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date: 25 January 2020

Subject Index

Subject Index

abortion, and values disputes 273
Abt Associates 816
Abu Ghraib prison 508
accommodative policy analysis 191, 192
accountability 182–3
and democratic deficits 671–2
and democratic policy process
participatory reform 680–1
use of participatory forums 679–80
and globalization 588–9
and independent agencies 662
and networks 439–40, 486
and New Public Management 459–60
and nuclear systems analysis 798
and representative democracy 9
accounting identities, and constraints on public policy:
budget balance constraint 530–3
external balance constraint 533–4
national income 534
accretion effect, and regulatory policy 361
action:
and institutions of democratic governance 691
and policy studies 6
and reconciling logics of 701–5
and rules of appropriateness 689, 690, 692–6
dynamics of 696–700
activities, and origins of policy:
club regulation 222
non‐decisions 220–1
street‐level bureaucrats 221–2
actor‐centered institutionalism, and policy networks 431–2
actor‐structure problem 254
administration, and politics 61
administrative discretion 63 see also discretion
Administrative Dispute Resolution Act (USA, 1996) 290
administrative law, and reason giving 7
Administrative Procedure Act (USA) 235, 679
Adoption and Children Act (UK, 2002) 211
adverse selection, and information asymmetry 630
advice, see policy advice
advocacy coalitions:
and beliefs 255–6, 374
and explaining change 436–7
and human rights protection 13
and issue networks 428
and learning 373–4
and momentum 347
as ordering device 256
and policy‐making 24
running out ideas 25
agency:
and learning 380–1
and power 547
agency losses:
and information asymmetry 631
and organizational structure 639
agenda setting:
and control over the agenda 229–32
congressional committees 230–1
European Commission 231–2
importance of 230
McKelvey‐Schofield ‘chaos theorem’ 229–30
and democratic theory 232
control of independent agencies 235–6
government by discussion 233–4
independent agency discretion 236–8
regulatory state 234–8
(p. 937)
role of elected officials 234
and executive dominance 209, 217, 223–4
and factors affecting process of:
chance 216–17
character of policy area 216
issue attention cycle 216
skill of policy activist/entrepreneur 215–16, 217
in globalization era 241–2
diminished democracy thesis 242–5
enabling potential of constraints 245–7
exogenous influences 247–9
and interest groups 234
and issue expansion 346
and learning 367
and methodological deficit 228
and non‐decisions 220–1, 232
and origins of policy 208–9
and party government 217–18
and policy processes 849
and prioritizing 238–41
and selective retention 347–8, 358
agonism, and sources of critical standards 197
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (USA) 308, 860, 865–6
Aide à Toute Détresse 399
air pollution, and Gary (Indiana) 558–9
airline deregulation 348–9
Alaskan National Wildlife Reserve 881
Alberta Environmental Appeals Board 291
alcohol abuse 346
Alliance for the Mentally Ill 399
alternative medicine, and growth of 23–4
ambiguity:
and policy ends 391–2
and ‘veil of vagueness’ 395 see also ambivalence, and policy‐making
ambivalence, and policy‐making 262–5
and Cuban Missile Crisis 252–3
influence of interpretive schemata 253–4
and dealing with 251–2
and definition of 252
and ordering devices 252, 254, 255
beliefs 255–6
discourse analysis 261–2
frames 256–9
narrative analysis 260–1
and understanding 252–3
American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) 550
American Farm Bureau 560
American Petroleum Institute v OSHA (USA, 1978) 239
American Political Science Association 62
American Society for Public Administration 62
American Society of Association Executives 550
AmericaSpeaks 675, 678
Americorps 182
Anglo‐Governance School 435–6
Anglo‐Persian Oil Company 879
anthropocentrism, and ethical questions 724–5
Anti Social Behavior Act (UK, 2003) 218
Anti Social Behavior Orders (ASBOs, UK) 217–18
anti‐globalization protest 749
appeasement 903
appreciative system, and learning 382
appropriateness, and behavior 689
and action 690
reconciling logics of 701–5
and identity/role 690
and institutions of democratic governance 691–2
and legitimacy 692
and rules of 689
in action 692–6
dynamics of 696–700
arbitrariness, and nuclear systems analysis 791–3
architecture, and modalities of control 658
Argentina, and debt crisis 539
argumentative policy evaluation 326–8, 330
argumentative turn:
and network management 440–1
and policy studies 6–7
Asian crisis (1998) 538–9
asset sales, and privatization 532
(p. 938) assignment problem 496
Association for Conflict Resolution (ACR) 288
Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) 66
assumptive worlds 893
assured destruction, and nuclear strategy 779
asylum seekers 899–900
Australia:
and exchange rate policy 538
and income inequality 304
and income redistribution 301, 303
and New Public Management 451, 457
Australian National Competition Policy (NCP) 662
authenticity, and democracy 172, 178
authoritarianism, and government as steering 15
authority, and government 894–5
automobile industry, and collaborative governance 513–14
autonomy, and learning 381
balance of payments, and constraints on public policy 533–4
balance of power, and oscillating processes 341–2
balanced budget, and constraints on public policy 530–3
bandwagons, and momentum 347
Bangladesh 723, 724
Barber case (ECJ, 1990) 246
bargaining:
and policy studies 7–9
and power relations 548 see also hard bargaining; negotiation
behavior, and reconciling logics of action 701–5 see also action; appropriateness
Belgium, and income inequality 304
beliefs:
and advocacy coalitions 255–6, 374
and frames 258–9
and organization of belief systems 374
and values disputes 272–4
benchmarking:
and accountability 183
and learning 381
and Open Method of Coordination 19, 248
benefit, inequality of, and ethical questions 717–20
benefit‐cost analysis, see cost‐benefit analysis
Benelux countries, and income redistribution 301
Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA):
and consensus building 280, 282
and hard bargaining 279 see also negotiation
Bilka case (ECJ, 1986) 246
blaming, and evaluation of policy 322
bluffing, and hard bargaining 278
borrowing, and origins of policy 214
Boston, and Ten Point Coalition 117–19
boundary objects 417
bounded rationality 382
Brazil, and popular participation 680–1
Bretton Woods system 536, 538
bricoleur 377 n15
British East India Company 500
British Telecom 532
Brookings Institution 44
Brown v Board of Education (US Supreme Court) 390 n1
budgeting, and training in grand policy 98
Bureau of Reclamation (USA), and Orme Dam dispute 109, 116–17
bureaucracy:
and administrative delegation 679–80
and democracy 180
and illusion of central control 18
and independent agencies 235
and resolution of complex problems 199
and ‘soft bureaucracy’ 13 see also civil service; independent agencies; street‐level bureaucrats
California, University of, and Graduate School of Public Policy 64
Canada, and income redistribution 301
(p. 939) capital markets, and financial market integration 599–600
capital mobility:
and foreign direct investment 597–8
and globalization 589–90
and ‘impossible trinity’ of policy choices 537–8
capital punishment 898
Carnegie‐Mellon University, and School of Urban and Public Affairs 64
casuistry, and conflicting policy ends 110, 396
categorization 576–7
Central Park Conservancy 511, 518
Central Policy Review Staff (UK) 156, 163–4, 165
centralization:
and central control 14, 17–18
fiction of 18
and government as steering 15
and indicative planning 18
Centre for Management and Policy Studies (UK) 159, 164
ceremony, and critical listening 142
chance, and role in agenda‐setting 216–17
change, see policy change; dynamics
chaos theory 229–30, 354–5
and self‐organizing systems 355
Chicago, and community policing 682
Chicago school 574–6
child abuse 27
child welfare:
and ethical questions 714, 718–19, 720
and family failure 634–5
and unattainable objectives 393–4
and United Kingdom 899, 900
China, and energy policy 723, 724, 874, 888
choice, and policy‐making 296–7 see also public choice
Chrysler 514
Citizen Juries 674–5
Citizen's Charter (UK) 159
citizenship:
and appropriateness 692
and democracy 172
and public policy 169
creation of dis/advantaged populations 179
democracy gap 179–80
democratic deficits 671–3
impact of messages delivered by 178
impact on citizen identity 179
New Deal's construction of dual citizenship 178–9
open public forums 174, 177–8
Civil Aeronautics Board (USA) 237
civil recovery 220
civil rights movement 25, 46, 345
civil service:
and administrative discretion 63
and central role of 372
and United Kingdom:
change from generalists to managers 158–60
departmental point of view 165–6
duty to give advice 161
impact of decline of the generalist 160–1
and United States:
administrative discretion 63
civil society:
and concern over vitality of 171
and cooperation 625
and failures of voluntary cooperation 634–6
and impact of public policy 180
class:
and beneficiaries of social spending 618–19
and institutional constraints 560–1
classification:
and dealing with ambivalence 253
and public policy 902
Clean Air Act Amendments (USA, 1990) 844–5
Clean Air Act (USA, 1977) 349 n14
clientelism, and patronage relationships 680–1
climate change:
and ethical questions 717–20
(p. 940)
and simulation and policy design 353–4
club regulation, and origins of policy 222
Coalition for American Financial Security 869
coalitional theory 655–6
coercion, and government action 624
cognition 254
and learning 382–3
coherence:
and assembling jigsaw puzzles 115–16
and dealing with problematic ends 395
and resolving conflicting ends 113–15
Boston's Ten Point Coalition 117–19
Orme Dam dispute 117
co‐invention, and critical listening 134–5
collaborative governance:
and analytical requirements for 521–2
and characteristics of:
discretion 509–10
diversity of participants 509
duration of 509
focus of 509
formality 509
stability of 509
and definition of 496, 508–9
and discretion 514–15
allocation of 497
payoff discretion 516–17
preference discretion 517–18
production discretion 515–16
and Empowered Participatory Governance 681–2
and examples of:
federal worker training programs 513
management‐based regulation 511–12
New York City's Parks Department 511
program for new generation of vehicles 513–14
smallpox vaccinations 512–13
and government orchestration of 521
and growth of 497, 522
and maximization of benefits of 518–20
and related literatures, survey of:
corporate alliances/strategic partnerships 499
economics 499
legal scholarship 498
political science 497–8
public management 499–500
and skills required for 522 see also New Public Management; public‐private interaction
collusion, and values disputes 273
Columbia University, and Institute of Public Administration 62
co‐management 854–5
command, and limits of 5, 12
command‐and‐control:
and fiction of central control 18
and indicative planning 18
and policy‐making 17–18
and shortcomings of 14
commensurability problem 755–61
and health care 756–7
aggregation 757
preference establishment 759–60
quality‐adjusted life year (QALY) 758–61
utility of life 757–8
commodification 762
Common Cause 24
common law, and selective retention 358
common property resources, and market failure 628–9
commons, tragedy of the 600–1, 629
communication:
and declining cost of 536
and diffusion 370
and learning 378–9, 383
and policy research methodology 840–1
and policy studies 6
and translation 383
communicative rationality 196, 197–8
communitarianism, and sources of critical standards 196–7
communities of practice, and learning 378 see also networks; policy network analysis
(p. 941) community charge (UK) 154, 157, 212, 896
community policing 636
and Chicago 682
comparative studies 214–15, 905–7
and impact of policy 314
and welfare policy 615
comparison, and learning 384–5
compensating feedback 352 see also feedback loops
compensation:
and contingent valuation (CV) 752
and future impact of policy 711–13
and Kaldor‐Hicks compensation principle 733–4
complex systems 352
and agent‐based models 352–3
and chaos theory 354–5
self‐organizing systems 355
and compensating feedback 352
and simulation and policy design 353–4
complexity:
and training in grand policy 98–9
and Weberian approach to 199
compliance, and policy processes 851–2
computer modeling 360
and policy design 353–4 see also policy modeling
concepts, and usefulness of 362
conflict:
and policy analysis 251
congressional committees, and agenda control 230–1
consensus building (mutual‐gains approach) 269–70, 279–80
and anticipating implementation problems 282–3
and cultural context 283
and momentum 347
and organizational learning 270
and policy shifts 270
and preparation 280
and process of 284
agreeing to procedures 285
Conflict Assessment 285
convening 284–5, 396–7
decision‐making 286
deliberation 285–6
implementation 286
and psychological traps 283
in public arena:
barriers to implementation 290–1
low take‐up of 290
need for assessment of 291
overcoming obstacles to use of 291–2
and role of professional neutrals 288–90
and social experimentation 815
and value creation 280–2
and value distribution 282 see also negotiation
consequentialism 701, 703
and politics 691
conspicuous waste 632
constituency creation, and policy reform 349
constraints on policy‐making 21–4, 155
and allocation of scarce resources 529–30
and beneficial potential of 245–7
changed conditions 23, 26
and economic constraints 530
budget balance constraint 530–3
budget/current account deficit 534–5
crowding out 535
external balance constraint 533–4
trade‐offs 539–41
twin deficits hypothesis 534
and globalization 535–9, 587–8
capital flows 535–6
changes in sentiment 538–9
convergence 590–1
decline in accountability 588–9
diminution of nation state 590
environmental degradation 600–1
financial market integration 599–600
foreign direct investment 597–8
‘impossible trinity’ of policy choices 537–8
internalization of capital's preferences 589–90
privatization of public policy 588
trade integration 596–7
Washington Consensus 536–7
ideas 22
(p. 942)
and institutional constraints 557
administrative procedures 564
class divisions 560–1
Economic Development Administration (USA) 564–5
impact of policy studies on institutionalist theory 558–61
impact of previous policies 559–60
independent agencies 562
interest groups 558–9
juridical democracy 562–3
neocorporatism 561
political bias 560
political procedures 562
polity's structure 561
state 559
typologies of political systems 565–7
veto players theory 567
veto points 567
interest groups 23–4
and social and cultural factors:
bureaucratic agents 580–1
categorization 576–7, 582
Chicago school tradition 574–6
cultural differences 577–8
cultural notions 572–3
cultural variety 573, 576–81
direct observation of behavior 582–4
general laws 576
impact of simple policy 578–9
insider/outsider observation 573
language 582
prior experiences 578
selectorate‐sensitive politicians 579–80
solutions looking for problems 22–3 see also path dependency; political feasibility
constructivism, and learning 379
consumer choice theory 753
consumer surplus 735
contestation, and meaning 195
contingent valuation (CV) 751–2
and criticism of 752–4
contracting‐out 14–15, 16, 181–2
contracts, and regulatory regimes 654
control:
and central control 14, 17–18
and loss of 14
and networks 485–6
and New Public Management 15, 453–4
weakening of political control 458–9
and organizational control 471
and public‐private interaction 507
and regulatory regimes 657–8
convening:
and consensus building 284–5
and dealing with problematic ends 396–7
convergence:
and globalization 590–1
and learning 369
conversation, and persuasion 269 see also dialogue and argumentation
conviction, ethics of 401
cooperation:
and civil society 625
and implementation 485
and inadequate voluntary cooperation 638–9
and markets 625
and practice 413–15
coordination:
and joined‐up government 460–2
and networks 440
corporatism 429
corporatist welfare regimes 612
cost‐analysis 541, 736–41
and cost feasibility analysis (CFB) 736, 738
and cost utility analysis (CUA) 736, 738–9, 766
and cost‐effectiveness analysis (CEA) 736, 766–7
and decision‐making 737
cost‐benefit analysis 541, 739–41
and commensurability problem 755–61
aggregation 757
health care 756–7
preference establishment 759–60
quality‐adjusted life year (QALY) 758–61
(p. 943)
utilitarianism 758–9
utility of life 757–8
and contested nature of 747
and diminishing marginal utility 735
and economism 750
and intrinsic value problem 761–5, 767
ordinal incomparability 763–4
value of human beings 762–3
and marginal analysis 735–6
and measurement of efficiency 747
and scope of 750
and valuation problem:
contingent valuation (CV) 751–2
criticism of contingent valuation (CV) 752–4
environmental regulation 750–2, 755
hedonic pricing 751
marginalism 755
opportunity cost 751
travel cost method 751
and willingness to pay (WTP) 734–6
criticism of 752 see also cost‐analysis; economic valuation
Council of Economic Advisors (USA) 44
creaming 399, 402
creativity, and training in grand policy 84–5
credibility, and nuclear strategy 777
credible commitment, and regulatory agencies 661
crime:
as divisive policy issue 170
and evaluation of penal policy 322
and framing of issues 176–7
Crime and Disorder Act (UK, 1998) 217
criminal justice:
and community policing 636
and diversion strategies 399–400
criminology, and new policy ideas 22
crisis:
and decision‐making 11
and training in grand policy 96–7
critical communications theory 196
critical listening, and learning 124, 125
and learning about interviewer's influence:
discovery 136–7
emotional responsiveness 135
humility 136–7
relationship building 135–6
and learning about relationships:
co‐invention 134–5
distrust 134
priorities 134
recognition needs 133–4
learning about the other:
identity 132–3
information 132
local knowledge 133
preferences 132
values 132
and obstacles to:
fear of loss of control 141
fearful interviewees 138
impatience 140–1
lack of sensitivity 140
non‐verbal signals 137
posturing 141–2
presumptions 139–40
theoretical frameworks 139
use of language 137–8
and strategies for successful:
avoiding rush to interpretation 144
awareness of context 144–5
drawing out details 144
drawing out positive suggestions 146–7
emotional responsiveness 143
humor 147
looking beyond words 142–3
physical activity 148
political sensitivity 145
practical rationality 148
pre‐brief and de‐brief 148
taking small steps 146
use of ceremony and ritual 142
critical policy analysis, see critique, and policy analysis
critical policy studies movement 6
and deliberative turn 9
critical theory, see critique, and policy analysis
critique, and policy analysis 190
and accommodative policy analysis 191
and concerns of 193
and curriculum design for 201
and deliberation 198
(p. 944)
and democracy 198–9
and explication of meaning:
discourse analysis 195
interpretive policy analysis 194
narrative analysis 194–5
and institutions 198
and linguistic turn 193–4
and networked governance 199–200
and origins of policy sciences 192–3
and policy processes 197–8
and politics of 191–2
and sources of critical standards 195–7
agonistic approach to 197
communicative rationality 196
communitarianism 196–7
hands‐off approach to 197
and tasks for the analyst 200–1
and teaching of 201
and techniques of 201
and technocratic policy analysis 190–1
‘crony capitalism’ 538
cross‐national policy studies 214–15, 905–7
and welfare policy 615
crowding out, and budget/current account deficits 535
cruise missiles, and solutions looking for problems 22–3
Cuban Missile Crisis:
and dealing with ambivalence 252–3
and influence of interpretive schemata 253–4
cultural notions:
and Chicago school tradition 574–6
and constraints on public policy 572–3
and cultural variety 576–81
bureaucratic agents 580–1
categorization 576–7, 582
cultural differences 577–8
direct observation of behavior 582–4
failure of simple policy 578–9
language 582
prior experiences 578
selectorate‐sensitive politicians 579–80
cybernetics:
and conceptions of control 657
and policy instruments 471
cycling, and conflicting policy ends 110, 396
damage expectancy, and nuclear systems analysis 783
dark networks 442
day‐to‐day operations, and policy‐making 153–4
decentralization 18–19, 171
and decentralized coordination 414–15
and democracy 181
and policy sciences 50
and policy studies 52–3
decision‐making:
and ambiguity 391–2
and co‐management 855
and consensus building 286
and cost‐analysis 736–41
and crisis 11
and democracies 683
and judgement 157–8
and Kennedy on 228
and localism 9
and networked governance 11–13
and non‐decisions 220–1, 232, 558
and operations research 774
and path dependency 642–3
and policy processes 850
and power inequalities 558
and routine/grand policy division in 80–1
and social experimentation 812, 817–18
and systems analysis 774
and technocratic policy analysis 191
deck stacking 236
decommodification, and welfare state 859, 860
Defense, Department of (USA):
and development of policy sciences 42–3
and Programmed Planning and Budget System (PPBS) 43, 64
and Vietnam War 44–5
deficits, and constraints on public policy 534–5
Defrenne case (ECJ, 1976) 246
(p. 945) degenerative politics 171
delegation:
and electoral accountability 679–80
and regulatory agencies 661
deliberation:
and critical policy analysis 198
and ends 116
and participation, conflict with 395–6
deliberative democracy 9, 52, 669–70, 840
and accountability:
participatory reform 680–1
use of participatory forums 679–80
and definition of 674
and Empowered Participatory Governance 681–2
and gauging public opinion 677–9
and preference formation 673–6
Citizen Juries 674–5
Deliberative Polling 674–5
neighborhood associations 675–6
Study Circles 675, 677–8
Twenty First Century Town Meetings 675, 678
Deliberative Polling 674–5
deliberative turn 198
and policy‐making 9–10, 52
Delphi, and Oracle at 40
democracy:
and accountability 9, 182–3
and agenda setting 232
diminished democracy thesis 242–5
government by discussion 233–4
regulatory state 234–8
role of elected officials 234
and authenticity 172, 178
and bureaucracy 180
and citizenship 172
and conditions for 172
open public forums 174, 177–8
and critical policy analysis 198–9
and deliberative democracy 9, 52, 669–70
accountability 679–81
Citizen Juries 674–5
definition of 674
Deliberative Polling 674–5
gauging public opinion 677–9
neighborhood associations 675–6
preference formation 673–6
Study Circles 675, 677–8
Twenty First Century Town Meetings 675, 678
and democratic deficits 671–3
and direct democracy 178, 669–70
and expansive democracy 50
and framing of issues:
crime 176–7
Superfund legislation 175–6
water policy 174–5
and franchise 172, 178
and government as steering 15
and institutions of 691–2
and juridical democracy 562–3
and networked governance 11–13
and policy analysis 169–70
and policy sciences 40, 52, 53
and policy‐making 8–9, 487
impact of national traditions 10
and practice 419–21
and public policy:
contemporary context for 170–1
impact on citizen identity 178–9
impact on democracy gap 179–80
relationship between 171–3
service delivery 180–1
and reconciling logics of action 701–5
and scope 172
and typologies of 565–6
democratic deficits:
and overcoming:
accountability 679–81
alternative problem‐solving capacity 681–2
communicative reauthorization 676–9
preference formation 673–6
and policy process 671–3
deregulation 859
and origins of policy 213–14
and United States 656
design, see policy design
deterrence:
and arbitrary assumptions of 791–2
and nuclear strategy 777
devolution 171, 181
(p. 946) dialogue and argumentation 270
and discussion 270–1
and getting people to listen 271
and joint fact‐finding 276
and reaching new understandings 271
and rhetorical methods and persuasion 274–5
and structuring the conversation 271–2
and use of evidence 275–6
and values disputes 272–4 see also negotiation
differentiation, and policy‐making 233
diffusion:
and centre‐periphery model 370
and communication 370
and innovation 370–1
and learning 369–71
diminished democracy thesis 242–5
diminishing marginal utility 735
direct democracy 178, 669–70
Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse (DOTS) 215
disability benefits, and renaming unemployment problem 397–8
discounting, and future impact of policy 710–11
discourse:
and framing of issues:
crime 176–7
Superfund legislation 175–6
water policy 174–5
and open public forums 174, 177–8
and public policy 169
discourse analysis 195
and governmentality 261–2
as ordering device 261–2
discourses 6
and social networks 50
discovery, and critical listening 136–7
discretion:
and administrative discretion 63
and collaborative governance 497, 509–10, 514–15
maximizing benefits of 518–20
payoff discretion 516–17
preference discretion 517–18
production discretion 515–16
and implementation 484
and independent agencies 236–8
and street‐level bureaucrats 484
discussion:
and dialogue 270–1
and government by 233–4
dispute resolution, see negotiation
distributional effects 607, 609
and taxation 620
distributive responsibility 392–3
distrust, and critical listening 134
diversion strategies, and offloading 399–400
dominance, and framing of issues 258–9
domination, and power 547–8
Duke University, and Institute of Policy Science and Public Affairs 64
dynamic conservatism 473
dynamics:
and event cascades 359
and filtering 358–9
and future research in 359–60
phases/stages 361–3
policy as its own cause 360–1
and negative feedback processes 341
balance of power 341–2
elections and parties 343–4
monopolistic equilibria 345
oscillating processes 341–5
punctuated equilibria 346
reform cycles 344–5
regulatory agencies 342–3
and positive feedback processes 346
chaos theory 354–5
compensating feedback 352
complex systems 352–4
interjurisdictional learning 351
momentum 346–7
path dependency and policy options 348–50
selective retention 347–8
self‐organizing systems 355
sequencing 356–7
system‐wide learning 350–1
trial‐and‐error learning 350–1
and selective retention 358
and systems:
definition of 338–9
(p. 947)
developments 340–1
emergent properties 340–1
endogenous core 339
exogenous influences 339
feedback loops 339–40
and understanding change 336–7 see also policy change
Earned Income Tax Credit program (USA) 308
Economic Commission for Europe 12–13
Economic Development Administration (USA) 211, 410, 564–5
and origins of policy 212–13
economic development, and sustainability 725–6
economic growth, and inequality 613, 614, 617
economic integration, and diminished democracy thesis 242–5
economic policy, and ethical questions 717–20, 721–2
economic theory of regulation (ETR) 655–6, 662–3
economic valuation:
and commensurability problem 756–61
aggregation 757
health care 756–7
preference establishment 759–60
quality‐adjusted life year (QALY) 758–61
utilitarianism 758–9
utility of life 757–8
and cost‐benefit analysis (CBA) 750
and intrinsic value problem 761–5, 767
ordinal incomparability 763–4
value of human beings 762–3
and valuation problem:
contingent valuation (CV) 751–2
criticism of contingent valuation (CV) 752–4
environmental regulation 750–5
hedonic pricing 751
marginalism 755
opportunity cost 751
travel cost method 751 see also cost‐benefit analysis; evaluation of policy
economics:
and analytical tools of, cost‐analysis 736–41
and conceptual tools of 730–6
consumer surplus 735
diminishing marginal utility 735
efficiency 730–3, 747
Kaldor‐Hicks compensation principles 733–4
marginal analysis 735–6
markets 731–2
Pareto criterion 731–3
public choice 732–3
willingness to pay (WTP) 734–6
and policy analysis 729–30, 741–2
and public policy 729–30
and welfare economics 730–1
assumptions of 730 see also economism
economics, and constraints on public policy 530
and allocation of scarce resources 529–30
and budget balance constraint 530–3
and budget/current account deficits 534–5
and crowding out 535
and external balance constraint 533–4
and globalization 535–9
capital flows 535–6
changes in sentiment 538–9
‘impossible trinity’ of policy choices 537–8
Washington Consensus 536–7
and trade‐offs 539–40
dealing with 540–1
and twin deficits hypothesis 534
economism:
and claims of:
motivation 748
political theory 748
and definition of 746, 750
and economic efficiency 748–9
and public discontent with 749 see also cost‐benefit analysis; economic valuation
(p. 948) ecosystems, and water policy 175
effectiveness, and New Public Management 452–3, 462
efficiency:
and collaborative governance 515–16
and cost‐analysis 737, 739–40
and cost‐benefit analysis (CBA) 747, 749–50
as economics concept 730–3
and economism 748–9
and in/equality 749
and Kaldor‐Hicks compensation principle 733–4
and measurement of 747
and New Public Management 449–50, 452, 462
and public sector 746–7
elections:
and democratic deficits 671–2
and government policy 895–6
and negative feedback processes 343–4
and voting behavior 640–1
elision, and nuclear systems analysis 788–91
elites 574
and system‐wide learning 351
Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (USA, 1986) 183
emergent properties, and systems 340–1
emotional responsiveness, and critical listening 129, 135, 143
employment relationship 16
Empowered Participatory Governance 681–2
ends, see policy ends
energy policy:
and China 723, 724, 874, 888
and coal sequestration 888
and conservation/environmental objectives 880
and energy crisis (1973) 875–6
development of policy sciences 45–6
and ethical questions 721–4, 726
and factors influencing 874
and geopolitics of energy 889
and ‘Hydrogen Economy’ 888
and India 874, 888
and language of crisis 888
and ‘new politics of energy’ 875–6
and oil exhaustion 886–7
and oligarchic energy industries 889
and political science literature on energy 876–7
and public policy 889
and quality of scientific advice 885–6
and Russia 874, 888
and United States 723, 724
allocation of supply 879
assessments of 875–7
conservation/environmental objectives 880
impact of federalism 878
institutions of 877–8
interests 877, 878–9
judiciary 878
military policy 879–80
politics 877
problem of massive legislation 880–2
regulatory decision‐making 882–4
regulatory systems 878
Energy Policy Act (USA, 1992) 881, 884
Energy Policy Act (USA, 2003) 881
enforcement, and regulatory regimes 653–4
Enterprise Zones (EZs), and cross‐national policy borrowing 214
entrepreneurial government 430
environmental degradation, and globalization 600–1
Environmental Protection Agency (USA) 181, 239, 342
and collaborative governance 498
and consensus building 292
and non‐delegation doctrine 396
environmental regulation, and valuation problem 750–2, 755
environmentalism, and critical theory 192
epistemic communities 434
and nuclear systems analysis 774
equal opportunity, and redistribution 610
equal rights, and supranational rules 246
equality 390–1
and efficiency 749
(p. 949)
and ethical questions 714–16, 720
equilibria:
monopolistic 345
punctuated 346
ethics:
and conflict between 401
and fundamental importance of 709–10
and interviews 149
and policy actors 201
and questions of inclusion/exclusion:
anthropocentrism 724–5
climate change 720–4
economic policy 717–20
future impact of policy 710–13, 723
natural world 724–6
no‐harm principle 722
spatial impact of policy 713–16
and social experimentation 825
Ethics in Government Act (USA, 1978) 45
ethnic bias 170
European Commission, and agenda control 231–2
European Community 13
European Community Household Panel 301
European Court of Justice 231, 246
andBarber case (1990) 246
andBilka case (1986) 246
andDefrenne case (1976) 246
European Monetary System 538
European Union 13, 902
and Council of Ministers 231
and diminished democracy thesis 243–4
and Open Method of Coordination 19, 247–8, 381
and tax competition in 261
and transnational networks 434 see also European Commission
evaluation of policy:
and avoiding political manipulation 328
and dealing with political nature of 323–4
argumentative policy evaluation 326–8, 330
evaluation asymmetries 331–2
political dimension of evaluation 330
programmatic mode of assessment 329–30
rationalistic policy evaluation 325–6
and evaluation bodies 320–1
competition between 321
and frame‐reflection 332
and ideal‐typical structure of 320
and maintenance of academic rigor 328
and multiple evaluations 320–1
and New Public Management 455
and political judgement 319–20
and politics of 321–3
blaming 322
issues at stake 322–3
experimentation
event cascades, and dynamic processes 359
‘Everyday Maker’ 438
evidence‐based policy‐making 27, 159
exchange rate policy, and ‘impossible trinity’ of policy choices 537–8
exchange value 754, 761–2
exclusion, and ethical questions:
anthropocentrism 724–5
climate change 720–4
economic policy 717–20
future impact of policy 710–13, 723
natural world 724–6
spatial impact of policy 713–16
executive dominance, and agenda setting 209, 217, 223–4
existence value 754, 761
expansive democracy 50
experiment:
and dealing with problematic ends 395–6
and policy change 375 see also social experimentation
expertise, and competition for 643–4
external cost, and market failure 629
Exxon Valdez 752
failed states 719
family structure:
and impact of income transfer programs 304 (p. 950)
on family care 312–13
and welfare state 862
Family Support Act (USA, 1998) 827
feasibility:
and New Public Management 452–3, 462
and policy‐making 82 see also political feasibility
feasibility analysis 228
Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act (USA, 1996) 348–9
Federal Communications Commission 237
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 883–4
Federal Power Act (USA) 881
Federal Power Commission 878, 883
Federal Trade Commission 236
federalism, and energy policy 878
feedback loops:
and negative feedback processes 341
balance of power 341–2
elections and parties 343–4
monopolistic equilibria 345
oscillating processes 341–5
punctuated equilibria 346
reform cycles 344–5
regulatory agencies 342–3
and positive feedback processes 346
chaos theory 354–5
compensating feedback 352
complex systems 352–4
interjurisdictional learning 351
momentum 346–7
path dependency and policy options 348–50
selective retention 347–8
self‐organizing systems 355
sequencing 356–7
system‐wide learning 350–1
trial‐and‐error learning 350–1
and systems analysis 339–40
feminism, and welfare state development 861–2
feminist movement 25, 192
field trials, see social experimentation
filtering, and dynamic processes 358–9
financial market integration, and globalization 599–600
firewalls, and conflicting policy ends 110
firm, and economic theory of 15–16
employment relationship 16
produce/buy decision 16
fiscal policy, and ‘impossible trinity’ of policy choices 537–8
Fishery Conservation and Management Act (USA, 1976) 848
flexibility, and puzzling 120
Flood Control Act (USA, 1936) 739
Food and Drug Administration (USA) 239, 342, 512
Ford Foundation 64
Ford Motor Company 64, 514
foreign direct investment, and impact of globalization 597–8
foresight, and training in grand policy 88–90
Fourth World Movement 399
frames/framing 397–8
and beliefs 258–9
and conflicting policy ends 110
and definition of 257
and dominance 258–9
and evaluation of policy 332
and intractable controversies 259
as ordering device 256–9
and Orme Dam dispute 116–17
and policy issues 48–9
and policy‐making 26–7
and public policy:
crime 176–7
Superfund legislation 175–6
water policy 174–5
and secondary reframing, problematic ends 397–8
creaming 399, 402
diversion strategies 399–400
idealization 401–3
offloading 399–401, 402
reclassification 400–1
resource scarcity 402
shedding 400
and ways of looking at 257
France:
and income redistribution 301
(p. 951)
and origins of policy 217
and tax system 302
franchise, and democracy 172, 178
Frankfurt School 192
Freedom of Information Act (USA) 235
free‐riders, and market failure 628–30
friends, and learning 378–9
Fulton Committee into the Civil Service (UK, 1968) 159
future:
and alternative 90–2
and assessing policy impact on 710–13, 723
and interventions with historic processes 92–4
and unpredictability of 89–90
fuzzy gambling, and training in grand policy 95–6
games:
and game management 433
and nuclear systems analysis 773
and power dependence 431
Gaming Duty Regulations (UK, 1997) 214
garbage can model:
and policy‐making 22
and problem‐solving 116 n10
garrison state 21, 22, 193
Gary (Indiana), and air pollution 558–9
gender inequality 170
general laws 576
General Motors 514
Germany:
and income redistribution 301
and origins of policy 217
and tax system 302
GI Bill (USA) 46
Gini coefficient 301
and cross‐country comparisons 615
and United Kingdom 749
and United States 749
global warming 156
globalization 27, 193
and agenda setting in era of 241–2
diminished democracy thesis 242–5
enabling potential of constraints 245–7
exogenous influences 247–9
and anti‐globalization protest 749
and constraints on public policy 535–9, 587–8
capital flows 535–6
changes in sentiment 538–9
convergence 590–1
decline in accountability 588–9
diminution of nation state 590
‘impossible trinity’ of policy choices 537–8
internalization of capital's preferences 589–90
privatization of public policy 588
Washington Consensus 536–7
and contested nature of term 602
counterposing notions 593–4
lack of definitional clarity 592–3
trade integration 594–5
underlying assumptions about 593
and global public policy 601, 602
and ideological use of term 196
and impact of 595
environmental degradation 600–1
financial market integration 599–600
foreign direct investment 597–8
trade integration 596–7
welfare states 862
goals:
and evaluation of policy 329–30
and evolution of 117–19
and New Public Management 450
and training in grand policy 82–4 see also policy ends
‘golden rule’, and deficits 535
‘Golden Straightjacket’, see Washington Consensus
governance:
and creation of systems of 846–7
and disagreement over notion of 435–6
and Empowered Participatory Governance 681–2
and government 12
and government as steering 14–15, 381
and joined‐up governance 461
and network management 438–9
devising new tools for 440–1
diffuse accountability 439–40
enhancing coordination 440
(p. 952)
institutional approach 433
instrumental approach 432
interaction approach 432–3
managing the mix 439
and networks 414, 429–30
and policy network analysis:
epistemic communities 434
global governance 435
reality of networks 434
transnational networks 434–5
and public choice 844–5
government not essential 845–6
and reconciling logics of action 701–5
and social setting and provision of 847–8
agenda formation 849
decision processes 850
implementation 850–1
interpretation 852
policy products 848–9
problem of interplay 854–5
problem of scale 853–4
relevant knowledge 849–50
sources of compliance 851–2
and stateless societies 846 see also collaborative governance; networked governance; New Public Management; regulation;
regulatory state
government:
and acceptability of policy 896–7
and Allison's ‘Excellence in Government’ 71–3
and authority of 894–5
and boundaries of 845
and distrust of 170
and effectiveness of 626
and failure of:
competition for technical expertise 643–4
inadequate penetrative capacity 637–8
inadequate voluntary cooperation 638–9
institutional overhead 639–40
path dependence of decision‐making 642–3
voter attention/inattention 640–1
weak administrative culture 644–5
and growth of 17
post‐Reconstruction United States 60–1
postwar United States 62–3, 500–1
and inefficiency 746
and information technology impact:
conventional analysis of 474–8
differences over 473
enthusiasm over 471–3
information gathering 476–7
information‐industrial complex 476
Internet 473–4
limitations of 477–9
politics‐of‐instruments 475–6
scepticism over 473
taxation potential 474
technology‐free approach to 477–8
utopian hopes for 475–6
and joined‐up government 460–2
and learning 368, 371–2
and legitimacy of 894–5
and maintenance of social cohesion 895
and networked governance 11–13
and office seeking/keeping 894–8
and policy advice 154–5
and public choice 845
and reorganization of 162
and rules and conventions 895
and securing re‐election 895–6
as steering 14–15, 381
and subgovernments 427–8
and typologies of political systems 565–7
and unreflective nature of 7 see also civil service; collaborative governance; New Public Management; policy instruments; public‐
private interaction; state intervention
governmentality, and discourse analysis 261–2
grand policy, training of rulers in 80–1
and core curriculum for 81
alternative futures 90–2
basic deliberation schema 99–100
budgeting 98
creativity 85
(p. 953)
crisis coping 96–7
critical mass interventions with historic processes 92–4
dealing with complexity 98–9
foresight 88–90
future orientation 84–5, 92–4
fuzzy gambling 95–6
integration of subjects 100–1
need for holistic view 97–8
political feasibility of policy 82
praxis 101
priority‐setting 94
separating politics and policy 81–2
thinking‐in‐history 86–7
time horizons 85–6
understanding reality 87–8
value clarification and goal setting 82–4
and definition of grand policy 81
and need for 80
and requirements of 101–2
hard bargaining 269, 276–7
and Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA) 279
and bluffing 278
and getting attention 278
and impact of outrageous demands 278–9
and power in 279
and process of 277
in two‐party situations 277
and use of threats 277–8
and Zone of Possible Agreement (ZOPA) 278 see also negotiation
harm:
and ethical questions 717
and infliction of 724
and no‐harm principle 722
Harvard Business School 66
Harvard University:
and Graduate School of Public Administration:
establishment of 66–7
goal of 67
low status of 67
renamed John F Kennedy School of Government 67
and Kennedy's administration 63–4 see also Kennedy School of Government
hazardous waste, and framing of issues 175–6
Head Start program (USA) 180, 809
and evaluation of 326
health care:
and Clinton's health care initiative 553–5
and commensurability problem 755–61
aggregation 757
quality‐adjusted life year (QALY) 758–61
utility of life 757–8
and cross‐national policy studies 905–7
and preference establishment:
rating scale 759–60
standard gamble 760
time trade‐off 760
and United States 348
health insurance, and social experimentation 810, 814, 815, 817, 822, 827
health policy, and interest groups 23–4
hedging, and nuclear systems analysis 794–5
hedonics 625
and pricing 740, 751
Heritage Foundation 866
hierarchy:
and policy development 209, 223
and reconciling logics of action 703
high modernism:
as anachronism 27
and central control 14, 17–18
fiction of 18
and limitations of 4, 6
and limits of instrumental rationality 19–20, 51
and policy‐making 3–4, 8
and sites of governance 10 see also positivism
higher education, and Robbins Report (UK) 385
historical thinking:
and public policy 902–5
and training in grand policy 86–7
critical mass interventions with historic processes 92–4
and virtual history 91
(p. 954) holism, and coherence 114
homosexuality, in armed forces 898
Honda 514
Hong Kong 153
House of Lords reform 901
household formation, and impact of income transfer programs 304
Hubbert thesis, and oil supplies 886–7, 888
human nature, and political feasibility 544–5
human rights:
and advocacy coalitions 13
and future generations 713
and international law 246
humility, and critical listening 136–7
humor, and critical listening 147
idealization, and conflict of ethics of conviction/responsibility 401–2
ideas, and constraints on policy‐making 22
identity:
and critical listening 132–3
and impact of public policy 179
and reconciling logics of action 701–5
and rules of appropriateness 690
in action 692–6
dynamics of 696–700
and values disputes 273–4
identity cards 899, 900
ideology 196, 262
and assumptive worlds 893
and New Public Management 455
immigration, as divisive policy issue 170
Immigration and Naturalization Service (USA) 902
impact of policy 296–7
and methods of assessment:
before and after comparison 298–9
comparative studies 314
cross‐sectional method 299
difference‐in‐difference approach 298
difficulties with 314
holistic approaches 299–300
insufficiency of economic theory 313–14
model‐based evaluation 299
particular studies 299–300
social experiments 297–8
and public income transfer programs 297, 314–15
comparative approach 305–8
impossibility of assessing 304–5
pre‐post taxes and transfers method 300–5 see also evaluation of policy
implausibility, and nuclear systems analysis 793–5
implementation 211, 218
and consensus building 282–3, 286
and Economic Development Administration (EDA) 564–5
and learning 367, 377, 382–3
and organizational analysis 482
bottom‐up approach to 484–5
discretion 484
interorganizational relationships 485
network theory 485–6
synthesized approach to 485
top‐down approach to 483–4
and policy design 482
and policy processes 850–1
and practice 410–11
and street‐level bureaucrats 410–11, 483–4 see also practice
‘impossible trinity’, and economic policy 537–8
incentives:
and compliance with public policies 14
and inequality 617
and New Public Management 450
and tax cuts 535
and welfare policy 315
inclusion, and ethical questions:
anthropocentrism 724–5
climate change 720–4
economic policy 717–20
future impact of policy 710–13, 723
natural world 724–6
spatial impact of policy 713–16
income inequality:
and attitudes towards 617
and efficiency 749
and impact of income transfer programs:
comparative approach 305–8
(p. 955)
pre‐post taxes and transfers method 300–5
United States 308–9
and paradox of redistribution 307, 315, 616
income maintenance:
and social experimentation 810, 814, 817, 827
and welfare policy 608
income transfer programs, see public income transfer programs
increasing returns, and path dependency 349
independent agencies:
and accountability 486, 679–80
and administrative culture 644–5
and agenda setting 234–8
control of agencies 235–6
discretion 236–8
non‐delegation doctrine 236–7
and arguments in favour of 660
and energy policy 877–8
and growth of regulatory state 652
and juridical democracy 562–3
and legitimacy of 661–3
accountability 662
credible commitment 661
delegations to 661
instrumentalism 662–3
tensions around 662
and New Public Management 459
and oscillating processes 342–3
and oversight of 235, 652 see also regulatory regimes
India, and energy policy 874, 888
indicative planning 18
Industrial Union Department (AFL‐CIO) v American Petroleum Institute (USA, 1980) 239–40
industrialization, and convergence 369
inefficiency, and government 746
inequality:
and cross‐country comparisons 615
and economic growth 613, 614, 617
and efficiency 749
and impact of income transfer programs:
comparative approach 305–8
pre‐post taxes and transfers method 301–5
United States 308–9
and incentives 617
and paradox of redistribution 307, 315, 616
and specific egalitarianism 610–11 see also public income transfer programs; redistribution
inflation, and budget balance constraint 531–2
information:
and accountability 183
and asymmetric problems 489–90
market failure 630–1
and critical listening 132
and illusion of full 19
and public‐private interaction 506
and symmetric problems 490
information and communications technology (ICT):
and impact on capital flows 535–6
and impact on government:
differences over 473
enthusiasm over impact of 471–3
information gathering 476–7
information‐industrial complex 476
Internet 473–4
limitations of 477–9
politics‐of‐instruments 475–6
scepticism about 473
taxation potential 474
technology‐free approach to 477–8
utopian hopes for 475–6
and National Performance Review (USA) 472–3
and policy instruments 469, 471–4
institutional tools 474–5
and surveillance technology 472
innovation:
and collaborative governance 513–14
and diffusion 370–1
and diffusion of 214
and public policy 904
Institute of Policy Science and Public Affairs (Duke University) 64
(p. 956) Institute of Public Administration (Columbia University) 62
Institute of Public Policy Studies (University of Michigan) 64
institutional racism 222
institutions:
as constraint on policy‐making 557
administrative procedures 564
class divisions 560–1
Economic Development Administration (USA) 564–5
impact of previous policies 559–60
independent agencies 562
interest groups 558–9
juridical democracy 562–3
neocorporatism 561
political bias 560
political procedures 562
polity's structure 561
state 559
typologies of political systems 565–7
veto players theory 567
veto points 567
and definition of 893
and democratic governance 691–2
and institutionalist theory:
impact of policy studies on 558–61
implication for policy studies 562–5
as policy instruments 470
and public choice 844–5
and reconciling logics of action 701–5
and rules of appropriateness:
in action 692–6
dynamics of 696–700
and social organization level 847–8
agenda formation 849
decision processes 850
implementation 850–1
interpretation 852
policy products 848–9
problem of interplay 854–5
problem of scale 853–4
relevant knowledge 849–50
sources of compliance 851–2
instrument, law of the 51
instrumental rationality:
and criticism of 51
and limits of:
information 19
lack of clarity of ends 20
limited knowledge of means 19–20
resources 19
and puzzling 111, 113, 119
instrumentalism:
and mixed success of 389–90
and politics 691
and value choices 389
instruments, see policy instruments
intelligibility principles 401, 403
interaction:
and learning 380–1
and network management 432–3
interagency collaborative (ICC), and construction of 356–7
interdependence:
and government as steering 381
and learning 381
and policy‐making 233
and social policy 360–1
interest groups:
and agenda setting 234
and causes of growth of 551
and changing composition of 550–1
and Clinton's health care initiative 554
as constraint on policy‐making 23–4
and growth of 550
and impact of 551–2, 558, 818
and issue networks 428
and neocorporatism 561
and political feasibility 549–52
and power 552
and United States:
influence in 863
pension reform 869
interests 893
and coalitional theory 655–6
and economic theory of regulation (ETR) 655–6
and energy policy 877, 878–9
and negotiations 272
and policy networks 427–8
and political feasibility 549–52
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 850
(p. 957) interjurisdictional learning 351
internal markets 14
International Convention on the Regulation of Whaling 848
international law 246
International Monetary Fund 27, 537
international society, and creation of institutional arrangements 847–8
agenda formation 849
decision processes 850
implementation 850–1
interpretation 852
policy products 848–9
problem of interplay 854–5
problem of scale 853–4
relevant knowledge 849–50
sources of compliance 851–2
International Standard Organization (ISO) 657
international trade:
and diminished democracy thesis 244
and regional integration 594–5, 596–7
International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea 852
Internet, and impact of 178, 473–4
interorganizational analysis, and policy networks 428–9
interplay, and policy processes 854–5
interpretation, and policy processes 852
interpretative turn 437
interpretive policy analysis 194
interpretive schemata 253–4 see also frames/framing
Interstate Commerce Act (USA, 1887) 236
Interstate Commerce Commission (USA) 236, 237, 659
interviews, and critical listening:
and conducting successful:
avoiding rush to interpretation 144
awareness of context 144–5
drawing out details 144
drawing out positive suggestions 146–7
emotional responsiveness 143
humor 147
looking beyond words 142–3
physical activity 148
political sensitivity 145
practical rationality 148
pre‐brief and de‐brief 148
taking small steps 146
use of ceremony and ritual 142
and ethics of 149
in everyday practice:
emotional responsiveness 129
encouraging involvement 130–1
recognition of the other 128–9
regard for the other 127–8
relationship building 129–30
and informal approach to 124–5
and learning 125, 131
and learning about interviewer's influence:
discovery 136–7
emotional responsiveness 135
humility 136–7
relationship building 135–6
and learning about relationships:
co‐invention 134–5
distrust 134
priorities 134
recognition needs 133–4
and learning about the other:
identity 132–3
information 132
local knowledge 133
preferences 132
values 132
and obstacles to successful:
fear of loss of control 141
fearful interviewees 138
impatience 140–1
lack of sensitivity 140
non‐verbal signals 137
posturing 141–2
presumptions 139–40
theoretical frameworks 139
use of language 137–8
and planners 124, 125–6
need to understand 126
and role in public policy work 124, 149–50
intrinsic value problem 761–5, 767
and ordinal incomparability 763–4
and value of human beings 762–3 see also economic valuation
(p. 958) Iran‐Contra affair, and investigations into 321
Iranian revolution 875
Iraq War (2003) 903–4
Ireland, and income redistribution 301
‘iron triangle’ 345
and policy networks 427
issue attention cycle 216
issue networks, and policy communities 428
jigsaw puzzles, and assembling 111–13
John F Kennedy School of Government, see Kennedy School of Government
John Hopkins University 62
joined‐up government 460–2
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 66
Journal of Public Affairs Education 66
judgement, and decision‐making 157–8 see also ethics
juridical democracy 562–3
justice:
and intrinsic value 763
and public policy 169
and restorative justice 177
juvenile courts 177
Kaldor‐Hicks compensation principles 733–4
and cost‐analysis 737, 739
Kennedy School of Government
and curriculum development 67–8, 75
Case Program 76
executive programs 69, 75
management of public organizations 68–9
social science content 68
and dealing with hostility to government 77
and establishment of 64
and faculty recruitment 67
criteria for 76
and fundraising 70, 76
and importance of practice 76
and Institute of Politics 67
and management team 77
and mission of 59–60, 70–1
Allison's ‘Excellence in Government’ 71–3
and organizational structure 74
and origins of 66–7
and physical environment 76–7
and problem‐solving research centers 76
and relationship with the market 75
and strategic vision for 73–4
and student recruitment 75
and suspicion of within Harvard 69
Keynesianism 533, 535, 903
knowledge:
and policy processes 849–50
and practice 415–19
institutional settings 416
integration of subjects 416
nature of scientific knowledge 415–16
negotiated knowledge 415–16
problem orientation of 417–18
uncertainty 418–19
wider participation 418
Korea, and impact of policy on 296
Kuna (Idaho), and popular deliberation 677–8
Kyoto Agreement 98–9
labor market:
and impact of income transfer programs 303, 306, 310–12
and welfare state policies 859–60
Laffer curve 535
language:
and critical listening 137–8, 142–3
and cultural variety 582
and frame analysis 256
and linguistic turn 193–4
law, and regulatory use of 653–4
leadership, and trust 356–7
learning:
as active process of making sense 382, 383–4
(p. 959)
and ad hoc nature of 377
and advocacy coalitions 373–4
and agency 380–1
and benchmarking 381
and cognition 382–3
and collaborative nature of 377–9
communities of practice 378
friends 378–9
interaction 380–1
networks of practice 378
and collective learning 411
and communication 378–9, 383
and comparison 384–5
and constraints 245
and convergence 369
and definitional difficulties 367
and diffusion 369–71
and factors shaping 373
and government 368, 371–2
and implementation 367, 377, 382–3
and interaction 411
and models of
mechanistic 379
organic 379
tensions between 379–80
and path dependency 382
and political learning 372
in practice 376–9
lesson‐drawing 376
and pragmatism 383–4
and processes of 367
and public policy 367–8
as collective puzzling 372–3
and social learning 372–3, 374–5
paradigm shifts 375
and systems theory 383
and trial‐and‐error‐learning
interjurisdictional learning 351
system‐wide learning 350–1
and uncertainty 382 see also critical listening, and learning
least‐feasible risk criterion 238–40
least‐restrictive means principle 247
legal studies, and critical theory 192
legislation, and drafting of 219–20
legitimacy:
and appropriateness 692
and political systems 894–5
and public‐private interaction 507
and regulatory regimes 661–3
accountability 662
credible commitment 661
instrumentalism 662–3
tensions around 662
and social experimentation 815
lesson‐drawing, and learning 376
liberal welfare regimes 611, 862, 871
and poverty alleviation 616–17
life, and utility of 757–8
quality‐adjusted life year (QALY) 758–61
linguistic turn, and policy analysis 193–4
‘Listening to the City’ (New York) 678–80
litigation:
and evolution of common law 358
and hard bargaining 269
local government, and United Kingdom 12
local knowledge, and critical listening 133
localism, and decision‐making 10
‘lock‐in’, and path dependency 348–9
long‐term policy analysis (LTPA) 353–4
Lower Manhattan Development Corporation 678–80
Luxembourg Income Study 301
Lyndon B Johnson School of Public Affairs 64
MacPherson Report (UK, 1999) 222
macroeconomic policy, and ‘impossible trinity’ of policy choices 537–8
Malaysia, and Asian crisis (1998) 539
malleability, and policy research methodology 835–8
changing public attitudes 836–7
definition of 835
degrees of 837–8
importance of 835
political feasibility 835–6
management‐based regulation, and collaborative governance 511–12
managerialism, and civil service (UK) 158–60
Manhattan Institute 866
Manpower Development Research Corporation (MDRC) 810, 816, 818, 827
(p. 960) March of Dimes 21, 22
marginalism:
and marginal analysis 735–6
and valuation problem 755
market failure 627–32, 646
and common property resources 628–9
and definition of 625, 627
and departures from optimality 627–32
and economic analysis of 625
and external cost 629
and free‐riders 628–30
and information asymmetry 630–1
and monopoly 627–8
and non‐rival consumption goods 627–8
and signaling behavior 631–2
and state intervention 632 see also government, and failure of
markets:
and accountability 183
and cooperation 625
and politics 8–9
and social welfare 731–2
Marshall Plan 46
Marxism 192, 194
mass politics, and diminished democracy thesis 242–5
mass protest, and momentum dynamics 347
Massachusetts Watershed Initiative 175
Mathematica Policy Research 816
Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs (Syracuse University) 62
McKelvey‐Schofield ‘chaos theorem’ 229–30
meaning, and explication of:
and communication 383
and contestation 195
discourse analysis 195
interpretive policy analysis 194
narrative analysis 194–5
means‐testing 179, 612–13
measures, and origins of policy 211, 218–20
drafting of legislation 219–20
policy as its own cause 212, 218
media:
and agenda setting 234
and issue expansion 346
mediation 270
and role of professional neutrals 288–90 see also negotiation
Medicaid 46, 360, 554, 870
Medicare 46, 360, 490, 554, 870, 896
and reform of 867–8
Medicare Prescription Drug Act (USA) 867
mental models 893
mentally ill:
and Alliance for the Mentally Ill 399
and prisons 398, 400
merit good argument 610
meta‐regulation 664
methodology, and policy research, see policy research, and methodology of
Metropolitan Police 222
Michigan, University of, and Institute of Public Policy Studies 64
Middle East, and energy policy 880
military policy, and energy policy 879–80
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 850
Minnesota, and Neighborhood Revitalization Program 675–6
Minnesota, University of, and School of Public Affairs 64
momentum:
and positive feedback processes 346–7
and revolutions 347
monopolistic equilibria 345
monopoly, and market failure 627–8
moral hazard, and information asymmetry 630
motivation:
and economism 748
and reconciling logics of action 701–5
Mundell‐Fleming theorem 242
mutual gains negotiation, see consensus building (mutual‐gains approach)
Mutual Information System on Social Protection in European Union Member States 305
narrative analysis 194–5
and network management 440–1
as ordering device 260–1
and policy‐making 260
nation state:
and diminished democracy thesis 242–5
and global governance 435
(p. 961)
and globalization 590
National Association of Schools of Public Policy and Administration (NASPAA) 66
National Audit Office (UK) 153, 159
National Center for Research Methodology (NCRM) 760–1
National Conference of State Legislatures 41
National Energy Act (USA) 876
National Environmental Restoration Fund 176
National Health Service 156
and trust 439
national income 534
National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) 760–1
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 346
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) 339
and oscillating processes 342
National Performance Review (USA) 472–3, 475
National Science Foundation (USA) 44
national society, and creation of institutional arrangements 847–8
agenda formation 849
decision processes 850
implementation 850–1
interpretation 852
policy products 848–9
problem of interplay 854–5
problem of scale 853–4
relevant knowledge 849–50
sources of compliance 851–2
Natural Gas Policy Act (USA, 1938) 878, 883
Natural Gas Policy Act (USA, 1978) 881, 883, 887
nature, and ethical questions 724–6
negative income tax 311
Negotiated Rulemaking Act (USA, 1996) 292
negotiation:
and arguing 269
and argumentation/dialogue 270
compared with discussion 270–1
getting people to listen 271
joint fact‐finding 276
reaching new understandings 271
rhetorical methods and persuasion 274–5
structuring the conversation 271–2
use of evidence 275–6
values disputes 272–4
and Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA):
consensus building (mutual‐gains approach) 280, 282
hard bargaining 279
and consensus building 269–70, 279–80
agreeing to procedures 285
application in public arena 290–2
Conflict Assessment 285
convening 284–5, 396–7
decision‐making 286
deliberation 285–6
implementation 286
role of professional neutrals 288–90
and hard bargaining 269, 276–7
bluffing 278
getting attention 278
impact of outrageous demands 278–9
power in 279
process of 277
in two‐party situations 277
use of threats 277–8
and integrative solutions 114 n8
and interests 272
and multi‐party/issue negotiations 270, 283–4
and mutual gains approach:
anticipating implementation problems 282–3
cultural context 283
organizational learning 270
policy shifts 270
preparation 280
psychological traps 283
value creation 280–2
value distribution 282
and public dispute mediation 270
and Zone of Possible Agreement (ZOPA) 278
Neighborhood Revitalization Program (Minnesota) 675–6
(p. 962) neighborhoods:
and failure of 635–6
and neighborhood associations 675–6
neocorporatism 561
neoliberalism:
and New Public Management 449, 455
and welfare state reform 859
Netherlands:
and income inequality 304
and penal policy 322
and poverty 615
networked governance:
and critical policy analysis 199–200
and government as steering 14–15
and policy‐making 11–13
networks:
and accountability 439–40, 486
and diffusion 371
and dispersal of power 200
and economic behavior 413–14
and governance 414
and joined‐up governance 461
and management of:
institutional approach 433
instrumental approach 432
interaction approach 432–3
and network analysis 425
and networks of practice 378
and organizational analysis 485–6 see also issue networks; policy network analysis
New Deal (USA) 178, 345, 554, 559, 659
and independent agencies 236–7
and social security 868
new institutional economics 16, 499
and New Public Management 451
and regulatory policy 661
new institutionalism, and policy networks 431–2
New Labour 153, 213
and Anti‐Social Behaviour Orders (ASBOs) 217–18
New Public Management:
and Australia 451, 457
and bureaucratic politics 454
and control questions 453–4
and cultural norms 455–6
and decontextualized solutions 454
and desirability of 454–6, 462
and economic theory of the firm 15–16
employment relationship 16
produce/buy decision 16
and effectiveness 452–3, 462
and efficiency 449–50, 452, 462
and evaluation processes 455
and feasibility of 452–3, 462
and features of 449–52
borrowing from private sector practices 450
inconsistencies 451–2
neglect of character of public sector/civil service 451
and health care system 756
and ideological war over 455
and impact of 462
accountability problems 459–60
anti‐political tendencies 458
autonomous agencies 459
competitive tendering 456
consumer orientation 457
efficiency 456
increased bureaucracy 456
public goals 457–8
role of administrative leaders 458–9
role of executives 459
service provision 456–7
weakening of political control 458–9
workforce under 457
and joined‐up government 460–2
and monitoring and control 15
and national variations:
cultural/historical context 463
environment for 463
structural/instrumental factors 463–4
and networked governance 199–200
and New Zealand 449–50, 451, 454, 456, 457, 459, 463
and joined‐up government 462
and Norway 458
and origins of policy 213
and past its peak of influence 463
and perspectives on:
antithesis to centralized state 448
as corporate culture 449
(p. 963)
neoliberal ideology 449
‘supermarket state’ 448
and policy sciences 50
and smart policy 449
effects on 456–60
preconditions for 452–6
and smart practice 463
and spread of 351
and underdeveloped ideas behind 452
and United Kingdom:
Next Steps agencies 159, 450, 456, 459
reform phases 450
and United States, Reinventing Government 450–1 see also collaborative governance
New York, and rebuilding of lower Manhattan 678–80
New York City's Parks Department, and collaborative governance 511
New York Port Authority 678–80
New Zealand, and New Public Management 449–50, 451, 454, 456, 457, 459, 462, 463
Next Steps agencies (UK) 159, 450, 456, 459
Nigeria, and human rights protection 13
non‐decisions 220–1, 232, 558
non‐delegation doctrine 236–7, 396
non‐governmental organizations (NGOs), and agenda setting 247 see also collaborative governance; public‐private interaction
non‐profit organizations 50
and accountability 183
and challenges for:
information problems 489–90
pricing 490–1
quality control 491
and distributive responsibility 393
and funding of 487–8
by government 181
and increasing role of 171
and provision of services 487 see also collaborative governance; public‐private interaction
norms:
and regulatory regimes 654
and state intervention 634–6
North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA) 245, 246
Norway:
and New Public Management 458
and welfare state 871
notions, see cultural notions
nuclear deterrence 26
nuclear operations research:
as belief system 775
and nuclear systems analysis 772–3 see also nuclear systems analysis
Nuclear Posture Review (USA) 773
nuclear power:
and policy processes 198
and policy‐making 156
Nuclear Regulatory Commission 14
nuclear strategy:
and assured destruction 779
and credibility 777
and deterrence 777
arbitrary assumptions of 791–2
and rationality of 778
and second strike capability 777–8 see also nuclear systems analysis
nuclear systems analysis:
and abstract modeling:
conventionalization of nuclear weapons 798
creation of new realities 775–6, 798
as creator of ‘nuclear world’ 774–5, 799–800
decrease in security 800
distancing from reality 775, 798
as driver of conflictual contest 799–800
mystification 798
reduction in accountability 798
as self‐fulfilling construction 798–9
and aims of 784, 797
and belief in 795–7
as policy neutral 796
as belief system 775
and claims for 796–7
and criticism of 774, 795
and decision‐making 774
impact of 776
and Draft Presidential Memorandums (DPMs) 780
(p. 964)
and epistemic community 774
and game theory 773
and inadequacy of 801
and Kennedy's administration 779–80
and methods of 772–3
and operations research 772, 773
and origins of 778–9
and philosophy of 780
and practices of 773
and problems with:
arbitrary inputs 791–3
concentration on blast effects 788–9
controlling nuclear warfare 793
hedging 794–5
human reliability 793
implausible/unrealistic scenarios 793–5
omission and elision 788–91
omission of command and control 789–90
omission of fratricide 790
omission of impact on humans 790–1
opaqueness 784–5
reprogramming of weapons 794
uncertainty 785–8
and role of 772
and significance of 773–4
and Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP) 780
and techniques of 781–4
damage expectancy 783
quantification of effects 781–4
single shot kill probability 782–3
war scenarios 781 see also nuclear strategy
nuclear waste 897–8
nursing home incentive reimbursement 810–12, 817, 819, 822, 827
objectives, see goals; policy ends
Occupational Safety and Health Act (USA, 1970) 238
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (USA) 238–9, 342, 498, 511, 515
Office of Economic Opportunity (USA) 44, 814
Office of Management and Budget (USA) 504
offloading, and dealing with problematic ends 397–8, 399–401, 402
diversion strategies 399–400
shedding 400
oil supplies, and exhaustion of 886–7
omission, and nuclear systems analysis 788–91
opaqueness, and nuclear systems analysis 784–5
Open Method of Coordination (EU) 19, 247–8, 381
open‐economy trilemma 242
operations research, see nuclear operations research
opportunism, and contracting out 16
opportunity, and redistribution of 610
optimality:
and departures from 625–7
failures of individual rationality 632–4
failures of voluntary cooperation 634–6
market failure 627–32, 646
paternalistic intervention 633–4
and imperfect alternatives 645–7 see also government, and failure of
options, and puzzling 119
Orçamento Participativo 680–1
ordering devices 254, 255
and beliefs 255–6
and discourse analysis 261–2
and frames 256–9
and meaning of 252
and narrative analysis 260–1
ordinal incomparability 763–4
Oregon Plans 175
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 247, 907
and evaluation of policy 326, 327
and New Public Management 463
and regulatory reform 652
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 875
organization theory, and control loss 14
organizational analysis 492–3
and accountability 486
(p. 965)
and challenges for:
implications for policy analysis 491–2
information problems 489–90
pricing 490–1
quality control 491
and implementation 482
bottom‐up approach to 484–5
interorganizational analysis 485
synthesized approach to 485
top‐down approach to 483–4
and influence of organizations on policy 486–7
non‐profit organizations 487–8
privately initiated social services 488–9
and interorganizational analysis, policy networks 428–9
and network theory 485–6
and policy design 482–3
organizational learning, and consensus building 270
organizational state 429
origins of policy:
and activities:
club regulation 222
non‐decisions 220–1
street‐level bureaucrats 221–2
and agenda setting:
analogy of 208
character of policy area 216
executive dominance 209, 217, 223–4
issue attention cycle 216
limitations of analogy 208–9
non‐decisions 220–1, 232
role of chance 216–17
skill of policy activist/entrepreneur 215–16, 217
and definition of ‘policy’, difficulties with 210
and measures 211, 218–20
drafting of legislation 219–20
policy as its own cause 212
and multiple explanations of 207
and multiple factors shaping 207–8
and policy as its own cause 20–1, 218
dynamic processes 360–1
problems of policy success 21
and policy lines 211, 212, 215–18
Anti‐Social Behavior Orders (ASBOs, UK) 217–18
developing policy measures 220
and practices 211, 212
and principles 210–11, 213–15
cross‐national transfer 214–15
power of 213–14
role in policy borrowing 214
workfare 212
Orme Dam 109, 116–17
oscillating processes:
and negative feedback processes 341–5
balance of power 341–2
elections and parties 343–4
reform cycles 344–5
regulatory agencies 342–3
Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (USA, 1978) 848
oversight, and control of independent agencies 235, 652
Panopticon 658
paradigms 254
and paradigm shifts 375
Pareto optimum 540, 731–3
and market equilibrium 625
and market failure 627
participation:
and deliberation, conflict with 395–6
and evolution of 391
and experiences of government agencies 179–80
and framing of issues:
crime 176–7
Superfund legislation 175–6
water policy 174–5
and open public forums 174, 177–8 see also participatory democracy
Participatory Budget (Brazil) 680–1
participatory democracy 670
and accountability:
participatory reform 680–1
use of participatory forums 679–80
and Empowered Participatory Governance 681–2
and gauging public opinion 677–9
and preference formation 673–6
(p. 966) participatory policy analysis (PPA) 52
Partnership for the Next Generation of Vehicles (USA) 513–14
party government, and agenda setting 217–18
paternalistic intervention 633–4
path dependency:
and institutional continuities 864
and learning 382
and policy as its own cause 21
and policy‐making 373
historical dimension 902–5
and political decision‐making 642–3
and positive feedback processes 348–50
and public‐private interaction 508
patience:
and critical listening 140–1
and puzzling 120–1
Patriot Act (USA) 577, 901
patronage relationships, and electoral accountability 679, 680–1
payoff discretion, and collaborative governance 516–17
penal policy:
and evaluation of 322
and mentally ill 398
Pendleton Act (USA, 1883) 61
penetrative capacity, and government failure 637–8
Pennsylvania, University of:
and Department of Public Policy and Management 64
and Wharton School 62
pension reform 897
and success of health policy 21
and United States 869
perception, and puzzling 120
Performance and Innovation Unit (UK) 159, 164, 165, 220
Perry Preschool Project 809
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (USA, 1996) 336, 866
persuasion:
and conversation 269
and networked governance 11–13
and policy studies 5, 20, 27–8
and rhetoric 274–5, 897 see also negotiation
Peter Principle 358–9
phases, and dynamic processes 361–3
phenomenology, and learning 383–4
pilot studies, see social experimentation
planners, and interviews 124, 125–6
planning:
and illusion of central 18
and indicative planning 18
police:
and Chicago reforms 682
and community policing 636
and diversion strategies 400
policy, see
ambivalence, and policy‐making
constraints on policy‐making
critique, and policy analysis
dynamics
evaluation of policy
impact of policy
origins of policy
policy advice
policy analysis
policy change
policy design
policy ends
policy instruments
policy‐making
policy modeling
policy network analysis
policy processes
policy programs
policy research, and methodology of
policy sciences
policy studies
practice
public policy
policy advice:
and civil service (UK):
departmental point of view 165–6
duty of 161
impact of decline of the generalist 160–1
rise of managerialism 158–60
and definition of 154
and exercise of power 154–5
and policy units: (p. 967)
challenge for 164–5
prime minister's use of 163–4
and policy‐making 893
and political context of 155–7
and qualities required for 158
policy analysis:
and argumentative turn 6–7
as art not science 893
and challenges for 184
and conflicting policy ends 110
and democracy 169–70
impact of policy on 172
and economics 729–30, 741–2
and exercise of power 154–5
and language to use 6
and methodology of 263–4
and new policy ideas 22
and policy sciences 41 n4
and policy‐making 893
and political context of 155–7
and reason giving 7
and reflective potential of 329
and requirements of 65
and role 28
and self‐interest 908
and ‘speaking truth to power’ 7
and technocratic approach to 8
and training of analysts 64–5
and undervaluation of 41–2
policy change:
and change in policy objects 26–7
and interpretation of history 904
and policy network analysis:
advocacy coalition framework 436–7
decentered accounts 438
dialectical model 437
interpretative turn 437
strategic relational theory 437
and role of advocacy coalitions 24, 25
and role of social movements 24–5
and social learning 374–5
paradigm shifts 375 see also learning
policy community 427–8
and issue networks 428
policy design:
and computer modeling 353–4
and implementation 482
and organizational analysis 482–3 see also policy instruments; policy modelling
Policy Directorate (UK) 164
policy dynamics, see dynamics
policy ends:
and dealing with problematic ends:
casuistry 110, 396
clarifying ideas 394–5
convening 396–7
cycling 110, 396
separation 396
thought in action 395–6
‘veil of vagueness’ 395
and deliberation 116
and instrumentalism:
mixed success of 389–90
value choices 389
and lack of clarity 20
and problematic nature of 389
abstract ends 392
ambiguity 391–2
conflicting aims 390–1
distributive responsibility 392–3
missing ends 394
unattainable objectives 393–4
unwanted ends 392–3
and resolving conflicting ends 110–11, 119
Boston's Ten Point Coalition 117–19
coherence 113–15
holism 114
Orme Dam dispute 116–17
overlapping consensus 114–15
and secondary reframing 397–8
creaming 399, 402
idealization 401–3
offloading 397–8, 399–401, 402
reclassification 400–1
resource scarcity 402
policy impact, see impact of policy
(p. 968) policy instruments:
and conceptions of:
institution‐free approaches 470–1
as institutions 470
selection of 470
and information technology impact 469, 471–4
differences over 473
enthusiasm over 471–3
information gathering 476–7
information‐industrial complex 476
institutional tools 474–5
Internet 473–4
limitations of 477–9
politics‐of‐instruments 475–6
scepticism over 473
technology‐free approach to 477–8
utopian belief in 475–6
policy learning 214
policy lines, and origins of policy 211, 212, 215–18
Anti‐Social Behavior Orders (ASBOs, UK) 217–18
developing policy measures 220
policy‐making:
and authority 895
and central control 17–18
fiction of 18
and changes in policy:
role of advocacy coalitions 24, 25
role of social movements 24–5
and choice 296–7
and civil service, role of 372
and collective puzzling 372–3
and consensual approach to 10
United Kingdom's move away from 10–11
and constraints on 21–4, 155
beneficial potential of 245–7
changed conditions 23, 26
ideas 22
interest groups 23–4
solutions looking for problems 22–3
and conventions 895
and day‐to‐day operations 153–4
and definition of ‘policy’ 153–4
difficulties with 210
and deliberative turn 9–10, 52
and democracy 8–9, 487
impact of national traditions 10
and differentiation 233
and hierarchy 209, 223–4
and high modernism 3–4, 8
and imperfect alternatives 645–7
and interdependence 233
and legitimacy 895
and levels of 154
and limits of instrumental rationality 19, 51
information 19
lack of clarity of ends 20
limited knowledge of means 19–20
resources 19
and ‘loose’ regulation 18
and networked governance 11–13
and objects of, changes in 26–7
and path dependency 373
historical dimension 902–5
and policy as its own cause 20–1, 212, 218
dynamic processes 360–1
problems of policy success 21
and policy units:
challenge for 164–5
prime minister's use of 163–4
and political feasibility 82
and political judgement 157–8
and prime minister's role 161–2
and problem‐solving 26
and shaping by practitioners 411
and trust 414
policy modeling:
and computer modeling 353–4, 360
and consequences of 774
and inputs for 771
policy network analysis 425–6
and absence of theoretical synthesis 435
(p. 969)
and controversies in 441–2
and dark networks 442
and definition of policy network 426, 427
and descriptive account of 426
as governance 429–30
as interest intermediation 427–8
as interorganizational analysis 428–9
and explaining change 436
advocacy coalition framework 436–7
decentered accounts 438
dialectical model 437
interpretative turn 437
strategic relational theory 437
and governance:
disagreement over notion of 435–6
epistemic communities 434
global governance 435
reality of networks 434
transnational networks 434–5
and network management 438–9
devising new tools for 440–1
diffuse accountability 439–40
enhancing coordination 440
institutional approach 433
instrumental approach 432
interaction approach 432–3
managing the mix 439
and organizational analysis 485–6
and policy communities 427–8
and theoretical account of 430–1
actor‐centered institutionalism 431–2
power dependence 431
rational choice 431–2
and United Kingdom (Queen's speech, 2003) 899–901
and United States (State of the Union speech, 2004) 899, 901–2
policy processes:
and classes of issues 846
and democratic deficits 671–3
and governance, creation of systems of 846–7
and level of social organization 844
and social setting and comparison of 847–8
agenda formation 849
decision processes 850
implementation 850–1
interpretation 852
policy products 848–9
problem of interplay 854–5
problem of scale 853–4
relevant knowledge 849–50
sources of compliance 851–2
and stateless societies 846 see also policy‐making
policy programs:
policy research, and methodology of 263–4, 833–4
and communication 840–1
and concern with change 833
and information sources 833–4
and malleability 835–8
changing public attitudes 836–7
definition of 835
degrees of 837–8
importance of 835
political feasibility 835–6
and privacy and confidentiality of 839
and scope of analysis 838–9
and side effects 834
policy sciences:
and access to policy makers 48
and characteristics of 63
multidisciplinary 40–1
problem oriented 40
value oriented 41
and decentralization 50, 52–3
and development of:
assimilation of new concepts 51–2
deLeon's interpretation of 43–6
democratic theme 52
disappointment in 46–7
energy crisis (1970s) 45–6
future of 49–50
institutional framework 42–3
moves into government offices 41
Radin's interpretation of 42–3
social networks 50, 51
Vietnam War 44–5
War on Poverty (USA) 44
Watergate scandals 45
and dynamic nature of 49
and institutional viability of 47–9
(p. 970)
and origins:
democratic ethos 40, 53
historical antecedents 40
Lasswell's role 39–40
and origins of, critique 192–3
and policy analysis 41 n4
and post‐positivism 50–1 see also policy research; policy studies
policy studies:
and action orientation of 6
and argumentative turn 6–7
and bargaining 7–9
and deliberative turn 9–10
and development of policy sciences 43–4
and development of, universities 41
and institutionalist theory:
impact on 558–61
implications of 562–5
and language to use 6
and persuasion 5, 20, 27–8
and reflection 7, 10
and relevance 5
and value‐laden nature of 5–6 see also policy research; policy sciences
policy transfer 368 n2
and learning 376
Policy Unit (UK) 163, 165
policy units:
and challenge for 164–5
and prime minister's use of 163–4 see also policy advice; policy analysis
political feasibility 543–6
and Clinton's health care initiative 553–5
and context of 545
and embedded nature of concept 545
as excuse for inaction 545–6
as explanation of failure 546
and human nature 544–5
and interest groups 549–52
causes of growth of 551
changing composition of 550–1
growth of 550
impact of growth of 551–2
power 552
and policy research methodology 835–6
and power 546–9
bargaining 548
as domination 547–8
as effective agency 547
exchange 548–9
formal authority 549
political power 548–9
theoretical conceptions of 546–7
and role of concept 545
and scientific/logical barriers 543
and training in grand policy 82 see also political feasibility
political participation, and concern over vitality of 171
political parties:
and government by discussion 233–4
and negative feedback processes 343–4
political science:
and energy policy 876–7
and professionalization of 6
and study of public policy 40
politics:
and acceptability of policy 896–7
and accountability 9
and administration 61
as ‘art of the possible’ 529–30
and bargaining theory 8–9
and constraining markets 9
and degenerative politics 171
and deliberative democracy 9
and energy policy 877
and evaluation of policy 321–3
argumentative policy evaluation 326–8, 330
blaming 322
evaluation asymmetries 331–2
frame‐reflection 332
issues at stake 322–3
political dimension of 330
programmatic mode of assessment 329–30
rationalistic policy evaluation 325–6
tactics used 323
and Lasswell's definition of 8, 23
and path‐dependent decision‐making 642–3
and patronage relationships 679, 680–1
and policy: (p. 971)
distinction between 81–2
feasibility of 82
and policy advice 8, 155–7
and political institutionalization 691
and political learning 372
and reconciling logics of action 701–5
and responsiveness to public concerns 896, 899–900, 901
and seeking re‐election 895–6
and spinning 394, 896
poll tax (UK) 154, 157, 212, 896
pollution, and ethical questions 721
Porto Alegre (Brazil), and popular participation 680–1
positivism:
and criticism of 50–1
and learning 379
and post‐positivism 50–1
and public policy 6
and rationalistic policy evaluation 325–6
and technocratic policy analysis 190–1 see also high modernism
post‐positivism:
and argumentative policy evaluation 326–8
and policy sciences 50–1
post‐structuralism, and discourse analysis 261
poverty:
and alleviation of 609
and cross‐country comparisons 615
and ethical questions 717–20
and social expenditure 306
and theories of 893
and United States 616–17
and ‘War on Poverty’ (USA) 563–4
power:
and bargaining 548
and Clinton's health care initiative 553–5
and exchange 548–9
and formal authority 549
and inequalities in 558
and interest groups 552
and interorganizational analysis 429
in networks 200
and policy advice 154–5
and political feasibility 546–9
and political power 548–9
and theoretical account of:
domination 547–8
effective agency 547
and theoretical conceptions of 546–7
power dependence, and policy networks 431
practice:
and changing conditions 409
and character of 411
and collective learning 411
and communities of 378
and cooperation 413–15
and critical listening:
emotional responsiveness 129
encouraging involvement 130–1
recognition of the other 128–9
regard for the other 127–8
relationship building 129–30
and decentralized coordination 414–15
and democratic practice 419–21
and implementation 410–11
and knowledge 415–19
institutional settings 416
integration of subjects 416
nature of scientific knowledge 415–16
negotiated knowledge 415–16
problem orientation of 417–18
uncertainty 418–19
wider participation 418
and learning 376–9
lesson‐drawing 376
and networks of 378, 413–14
and organizations, relationships with 412
and origins of policy 211, 212
and shaping of policy 411
as site of joint action 411–12
and smart practice 463
pragmatism, and learning 383–4
praxis, and training in grand policy 101
precautionary principle 241 see also risk
predatory states 719
preferences:
and contingent valuation (CV) 751–2 (p. 972)
criticism of 752–4
and critical listening 132
and formation of:
adaptive preference formation 753
Citizen Juries 674–5
deliberative democracy 673–6
Deliberative Polling 674–5
democratic deficits 672
neighborhood associations 675–6
Study Circles 675, 677–8
Twenty First Century Town Meetings 675, 678
and gauging public opinion 677–9
and health care:
rating scale 759–60
standard gamble 760
time trade‐off 760
and preference discretion 517–18
and public policy 753
and social experimentation 815
pricing:
and hedonics 740
and service provision 490–1
prime ministers, and role in policy‐making 161–2
use of policy units 163–4
principal‐agent theory 235
and information asymmetry 631
and organizational structure 639
principles, and origins of policy 210–11, 213–15
cross‐national transfer 214–15
power of 213–14
role in policy borrowing 214
workfare 212
priorities:
and agenda setting 238–41
and conflict over 109–10
and critical listening 134
and training in grand policy 94
Prisoner's Dilemma game 341
prisons, and mentally ill 398, 400
prisons, private 182, 397–8
and accountability 183
privatization:
and avoidance of balanced budget restraint 532
and growth of regulatory state 652
and origins of policy 213
and public management reform 651
and regulation 17, 651, 660
and welfare state retrenchment 867, 869
problem definition 228
problem‐solving:
and bureaucracy 199
and Empowered Participatory Governance 681–2
and garbage can model 116 n10
and integrative solutions 114 n8, 380 n21
and nature of problems 893
and policy‐making 26
and problematic nature of 21
and solutions looking for problems 22–3 see also puzzling, and policy analysis
procedures, and control of independent agencies 235–6
Proceeds of Crime Act (UK, 2002) 220
production discretion, and collaborative governance 515–16
productivity, and public‐private interaction 506
professionalization:
and political science 6
and public policy 66
programmatic evaluation 329–30
Programmed Planning and Budget System (PPBS) 43, 64
Progressive movement 345
and development of policy sciences 42
proportionality, and war 715
public administration:
and administrative discretion 63
and early schools of 60–2
and postwar boom in 62–3
and relation to politics 61
and study of public policy 40
Public Administration Clearing House (Chicago) 62
public choice 626, 732–3
and classes of issues 846
and governance 844–5
creation of systems of 846–7
government not essential 845–6
and government 845
(p. 973)
and level of social organization 844
public diplomacy 836
Public Finance Initiative (UK) 498
public goods:
and non‐rival consumption goods 627–8
and valuation problem 751
public income transfer programs:
and assessing policy impact 297
comparative approach 305–8
impossibility of 304–5
pre‐post taxes and transfers method 300–5
and impact of 309–10, 314–15
on family care 312–13
feedback effects 303
household formation 304
on labor supply 310–12
labour market 303, 306
savings 304
US welfare reforms 308–9
and paradox of redistribution 307, 315, 616 see also redistribution
public interest, and bureaucratic interpretation of 63
public opinion, and policy research methodology 836–7
public ownership, and loss of confidence in 651
public policy:
and accountability 182–3
and citizenship:
creation of dis/advantaged populations 179
democracy gap 179–80
impact on 178
impact on citizen identity 179
New Deal's construction of dual 178–9
and classification difficulties 902
and contemporary context for:
declining political participation 171
distrust of government 170
divisive policy issues 170–1
and creating a just society 169–70
and cross‐national policy studies 214–15, 905–7
and definition of 892, 894
and democracy 8–9
democratic deficits 671–3
impact of national traditions 10
open public forums 174, 177–8
relationship between 171–3
service delivery 180–1
and eclectic approach to 907–9
and economics 729–30
and effectiveness of 76
and framing of issues:
crime 176–7
Superfund legislation 175–6
water policy 174–5
and government, office seeking/keeping 894–8
and high modernist approach 3–4, 6, 8, 10
and historical dimension 902–5
and impact of 169
and impact on civil society 180
and level of social organization 844
and meaning of ‘policy’ 153–4
and persuasion 5
and policy portfolio 898–902
Queen's speech (UK, 2003) 899–901
State of the Union speech (USA, 2004) 899, 901–2
and politics 81–2
and reframing ends 389
and responsiveness to public concerns 896, 899–900, 901
and ruling 3
and support for 180
public schools, as divisive policy issue 170
public services:
and contracting out 14–15, 16
and economic theory of the firm:
employment relationship 16
produce/buy decision 16
and government as steering 14–15 see also New Public Management
public‐private interaction:
and growth in 502
and historical antecedents 500
and motives for private involvement 507
information 506
legitimacy 507
productivity 506
(p. 974)
resources 505–6
and risks of private involvement 507
diluted control 507
diminished capacity 508
higher spending 508
reputational vulnerability 508
and scale of:
public employment/public employment 502
public spending on employees/outside services 502–4
tax expenditures 504–5 see also collaborative governance
public‐private partnerships 171, 181 see also collaborative governance
punctuated equilibria 346
puzzling, and policy analysis:
assembling jigsaw puzzles 111–13
and coherence 115–16
deliberating about final ends 116
instrumental rationality 111, 113, 119
public policy as collective puzzling 372–3
reasoning 116
resolving conflicting ends 110–11, 119
Boston's Ten Point Coalition 117–19
and coherence 113–15
and holism 114
Orme Dam dispute 116–17
and overlapping consensus 114–15
rules for 120–1
Q‐sort 51
quality control, and service provision 491
quality‐adjusted life year (QALY):
and commensurability problem 758–61
and cost utility analysis (CUA) 738–9
and cost‐benefit analysis (CBA) 541
Queen's speech (UK, 2003) 899–901
racial inequality 170
and institutional racism 222
Railways Commission (UK) 659
RAND, Project 3 n1
RAND Corporation 778
and development of policy sciences 42, 44
and health insurance experiment 810
and Kennedy's administration 64
and nuclear systems analysis 789, 795
RAND Graduate School 64
randomness:
and modalities of control 658
and puzzling 120–1
rational calculation, and feasibility of smart policy 452–3
rational choice theory, and McKelvey‐Schofield ‘chaos theorem’ 229–30
rationalistic policy evaluation 325–6
rationality, and failures of individual 632–4 see also instrumental rationality
rationality review 7
reality, and training in grand policy 87–8
reason giving, and policy application 7
reasoning, and puzzling 116
recognition, and critical listening 128–9, 133–4
redistribution 607, 621
and aims of 610–11
and analysis of individual programs:
high‐income groups as beneficiaries 619–20
middle‐class beneficiaries 618–19
pro‐poor bias 620
and counterfactual comparisons 608
and dimensions of 608
and distributional effects 609
and economic growth 614
and effectiveness of 614
cross‐country comparisons 615
explanation of national differences 616–18
paradox of redistribution 307, 315, 616
and efficiency‐equity trade‐off 613–14
and horizontal redistribution 609
and income maintenance 608
and in‐kind transfers 610–11
and life‐cycle redistribution 608
and poverty alleviation 609
United States 616–17
welfare regime 616
and targeted welfare 612–13
and typology of welfare states 611–12
and universal welfare 612–13 see also public income transfer programs
(p. 975) referenda, and impact of 396
reflection:
and evaluation of policy 332
and policy analysis 329
and policy studies 7, 10
reform cycles 344–5
reframing, see frames/framing
refugees 720
regimes, and concept of 655
regional integration, and globalization 594–5
regulation:
and accretion effect 361
and collaborative governance 511–12
and energy policy 878, 882–4
and growth of 17, 651
as instrument of governance 652
and instrumental qualities 662–3
and ‘loose’ regulation 18
and privatization 17, 651
and supranational organizations 652
regulatory agencies, see independent agencies
regulatory regimes 663–4
and concept of regimes 655
and contracts 654
and definition of regulation 653
and deregulation 656
and diffusion of capacities 653
and economic theory of regulation (ETR) 655–6, 662–3
and enforcement 653–4
and formalization of norms 654
and legal authority 654
and legal power 653–4
and meta‐regulation 664
and modalities of control 657–8
architecture 658
contrived randomness 657–8
and organizational forms and style 658–60
and positive feedback processes 660
and privatization 660
and regulatory capture 656
and regulatory legitimacy 661–3
accountability 662
credible commitment 661
delegations 661
instrumentalism 662–3
tensions around 662
and resource dispersal 654–5
and self‐regulation 654
and standard setting 654, 656–7
and United Kingdom 659, 660
and United States 656, 659
regulatory state:
and agenda setting 234–8
agency discretion 236–8
control of independent agencies 235–6
non‐delegation doctrine 236–7
and emergence of 652
and evolution of regulation 349–50
and juridical democracy 562–3 see also New Public Management; risk
Reinventing Government (USA), and features of 450–1
relational contracts 12
and employment relationship 16
relationship building, and critical listening 129–30,