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date: 15 December 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter explains why Ireland which had remained aloof from the European Continent throughout the later Middle Ages became closely linked to events there during the early modern centuries. This was a consequence of processes whereby England and Scotland became Protestant while Ireland remained Catholic until the late sixteenth. Irish lords could now secure military support from Britain’s Continental enemies. While Irish challenges to British authority proved formidable, so also were the punishments when those who opposed that authority were defeated. This process resulted in major emigrations from Ireland to the Continent during the seventeenth century and a commensurate in-migration of people to take their place. This meant that during the early modern centuries there was a significant Irish Catholic community living in exile on the Continent, principally soldiers and their dependents, Catholic clergy and merchants. The chapter discusses interactions between these exiles and their kin at home.

Keywords: religious conflict, military migration, religious migration, merchant migration, seminaries

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