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date: 29 February 2020

(p. 781) Subject Index

(p. 781) Subject Index

ABM Treaty642, 651
Abu-Grahib422
accountability:
and bicameralism485
and executives in parliamentary government331–4
civil service accountability332–3
collective responsibility326, 330, 332, 708
ministerial responsibility332
networks333–4
and international financial institutions670
and judiciary:
decision-making by525, 540–1
democratic accountability531–2
independence of530–1
and party systems:
multiparty561–2, 582
two-party560–1
and principal-agent problems159
and public bureaucracies375–6, 383
activism, and judicial decision-making522
adjudication, see judiciary, and decision-making by
adverse selection:
and parliamentary democracy327
and principal-agent relationships371
and (s)electorate preferences29
advisers, and growth in335
Afghanistan, and representation in legislature437–9
African Union426, 616
African-Americans, and inclusion-and-exclusion177–80
federalism181–2
agency:
and economic institutions:
impact on158–9
institutional design149, 153–4
and historical institutionalism43–4
elite-centered approaches45–8
social movements48–50
state-society interaction50–2
and structure99–100
agenda control339
and Congressional committees462
and legislative decisiveness447–8
Al Qaeda679
alliances, and international security institutions639
American Enterprise Institute687
American Political Development, and historical institutionalism46, 47, 49
American Political Science Association45
Amnesty International675
analytical narrative, and rational choice institutionalism34–5
Anglo-Saxon capitalism152
anti-globalization movement675, 686
anti-Semitism183
antitrust laws, and United States419–20
appreciative system, and thinking institutionally735
appropriateness, and institutions3, 7, 9
Argentina261, 444
arms control agreements638–9, 645, 646
army reform, and elite-centered approaches46
Ashanti, and status of women174
Asian Development Bank627
(p. 782) Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)616, 617, 626, 650
Atlanta, and local governance regime507–8
attitudes, and judicial decision-making518–20
audit society412, 426
Australia:
and bicameralism272, 490–1, 492
and executive coordination331
and federalism261, 262, 263, 266
constitutional amendment269–70
constitutional interpretation271
intergovernmental relations275
and local governance501
and political science traditions93
and politicization of civil service336
and tricameralism484
Australia Group639
Australian Public Service (APS)331
Austria:
and bicameralism492
and Bundestag460
and constitutional interpretation271
and federalism261, 262, 267
autonomy:
and international financial institutions669, 670
and international security institutions647–8
and the state118–19
balanced government, and bicameralism487–90
Bank of England411
bargaining problems, and trade institutions662–4
Basle Accord657
Basle Committee426
behavioral economics, and rational choice institutionalism33–4
behavioral revolution:
and challenge to41
and impact of40, 718, 733, 750
and politics5–6
and reaction against92–3
Belgium:
and bicameralism479, 492
and constitutional interpretation271
and federalism261, 265, 266, 267, 276, 477
Bhopal disaster423
bicameralism:
and accountability485
as anti-democratic476
and balanced government487–90
dual deliberation487
mixed regimes487
and cleavage management491
and Congressional systems477
and definition of476
and distribution of power480
and diversity of representation481, 485
and executive-legislative relations481–2
and federalism272–3, 478, 479
and game-theoretic analysis of481–2
and impact of interchamber conflict451
and inheritance in477, 493
and innovation in477, 493
and liberal doctrines of487–8
negative conception of488–9
positive conception of489–90
and multicameralism483
and parliamentary systems476, 477, 480
political executive482–3
and policy importance of477
and policy stability485, 486
and power-sharing477
and presidential systems480
political executive482–3
stalemate486
and prevalence of478, 479
and rational choice institutionalism485
and redundancy theory484–6
and rejection of478–9
subnational level479
and research priorities:
analytical history493
balance concept494
constitutional settings493
and semi-presidential systems480–1
and significance of493
(p. 783)
and strong forms of491–2
and tricameralism483–4
and under-theorizing of476–7
and upper/second chambers:
characteristics of494
role of479, 480–1
and weak forms of490, 492, 493
BONGOs680
bottlenecks, and legislative decisiveness446
bounded rationality, and rational choice institutionalism33
“bowling-alone” syndrome140
Brazil261, 444, 447, 451
British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society676
British South Africa Company419
bureaucracy:
and accountability of375–6, 383
and centralization of presidential authority309–11
and challenges facing:
boundary-spanning problems383–4
developing countries383
efficiency/democracy376–7, 383
flexibility377
managing external programs377
network management377–8
and characteristics of373–4
and civil service rules374
and constraints on374
and coordination372–5
and cultural context371–2
and decision-making370–1
and delegation370
and discretion370
and endurance of382–3
and evolution of746–7
and external control over missions of374
and governance383, 384
and information371
as instrument of state power369–72
and legal constraints374
and meanings of term368–9
negative connotations370
and origins of term368
and paradoxes of382–3
and pathologies of374–5
and policy implementation370–1
and principal-agent relationships371, 376, 379
and reform of:
New Public Management378–80
pressures for378
United States380–2
and significance of368
and standards374
and street-level bureaucrats370
business:
and urban regimes507–9, 511
and welfare state393–5 see also capitalism
cabinets:
and British constitution707–8
and collective responsibility326, 330, 332
and comparative analysis337–9
and government overload334–5
and ministerial responsibility332
and modernist-empiricist approach to326
and parliamentary government326, 330, 483
and rational choice institutionalism327
California, and direct democracy601, 606
Campbell Collaboration428
Canada:
and bicameralism492
rejection at provincial level479
and electoral reform588, 590
and federalism261, 262, 263, 266
centrality to policy development276
constitutional amendment270
constitutional arrangements268–9
constitutional interpretation271
fiscal policy275
(p. 784)
ineffective bicameralism273
secessionist pressures265
and local governance501, 502
capitalism:
and democratic government155–8
constrained by156–7
control of economic institutions155–6
and economic institutions150–4
Anglo-Saxon capitalism152
comparative studies151
East Asian capitalism152
institutional differentiation152
institutional fatalism154
Rhineland capitalism152
role of agency153–4
and federalism262
and regulatory capitalism410, 412
business size416
corporate regulation of states426–7
created by mega-corporations421–4
globalization of mega-corporate capitalism419–21
impact of corporatization418–19
impact of securitization418–19
impact on tax-collection424–5
non-state regulators423–4
research agendas427–8
separation of powers426–7
and varieties of393
and welfare state393–5
caste, and inclusion-and-exclusion172–3
center-periphery relationships:
and governance292–4
and interorganizational analysis289–92
and national context295–7
and political dynamics286–8
and state theories288–9
and territorial politics281, 285 see also intergovernmental relations
central banks156
centrality, and network analysis78
centralization:
and presidential authority (USA)309–11
and territorial politics287
Challenger space shuttle372
change, institutional7, 11–15
and agency questions43–4
economic institutions153–4
and balancing exploitation/exploration13
and competing institutions14
and conflict14
and constructivist institutionalism64–5
and democracies12
and difficulties with754–5
and discontinuities12
and elites45–8, 164
and feedback146
and ideas41, 68
and incrementalism12–13
and institutional diversity15
and institutional environment14–15
and lock-in146
and paradigm shifts67–8
and path dependency12, 39, 64–5, 146
and post-formative change60–1
and processes of11
and role of leadership154
and social movements48–50
and sources of12
and state-society interaction50–2
checks-and-balances regimes:
and legislative responsibilities435–6, 448–51
and separation of powers219
and veto players225
chemical industry, and regulation423–4
Chicago School410–11
Chile443, 445
China277, 650
Civic Capacity and Urban Education Project511
Civil Aeronautics Board (USA)417
Civil Rights Act (USA, 1964)180, 549
civil rights movement48, 177, 180
and integration715–16
civil service:
and accountability of332–3
(p. 785)
and politicization of335–6
and reform of, elite-centered approaches46 see also bureaucracy
civil society:
and ambiguity of concept131
and contemporary understandings of concept139–41
and definition of678–9
and development of concept:
changes in meaning of words135–6
contemporary interest in138–9
decline of interest in (19th/20th century)136–7
in Eastern Europe138
English contractarian school134
Global Civil Society movement139
Hegelian/Marxist view of135
identification with government and state134–5
Kant's view of135
late-twentieth century revival137–8
in mid-twentieth century137
post-Roman Europe133
Rome132–3
seventeenth-century Europe133–4
as sphere of voluntary cooperation136
usage of the term678–80
and diversity of meanings131–2, 139–41
and growth of676–7
and international nongovernmental organizations677–8
distinction between678
and rediscovery of concept132, 677–8 see also international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs)
class:
and inclusion-and-exclusion172–3
and social policy392
and United Kingdom714
cleavage management, and bicameralism491
climate change, and American federalism246
coalitions:
and executive-legislative relations355–6
and minority inclusion169–71
and multiparty systems561–2, 571–2, 582
coercion, and statehood112, 113
cognitive networks84
cohesion, and network analysis79
collective action:
and historical institutionalism42
and international economic institutions (IEIs)658
and international security institutions646–7
and rational choice institutionalism28
cooperation31–2
free-riding30
political entrepreneurs31
selective benefits30–1
unstructured institutions30–2
and thinking institutionally742
collective responsibility, and parliamentary government326, 330, 332, 708
collective security systems (CSS):
and international security institutions639–40
and United Nations618, 621
collectivism:
and failures of711
and representation of diversity436–40
Columbia492
Commonwealth616
communitarianism713
Comparative States Election Studies (CSES)568
comparative studies755–6
and capitalism151
and executives in parliamentary government337–9
and formal-legal analysis95
competitive selection, and institutional change11
complexity:
and network institutionalism76, 81
and reflexive regulation hypothesis148–9
(p. 786) compliance, and international economic institutions (IEIs)660
concept stretching, and urban regime analysis510
Concert of Europe615
conflict:
and constitutional regime type230
and institutions14
conflict design, and institutional change11
consensual democracy, compared with majoritarian democracy336–7
consequences, and institutions9
conservative welfare states388
consociationalism756
constitutional courts, and evolution of747
constitutional monarchy217
constitutional patriotism, and European Union9–10
constitutions:
and Afghanistan437–9
and consequences of regime type226, 232
democracy duration229–31
executive-legislative relations361–2
government formation227
policy performance228–9
and constitutional engineering748
and definition of191, 217
and deliberative democracy704–5
and electoral rules:
micromega's rule223
multimember districts221–2
political parties222–3
promotion of candidate voting222
proportional representation222
single-member districts222
and evolution of745–6
and federalism:
difficulties in amending269–70
written268–9
and formal-legal analysis95
and future research:
comparative constitutional analysis210
constitutional interpretation211
democratic theory211
interethnic cooperation211
nonjudicial actors212
roles of legal actors211–12
and interaction with political institutions191–2
and interpretation of192, 202–3
federalism271
judicial review193, 203–4, 207–10
judiciary203–10
and Iraq436–7
and judicial review193, 270–1
and liberal constitution703, 717
and objectives of191
and party government, United Kingdom707–9
and separation of powers217
checks-and-balances regimes219
constitutional monarchy217
dual formula for217
parliamentary regimes217–18
presidentialism220
semi-presidentialism220–1
and social rights200–2
and status and functions of193–4
and typologies of223
five-fold schema225–6
geographical distribution363
majoritarian/consensus224
parliamentary350, 351
presidential350–1
role of political parties224–5
semi-presidentialism351–2, 363–4
unified/divided government224–5
presidentialism; semi-presidentialism; United States Constitution
constrained choice, and judicial decision-making523
constructivist institutionalism:
and actors' conduct63–4, 65
perceptions of interests68–9
(p. 787)
and analytical and ontological distinctiveness of63–5
and emergence of56–7
and epistemological status of71
and ideas65
in times of crisis70–1
and institutional change64–5
and interests:
actors' conduct68–9
in times of crisis69–70
and materialism71
and origins of57–63
concern with institutional disequilibrium57–60
historical institutionalism60–3, 66
and paradigm shifts67–8
and path dependency64–5
and shortcomings of71–2
and theoretical status of71
and view of institutions64 see also new institutionalism
consultancy culture, economic institutions, and interpretive turn157–8
contextualism6
“Contract with America”381
contracts, and transaction-cost economics34
contractualism, and economic institutions157
Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty644
conventions, and constitutions707–9, 710
convergence, and two-party system703, 707, 711–12
conversion, and policy change403
cooperation, and collective action31–2
Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM)639
coordination:
and approaches to373
and bargaining374
and electoral systems587
and executives in parliamentary government330–1
and international economic institutions (IEIs)658, 659–60
and international security institutions644–5
and liberal constitution703, 717
and networks82
and public bureaucracies372–5
and role of government427
as twin-headed task372–3
core executive approach, and executives in parliamentary government326–7, 338–9
corporatization:
and regulation410, 418–19
and tax collection424–5
Costa Rica444–5
counterattack hypothesis, and inclusion-and-exclusion165
African-Americans177–82
creative advance698–9
crises, and institutional theories753–4
critical junctures:
and institutional change12
and paradigm shifts67–8
critical theory734
critical thinking736
cultural community, and interpretation of politics4
culture, as tool of analysis702
cumulative voting587
cycling, and legislative decisiveness446
decentralization, and nonfederal states757
decision-making:
and bureaucrats370–1
and judiciary517–18
attitudinal model of518–20
impact of institutions525
impact of process on policymaking541–4
influence of interest groups525
legal model of520–3
popular accountability525, 540–1
strategic model of523–6
and legislatures435 (p. 788)
agenda control447–8
bottlenecks446
cycling446
information/expertise building442–4
role of political parties446
transparency440–2
and politics724
and thinking institutionally740–1
decommodification, and social policy392
degreeism, and urban regime analysis510
delegates, and representatives as463–4
deliberation:
and bicameralism489–90
and legislatures434, 440–2
deliberative democracy440, 704–5
democracy:
and competitive elections559–60
and definition of597
and duration of, impact of constitutional regime229–31
and economic institutions155–8
constrained by156–7
consultancy culture157–8
contractualism157
control of155–6
executive agencies157
and elections597
and institutional design12
and institutional requirements for166
and political parties557, 563, 574–5, 581 see also direct democracy
Denmark459, 478
and local governance500
deregulation, and failure of411
design, institutional10
and agency149
economic institutions153–4
and democracy12
and institutional change11
and institutionalization728–9
and international economic institutions (IEIs)660
and redundancy theory, bicameralism484–6
and trade institutions666–7
developing countries:
and international organizations625–6
regulatory regionalism626–7
and public bureaucracies383
and trade liberalization664
developmental states126
diffuse reciprocity, and multilateralism618
diffuse support, and legitimacy527
diffusionism753
direct democracy:
and criticisms of597–8, 600
responses to598–9
undesirable consequences608–9
and definition of601
and federal systems606
and increase in608
and literature of610–11
and mediated voting600–2, 609
and policy areas covered by607–8
and policy outcomes608
and political parties599–600, 609
impact on602–4
and procedures of:
initiatives604–6
referendums604–6
and representative democracy599–600
individual/package policy voting609–10
and requirement of601
and varieties of600–2
discourse theory100
and the state123–4
discretion:
and bureaucrats370
and judicial decision-making520–1
discursive institutionalism, see constructivist institutionalism
dispute resolution, and trade institutions665–6
distributional institutions580
diversity:
and institutional change15
and representation in legislature434, 436–40 (p. 789)
bicameralism481, 485
divided government470–1
division of powers, see separation of powers
dominant groups, and inclusion-and-exclusion172–3
DONGOs679
drift, and policy change403–4
dual citizenship, and federalism264
dual state thesis288
Duverger's Law:
and electoral systems579–80, 581–4
and political parties580
Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)396
East African Common Market623
East Asian capitalism152
and regulatory regionalism626–7
East India Company419
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)626
economic institutions158
and capitalism150–4
Anglo-Saxon capitalism152
comparative studies151
East Asian capitalism152
institutional differentiation152
institutional fatalism154
Rhineland capitalism152
role of agency153–4
and democratic government155–8
as constraint on capitalism156–7
consultancy culture157–8
contractualism157
control of economic institutions155–6
executive agencies157
and economic regulation147–51
globalization150
institutional design149
national styles hypothesis147–8
reflexive regulation hypothesis148–9
regulatory state149
state's role152
and institutionalism145–7
distinction from organizations146
feedback146
institutional choice146
lock-in146
meaning of institutions146
new institutionalism146
old institutionalism145–6
role of firms146–7
and interaction with political institutions144–5
and lock-in146, 148, 149
and path dependency146, 148, 149
and political significance of144–5
and principal-agent problems159 see also international economic institutions (IEIs); trade institutions
economic performance, and constitution type228–9
economic regulation147–51
and globalization150
and institutional design149
and national styles hypothesis147–8
and reflexive regulation hypothesis148–9
and regulatory state149
and state's role152
economics:
and definition of institutions723, 725
and institutionalization726
efficient institutions580
elections:
and competitive elections559–60
and constitutional rules:
impact on democracy duration230
impact on government formation227
impact on policy performance228–9
micromega's rule223
multimember districts221–2
political parties222–3
promotion of candidate voting222
proportional representation222
single-member districts222
and democracy597
and inclusion-and-exclusion:
at-large vs. single member districts167
descriptive and substantive representation168–9
(p. 790)
inclusion and coalition-building169–71
proportional representation169
run-off elections167
and reelection rates444
home styles465–6
and retrospective voting566 see also electoral systems; proportional representation
electoral college, and United States Constitution198
electoral systems:
and Afghanistan437–9
and changing584–5
electoral law591–2
obstacles to588
reasons for589–91
role of popular pressure590
role of self-interest590–1
role of values589
uncertainty over impact of586–8
uncertainty over party numbers585
uncertainty over voter preferences586
and coordination problems587
as distributional institution580–1
and Duverger's Law579–80, 581–4
and electoral thresholds584
and functions of579
and future research593–4
and governability582, 583
and importance of choice of580
and Iraq436–7
and political parties581
choices by584
and representation583, 589–90
and stability of584–5, 593
and voter/representative relationship581 see also elections; proportional representation
electorate, and structured institutions28, 29–30
elites:
and institutional change45–8, 164
and institutional pluralism311–12
enforcement problems:
and international financial institutions670–1
and trade institutions662, 664–5
entrapment, and inclusion-and-exclusion165
epiphenomenalism, and Marxist approaches to the state116
equality, and liberalism697
equilibrium patterns:
and interpretation of institutions25–6
and unstructured institutions28
equivalence, and network analysis79
Ethiopia266
ethnic cleansing183
ethnicity:
and descriptive and substantive representation168
and electoral coalition-building169–71
and federalism265
and inclusion-and-exclusion165
African-Americans177–82
and welfare state389–91 see also inclusion-and-exclusion
ethnography104
European Coal and Steel Community623
European Court of Human Rights552
European Court of Justice552, 624–5
European Defence Community623
European Parliament448, 471
European Union616
and creation of common identities9–10
and democratic legitimacy625, 628, 630
and federalism256–7
and governance systems624–5
as integrated organization616–17
and legal powers of618
as multifunctional organization617, 623–4
and regulation426
and sovereignty pooling619–20, 625
exchange relationships, and networks77
executive agencies, and economic institutions157
(p. 791) executives:
and American presidency, quantitative research on304–5
assessing success of presidents313
budget proposals313–14
centralization of presidential authority309–11
criticism of lack of303–4
data limitations319
enhanced quality of308–9
increase in308, 317–18
influence on Congress314–15
institutional constraints318–19
lack of theoretical basis318
policy influence314–17
public appeals311–14
publication trends in305–8, 317
unilateral powers315–17
and executive-legislative relations346
bicameralism481–2
checks on power435–6, 448–51
hierarchical346–50
impact of regime type361–2
information asymmetry443
origins of systems of363
oversight364
parliamentary democracies350, 351, 352–6
presidential democracies350–1, 356–8
semi-presidentialism351–2, 359–60
theoretical considerations347–50
transactional346–50
and growth in power of52–3
in parliamentary government:
accountability331–4
civil service accountability332–3
collective responsibility326, 330, 332
comparative analysis337–9
consequences of institutional differences336–7
core executive approach to326–7, 338–9
definition of325
executive coordination330–1
government overload334–5
limitations of literature on324–5, 328
ministerial responsibility332
modernist-empiricist/behavioral approach326
network accountability333–4
plurality of policy advice335
politicization of civil service335–6
presidentialization of prime ministers328–30, 483
rational choice institutionalism approach to327, 338
reasons for studying340
traditions340
veto players339–40
Westminster approach to325–6
expertise, and development in legislatures434–5, 442–4
impact of tenure444–5
exploitation, and institutional change13
exploration, and institutional change13
export control agreements639
expulsion, and exclusion183
extermination, and exclusion183
Fabianism101
failed states128
Falkland Islands conflict (1982)647
Federal Communications Commission (USA)417
Federal Elections Bill (USA, 1890)179
Federal Reserve Bank411
Federal Trade Commission (USA)417
federalism276, 757
American:
and absence of state representation244–5
and balance of power250–1
and centralized federalism246, 247
and comparative studies256–7
and competitive federalism246, 247, 757
and complexity of255–6
and conflict of territorial/functional politics240, 242, 244, 256
and constitutional dimension241
(p. 792)
and diverse views of240
and diversity/uniformity debates245–6
and federal monies252
and federal regulation252–3
and implementation of federal policy240
and inclusion-and-exclusion181–2
and intergovernmental lobbying241, 243–4, 254–5
and intergovernmental management249, 250
and intergovernmental relations249–50, 256, 274
and interventionist state246
and national-state relations240–1
and policy centralization250–1, 256
and public policy247–8, 256
and reduced policy diversity240
and Republican Party248
and role of states243
and small government246
and state/local government competition242
and subnational governments239, 241
and tax policy250–1
and territorial politics242–4
and United States Constitution195–7
as association of associations264
and bicameral legislatures272–3, 478, 479
and characteristics of263
and comparative256–7
and constitutions:
difficulties in amending269–70
written268–9
and definition of263–4
and direct democracy606
and dual citizenship264
and ethnic diversity265
and favorable contemporary environment for262–3
and federal countries266–7
and fiscal policy250–1, 274–5
and future development of276–7
and globalization262, 276
and government size274, 276
and institutions of267–8
and intergovernmental relations273–6
and judicial review270–1
and liberal pluralism265, 266
and multiple allegiances264–5
and policy innovation275–6
and post-sovereignty world262–3
and redundancy theory485
and reelection rates444
and renewed interest in261
and secessionist pressures265
and spread of261–2
and territory size265–6
Federalist Papers598
and bicameralism487–9
Federalist Society687
feedback, and institutions146
feminism121–3 see also gender
filibusters, and US Senate461
firms:
and economic regulation147–51
national styles hypothesis147–8
reflexive regulation hypothesis148–9
state's role152
and significance of146–7
fiscal policy:
and center-periphery relationships288–9
and corporatization, impact on tax-collection424–5
and federalism250–1, 274–5
and welfare state395–6
floor votes, and legislative transparency441–2
Food and Drug Administration (USA)417
force, and proscription of639
Forest and Marine Stewardship Councils427
formal-legal analysis91, 94–7, 102–3
and constitutions95
and nature of approach of95
comparative studies95
(p. 793)
historical95–6
inductive96
and rules94–5
France:
and bicameralism481, 492
and electoral reform591
and immigration186
and local governance503
complexity of499–500
decentralization reforms500
and multiparty system582
and political science traditions96
and semi-presidentialism220–1
and territorial politics286, 295
Francophonie616
Frankfurt School, and the state116
freedom, and modernity696–8
free-riding, and collective action30–1
functionalism6, 753
game forms, and rational choice institutionalism24–5
games31–2 see also prisoners' dilemma
gender:
and Afghan electoral system438
and descriptive and substantive representation168
and inclusion-and-exclusion165
status of women173–7
and Iraqi electoral system437
and the state121–2
and welfare state391–2 see also inclusion-and-exclusion
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)616 see also World Trade Organization
geography, and territorial politics282
Germany:
and bicameralism272, 481, 492
and Bundestag459–60, 463, 469
and constitutional interpretation271
and federalism261, 262, 263, 266
constitutional arrangements268
constitutional rigidity269, 270
fiscal policy275
territorial politics244–5
and legislative review450
and local governance501, 504
and political science traditions96
and the state756
Global Civil Society movement139, 140
global governance614, 618, 620
and limits to627–8
and nongovernmental organizations685, 686–7
and sovereignty625 see also international political institutions
globalization:
and civil society140
and critics of686
and economic regulation150
and federalism262, 276
and institutional fatalism154
and international nongovernmental organizations686–7
and international organizations614
and regional organizations624, 626
and regulatory regionalism626–7
and the state126
and United Nations621
glocalization262
GONGOs679–80
governability, and electoral systems582, 583
governance:
and global governance614, 618, 620
limits to627–8
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)685, 686–7
sovereignty625
and public bureaucracies383, 384
and regulation409–10
and the state127–8
and territorial politics292–4 see also local governance
government overload334–5
governmentality120
Greece266
Greenpeace517, 675
group theory700–2
(p. 794) Hague conferences (1899, 1907)615
Harare Declaration (1991)616
hegemony, and statehood113
heresy697
hierarchy:
and bureaucracy373, 383
and executive-legislative relations346–50
parliamentary democracies352–6
presidential democracies356–8
and inequality696
and networks77–8
historical efficiency, and institutions11
historical institutionalism751
and agency questions43–4
approaches to44
and analytical narratives34–5
and central assumption of39
and collective action42
and concerns of42
and constructivist institutionalism60–3, 66
and disequilibrium dynamics61
and distinctiveness of61–2
and epistemology of41–3
and executive power52–3
and historical analysis of institutions39–40
and ideas42, 66–7
and institutional change754–5
elite-centered approaches45–8
social movements48–50
and methodology44
and modernization focus of52
and normative focus of42–3
and path dependency39, 43–4
and rational choice institutionalism42, 43
and reemergence of40–1
and state-society interaction50–2
and “undisciplined” nature of44 see also new institutionalism
Holocaust183
“home styles,” and US Congress465–6
House of Lords477
Hudson Bay Company413, 419
Iceland478
idealism97–9, 698
ideas:
and constructivist institutionalism65
and crises70–1
and historical institutionalism42, 66–7
and influence of700
and institutional change41, 68
and institutions103
and interests68–9
and paradigm shifts67–8
and policy paradigms66–7
ideational institutionalism, see constructivist institutionalism
identification:
and institutions8–9
and multiculturalism9–10
identity politics170, 756
ideology, and party identification565
immigration, and inclusion-and-exclusion185–6
inclusion-and-exclusion166
and administrative/judicial decisions164
and African-Americans177–80
federalism181–2
and American federalism181–2
and claims for inclusion:
legal rights182
moral claims182
mutual self-interest182–3
and counterattack hypothesis165
and differences in dealing with171–2
and dominant/subordinate groups172–3
and elections:
at-large vs. single member districts167
descriptive and substantive representation168–9
inclusion and coalition-building169–71
proportional representation169
run-off elections167
and entrapment165
and ethnicity165
welfare state389–91
and exclusion183 (p. 795)
criteria for183–4
disappearance/reduction of184
expulsion183
extermination183
and gender and status of women165, 173–7
and immigration185–6
and institutions163–4
and religion173, 185
income inequality153–4
incrementalism, and institutional change12–13
India:
and constitutional interpretation271
and federalism261, 263, 265, 266, 267
individualism, and representation of diversity436–40
indivisibility, and multilateralism618
Indonesia477
inequality401
and hierarchy of696
INF Treaty646
information:
and bureaucracy371
and development of legislative expertise434–5, 442–4
impact of tenure444–5
initiatives:
and direct democracy604–6
and policy areas covered by607 see also direct democracy
institutional economics, and networks82
institutionalism:
and behavioral revolution5–6
and economic institutions145–7
and international organizations618–19
and liberalism716–17
and order and stability4–5, 8
and processes5
and status of5
and traditions of study90–2
Fabianism101
formal-legal analysis94–7, 102–3
idealism97–9
Islamic98–9
Marxist political economy99–100
modernist-empiricism92–4, 102
post-Marxism100
and varieties of4
and view of institutions4 see also institutions; new institutionalism; thinking institutionally
institutionalization725–6
and characteristics of728
and definition of719
and development of727
in economics726
and external support for729–30
and internal perspective on728–9
in political science726, 727
in sociology726–7
institutions:
and basis for assessing10
and behavioral revolution5–6, 40, 41, 92–3, 718, 733
and breakdown of729
and characteristics of6–7
and definition of3, 51, 146, 163, 719
disciplinary differences722–4, 730–1
in politics724–5, 730
problem of721–2
taken-for-granted nature of720–1
and distinction from organizations146, 613, 637
and distributional580
and diversity of6, 15
and effects of7–10
and efficient580
and endogenous nature of4
and evolution of26–7, 745–8
and evolution of theories of:
behavioral revolution750
historical institutionalism751
institutional approach748–9
institutional crises753–4
national traditions752–3
neo-Marxism751
network approach751
new science of politics750
organizational theory752
(p. 796)
policy approach751
post-behavioralism751
post-war developments750–2
rational choice school752
social concept of749–50
structural functionalism751
systems theory750
transnational diffusion of752–3
and external support for729–30
and ideas103
and insulation of164
and policy8
and political culture702
and political science718
and role of697
and social construction of4
routines; rules; thinking institutionally
instrumentalism6
and Marxist approaches to the state116
interest groups700–2
and impact of proliferation of683–4
and interest group pluralism700–2
and judicial decision-making525
and judicial legitimacy530
and litigation546–7
interests:
and actors' conduct68–9
and crises69–71
intergovernmental organizations615
and nongovernmental organizations685–6 see also international political institutions
intergovernmental relations:
and federalism273–6
American249–50, 256
and governance292
and territorial politics281 see also center-periphery relationships; local governance
International Civil Aviation Organization426
International Criminal Court629, 651, 680
international economic institutions (IEIs)614, 656–7
and international financial institutions668–71
accountability670
autonomy669, 670
delegated authority670
enforcement problems670–1
impact of670–1
moral hazard problem668–9
principal-agent framework668, 669–70
role of668
and nongovernmental organizations685, 686–7
and theoretical approaches to657–61
compliance660
contractual view of658
coordination problems659–60
form and design660–1
multilateralism660
regime analysis658–9
and trade institutions661–7
bargaining problems662–4
dispute resolution665–6
enforcement problems662, 664–5
“escape clauses”666–7
fundamental problems facing662
impact of667
institutional design666–7
regional trading arrangements665–6 see also economic institutions
international financial institutions (IFIs)657, 668–71
and accountability670
and autonomy669, 670
and delegated authority670
and enforcement problems670–1
and impact of670–1
and moral hazard problem668–9
and principal-agent framework668, 669–70
and role of668
(p. 797) International Labour Organization (ILO)617
International Maritime Organization428
International Monetary Fund150, 383, 418, 426, 627, 657, 668
and impact of670–1
and moral hazard problem668–9
and United States669, 670
international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs):
and amorphous nature of675
and civil society677–8
distinction between678
usage of the term678–80
and definition problems678–81
classifications679–80
formal nature of678
and growth of scholarly interest in675–6
and historical development of676–7
and research on significance of681–7
case studies682
critical studies687
cross-disciplinary approaches682–3
democratic sclerosis683–4
future directions of688–9
global economic governance686–7
impact on world affairs683–5
influence on intergovernmental organizations685–6
influence on non-state actors685
sociological theory682
transnational civil society684–5
transnational relations681–2
Yearbook on Global Civil Society687
and size of sector680–1
international political institutions:
and classification of:
degree of integration616–17
function/policy area617
independence of617–18
legal powers617–18
membership scope616
and definition of637
and diminished enthusiasm for629
and durability of627
and future research629–30
and global governance614, 618, 620
limits to627–8
sovereignty625
and historical context615–16
as institutions613
and international economic organizations614
and international security organizations614
and legitimacy622, 625, 628
and multilateralism660
definition of618
future of628, 630–1
and realist context629
and regional organizations622–3
developing countries625–7
European Union623–5
regulatory regionalism626–7
and sociological context629
and the state614
and theoretical approaches to618–20
development of619–20
institutionalism618–19
integrationalist619–20
intergovernmentalist620
as norm brokers619
outcomes619
regime theory618–19
and United Nations621–2
international security institutions (ISIs)614
and definition of636–7
and durability of643–4
and forms of637, 640
contingent rules639–40, 645
inclusive vs. exclusive638
operative rules638–9, 645
and future research:
as dependent variables650–1
effects of650
and legitimacy652
and scholarly work on635–6
and significance of640–1
contemporary tests of theories651–2
(p. 798)
effects of650
neoinstitutional approach644–6
neorealist approach641–4
as organizational tools646–8
social constructivist approach648–50
International Telecommunication Union (ITU)426
International Telegraph Union615
interorganizational analysis, and territorial politics289–92
interpretive turn103–4
and executive politics341
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)45, 46, 417
Iraq:
and invasion of642, 651
and representation in legislature436–7
Ireland492
and judicialization517
and local governance500, 501, 504
iron triangles80–1
Islam, and institutions98–9
Israel, and multiparty system561–2, 582
issue networks80–1
Italy:
and bicameralism480, 492
and electoral system585, 590
and local governance503
and multiparty system582
and party system572
and political science traditions96
Japan269, 447
and bicameralism492
and electoral system585, 590
and local governance502
and MITI153
joint ventures, and networks82
judges, see judiciary
judicial review:
and constitutional interpretation193, 203–4
legitimacy concerns207–10
and evolution of747
and federalism270–1
judiciary:
and constitutional courts, evolution of747
and constitutional interpretation:
doctrinal arguments206
ethical arguments206
historical arguments203–4
judicial supremacy209–10
prudential arguments206–7
structural arguments205–6
textual arguments204–5
and decision-making by517–18
Attitudinal Model518–20
impact of institutions525
impact of process on policy-making541–4
influence of interest groups525
Legal Model520–3
popular accountability525, 540–1
Strategic Model of523–4, 525–6
and democratic accountability531–2
and independence of530–1
and institutional legitimacy526–30
challenges to529–30
as condition for policy-making539, 541
diffuse support527
origins and evolution of528–9
unpopular decisions527–8
and judicial elections532
and judicialization of politics516
Ireland517
Poland517
Russian Federation517
Ukraine516
United States517
and justiciability543
and policy-making538–9
absence of oversight544
conditions for effective539
expanding role in552
framing function of litigants546–7
impact of selection procedures540–1
implementation problems548–51
(p. 799)
legal foundations of547–8
limitations on541–4, 551–2
nature of decision-making process541–4
need for systemic support548–51
role of litigants545–6
types of litigants546
and politicization of516
and selection of judges531, 540–1
and social rights201 see also judicial review; United States Supreme Court
Kyoto Protocol629
labor movements, and state-society interaction51
Latin American Free Trade Area623
law:
and judicial decision-making520–3
and research into532–3 see also judiciary
layering, and policy change403
leadership:
and collective action31
and coordination373
and role of154
and spatial leadership329
League of Nations615, 621
learning, and institutional change11
legislatures:
as arenas6
and behavior of, parliamentary compared to Congressional457–8
and bicameralism and federalism272–3
and checks on majority/executive power435–6, 448–51
and committee appointments444–5
and decision-making435, 445
agenda control447–8, 462
bottlenecks446
cycling446
role of political parties446
and deliberation434, 440–2
and executive-legislative relations346
bicameralism481–2
checks on power435–6, 448–51
hierarchical346–50
impact of regime type361–2
information asymmetry443
origins of systems of363
oversight364
parliamentary democracies350, 351, 352–6
presidential democracies350–1, 356–8
semi-presidentialism351–2, 359–60
theoretical considerations347–50
transactional346–50
and inclusion-and-exclusion, gender and women's status173–7
and information/expertise building434–5, 442–4
impact of tenure444–5
and need for strong451
and partisanship in:
behavioral foundations of463–6
consequences of changes in470–2
explaining changes in466–9
institutional influences on458–62
role theory463–4
and political parties in:
multiparty parliaments571–3
party voting in US Congress568–71
and reelection rates444
home styles465–6
and representation of diversity434
Afghanistan437–9
collectivism vs. individualism436–40
Iraq436–7
and responsibilities of433
and role theory463–4
as transformative institutions6 see also bicameralism
legitimacy:
and democracy duration229–30
and institutions10
and international organizations622, 628
European Union625, 628, 630
and international security institutions652
(p. 800)
and judicial institutions526–30
challenges to529–30
as condition for policy-making539, 541
diffuse support527
origins and evolution of legitimacy528–9
unpopular decisions527–8
and judicial review207–10
liberal constitution703, 717
liberal democracy700
liberal nationalism711–12
and Blair's New Nationalism713–14
and three models of712–13
liberal welfare states388
liberalism:
and inclusive nature of697
and institutionalism716–17
and modernity697–8
liberation movements733–4
libertarianism712–13, 714
litigants, in judicial process545–6
framing function in546–7
types of546
Liverpool509
Lloyd's of London419, 424
lobbying, and American federalism241, 243–4, 254–5
local governance:
and absence of global perspective on512–13
and classification of systems of499–502
complexity and diversity of499–500
concentration on elected institutions500
criteria for500–2
descriptive studies of499
new democracies502
western focus of502
and development of literature on497–8
and explaining differences in503, 505
path dependency503
and identifying trends in503–5
citizen involvement504
local leadership504, 505
move away from local government504
neoliberal influence504
New Public Management504
and informal networks498
and institutions:
attention to497
centrality of497, 512
new institutionalism498, 505–6
old institutionalism497–8
and territorial politics295–6
and urban regimes498
Atlanta507–8
business participation507–9, 511
concept stretching in studying510
conceptualization problems513
definition of506
degreeism in studying510
education reform511–12
European urban regeneration508
misclassification in studying509–10
parochialism in studying508–9
relationships at the core of507
relationships with external actors507
social production of power506–7
lock-in:
and economic regulation148, 149
and institutions146
logical positivism698
logrolling462
London School of Economics687
Luxembourg Income Study (LIS)400–1
Mafia, and thinking institutionally742
majoritarian democracy:
and compared with consensual democracy336–7
and executive-legislative relations355–6
(p. 801) majority rule, and legislative checks on435–6, 448–51
Malaysia:
and constitutional interpretation271
and federalism261, 266
and judicial policy-making551
management consultancy, and expansion of157–8
markets:
and networks82–3
and regulation410–11
and the state144, 145–6
Marxism:
and Marxist political economy99–100
and the state115–17
Massachusetts Bay Company419
media:
and portrayal of legal system545
and presidential public appeals (USA)312
and spatial leadership329
Median Voter Theorem25
Medicaid253
Medicare253
memory, and thinking institutionally741
Mercosur616, 626
Mexico261
and democratic transition559–60
Micronesia266
Militant Tendency509
military reform, and elite-centered approaches46, 47
Millennium Development Goals630
ministerial responsibility, and executives in parliamentary government332
minorities, and inclusion/exclusion:
at-large vs. single member districts167
descriptive and substantive representation168–9
inclusion and coalition-building169–71
proportional representation169
run-off elections167 see also inclusion-and-exclusion
misclassification, and urban regime analysis509–10
Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)639
mixed regimes, and bicameralism487
mobilization, and networks83–4
modernist-empiricism102
and executives in parliamentary government326
and new institutionalism92–4
modernity, and liberalism of696–8
monarchy, and constitutional monarchy217
monetary policy, and elite-centered approaches47
Monopolies Act (UK, 1948)420
Moody's424, 426
moral hazard:
and international financial institutions668–9
and parliamentary democracy327
and principal-agent relationships371
and selectorate preferences29–30
most-favored nation principle663
multicameralism483
multiculturalism, and creation of common identities9–10
multilateralism660
and definition of618
and future of628
and future prospects for630–1 see also international political institutions
mutual obligation, and networks77
Nantes, Edict of134
Napoleonic Code135
narrative, and rational choice institutionalism34–5
Nash Equilibrium25
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People548
National Association of Counties (USA)254
National Conference of State Legislatures (USA)254
National Governors Association (USA)254–5
(p. 802) National League of Cities (USA)254
National Recovery Administration (USA)417
nationalization, and provider state416–17
NATO616
and centralization of activities/resources647
and dependence on United States642
and ideational change within650
and post-Cold War development644, 652
Nebraska, and rejection of bicameralism479
neocorporatism754
neoliberal institutionalism, and international security institutions644–6
neoliberalism:
and local governance504
and regulation411
neo-Marxism751
neorealism, and international security institutions641–4
Netherlands450
and bicameralism492
and electoral system469
and local governance500, 501
network institutionalism16, 75
and advantages of86
and approach of76
criticism of85–6
and meta-principles of:
complexity76
networks as resources/constraints76
relational perspective75–6
variety76
and network analysis78–80
data collection79–80
small world phenomenon79
techniques of78–9
and networks:
cognitive networks84
markets82–3
meaning and nature of76–8
organizations81–2
policy networks80–1
political culture85
political mobilization83–4
social influence85
social movements84
social psychology84–5
networked governance409
networks:
and accountability of333–4
and local governance498
and public bureaucracies377–8 see also network institutionalism
New Deal (USA)417, 706–7
new institutionalism:
and arrival of734
and characteristics of755
and effects of institutions7–10
and features of6–7
and future direction of16–17
and institutional change11–15
and international security institutions644–6
and modernist-empiricism93–4
as reaction against behavioralism92–3
and skepticism about16
institutionalism; rational choice institutionalism; thinking institutionally
New Public Management157–8, 283
and bureaucratic reform378–80
and local governance504
and regulatory capitalism412
New Zealand266, 276–7
and electoral system585, 590
and local governance501
and New Public Management378–80
and rejection of bicameralism478
Nicaragua, and status of women177
Nigeria:
and federalism262
and status of women177
(p. 803) No Child Left Behind Act (USA)245, 248
Non Aligned Movement (NAM)617
nondiscrimination:
and multilateralism618
and trade institutions663
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs):
and civil society139
and international networks84 see also international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs)
norms:
and judicial decision-making522
and unstructured institutions27–8
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)661, 666
Northern Ireland261
and electoral system583
Norway459, 478
Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty644
nursing home industry, and regulation421, 422, 424
old institutionalism, see institutionalism
ombudsman:
and evolution of747
and globalization of institution of426
order:
and institutionalism4–5, 8
and multiculturalism9–10
organic nationalism713
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)424, 657
organization man734
Organization of African Unity (OAU)616
Organization of Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC)626
organization theory8, 752, 755
and networks78
organizations:
and coordination373
and distinction from institutions146, 613, 637
and networks81–2
and politics724–5 see also interorganizational analysis
oversight:
and executive-legislative relations364
and judicial policy-making544
and legislatures448–51
Pakistan266
Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)401
paradigms:
and paradigm shifts67–8
and policy66–7
Paris Club418
parliamentary government:
and bicameralism476, 477, 480
political executive482–3
and cabinets326, 330, 483
and comparison of majoritarian/consensus styles336–7
and definition of325, 350
and evolution of746
and executive-legislative relations347–50, 351, 352–5, 361–2
majoritarian parliamentarism355
transactional parliamentarism355–6
and executives in:
accountability331–4
civil service accountability332–3
collective responsibility326, 330, 332
comparative analysis337–9
core executive approach to326–7, 338–9
executive coordination330–1
government overload334–5
limitations of literature on324–5, 328
ministerial responsibility332
modernist-empiricist or behavioural approach326
network accountability333–4
plurality of policy advice335
politicization of civil service335–6
presidentialization of prime ministers328–30, 483
rational choice institutionalism approach to327, 338
reasons for studying340
(p. 804)
traditions340
veto players339–40
Westminster approach to325–6
and legislative behavior, orderliness of457
and legislative partisanship:
behavioral foundations of463–6
consequences of changes in471–2
explaining changes in469–70
institutional influences on458–62
role theory463–4
parliamentary regimes:
and duration of democracy230
and government formation227
and policy performance228
and separation of powers217–18
and veto players225
parochialism, and urban regime analysis508–9
Parti Quebecois588
participant observation104
participation, and territorial politics283
partisanship:
legislative:
behavioral foundations of463–6
consequences of changes in470–2
explaining changes in466–9
institutional influences on458–62
role theory463–4
and party identification563–8
affect-centered view of564
cognitive-based view of564–5
comparative application of566–7
ideology565
parties as choice/assessment566–8
as property of voters565–6
as “standing decision”565
utility of566
path dependency:
and constructivist institutionalism64–5
and development of local governance503
and economic regulation148, 149
and historical institutionalism43–4
and institutional change12, 39, 146
and policy development402
patriarchy, and the state121–2
Pay As You Earn425
Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery676
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (USA, 1996)253
Peru478–9
pharmaceutical industry, and regulation423–4
pluralism:
and challenge to41–2
individualized312
institutionalized311–12
Poland:
and judicialization517
and local governance502
police:
and police economy413–15
and private security422
policy:
and institutions8
and paradigm shifts67–8
and policy paradigms66–7
policy analysis, and interorganizational analysis291
policy communities81
policy-making:
and agenda control339
and bureaucratic implementation370–1
and judiciary538–9
absence of oversight544
conditions for effective539
expanding role in552
framing function of litigants546–7
impact of selection procedures540–1
implementation problems548–51
legal foundations of547–8
limitations on541–4, 551–2
nature of decision-making process541–4
need for systemic support548–51
role of litigants545–6
types of litigants546
(p. 805)
and parliamentary government:
growth in advisers335
plurality of policy advice335
politicization of civil service335–6
and presidency (USA):
centralization of authority309–11
policy influence314–17
public appeals311–14
policy networks:
and interorganizational analysis291
and network institutionalism80–1
policy performance, and constitution type228–9
policy voting, see direct democracy
political culture:
and concept of702
and networks85
political dynamics, and territorial politics286–8
political entrepreneurs31
political mobilization, and networks83–4
political parties:
and accountability563
multiparty system561–3
two-party system560–1
and classification of constitutions224–5
and competitive elections559–60
and Congressional systems457–8
and democracy557, 563, 574–5, 581
and direct democracy599–600, 609
impact of602–4
and Duverger's Law580, 581–4
and effective number of parties574
and electoral rules222–3
and electoral systems581
changes to585
choice of584
and elite-centered approaches47–8
and evolution of747
and executive-legislative relations355–6
and extremism of activists571, 574
as generators of office-holders574
and government formation227
as institutions558–9
created by political actors558–9
endogenous nature of559
party-as-organization558
party-in-government558
party-in-the-electorate558
in legislatures:
multiparty parliaments571–3
party voting in US Congress568–71
and legislatures, decisiveness446, 447–8
and parliamentary government457–8
and parliamentary regimes218
and partisanship in legislatures:
behavioral foundations of463–6
consequences of changes in470–2
explaining changes in466–70
institutional influences on458–62
and party government:
role of British constitution707–9
United Kingdom705–6
United States706–7
and party identification563–8
affect-centered view of564
cognitive-based view of564–5
comparative application of566–7
ideology565
parties as choice/assessment566–8
as property of voters565–6
as “standing decision”565
utility of566
and political representation560
and representation563
multiparty system561–2
two-party system560–1
and role of573
and spatial leadership329
in Westminster system326
political science:
and contribution of102
and hard/soft division within755
and institutionalization726, 727
and institutions718
definition of719–22, 724–5, 730
and postmodernism104
and traditions of study: (p. 806)
Fabianism101
formal-legal analysis94–7, 102–3
idealism97–9
Islamic98–9
Marxist political economy99–100
modernist-empiricism92–4, 102
post-Marxism100
politicians, and structured institutions:
behavioral repertoires29
objectives of28–9
payoffs29
selection of28
selectorate preferences29–30
politics:
and decision-making724
and different perspectives on4
popular sovereignty598 see also direct democracy
post-formative change, and historical institutionalism60–1
post-Marxism100
postmodernism104
power:
and bureaucracies as instrument of state369–72
and definition of290
and Foucault's approach to120
and social production model of506–7
power-sharing, and bicameralism477 see also federalism
practices:
and institutions3, 8, 97
and unstructured institutions27–8
precedent:
and judicial decision-making520–1, 522–3
and thinking institutionally739
predatory states126
predictability, and institutionalism4–5, 8
preference change, and international security institutions648–9
presentism, and thinking institutionally741
presidency, American:
and growth in power of710
and quantitative research on304–5
assessing success of presidents313
budget proposals313–14
centralization of presidential authority309–11
criticism of lack of303–4
data limitations319
enhanced quality of308–9
increase in308, 317–18
influence on Congress314–15
institutional constraints318–19
lack of theoretical basis318
policy influence314–17
public appeals311–14
publication trends in305–8, 317
unilateral powers315–17
presidentialism:
and bicameralism480
political executive482–3
and definition of350–1
and duration of democracy230
and executive-legislative relations347–51, 356–8, 361–2
and government formation227
and legislative checks on450–1
and prime ministers328–30
and separation of powers220
and tricameralism483 see also presidency, American; semi-presidentialism
pressure groups700–2 see also interest groups
prime ministers:
and comparative analysis337–9
and core executive approach327
and government overload334–5
and presidentialization of328–30, 483
and rational choice institutionalism327
principal-agent relationships:
and economic institutions159
and international financial institutions668, 669–70
and parliamentary democracy327, 338
and public bureaucracies371, 379
accountability375–6
(p. 807) prison industry, and regulation421–2
prisoners' dilemma:
and cooperation31–2
and international economic institutions (IEIs)662
and international security institutions645
privatization379
and regulatory growth412
processes, and institutionalism5
professions, and thinking institutionally738–9
proportional representation:
and coalitions561–2, 582
and coordination problems587
and duration of democracy230
and electoral rules222
and electoral thresholds584
and executive-legislative relations348
and impact on party numbers581–4
and inclusion-and-exclusion169
and policy performance228
and representation583 see also electoral systems
provider state, and development of regulation416–17
public administration:
and networks82
and territorial politics286
public appeals:
and presidency (USA)311–14
and spatial leadership329
public finance, and development of state control of418–19
public good, and collective action30
public opinion:
and legislative behavior464–5
and presidential public appeals (USA)311–14
and spatial leadership329
public policy, and judicial policy-making538–9
absence of oversight544
conditions for effective539
expanding role of552
framing function of litigants546–7
impact of selection procedures540–1
implementation problems548–51
legal foundations of547–8
limitations on541–4, 551–2
nature of decision-making process541–4
need for systemic support548–51
role of litigants545–6
types of litigants546
Quakers, and slavery178–9
QUANGOs679
Quebec265, 271
and direct democracy606
and electoral system588
race, and welfare state389–91 see also ethnicity
railroad regulation39
and elite-centered approaches46
Raison d'e'tat120
ratings agencies, and regulatory capitalism424
rational actors, and interpretation of politics4
rational choice institutionalism24, 752
and analytical foundations of32–3
and analytical narratives34–5
and behavioral economics33–4
and bicameralism485
and bounded rationality33
and criticism of35
and executives in parliamentary government327, 338
and historical institutionalism42, 43
and international security institutions642
and interpretation of institutions:
as constraints24–5
as equilibrium25–6
focal view25–6
as game form24–5
as macrosociological practices26–7
and structured institutions27, 28–30 (p. 808)
clarity of outcomes29
payoffs29
politician behavioral repertoires29
politician objectives28–9
politician selection28
selectorate preferences29–30
and transaction-cost economics34
and unstructured institutions27–8
collective action30–2 see also new institutionalism
rational choice theory:
and contribution of23
and judicial decision-making523–4
reciprocity:
and networks77
and trade institutions663
reductionism6
redundancy theory:
and bicameralism484–6
and federalism485
referendums:
and direct democracy604–6
and policy areas covered by607 see also direct democracy
reflexive regulation hypothesis, and economic regulation148–9
regime theory:
and international economic institutions (IEIs)658–9
and international organizations618–19
regimes, and definition of506
regionalism/regionalization:
and international organizations616, 622–3
developing countries625–7
European Union623–5
regulatory regionalism626–7
and the state126
and territorial politics283
and trade institutions665–6
regulation:
and audit society412, 426
and Chicago School approach410–11
and corporatization410
and development of:
continuities in428
globalization of mega-corporate capitalism419–21
impact of428–9
impact of corporatization418–19
impact of securitization418–19
nineteenth-century415–16
non-state regulators423–4
police economy413–15
provider state416–17
role of mega-corporations421–4
tax collection424–5
and failure of deregulation411
and governance409–10
and privatization412
and regionalism626–7
and regulatory capitalism410, 412
business size416
corporate regulation of states426–7
created by mega-corporations421–4
impact on tax-collection424–5
research agendas427–8
separation of powers426–7
and regulatory state149
rise of411–13
and regulatory studies410–11
reinventing government381, 412
relationships, and network institutionalism75–8
relative gains, and international security institutions642, 643, 648
religion:
and civil society140
and inclusion-and-exclusion173, 185
and international nongovernmental organizations676–7
representation:
and descriptive and substantive representation168–9
and diversity of:
bicameralism480, 481, 485
in legislatures434, 436–40
and electoral system583, 589–90
(p. 809)
and legislatures434
collectivism vs. individualism436–40
and political parties560, 563
multiparty system561–2
two-party system560–1
representative democracy, and direct democracy599–600
individual/package policy voting609–10
Republican Governors Association (USA)255
Republican party, and federalism248
resources, and institutions3
Responsible Care, and regulation of chemical industry423–4
Restrictive Trade Practices Act (UK, 1956)420
retrenchment, and welfare state397–400
retrospective voting566
revisionism, and post-war British politics704–5
Rhineland capitalism152
risk management, and regulatory capitalism423–4
rogue states128
role theory:
and judicial decision-making522
and legislatures463–4
Rome, and civil society concept132–3
routines:
and institutional change13
and institutions8
Royal Institute of Public Administration335–6
rules:
as actor-given25–6
as exogenous constraints24–5
and formal-legal analysis94–5
and institutional change13
and institutions3, 7, 8, 9
and international security institutions:
contingent rules639–40, 645
neoinstitutional view of644–6
operative rules638–9, 645
and politics724–5
Russia445
and elections572
and judicialization517
Rwanda183
San Francisco590
Scotland261, 263, 479
Seattle protests (1999)675, 686
Securities and Exchange Commission (USA)417
securitization, and regulation418–19
security industry422
segregation, and United States Supreme Court549
selectorate, and structured institutions28, 29–30
self-binding, and multilateralism618
semi-presidentialism:
and bicameralism480–1
and core executive approach338–9
and evolution of746
and executive-legislative relations351–2, 359–60
and separation of powers220–1
and variants of363–4 see also presidency, American; presidentialism
separation of powers:
and constitutional types217
checks- and balances regimes219
constitutional monarchy217
dual formula for217
parliamentary regimes217–18
presidentialism220
semi-presidentialism220–1
and executive–legislative relations347
and federalism268–9
and regulatory capitalism426–7
and United States Constitution195, 196, 197
Sherman Act (USA)420
single member simple plurality electoral system:
and big-party bias of583
(p. 810)
and impact on party numbers581
single nontransferable vote electoral system, and Afghanistan437–8
single transferable vote electoral system583, 587
single-actor design, and institutional change11
skepticism699
slavery:
and African-Americans177–9
and international nongovernmental organizations676–7
and United States Constitution194–5
small business, and regulation416, 421, 423
small world phenomenon, and network analysis79
Social Accountability International427–8
social capital:
and networks84
and transnational civil society684
social constructivism, and international security institutions648–50
social democratic welfare states388
social engineering, and Fabianism101
social influence, and networks85
social liberalism713
and Blair's New Nationalism713–14
and United States715–16
social movements675
and institutional change48–50
and networks84
and public creation of558–9
and United States Constitution199–200
and women's movement176
social network analysis78–80 see also network institutionalism
social psychology, and networks84–5
social rights, and constitutions200–2
social science102–3
and definitions of institution722–4, 730–1
social union698–9
Société des Amis des Noirs676
Société Général de Surveillance428
society:
and growth of interest in concept136
and the state129 see also civil society
Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade676
sociology:
and definition of institutions723–4
and institutionalization726
solidarity:
and race and the welfare states389–91
and thinking institutionally739
South Africa:
and electoral system583
and federalism262, 266, 276
South African Constitutional Court201
Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference (SADCC)626
sovereignty:
and global governance625
and international organizations615
and pooling in European Union619–20, 625
Soviet Union677
Spain:
and bicameralism492
and constitutional interpretation271
and federalism261, 266, 267, 276
and local governance504
and political science traditions96–7
spatial leadership329
St Kitts and Nevis266
stability:
and bicameralism485, 486
balanced government487–90
and institutionalism4–5, 8
Standard and Poors424, 426
standards, and thinking institutionally738–9
state, the:
and bureaucracies as instrument of power369–72
(p. 811)
and contingency of128
and definitions of111–14
difficulties in111–12
hegemony113
monopoly over coercion112
as social relation113–14
territorialization of authority113
and discourse theory123–4
stateless state theory123
and failed states128
and feminist approaches to121–3
and Foucault's approach to120–1
criticism of121
and international organizations614
and international security institutions:
neoinstitutional view of644–6
neorealist view of641–4
as organizational tools646–8
social constructivist view of648–50
and markets144, 145–6
and Marxist approaches to115–17
and Marxist political economy99–100
and origins of114–15
and research on125–6
future of nation state126–7
governance127–8
scales of politics127
state forms and functions127
state strength126
stateness126
and rogue states128
and society129
and state formation114–15
and state-centered theories117–19
criticism of119–20
state autonomy118–19
themes of118
and strategic-relational approach124–5
and strategic-relational context128–9
state theories, and territorial politics288–9
strategic alliances, and networks82
strategic behavior, and judicial decision-making523–4, 525–6
strategic planning, and New Public Management379
strategic-relational analysis, and the state124–5, 128–9
street-level bureaucrats370
structural functionalism718, 751
structure, and agency99–100
structured institutions, and rational choice institutionalism27, 28–30
clarity of outcomes29
payoffs29
politician behavioral repertoires29
politician objectives28–9
politician selection28
selectorate preferences29–30
structures of meaning, and institutions3
subgovernments, and policy networks80–1
subgroups, and network analysis78–9
subordinate groups, and inclusion-and-exclusion172–3
support, and institutionalization729–30
supranational institutions, and territorial politics284
survival, and thinking institutionally740
sustainability, and thinking institutionally740
Sustainable Agriculture Network428
Sweden269
and electoral system469
and local governance500
and rejection of bicameralism478
and welfare state394
Switzerland:
and bicameralism273, 492
and constitutional amendment269–70
and constitutional interpretation271
and direct democracy603, 605, 606, 610
and federalism261, 265, 266
constitutional arrangements268
systems theory750
Taiwan427
and democratic transition559–60
tax policy, see fiscal policy
tenure:
and development of expertise444–5
(p. 812)
and reelection rates444
home styles465–6
territorial politics:
and American federalism242–4, 256
absence of state representation244–5
and approaches to:
diversity of285–6
governance292–4
interorganizational analysis289–92
political dynamics286–8
state theories288–9
and center–periphery relationships281, 285, 287–8
and centralization287
and contemporary issues282–3
and cross-territorial issues283–4
and fiscal policy288–9
and geography282
and German federalism244–5
and governmental authority281–2
as independent domain284–5
and intergovernmental relations281
and national context295–7
and participation283
and regionalism283
and supranational developments284
territoriality, and statehood113
terrorism651
Thailand427
theory, and role of102–3
thinking institutionally735
and adaptability737
and consequences of735
is not critical thinking736
and dangers of absence of742–3
and diffusing value738
and infusing value737–9
and institutional context of735–6
and internalization of norms736
and negative aspects of742
and precedent739
and receiving737
and significance of740–3
cultivation of belonging/common life741–2
political decision-making740–1
protection against presentism741
sustainability and survival740
and standards738–9
as thinking737
and time739–40
Third Way711, 716
time:
and institutionalization726–7, 728
and thinking institutionally739–40
toleration, and civil society134
totalitarianism699, 757
trade institutions661–7
and dispute resolution665–6
and “escape clauses”666–7
and fundamental problems facing662
bargaining problems662–4
enforcement problems662, 664–5
and impact of667
and institutional design666–7
and regional trading agreement665–6
trade unions:
and control of155
in United States417
traditions:
and constructed nature of91
and coordination373
and executive politics340
transaction, and executive–legislative relations346–50
parliamentary democracies352–6
presidential democracies356–8
transaction-cost economics, and rational choice institutionalism34
transnational advocacy networks84, 683 see also international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs)
transparency:
and international security institutions646
and legislative deliberation434, 440–2
and New Public Management379
(p. 813) Trial Lawyers Association530
tricameralism483
trust, and international organizations618
trustees, and representatives as463–4
Ukraine, and judicialization516
uncertainty:
and electoral system change:
impact of586–8
party numbers585
voter preferences586
and international security institutions:
neoinstitutional view of645–6
neorealist view of641–2
and paradigm shifts67–8
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (USA, 1995)253
unicameralism478–9
unilateral powers, and presidency (USA)315–17
Union Carbide423
Union of International Associations681
United Kingdom266, 269
and bicameralism492
and constitution of707–9
and devolution261, 263
and economic regulation148
and local governance500–1, 503, 504
and New Public Management378–80
and party government705–6
role of constitution707–9
and political science traditions:
formal-legal analysis96
idealism97–8
modernist-empiricism93–4
and politicization of civil service335–6
and pressure groups701–2
and regulation, growth of412
and territorial politics286, 295 see also parliamentary government
United Nations502
and challenges facing622
and creation of615
General Assembly647
as international political organization621–2
and legal powers of618
and legitimacy628
as multifunctional organization617
and nongovernmental organizations685
and peacekeeping644, 652
and reform of629–30
Security Council644, 646, 647
and United States622, 630
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)421, 617
United New Netherland Company419
United States:
and bureaucratic reform380–2
and divided government470–1
and economic regulation148
impact on global150
and executive power, growth of52–3
and inclusion-and-exclusion:
African-Americans177–82
federalism181–2
immigration185–6
and integration715–16
and International Monetary Fund669, 670
and international security institutions651–2
and local governance501, 502
regimes of507–8
and party government706–7
and political science traditions:
formal-legal analysis96
modernist-empiricism93
and regulation:
antitrust laws419–20
early twentieth-century development of417
globalization of mega-corporate capitalism419–21
growth of411–12
as solitary superpower651
and territorial politics286
and United Nations622, 630
(p. 814)
and welfare state:
business393–5
distribution of benefits396–7
gender391–2
race389–91
retrenchment398–9
spending on396
United States Chamber of Commerce530
United States Conference of Mayors254
United States Congress:
and African-Americans178–80
and bicameralism477
diversity of representation481
and committee system461–2
and disorderliness of457
and divided government470–1
and filibusters461
and functional structure of242, 243, 254
and “home styles”465–6
and legislative partisanship:
behavioral foundations of463–6
consequences of changes in470–2
explaining changes in466–8
institutional influences on458–62
role theory463–4
and party system560
party voting568–71
and presidential budget proposals313–14
and procedures of460–1
and seniority27, 461
and stalemate486
United States Constitution:
and antidemocratic provisions194
and bicameralism272
and checks and balances219
and Commerce Clause196–7
and development of709–10
and difficulty in changing193, 270
and implementation of founding bargains194
slavery194–5
states' rights194
and interpretation of202, 271
doctrinal arguments206
ethical arguments206
historical arguments203–4
judicial supremacy209–10
legitimacy of change effected by207–10
prudential arguments206–7
structural arguments205–6
Supreme Court192, 196–7
textual arguments204–5
and judicial review193
and limitations on government power:
channeling of political protest199–200
individual rights198–9
and religion173
and social rights200–2
and states' rights241
and structuring exercise of power:
electoral processes198
federalism195–7
judicial appointments197–8
separation of powers195, 196, 197 see also federalism; United States Supreme Court
United States House of Representatives:
and partisanship in459
and political parties466–8
and procedures of460, 466–7
and structural reforms of466–7 see also United States Congress
United States Senate:
and filibusters461
and partisanship in468
and procedures of461
(p. 815)
and representation in243
and senatorial courtesy27
and tenure460
and United States Constitution194 see also United States Congress
United States Supreme Court:
and Ashwander vs. Tennessee Valley Authority (1936)542
and Bolling vs. Sharpe (1954)206
and Brown vs. Board of Education (1954)206, 549
and Bush vs. Gore (2001)517, 528, 529
and constitutional interpretation192, 271, 709
doctrinal arguments206
ethical arguments206
federalism196–7
historical arguments203–4
judicial supremacy209–10
legitimacy of change effected by207–10
prudential arguments206–7
separation of powers197
structural arguments205–6
textual arguments204–5
and decision-making by542–3
Attitudinal Model of518–20
influence of interest groups525
Legal Model of520–3
Strategic Model of523–4
and Dred Scott vs. Sandford (1857)548
and Goldwater vs. Carter (1979)207
and Immigration and Naturalization Service vs. Chadha (1983)550
and influences on50
and institutional legitimacy528, 529
and Lochner vs. New York (1905)548
and Marbury vs. Madison (1803)204, 747
and Miranda vs. Arizona (1966)542, 549–50
and Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania vs. Casey528
and policy-making538–9, 709
conditions for effective539
implementation problems548–50
nature of decision-making process542–3
and Republican Party of Minnesota vs. White (2002)529
and Roe vs. Wade (1973)206, 548
Universal Postal Union416, 615
unstructured institutions:
and rational choice institutionalism27–8
collective action30–2
urban regeneration, and local governance regimes508
urban regimes498
and Atlanta507–8
and business participation507–9, 511
and conceptualization problems513
and definition of506
and education reform511–12
and errors in study of:
concept stretching510
degreeism510
misclassification509–10
parochialism508–9
and European urban regeneration508
and relationships within:
at core of507
core-external actors507
and social production of power506–7
utilitarianism6
values, and thinking institutionally737–9
Venezuela261, 267
veto players:
and classification of constitutions225
and role of339–40
Vienna, Congress of (1815)615
virtue715
voluntary organizations, and historical institutionalism49–50
Voting Rights Act (USA, 1965)177, 468
Wales261, 263
Warsaw Pact677
(p. 816) Washington Naval Treaty (1923)642
Weimar Constitution201, 359, 582
welfare state:
and business393–5
and distribution of benefits396–7
as distributive institution389
and gender391–2
and “hidden” welfare state395–7
and indirect policies396
as institution of modern politics388
and policy change402–3
conversion403
drift403–4
failure to adapt to new risks404
institutional obstacles to404
layering403
and policy outcomes400–2
Luxembourg Income Study (LIS)400–1
panel studies of income dynamics401–2
and private benefits396
and public spending programs395, 400
and race389–91
and research on:
challenges facing399–400
diversity of388–9
growth of387–8
progress of389
and resilience of398
and retrenchment of397–400
and solidarity389
and tax policy395–6
and typology of388
Westminster system:
and parliamentary government325–6
and presidentialization of prime ministers328–30 see also parliamentary government
Westphalia, Treaties of (1648)113
women, see feminism; gender
World Bank150, 383, 426, 627, 657, 668
and nongovernmental organizations685
and United States670
World Health Organization424, 617
World Social Forum678
World Trade Organization426, 616, 657, 661
and bargaining problem662–4
and dispute resolution665
and enforcement problems664–5
and impact of667
and legal powers of618
world-polity institutionalism682
Yugoslavia, and federalism265, 266