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date: 30 March 2020

(p. 601) Index

(p. 601) Index

accountability and control 203
Ackah, W. 572
activism 344, 519–20, 537–55
activist networks 340–1
Actor Network Theory (ANT) 298–9, 320
Adams, D. 477
Adaptive Structuration Theory (AST) 296–7
adjustment costs 104–5, 204
Adorno, T. W. 482
Adulyadej, King Bhumibol 547
Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) 92
Advanced Research Projects Administrative Network (ARPANET) 160
alignment 226, 227–30, 234–5
ambidextrousness 227, 235
AMD 87
Amnesty International 350
Andersen Consulting 264
Angrist, J. 121
Antonelli, C. 208
application‐specific integrated circuits (ASICs) 91
Archer, M. 301
Argentina 550
Aristotle 480
Arts, devaluation of 485–6
Aspden, P. 568
Association for Progressive Communications (APC) 351
AT&T 91, 177, 260
Atkinson, M. 526–7
Atrostic, B. K. 114
ATTAC 543
Atton, C. 544
Augereau, A. 184, 186
Aung San Suu Kyi 546
Australia 416, 419, 431–2, 539, 544
Ipswich City 570
Melbourne 348
Sydney 348
Australian Creative Resources Online 486
authenticity 529–30
authority 410–11
automation 275, 409, 588
Autor, D. H. 210
Axford, B. 366
Aylor, T. 112
Baets, W. 228
Bailey, J. P. 150
Baker, A. 521
Baldwin, C. Y. 206–7
Ball‐Rokeach, S. J. 21, 472, 567, 568, 571
Bang, H. 377
Bangkok Post 548
Bangladesh 595
Bardach, E. 405
Barley, S. R. 296
Barlow, J. P. 365
Barrett, Craig 91, 95
Barry, A. 367
Baskaran, A. 45
Bassett, R. 80
Basu, S. 116, 119
Battelle Memorial Institute 85
Baudrillard, J. 315
Bauman, Z. 375, 453
Baym, N. K. 523
BBBOnline 434
(p. 602) Beaulieu, A. 529
Becker, T. 365
Bell, Alexander Graham 64–5
Bell companies 43
Bell, D. 37
Bell Labs 77
Bellamy, C. 369
Bellamy, E. 363
Bellanet 351
Bennett, C. 441
Bennett, W. L. 373–4
Benson, R. 228
Bentham, Jeremy 452
Bentley, T. 377
Bernays 480, 481
Berry, L. L. 246
best practice 230, 233
Bhasker, R. 301
Bigo, D. 453
Bijker, W. E. 321, 322
Bitek International 157
Black, S. 121
Blackler, R. 234
blogging 367–8, 518, 523
Bloom, N. 121
Blumenthal, M. S. 159
Blumler, J. G. 366, 376
Blundell, R. 108
Bogenreider, I. 234
Boland, R. J. 234
Bolivia 550
Radio Ondas del Titicaca 551
Bologna, IperBolR 569
Bond, S. 108, 112
Bordo, M. D. 46
Borgida, E. 567
Botswana 595
bottlenecks 155
Bowker, G. 460
brain circulation 93
brain drain 76, 81–3
branding 516, 517
Braverman, H. 301
Brazil 550, 555
Rio de Janeiro 348
Sao Paulo 348
Brecht, B. 363
Breitzman, T. 43
Bresnahan, T. E. 40, 121, 171
Brey, P. 319
British Aerospace (BAe) 261
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) 546
British Telecom 91
broadband:
diffusion 184–6
government encouragement for 179
technology 42
telecom network 60–4
Broadwatch Magazine 182
Brooten, L. 20, 471
Brown, J. S. 234
Brown, K. H. 209
Brown, M. M. 386
Brundenius, C. 45
Bryan, C. 366
Brynjolffson, E. 104, 107, 113, 121
bureaucracy 285–6
effect on information 407–8
machine 416–17
paperwork 407–8
professional 409–10, 417
Burgelman, J. C. 395
Burkert, H. 433
Burma 545–7
Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB) 546–7
National League for Democracy (NLD) 546
BurmaNet 546
Burnett, R. 554
Bush, President George W. 387
Bush, V. 363
business cycle 67
business process outsourcing (BPO) 244–69
business process reengineering (BPR) 226, 231
Business Week 84
Butler, L. 363
(p. 603) cable modem services 185
cable TV 364
Calabrese, A. 395
Calhoun, C. 565
Callon, M. 299
Cammaerts, B. 519, 520
Canada 415, 420, 431, 432
Montreal 348
Netville 568
PIPEDA 465
Toronto 348
capital:
flow of 76, 110
human 8, 59–60, 66–8, 76
measuring problems 110–15 see also human capital
capital stock 110
census data 114–15
European 112–13
firm level 113–15
industry level 111–13
surveys 113–14
Cardon, D. 543
Caroli, E. 105, 121
Carpentier, N. 519, 520
Castells, M. 4, 47–8, 286, 457, 464, 524, 539, 571, 583, 585, 590
cell phones 42, 161, 458, 547–9, 595
CEN/ISSS 432
Cette, G. 113
Charlemagne 476–7
chatrooms 370–1, 373, 504, 515, 520
Checkland, P. B. 233
Cheon, M. J. 246, 248, 249
children and young people 494–510
Chile 550
Mapuche 543–4
China 78, 212, 431, 518, 587
brain drain 82, 88, 93
education 80–1
income and wealth inequality 48–9
Internet cafes 44
Choudhury, S. 488
Ciborra, C.U. 10, 229, 231, 235, 236, 300
citizenship theories 391
civic commons in cyberspace 376
civil liberties 456
civil society 516, 519–20, 538, 541
Clark, D. D. 159
Clark, K. B. 206–7
Clark, L. S. 502
Clark, N. 36
Clarke, R. 428, 457
classification 460
Clinton, President Bill 365, 386
co‐construction 463
co‐invention 211
Cockburn, C. 584
codified knowledge 234
coding 279
Cohen, E. L. 568
Coleman, S. 15, 17, 337, 366, 368, 371, 376
Collins, H. M. 299
Colombia 552
communication:
children's 502–4
computer mediated (CMC) 514–15, 525, 531
diasporic 572
and information 57
institutionalized networks 57–8
interpersonal 204
political economy of 527–8
Communication Technology Centers (CTCs) 570–1
communicative entitlement 384, 389–90, 393–7
communicative resources 384
communities of place 562, 568–71
community 3, 18–21
building 569–70
diverse 574–5
informatics 569
learned 230
local 569–70, 574
networks 561–75
community radio 549–52
competitive advantage 226, 230–2, 234–5
(p. 604) Competitive Local Exchange Company (CLEC) 178–80
competitive pressure 175
Computer Intelligence Intercorp (CII) 113
computer mediated communication (CMC) 514–15, 525, 531
Computer Science Corporation 264
computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) 299–300
Computers in Our Future Project 570
congestion:
Internet 151–6
TCP control 154–5
Constant, E. W. 36
consumer:
needs 67
skill base 67
context 529
formative 300, 308
social 525
Continental Bank 245
contract:
facilitation 265
long‐ and short‐term 248, 264, 282
monitoring 265
contract manufacturers 212
Conyers, J. 553
Cook, S. D. 234
coordination centres 283
copyright laws 65, 70
Corbusier 593
Coronel, S. 549
Couldry, N. 15–17, 337
Council of Europe 496
counter‐hegemony 538, 540–1
Creative Commons 486
Creel, G. 479–81
Crepon, B. 113
crime 44, 163
Critical Art Ensemble 544
Critical Realism 301
CSC 260
Cullen, S. 223, 249, 251
cultural citizenship 392, 393
cultural expression 204
cultural heritage institutions 487–8
cultural hybridity 474
culture 3, 18–21
change 562, 566
character of 483–4
conflicts between 517
definition 474
participatory 484–6
Currie, W. L. 248
customer relationship management (CRM) systems 259
cybercafes 44, 591–2
cyberfeminism 588, 590–2
Dahlberg, L. 372
Dahlgreen, P. 392
data:
protection 428, 465
quality 437
security 433
storing and accessing 407–8 see also personal data
dataveillance 457, 458
David, P. A. 9, 32, 33, 203
Davis, H. I. 480
Davis, R. 370
decentralization and integration 352–3
decomposability 279–80, 282
Deleuze, G. 453
deliberative deficit 370
deliberative online polls 371
Dell Computer Corporation 41
Delta Airlines 260
demand 200–2, 212
interdependent 201, 207–8
democracy 2–3, 13–17, 501
and determinism 363–6
everyday 377
and the Internet 367–9
needs rethought 390–2
preconditions for 392–4
democratic process 569
demographic change 562, 566
Denial of Service 544
Denning, H. I. 418
(p. 605) Denning, R. 370
depreciation rate 110
deregulation 48–9, 58, 274
and broadband growth 177–8
financial 68 see also liberalization
derivatives 345
Derrida, J. 316
DeSanctis, G. 296
design, meaning of 478–9
deskilling 301
determinism 14–15, 294–5
Deutsch, K. 410
developing countries:
Internet access 161
patents and copyright laws 70
development 570
dial‐up:
diffusion 184
divide 186
diasporic communications 572
Dibbern, J. 245
Diebold, J. 37
diffusion 3–4
broadband 184–6
first wave 187–8
Internet 32, 170–3, 187–8
and new technologies 188–9
PCs 171
diffusion approach 170–3, 201, 208
digital divide 16, 32, 63, 384–98, 477
amongst children 498, 509
causes of 173–4
history of 385–8
implications of 389
reasons for 388
rural/urban 186–7
digital era governance 406, 420–3
digital opportunity 386
digital signal processing (DSP) chips 92
digitized markets 342–3
discourse definition 474
disembeddedness 281
disruptive elements 203
distributed cognition 299
distributive rights 395
Domain Name System (DNS) 528
Domberger, S. 249
Donohue, G. A. 366
Dosi, G. 36–7, 38
Douglas, M. 424
Downes, T. 182
Downing, J. D. H. 20, 471
Draca, M. 7–9, 31, 200
DRAM 87, 88
Drucker, P. 37
Dunleavy, P. 15–17, 337
DuPont 264
Dutton, W. H. 364, 566
e‐commerce 40, 183, 516, 517–18
e‐democracy 362–77 see also democracy
e‐taxation 416
Earl, M. J. 227, 228, 235, 248
East Timor 544
Eastman Kodak 245
eBay 35
economic development 570
economic growth, Asian NICs 78–9
economies of industrial coordination 199
economies of scale 198, 199
economies of scope 198–9
Ecuador 551
Edmondson, A. 234
EDS 260, 419
education 93, 204
Asian NICs 79–81
economics of 121
girls' choices 584
Edwards, A. 371
Eichengreen, B. 46
Eichhorn, K. 521
electrical motor 203
Electronic Disturbance Theatre 544
Electronic Funds Transfer (FET) 457
electronic games 594
Elliott, A. 391
(p. 606) Ellis, J. 300
Ellul, J. 315, 456
embeddedness 525–6, 531
emergence 229, 236
employment fluctuations 196
empowerment 15
encyclopaedias 369
enforcement 17
engineering 582–3
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) 104, 174
enterprise systems 226, 231, 235
best practice 230, 233
Enzensbreger, H. M. 364
Erbring, L. 565
Ericson, R. 462
Estrada, J. 548–9
ethics 3, 314–33
disclosive 321–2
ethnic groups 571–3
ethnography 526–7
virtual 529
Etzioni, A. 364, 439
European Commission:
Expert Group 49
High Level Expert Group 45
European Union (EU) 431
Data Protection Directive 432
Global Information Networks 433–4
Evalueserve 157
exchangeability 282
exclusion 453–4
Fairchild Semiconductor 77
Feely, M. 461
Feenberg, A. 315
Feeny, D. 255–6
Fernandez, P. 249
Fieberg, D. 249
Fields, G. 41, 44
file registers 407–8
finance industry 68, 277
financial assets, growth in 346–7
financial centres 343, 345, 347–8
financial instruments 345–6
financial markets 343
financial networks 340–1, 344–8
firms:
digital divide 175
effect of networking 47–8
size 48
Fisher, D. 371
Fishkin, J. S. 371
Flaherty, D. 451
flexibility 285–6, 586–7
foreign direct investment (FDI):
Korea 85
Malaysia 89
Forman, C. 175–6, 187
formative contexts 300
Foucault, M. 452, 454
Fountain, J. 405
France 409, 415, 542
blogs 523
Paris 347
Fraser, N. 389
Free Burma Coalition (FBC) 545–6
Free Trade Association of the Americas 553
freedoms 17
freelance, new media work 585
Freeman, C. 7–10, 31, 201
Freescale Semiconductor 85
function creep 455
functionings 396
G8 553
Gabel, D. 185
Gajjala, R. 521
Galliers, R. D. 11, 12, 223, 227, 235, 237
Garland, P. 526
Garnham, N. 5, 385, 396
GE 77
Geerts, A. 550
Gegenöffentlichkeit 541, 542
gender identity 583–4
gender power relations 592–5
gender relations 581–96
and technology 582–4
gender‐swapping 589
(p. 607) general purpose technology (GPT) 7, 105–6, 170, 200, 202–7
definition 171–2
disruptive 207
nature of 202–3
geo‐ethnicity 572
geo‐locator technologies 156
Germany 431
Frankfurt 347
Ghana 595
Gheradi, S. 230
Gibson, J. J. 300, 323
Gibson, R. 366–7
Giddens, A. 281, 296–7, 301, 374
Gill, R. 585
Gillett, S. E. 185
Girard, B. 552
global cities 343, 345
global market 346
globalization 45–6, 211, 274
Goldfarb 175–6, 187
Goldstar 87
Goodrun, A. A. 19, 471
Google 413, 463, 540
Göransson, B. 45
Gordon, G. 315
Gordon, R. 118
Gotze, J. 371
governance 2–3, 13–17
government:
role 42
vision of change 411–14 see also public sector; state
government organization theory 406–11
Graham, P. 19, 471
Gramsci 540–1
Granjon, F. 542, 543
Granovetter, M. 5
Gras, B. 391
Greenan, N. 114
Greenspan, Alan 34, 39
Greenstein, S. 7, 9, 10, 32, 175–7, 182–4, 186–7, 209
Griliches, Z. 209
Grint, K. 299
Grover, V. 246, 248, 249
growth accounting 103–4
Grubesic, T. H. 182–3, 185
Grunder, T. 569
Guardian 518
Guatemala 550
Guattari, F. 453
Guild, E. 453
Gumucio Dagron, A. 550
Gupte, R. P. 152
Gutenberg 475
Gutiérrez, H. 571
Habermas, J. 315, 376, 540
Hacker, K. L. 366
hacktivism 350
Haggerty, K. 462
Hague, B. N. 366
Haiti Global Village 572
Hall, S. 315
Hamon, M. 477
Hampton, K. N. 565
Hansen, M. T. 230, 234
Hanseth, O. 236
Hardt, R. 453
Harvard Business Review 231
Harvey, E. 294
Hayden, C. 571
Haythornthwaite, C. 565
He, Z.‐L. 229
Heckel, T. 113
hedonic price approach 209
Heidegger, M. 315, 323–5
Heim, M. 326
Henderson, J. 228
Hewlett‐Packard 77
Hicks, D. 43
Hickson, D. J. 294
Hill, K. 370
Hindman, D. B. 187
Hirschheim, R. 245, 248
Hitt, C. M. 104, 107, 113, 121
Hoff, J. 366
Hong Kong 77–9, 85, 544
Hood, C. 410
Hoover, Herbert 363
Horkheimer, M. 482
Horrocks, I. 366
Howard, P. 568
Huber, R. L. 245
Huggins, R. 366
Hughes, J. 370
human capabilities 395–7
human capital 8, 59, 60, 76
investment trends 66–8
resource and service 67
Hunter, J. 488
Hutchby, I. 315
Hyundai 87, 88
IBM 77
identity 20–1
mistaken 457
theft 457
Ihde, D. 324
Illich, I. 423–4
immigration 416–17, 453–4
Incumbent Local Exchange Providers 179
Independent Media Center (IMC) 554
India 78, 94
brain drain 82, 88, 91–3
Calcutta 348
education 80, 92
income and wealth inequality 49–50
Institutes of Technology 80–1
M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation 350
Mumbai/Bombay 252, 348
New Delhi 348
technology parks 91
Village Knowledge Centres 350
Indonesia 78–9, 550, 552
industrial coordination 199
Indymedia 552–4
information 4, 6, 8–9, 12
abundance 367–8, 369, 391
access to 569–70
alignment medium 228
architecture 227, 235
and communication 57
content 60, 64–6
defining public interest 70–1
dissemination costs 64–6
effect of bureaucracy 407–8
externalities 64
from data 237
generating costs 64–6
growth 287
infrastructure 60–4, 227, 235
institutionalized processes 57–8
Internet as source of 366–9
literacy 477, 486–9
ordering 287
personal 428
rich and poor 49–50
significance of 275
societal 421–2
specialized services 65–6 see also technological information
information and communications technology (ICT):
disruptive elements 203
factors affecting use of 566–8
growth 56, 244, 268, 274
investment expenditure in 114
measuring 4
paradigm 37, 40–6
portfolio 253–6
professionals 418–19
services 60
use of 114
views on social impact 563–5
Information Highway 42, 44
information systems (IS)
myths 226–38
strategy 227–8
information technology outsourcing (ITO) 244–69
definitions 246–8
the literature 245–51
information technology strategy 227–8
informatization 277, 279, 281
(p. 609) Infosys 94
infrastructural change 38
Inklaar, R. 112
innovation commons 593
Ins‐sure 261
Institute for Global Communication (IGC) 351
institutions
change 283–6
new 197
integration and decentralization 352–3
Intel 38, 77, 87, 89–91, 94
interconnection standards 199
International Herald Tribune 548
International Information and Communication Technologies Literacy Panel 477
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 46, 553
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 432
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) 164
international trade 46, 60, 70
Internet:
access 42
access platforms 498
activism 344
adoption rate 172
age of users 567
audio traffic 161
backbone 180–3
blocking technologies 157
business demand 174–7
censorship 156
children's literacy 494–510
and communication 502–4
and community radio 552
and competitive advantage 231–2
congestion 151–6
content 42, 183, 509–10
control of 42, 161–4, 504–5
cyclical regeneration 160
and democracy 367–9
diffusion 32, 170–3, 187–8
domain name registrations 181–2
end‐to‐end design 151, 156–9, 160
and everyday life 522–3
experience of 566
history of 169–70
host sites 182
household demand 173–4
literacy 387, 498–500, 501–2
national take‐up 386–7
participation 506–8
privacy threat 430–1
privatized 170
public policy 152
public priorities 159–64
risk to children 503–4, 505, 509
as separate from life 524
sociology of 530–1
as source of information 366–9
standardization vs. flexibility 159
sub‐networks 152, 157–8, 161
and surveillance 457
technical rules 165
technical specifications 150–1
use by political movements 542–4 see also networks
Internet Archive 486
Internet Bubble 31, 40
Internet cafes 44, 591–2
Internet economics 32, 148–52
Internet oligopoly 49
Internet Protocol (IP) 61–2
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 151
downstream 177
enhanced service providers 178
exchange points between 155
market power 158
online service provider 177
transit backbone 177
Web‐site hosting 177
Internet2+ 160
Introna, L. D. 13, 223, 368
Ireland 499
irrational exuberance 39
Irwin, D. A. 46
(p. 610) Ismail, I. 90
Italy 415
Ito, Y. 4
Iyengar, S. 371
Jagger, N. 584
Janoski, T. 391
Janowitz, M. 571
Japan 409, 415, 419
culture 517
education 79, 81
ICT paradigm 43–4
semiconductors 77, 88
Tokyo 347
Javary, M. 49
joint venture (JV) model 260, 261
Jones, M. R. 223
Jones, S. 554, 568
Jones, W. D. 248
Jordan, T. 544
Jorgenson, D. W. 113, 117
journalism 303, 516, 554 see also news
Jung, J.‐Y. 472, 568
Kallinikos, J. 11, 12, 223
Kang, K.‐D. 87
Katz, J. 568
Kavanaugh, A. 373, 566, 567, 568
Keen, P. G. W. 226
Kelly, J. 371
Kern, T. 251, 265
Kim, L. 88
Kim, Y.‐C. 21, 472, 568
Kim, Y.‐M. 248–9
Klepper, R. 248
Kling, R. 295
knowledge 12
character of 423–4
codified 234
common 366–7
externalities 64
tacit and embedded 234
theory gaps 366
transfer 234
knowledge economies 2, 6–10, 56, 502 see also new knowledge economy
knowledge management systems (KMS) 226, 232–4, 235
Kocoglu, Y. 113
Kolko, J. 181–2
Korea 77, 78
brain drain 82
domestic investment 86–9, 94
education 79–80, 86
FDI 85
Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) 86
MNCs in 84–5
salaries 83–4
semiconductors 87–9
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) 85, 86–7
Korea Institute of Electronics Technology (KIET) 86
Korean Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) 85–6
Kosovo 543
Kraprayoon, General Suchinda 547
Kraut, R. E. 523, 565, 567
Kress, G. 477
Krugman, P. 46, 100
Kuhn, T. 36, 38
Kuznets, S. 49
Kwan, F. 185
labour:
flow 76
global supply 76
productivity growth 116
Lacity, M. C. 11, 223, 245, 248, 249, 251
Lai, Pin Yong 90
Land, F. 231
Lash, S. 464
Lasswell 480, 481
last mile connection 172
Latour, B. 318, 321
Lavy, V. 121
Law, J. 299
(p. 611) Lazonick, W. 31, 89
le Grignou, B. 543
Leander, K. M. 529
learning 244, 268–9
curve 251–3
lifelong 502
on‐going and review 236
and trust 236
Leavitt, H. J. 231
Lee, J.‐N. 248–9
Lehr, W. 185
Lenovo 94
Lessig, L. 163, 441, 593
Levinas, E. 327
Levy, F. 210
Lexis Nexis 540
liberalization 58, 68 see also deregulation
LINUX 65
Lippman 480
literacy 18–19
children's 494–510
definition 474
education 476–8
information 477, 486–9
Internet 501–2
multiple 478, 479
new media 473–90
political economic context 481–3
Livingstone, S. 19, 471, 495
Lloyds of London 261
Loader, B. D. 366
local area networks (LAN) 155
Loh, L. 245, 247
Loucā, F. 49
Lovink, G. 543
low earth orbit satellites (LEOS) 161
Lucky‐Goldstar (LG) 87, 88
Luskin, R. C. 371
Lyman, P. 326
Lynch, L. 121
Lyon, D. 15–17, 338, 376
MacDonald, H. 228
McDonald, K. 539
Machin, S. 121
Machlup, F. 4, 37, 40
MacKie‐Mason, J. K. 153
McKim, K. K. 529
McKnight, L. W. 150
McLean, E. R. 227
McLeod, J. M. 567
McLuhan, M. 315, 363, 476, 590–1
McNally, S. 121
McNealy, S. 459
Mairesse, J. 113, 114
Malaysia 78, 85
Bayan Lepas Free Trade Zone (BLFTZ) 89
brain drain 88–90
education 79
FDI 89
Free Trade Zone (FTZ) 77
MNCs 89–91
Mali 552
Maliranta, M. 114
management role 10–11
Mandaville, P. 572
Mansell, R. 49, 50
Marcuse, H. 315
market:
competition 205–6
exchange 204
global 346
ISP power 158
leaders 198
quasi‐ 283
Marshall, P. D. 554
Marshall, T. H. 392
Marvin, C. 531
Marx, G. T. 451
MasterCard 260
Matei, S. A. 21, 472, 567
Matheson, D. 518
Mattelart, A. 5
media:
and democracy 363–6
history 475–81
monopoly 481
monopsony 482–3
(p. 612) mediation 5, 531
Meikle, G. 544, 554
Melody, W. M. 7–10, 31, 393
Mendoncā, S. 49
mergers and acquisitions (M&A) 260
Mesch, G. 368
Metamorphosis Project 565
Mexico 77, 520
LaNeta 350–1
Zapatista 350
Micron Technology 87, 88
Microsoft 540, 65
migration 31, 76
military 44, 77
Millar, J. 247, 584
Miller, D. 20, 526, 527, 529
Milosevic, S. 520, 543
MINERVA 364–5
Mineta, Norman 387
Mintzberg, H. 235, 409
Miranda, S. M. 248–9
Mische, A. 540
Mitra, B. 92
mobile phones 43, 161, 458, 547–9, 595
moderators 371–2
modular platforms 206–7
modularity 212, 282, 477
Mol, A. 299
Montaigne, M. de 407
Moor, J. H. 318
Moore, J. F. 376
Morris, D. 365
Morrisett, L. 386, 393
Moss, M. L. 181
Motorola 77
Motorola Korea (MK) 84, 87, 94
MPACT 260
Mpower Software Services 260
Muchie, M. 45
Muller, C. 373
multinational corporations (MNCs) 46
electronification in 47, 49
in Korea 84–5
Malaysia 89–90
in Taiwan 84
Mumford, E. 295, 475
Mumford, L. 315, 485
Murnane, R. 210
Murray, A. T. 185
music, industrialized 485
Myanmar see Burma
Nardi, B. A. 487
nation state, importance of 47
National Semiconductor 84, 87
Negri, A. 453
Negroponte, N. 585, 590
Nelson, R. R. 37, 570
Netherlands 418, 420, 544
Digital City 569
Netmums 373
netsourcing 259–60
network effects 106
network society 4–5, 539
networked individualism 372
networking 47–8
and civil society 516, 519–20
networks 11–12, 273–87
access 150, 152–3
access points (NAPs) 155
activist 340–1
actor‐network theory 298–9, 320
community 561–75
democratising 340, 342
and disaggregation 281–3
effect on firms 47–8
and electronic transactivity 275–8
emergence of 280, 282
as governance 274
and information spread 209
and institutional change 283–6
institutionalized 57–8
multi‐sited 341
oligopoly 69
pricing 165
service bundling 158
technical properties of 346 see also Internet
(p. 613) new knowledge economy 31, 56
efficiency 60
measuring 71
structure 60
transformation to 58–9
New London Group (NLG) 478, 481
new media work:
freelance 585
literacies 3, 18–21
women in 586
new public management (NPM) 405
New Social Movements (NSM) 539
New Zealand 414, 419
Newman, J. 572
news 516, 518–19
online 302–3 see also journalism
news gathering 483
newspapers:
online 531
print 302
Nguyen, S. V. 114
Nicaragua, Radio Cumiches 551
Nicolini, D. 230
Nie, N. H. 565
Nissenbaum, H. 368
nodality 410
Nohria, N. 234
non‐governmental organizations (NGOs) 350–1, 541
Nonaka, I. 234
Nooteboom, B. 234
Norman, D. A. 300, 323
Norris, C. 453
Norway 499, 546–7
NTIA 172
O'Day, V. L. 487
öffentlichkeit 538, 540, 541, 542, 543, 547, 549
offshoring 31, 75–6, 95, 226
Ohmae, K. 45, 46
O'Kelly, M. E. 182–3
Olien, C. N. 366
oligopoly 69, 70
Oliner, S. D. 116, 117
Olivastro, D. 43
One World International 351
Ong, W. J. 475–6
online gaming 414
online news 302–3
analysis 306–7
causality 304
locus of agency 304–6
technology conception 306
online talk:
formal 371
informal 370–1, 372 see also chatrooms
online/offline:
interrelations 514–32
intersection 529
Open Sound 486
Open Source Software (OSS) 65, 213
open standards 199, 205, 206
O'Reilly, C. 229, 232
Orgad, S. 20, 471, 521, 522, 526
organization 411
organizational change 12–13, 210
deterministic perspectives 294–5
dynamics of 2, 10–13, 293–309
emergent perspectives 295–6, 308
organizations, formal 284–5
Orlikowski, W. J. 223, 297
Orwell, George 452, 457
output fluctuation 196
outsourcing 277
crafting contracts 262–5
degree of 248
exchange‐based 259, 262–4
incremental approach 251
JV model 260
learning curve 251–3
managing 265–8
netsourcing 259–60
offshore 251–3
option evaluation 257–62
public sector 419–20
time and materials model 257, 259
total and selective 254
value‐added 247–8
panopticism 452
paperwork routinization 408–9
paradigm:
change 31, 34, 35–40
definition 35
ICT 37, 40–6
scientific 36
techno‐economic 38
technological 36, 38
Parham, A. A. 572
Parker, M. 228
Parsuraman, A. 246
partnerships 248, 260–1
patents 64–5, 70
Patou, C. 543
Patterson, S. 373, 566, 567, 568
peer‐to‐peer networks 157
peer‐to‐peer technologies 189
Pels, D. 299
Peppard, J. 228
Perez, C. 37–8, 48, 50, 202
Perot Systems 260
Perron, D. 585–6
personal computers (PCs) 41
diffusion 171
marginal adopter 172–3
personal data:
for care and control 450
explosion of 456–8
international flows 458
politics of 463–4
use of 449 see also data
Peru 550
Peruzzo, K. 555
Peters, J. D. 363
Pew Internet and American Life Project 503, 523, 565, 568
Pheysey, D. C. 294
Philippines 78, 79, 547–9
Manila 252
Pickering, A. 298
Plant, S. 588, 591
Plato 226
Plummer, K. 392
Points of Presence (POPs) 182–3
police 455, 462
policy issues 318–19
political mobilization 538, 539–40
political movements 537–55
use of Internet 542–4
political talk, levels of 370
political work:
local issues 349–52
transboundary 349
politics 4, 20–1, 342
children's participation 506–8
online 365
Poole, M. 296
Porat, M. 4
Porter, M. E. 47, 175, 231–2, 238
Portugal 544
Postman, N. 317
power 5, 16–17
concentration of 590
nexus of 278
relations 592–5
and representation 374–5
space 375–6
and surveillance 449–65
power law distributions 341
Premkumar, G. 175
Preston, J. 234
pricing 150, 152–3, 165
Prieger, J. E. 184
Prince, J. 7, 9, 10, 32, 172–3
printing press 475
privacy 163
the concept 459
country‐based regimes 430
legislation 431–2
the literature 428–30
regulation 430–5
and safety 438–40, 442
self‐regulation 434–5
(p. 615)
and surveillance 458–64
technological solutions 433
Privacy Impact Assessment (PIAs) 437–8
privacy‐enhancing technologies (PETs) 433–4, 439, 440
private business regulation 432
private finance initiative (PFI) 419
privatization 48–9
production costs 198
production function:
basic approach 102–6
cross industry 101
estimation problems 106–10
general method of moment (GMM) 107–8
Olley‐Pakes method 109–10
TFP‐based 107
productivity 7–8, 68–9, 102, 116–18, 120–2, 200
Solow Paradox 31–2, 101, 115, 120
productivity growth:
cyclical 118
labour 116
public sector 423
US 115
professional bureaucracy 409–10, 417
professionalism 418–19
profits vs. social efficiency 66
proprietary platforms 199, 206
proprietary standards 205
protest, global 376
public interest 439
public libraries 477
public sector 283
boundary erosion 435–8
centralization/decentralization 414–16
ICT applications 68
needs‐based holism 422–3
outsourcing 419–20
phases model 412–14
portal 414–15
productivity gains 423
reintegration 422 see also government; state
public switched telephone network (PSTN) 156, 159, 160
publishing industry 486
Pugh, D. S. 294
Putnam, R. D. 372
quality of service (QOS) schemes 153, 160
Quan‐Haase, A. 373
quasi‐markets 283
Raab, C. D. 15–17, 338, 441
Radio Free Asia (RFA) 546
Rafael, V. L. 549
Rainie, L. 568
Rawls, J. 395
Raytheon 77
RCA 77
real estate 343
Regan, P. 439, 459
regulation 340, 518, 528
co‐regulation 435
international and national 31
Internet 32, 162–4
oligopoly 70
privacy 430–5
private business 432
telecommunications 63, 165
regulatory authorities 63
Reinart, E. S. 50
resource‐based view (RBV) 255
restructuring 275–6
retail distribution 40–1
Rheingold, H. 317
Rice, R. 568
risk:
assessment 461
management 460, 462
to children 503–4, 505, 509
Roberts, M. 175
Robins, K. 530
Rogers, E. M. 3
Rogers, Y. 300
(p. 616) Roosevelt 408
Rose, N. 453
Rothenbuhler, E. W. 563, 566
Rothwell, R. 47
Rouvinen, P. 114
Rozeboom, R. 91
Ruhleder, K. 236
Rule, J. 451–2
Russell, B. 165
Russell, S. 373
Sadun, R. 7–9, 31, 121
Safe Harbor 432
safety and privacy 438–40, 442, 461–3
Salazar, J. F. 543–4
Sambamurthy, V. 248
Samsung 87, 88
Sanders, T. 527
Sassen, S. 14, 16, 315, 337
Sawhney, M. 41
Saxenian, A. 93
Scannell, P. 384, 389
Scarbrough, H. 234
Schoeman, F. 439
Schofield, L. L. 515
Schreyer, P. 112
Schumpeter, J. A. 48, 370
Science and Technology Studies (STS) 298–9
Scientific American 42
Seiter, E. 508
self‐regulation 434–5
semiconductor industry 77–8, 87–9
Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) 95
Sen, A. 384, 385, 395–7
Senegal 552
Senn, J. A. 231
service mobility 277
Servon, L. 570
SERVQUAL 246
Shah, D. V. 567
Shamberg, M. 364
Shaw, A. and M. 570
Shearman, C. 569
Sichel, D. 116, 117
signalling role 209
Silva, O. 121
Silver, D. 526
Silverstone, R. 327, 531, 572
Simon, J. 461
Simon, S. 410
Singapore 77, 78, 79, 416, 517
skills and technology 105, 211
Skype 157, 189, 157
Slater, D. 20, 526, 527, 529
Slaton, C. 365
Slevin, J. 4
smart house 593–4
Smith, J. 541
Smith, M. 371, 487
Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) 298
social context 525
social determinism 295
social efficiency vs. profits 66
social informatics 525
social movements 12–13, 538–9
Social Shaping of Technology 298, 342
social sorting 456, 459–61, 465
socio‐digital formations 340–1
Soden, J. V. 227
software, open‐source 65
Sole, D. 234
Solow, R. 31, 101, 103
Solow Paradox 31–2, 101, 115, 120
Sørensen E. 377
sourcing:
best 256–7
in house 254, 255
internal and external bids 261
and senior management 261–2 see also outsourcing
South Africa 460, 539
South Korea 43, 550
Spain 415
Madrid 456
Radio Callos y Guatita 551
spam 150, 520
(p. 617) specialization 280
speed 342, 344
spillovers 104, 105–6
Sri Lanka 552
standardization 32, 197, 200, 233, 277 see also technical compatibility
standards:
interconnection 199
and market competition 205–6
open 205, 206
proprietary 205
Star, S. L. 236, 460
state 9
authority 341, 342–4, 348
importance of 47 see also government; public sector
Steeves, V. 459
Steinfeld, C. 517
Steinmueller, W. E. 7–10, 32
Stevenson, N. 391
Stiroh, K. J. 113, 118, 120, 121
Stone, A. R. 589
Stoneman, P. 208
Straub, D. W. 248
Street, J. 365
Strover, S. 187
structural change 37
structuration theory 296–7
subcontracting 277
success defined 249
Sun Microsystems 459
Suntopia 565
suppliers:
capabilities 266–8
relationship with customers 266
supply side 196, 198–200, 212
surveillance 376, 428
assemblages 453, 461
globalized 453
and Internet 457
and power 449–65
and privacy 458–64
private and public 450, 452
technology 454–6
surveillance society 451–8
and safety state 461–3
sustainability 230, 231
Sustainable Development Communications Network 351
Sveningsson, M. 521
Swan, J. A. 234
Sweden 499
Swift, G. F. 41
Switzerland:
Geneva 347
Zurich 347
Syndicate 543
Tainor, E. 228
Taiwan 77
brain drain 82, 88
education 79, 81
MNCs in 84
salaries 83–4
Tambini, D. 366
Tarrow, S. 540
Tata Consultancy Services 94
Tavistock studies 295
Taylor, J. 366, 369
Taylor, P. A. 544
technical compatibility 204–5 see also standardization
technofeminism 592–5
technological determinism 201, 317, 562, 566, 573–4
and cyberfeminism 590–2
and democracy 363–6 see also determinism
technological information:
diffusion 279
growth of 280–1 see also information
technologies‐in‐practice 297
technology:
close and distant 326–7
constructivist ontology 319–21, 322, 327
cycle 118
diffusion 188–9
digital and non‐digital 350, 352, 353
domestic 454, 593–4
(p. 618) technology:
exogenous 295
and gender relations 582–4
impact view 318–19, 322
phenomenological ontology 322–8
political 321
social construction of (SCOT) 298
social shaping of 298
stickiness 342
surveillance 454–6
tool ontology 316–17, 318, 319, 326
transfer 92 see also general‐purpose technology (GPT)
telecommunications regulation 63, 165
telephone:
fixed‐line 594–5
mobile/cell phone 43, 161, 458, 547–9, 595
telephone firms, deregulated 177
Teng, J. T. C. 246, 248, 249
Tenkasi, R. V. 234
Texas Instruments (TI) 77, 87, 91–2, 94
UniTI 92–3
Thailand 78, 79, 547–9
The Economist 40, 42
The Nation 548
Thomas, D. 455
Thomas, R. 451
threshold effects 353
Thumim, N. 495
Tichenor, P. J. 366
Tierney, T. 234
Toffler, A. 317
toolkit 441
Tops, P. 366
totalitarianism 451
Touraine, A. 390–1, 392
Townsend, A. M. 181
Trajtenberg, M. 40, 171
transaction cost economics (TCE) 255
transaction costs 59
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) 153, 154–5, 170, 528
Transnational Social Movement Organizations (TSMOs) 541
Trinidad 527
Triplett, J. E. 209
trust and learning 236
TrustE 434
TRW 260
Tsagarousianou, R. 366
Tsoukas, H. 234
Turkle, S. 315, 514, 589
Turner, B. 391
Tushman, M. L. 229, 232
Tylecote, A. 50
UBS 260
Uganda 595
unbundling 61–2
Unger, R. M. 300
unintended consequences 229
United Kingdom 435
BBC 376
Children Go Online (UKCGO) 495, 497, 504, 505, 506, 507–8
CIRCE 569
Communications Act 496
elections 367–8
girls' education 584
ID cards 451
immigration 416–17
London 347, 456
National Health Service 417
NHS 436
Ofcom 63
Office of the Census 451
public sector portal 415
sex workers 527
United Nations:
Development Programme (UNDP) 386
offshoring report 77
World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) 2, 386, 519–20
United States 409, 431, 432
1996 Telecommunications Act 178, 179
(p. 619)
Advanced Research Projects Administration (ARPANET) 169
American Library Association (ALA) 488
American Life Project 568
Appalachian Center for Economic Networks (ACE‐net) 570
attitude to technology 455–6
Blacksburg Electronic Village 373, 566, 569, 570
brain drain 81–3
broadband connections 43
Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) 111–12, 116
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) 111–12, 116
Campaign for Burma 545
Center for Media Education 506, 508
Chicago 348
Chief Information Offices (CIOs) 418
children 503, 504
copyright laws 65
Democratic Party 42
Department of Justice (DoJ) 463
digital divide 386–7
e‐taxation 416
education 479–80, 584
elections 367–8, 373
engineering doctorates 81
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) 364, 550, 178
Federal Trade Commission (FTC) 432
immigration 416–17
Immigration and Naturalization Law 82–3
Institute for Propaganda Analysis 480
internet diffusion 168–89
Liberty Net 570
Los Angeles 567
Metamorphosis Project 572
military 77
Minnesota 567
MIT, DSpace 486
National Science Foundation's Network (NSFNET) 160, 170
National Science Foundation (NSF) 169
Neighbourhoods Online 569
New York 347, 348
offshoring 75–6, 95
public sector portal 414
Seattle Community Network (SCN) 569
semiconductors 77–8, 88
surveillance 452
Tariff Schedule 77
Voice of America (VOA) 546
universities, devaluating the Arts 485–6
urban leadership 176
Uruguay 550
user capability 208, 210
user characteristics 208
Van Ark, B. 112
Van Couvering, E. 495
van de Donk, W. 366, 544
van Dijk, J. A. G. M. 4, 366, 388, 394
Van Leeuwen, T. 477
van Oeyen, V. 550
Van Reenen, J. 7–9, 31, 105, 121
Varian, H. R. 153
vendor 265–6
Venkatraman, N. 228, 245, 247
Vickery auction 153
Viégas, F. 523
Villamoyor, C. 550
Virilio, P. 315
virtual organizations 282
viruses 150
VLSI 91
VLSI chips 88
Voice over IP (VoIP) 61, 157
Wagner, E. 233
Wajcman, J. 21, 472
Ward, J. 228
Ward, S. 366
Warschauer, M. 501
Washington Consensus 46
Watson, R. T. 248
weak ties 230
web model 295–6
Webster, F. 5
WebTrust 434
weightless economy 46
Wellman, B. 372–3, 523, 524, 565, 568
Wells, H. G. 363
Wenger, E. 234
West, D. 405
Western Electric 77
Westin, A. 459
Westinghouse 77
Wilhelm, A. G. 370, 393
Willcocks, L. 11, 223, 248, 249, 251, 255–6, 265
Williams, R. 591
Williamson, J. G. 46
Williamson, O. E. 247
Wilson, B. 526–7
Wilson, C. C. 571
Winner, L. 433, 455
Winter, S, G. 37
Wipro 94
Wired 593
women:
breast cancer 515, 519, 521, 523, 529
new media work 586–9
sex workers 527
Wong, P.‐K. 229
Woodward, J. 294
Woolgar, S. 299
work:
distributed forms of 276–7
site organization 276
work‐place studies 299
workspace, online 351
World Bank 553, 78
World Trade Organization (WTO) 46, 376, 432, 552, 553
Wuthnow, R. 456
Wyckoff, A. W. 210
Xchanging 261
xDSL 185
Xerox 260
Yang, C. 43
Yang, S. 104
Yearley, S. 299
Yong, G. 350
Yoon, S. H. 567
Zeithaml, V. A. 246
Zhu, J. 518
Zolo, D. 391
Zook, M. A. 183
Zuboff, S. 315, 369