analysis 733
‘niche construction’ theory 1267–8
Nichols, J. 412
Nicholson, A. 110
Nickul, K. 1072
Nielsen, E. H. 791
Nilsson Stutz, L. 50, 547
!Nisa biography 1196, 1254
Nolin, D. A. 1025
Nordic Bronze Age culture 846, 847
North America
berdacheor ‘two spirits’ 1256
early foragers 414–17
egalitarianism 645
European traders and goods 887–8
nut processing 657
Spanish colonists, southwest US 889
surplus-complexity relationship, Northwest Plateau 646, 647 Fig. 29.1, 648 Fig. 29.2, 650
North American forager-farmer interaction 780–1, 881–96
Algonquian/Iroquois 884 Fig. 41.2, 885–7, 895
hunting, gathering and farming 882–3, 883 Fig. 41.1
Middle Missouri, 884 Fig. 41.2, 887–9
new research directions 894–6
Plains-Pueblo 881, 884 Fig. 41.2, 889–93
north European Plain 561, 562, 566, 699, 805
northern Asia, Palaeolithic, 310–25
dwelling structures and settlement patterns 319–20
Early Upper Palaeolithic sites and materials 312–15, 313 Fig. 13.1, 323–4
Final Palaeolithic sites and materials 320–1
Lower Palaeolithic 310
Middle Palaeolithic 310
Middle Palaeolithic sites and materials 311–12
post-glacial colonization and transformations 315–17, 324–5
technologies 317–18, 325
Upper Palaeolithic 310–11
Upper Palaeolithic origins 314–15, 322–3
Northern Dene (Athapaskan) people 109, 122–3
northern Europe, late glacial resettlement 450–1, 556–70
demographic framework 558, 559 Tab. 25.1
Holocene 566–7
late glacial climatic variance 556–7, 557 Fig. 25.1
Magdalenian techno-complex 559–60
migration causes 568 Tab. 25.2
Phases I and 2 558–60
Phase 3 560–3, 563 Fig. 25.2
Phase 4 563–4
Phase 5 464–6
northern Fennoscandia, forager-farmer interaction (c.4000–1 BC) 777–8, 838–51, 839 Fig. 39.1
battle axe distribution 843, 844 Fig. 39.2
cereal pollen data 845 Fig. 39.3
close encounters (2800–1900 BC) 788, 844–8, 850
first 840–2, 850
first millennium diversification 778, 848–9, 850
hunter-gatherer background 839–40
intensified, and exotic imports (c.3400–2800 BC) 842–4, 850
settler colonies 843
north-west Europe:
coastal adaptation 700–1, 705
Palaeolithic constraints on maritime settlement 699
sea-level rises 539, 696, 807, 808
see also Ertebølle
(p. 1317) north-west Europe, Mesolithic transformations 449–50, 537–50, 538 Fig. 24.1
agricultural technologies 545, 546
changing landscapes 538–40, 539 Fig. 24.2
genetic evidence of repopulation 541
overall picture 540–4
regionalization and ‘territorial’ groupings 542–3, 545
subsistence strategies 542, 544
north-west Europe, Neolithic transition to farming (5500–2800 BC) 772, 776–7, 805–21
cereal cultivation 814–16, 818, 819
feasting 818
food plants 814–18, 817 Tab. 37.2
hunting and animal husbandry 810–14, 811–12 Tab. 37.1, 813 Fig. 37.4
introduction of pottery and demise of hearth pits 809–10
landscape development 806–9, 808 Fig. 37.3
Long/Short Transition Models 808, 809
persistence of hunting and gathering 816–18
Schiplunden case study 818–19
Norton, C. J. 510
Noss, A. J. 1119
Novgorod Republic 1075
Nueville, R. 255
Nukak people 1043 Fig. 49.5, 1044, 1045
Nunamiut people 12, 40, 109, 111–12, 1206, 1247
elders 127
faunal assemblages 125–6
‘toss’ and ‘drop’ zones 114–15
‘Nutcracker Man’ 181, 182
Nuu-chah-nutlh people 993 Fig. 47.1, 994, 1267, 1276
Nuvugmiut technology 1112–15, 1114 Fig. 53.2, 1116, 1118
Obanian culture 700
Oberg, K. 996
obsidian 321, 463, 465, 466, 482, 653, 654, 891
obsidian stone tools 482
ochre 291, 312, 336, 354, 360, 388, 496, 715, 718
red ochre 231, 470, 1195
ochre engraving, Blombos Cave 588–9, 626–8, 627 Fig. 28.1
ochre mine, Lovas, Hungary 527
O’Connell, J. F. 112, 115
O’Connor, S. 355–6, 500
Odling-Smee, F. J. 569
Odum, E. P. 569
Ofnet Cave, Bavaria 98–9, 791
Ogawa, T. 515
Ohalo II, Israel 254, 259, 260–1, 263, 264, 269, 270, 459, 697
Ohnuki-Tierney, E. 1061, 1065
Ojibwa people 1194
Okhotsk culture 511, 1057, 1058, 1059, 1065
Okiek people 126
Oldowan industry stone tools 183, 611
Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania 111
Oliver, J. 1005
Olivia, M. 527
Olsen, B. 1074
Olsen, S. A. 757
Olsen, S. L. 501
Omo Valley hominid fossils, Ethiopia 225, 226
Oñate, Don Juan de 889
O’Neill, S. 1006
Onge people 110, 165
Ono, A. 966
Oppenheimer, S. 373
optimal foraging theory 79, 127–8, 1192 see also evolution; human behavioural ecology
oral histories and traditions 95
Orang ‘sea nomads’ 1017
‘Oro’, Borneo 865, 866 Fig. 40.2
Orquera, L. A. 704
Ortvale Klde, Caucasus 265, 269
O’Shea, J. 597, 716
Ostorf burial site, Germany 797
ostrich eggshell (OES) artefacts 130, 231, 312, 317
Oswalt, W. 1115–16, 1116–17
Otomac people 48
Ottar, farmer 1080
Ounanian culture 480
overspecialization and socio-economic ‘collapse’ 448, 515–16
(p. 1318) Owen, L. R. 168
Owens Valley ceramic technologies, California 1100–1, 1137 Fig. 54.2, 1138
Ozette, Olympic Peninsula 1275
Pääbo, S. 215–16
Pacific Northwest Coast (NWC) of America
coastal adaptation 701–3
‘clam gardens’ 1268, 1273
culture area 992–5, 993 Fig. 47.1
food and status 1276
Golden Age of ethnography 995–7
herring egg collection 1268
interpreting complexity from archaeology 1003–5
plant management 1268
potlatches 910, 996, 997–1001, 1004, 1005, 1006, 1272, 1276
recent streams of scholarship 1005–6
salmon surpluses 1267
sharing and ownership 1273–5
social complexity 910, 991–1006
towards diachronic explanations of complexity 1000–3, 1002 Fig. 47.2
whale hunting equipment 1267
Page, J. 168
Paisley Five Mile Point Caves, US 408, 409 Fig. 172
Paiute people 978, 979, 983
Northern 982
Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) 437, 441, 442, 769, 1192
coastal adaptations 596
constraints on maritime settlement 698–9
northern Asia 310–25
terminal, central and western Mediterranean 469–70
Palaeolithic-Mesolithic transition 438
Mediterranean 456
Paliyan people 159
Pama-Nyungan (PN) languages, Australia 374–5
Panhard-Capricorn Expedition 923
paranthropines 185
Paranthropus 178, 179
Paranthropus boisei 181, 182, 183
Paranthropus robustus 181, 182
Parker, K. L. 959
Parkin, D. 723
Parrish, O. 981
Parry, W. 78, 80, 82
Parsons, N. 924
patrilineal bands 51, 73
patrilineality 1062
patrilocal bands 6, 154
patrilocality 158, 160, 1062
Pavlovian culture 289, 290
Pavlovian/Willendorfian technocomplex 289, 290
Peacham, H. 62
Peacock, N. 943
Pearson, N. 965
Pearson, R. 657
Pennanen, J. 1249
Perlès, C. 465
Perrot, J. 653
Perrott, R. A. 480
personal decoration 231, 257, 260, 376
Europe, Upper Palaeolithic 285, 286–7
northern Asia, Palaeolithic 312, 317
south Asia, post-glacial 496
personhood
action, animals and non-human 1193–6
dividual 1192
Melanesian constructs of 1103, 1192, 1193, 1197
perspective on 1191–3
as process 1196–8
prospects for 1199–2000
the skill of being 1198–9
and social relations 1103, 1191–1200
Peterson, N. 963
Petraglia, M. 332
Petrie, W. M. 1131
Petso (Basarwa man) 1255
Pettitt, P. 560, 713
Pfefferle, A. D. 186
phylogeography 1145
Piana, E. L. 704
Pickard, C. 697
Pickersgill, B. 730
Piddocke, S. 75, 76, 1000
(p. 1319) Piggott, S. 827
pig domestication, China 656–7
pigs, DNA analysis 810
Pilling, A. 961
Piłsudski, B. 1063–4, 1065
Pinart-Leon de Cessac, A. 977
Pink, O. 960
Pitjantjatjara Aborigines 961, 968
Pitted Ware Culture 722–3, 797
Plains-Pueblo interaction 781, 881, 884 Fig. 41.2, 889–93, 895
prehistoric 889–93
plant cultivation
Ainu 1060
east Asia, post-glacial 514
first signs, Levantine Epi-Palaeolithic 260
pre-domestication 735–6
as response to pressure to increase production 658
south-east Asia, Late Pleistocene 361
without domestication 651
plant domestication 599–600, 605, 729–41, 767
Africa, post-glacial 482, 485–6, 487
ancient and modern DNA 734
domestication syndrome 731
earliest known 1267
grass and forb seeds 737
intermediate subsistence 736
and loss of plant biodiversity 599, 740–1
and morphogenetic change 735
New Guinea 354–5
parenchyma analysis 732–3
phytolith analysis 733
‘protracted’ model 734
retrospect on the study of 729–31
roots and tubers 737
‘semi-domestication’ vs. domestication sensu stricto 732
south Asia 336
stable-isotope analysis 734–5
starch-grain analysis 733–4
trait selection 731–2
and transition to agriculture 738–9
tree nut harvesting 736–7
types of evidence 731–2
variation in crop assemblages 738, 740
western Asia 442
plant management (wild plants) 600, 736, 737, 740, 1268
Plio-Pleistocene hominins 40
and the Hadzabe 111
Pluciennik, M. 700
Point Conception gas terminal 985
Poirier, S. 966
political ecology 604, 644–5, 1004
Politis, G. 1033
Pookajorn, S. 110
Pope, K. O. 377
Posey, D. A. 1033
post-glacial period (Holocene) 437–53
archaeological research into 441–4
Danubian Europe 448–9, 521–34
definition 437
east Asia 448, 507–16, 511 Fig. 22.1
future research directions 452–3
global environmental changes 439–41, 439 Fig. 18.1, 696–7
hunter-gatherer adjustments 440–1
northern Europe, resettlement 450–1, 556–70
north-west Europe 449–50, 537–50, 538 Fig. 24.1
south and south-east Asia 447, 492–502, 493 Fig. 21.1
Mediterranean and western Asia 445–6, 456–73
post-modernist critiques 38, 92, 94–7
and acculturation 95
and social complexity 95
and typological descriptions 95
post-processual archaeology see interpretive and post-processual approaches
potlatches 910, 996, 997–1001, 1004, 1005, 1006, 1272, 1276
pottery see ceramic technology
Poverty Point culture 98, 1276
Powell, A. 203, 1133
Powell, J. 50, 977, 985
Powers, S. 977
Prasciunas, M. 1122
prehistoric hunter-gather innovations 585–605
further innovation dynamics 593–601
and hunter-gatherer ‘agency’ 604–5
(p. 1320) identifying patterns in cultural evolution 602–3
legacy of social evolutionary thinking 601–2
studying long-term process 603–4
Pretola, J. 886, 887
Price, S. 1213
Price, T. D. 462, 1170
Primitive culture circle 48
Prinz, B. 528
processual archaeology see New Archaeology
progressive social evolutionary theory (PSET) 71, 72, 75
proto-Ainu culture 511–12
Protoaurignacian culture 205, 284, 285
psychoanalytic anthropology 962
psychological anthropology 1254
Pueblo Glaze Ware 893
Pujol, R. 940
Punan peoples 1015–16
Puri, R. 872
Putnam, P. 939
Pygmies 48, 109, 1147
genetic studies 1152–3
implications of ‘Pygmy’ term 936
marital exchanges 1149
stature 147–8
pyrotechnology 615
Qafzeh, Levant 261, 262, 369
mortuary rituals 713
Quebrad Santa Julia, Chile 409, 410 Fig. 17.3
Querandí (‘Pampas’) people 1035
Quraishy, Z. B. 164–5
Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. 3, 5, 6, 959–60
radiocarbon dating
and changes in subsistence practices 1280–1
and the chronology of agriculture 770–1
Raphael, M. 633, 638
Rappaport. R. 75, 1234
Rasmussen, S. O. 557
rattan 863 Tab. 40.1, 866, 867 Fig. 40.3, 867 Fig. 40.4, 868, 869, 1015
rattlesnake shamans 1227
Read, D. 1118, 1119
Redding, R. W. 750
Reid, H. 977
Reid, L. A. 14, 1020
Reinach, S. 632–3, 635
‘reindeer capitalism’ 1082
reindeer hunting 450, 561, 566, 778, 847, 850
and economies 562
reindeer husbandry 758
Sámi 750, 1076, 1079–84, 1083 Fig. 51.3, 1085, 1086
‘relations of relevance’ 633, 637
religion and ritual 1104, 1221–38
Aboriginal 966
and altered states of consciousness 1225, 1228
analytical approaches 1233–5
animal inhumations, north Africa 482
archaeology of 1232–3
cosmology 1222
cults 1224
ethnographic model of ritual form 1234–5
external comparisons 1231–2
gender and spirituality 1250–2, 1257–8
initiations and secret societies 1228–30
link to art 588,