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date: 24 January 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Anthropology’s approach to hunter-gatherer ecology and adaptations has changed remarkably from the Enlightenment to the present. Paradigm shifts, turning on the issues of adaptive scale and the degree to which humans are subject to natural selection, have led to descriptions of hunter-gatherer adaptations as, alternately, facile and backward or elegant and forward-thinking. Modern approaches, while still varied, are far less concerned with description, focusing instead on prediction and dynamic causes of culture change, but no less convinced that a modern understanding of human adaptation requires careful study of the hunter-gatherers of the archaeological past and ethnographic present.

Keywords: hunter-gatherer ecology, natural selection, human adaptation, paradigm shift

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