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date: 21 November 2019

(p. 855) Index

(p. 855) Index

1992 Program107, 410, 417–18, 559
“à la carte” Europe311, 316
absolute majority requirement, European Parliament368
access to information685
accountability
agencies398–9
Commission670–1
European Parliament671
implications of “early agreements”711–12
acid rain561
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Pollution568n9
Action Committee, 1955–195698
Adenauer, K.86, 181, 183, 185
adjudication67
adjustment pressures827–8
mediating factors828–31, 832
Adler-Nissen, R.324
affective support for integration717–18
age, relationship to attitude towards integration693
Agenda 2000497–8
Agenda for Growth and Jobs, 2005476
agricultural income, role of subsidies495n74
agri-monetary legislation486, 488
Åland Islands, referendum725
algorithmic warfare630
Allen, D.501
Alliance Base, Paris638
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE)368
Alter, K.89
Amato, G.155
Ames, A.634
Amsterdam Treaty132, 135–6, 151, 843
actors and processes137–8
and Commission227, 228
presidency340
competition policy444
defense policy586–7
evaluation144–5
flexibility142–3
foreign policy140–1
institutional reform141–2
JHA domain616
large versus small states problem265n1
negotiation and ratification136
provisions for EU citizens138–40
Santer's influence242–3
on transparency685
Andean Pact783
Anderson, C.722
anti-dumping measures423, 425, 428
anti-hegemony249
antitrust rules442
appropriateness, logic of812–13
Arab Common Market783
Arbélès, M.55
Arce, D.811
Area of Freedom, Security, and Justice (AFSJ)613, 618
challenges625
Article K.4 Committee128
Ashton, C.170, 651–3
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC)782, 783 (p. 856)
Assembly, EEC104
assent ability, European Parliament116
assertion, powers of645
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)783
associative democracy670
asylum burdens815–16
asylum lottery619
asylum policy606–7, 612n36, 618–19
burden-sharing815
common policy approach817–18, 819–20
funding818–19, 820
implicit trade model820
people sharing816–17, 823n18
criticisms and proposals for reform819–20
sociological perspectives54
Asylum Procedures Directive, 2005818
asylum seekers database385
Asylum Support Teams (ASTs)619
asymmetric shocks457–8
asymmetry, EMU458–9
audit, European Court of Auditors (ECA)381–3, 387–9
Auer, S.699
Austria
asylum burden815, 816
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
referendum725
auto-oil package513, 514
Bache, I.68
Bachtler, J.501
Balladur, E.143, 147n41
Balta, N.414
banking crisis see economic crisis
Barber case544
Barca, F.503–4
Bardach, E.797
Barnier, M.153
Barroso, J.M.228–9, 652, 706
Bavaria–Würtemberg Customs Union783, 784
Beach, D.131
Bedault, G.188
Belgium
asylum burden815, 816
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
vote allocation, Nice Treaty157
“benefit” principle814
Benelux countries
concerns over High Authority89
preference formation, Treaties of Paris84–5
Benoit, K.841
Benvenuti, L.97
Best, E.273
Better Regulation Strategy686
Beyen, J.-W.188, 189–90
Beyers, J41
bilateral trade agreements412, 423
ratification428
binding rules mechanisms, burden-sharing814
Blair, A.
defense policy587
views on Santer241
block exemption regulations (BERs)446
blocking minorities253
“Blue Card” Directive, 2009620
Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications (BEREC)395
Boldrin, M.502
border controls600–1
external border management620–1
labor market integration602–4
Schengen Agreement600–1
TCN immigration605–7
Bosman case577, 579
Bot, B.637
“bottom-up” approach49–50
role in policy coordination804
Bourdieu, P.53–4, 56
Bouzas, R.782 (p. 857)
bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), repercussions488
Boyer, M.812
Brandt, W.235, 236
cooperation with Pompidou234
Bretherton, R.97–8
Bretton Woods system287
cessation203, 455, 456
Brinegar, A.721
Britain see United Kingdom
British Budgetary Question (BBQ)211, 224
Broad Economic Policy Guidelines (BEPG)474
Brubaker, R.56
Brücker, H.603, 609n12
Brunell, T.25, 358
Brussels Treaty585
budgetary cycle703, 706
budgetary process381
role of ECA382–3
budgetary stabilizers, CAP487
Buet directive536
Bulgaria
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
Bulmer, S.705
burden-sharing810–11
inequalities811–12
mechanisms813–14
motivations812–13
refugee protection815
common policy approach817–18, 819–20
criticisms and proposals for reform819–20
funding818–19, 820
implicit trade model820
people sharing816–17, 823n18
bureaucratic drift396, 402n12
bureaucratized decision-making, impact on integration778
Burley, A-M.26, 358
on European Court of Justice358
Caja de Ahorros directive536
Callaghan, J.210
Canada, asylum burden815
Canova, F.502
capability approach, social policy547
“capacity” principle814
capital, Bourdieusian53
capitalist diversity293, 302–3
and consolidation of internal market298–302
role in EEC foundation293–5
role in EEC reforms295–8
Caporaso, J.413, 664, 697
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)563
carbon performance561–2
carbon prices556
carbon taxes561, 562
Cardiff Strategy512
Carey, S.722
Caribbean Community783
Carrubba, C.J.26
cartels, competition policy446
categorization of rights734
Catholic beliefs848
causality problems688n10
policy impact evaluation680
Cecchini report, 1998114–15
Cedefop (European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training)394
CEN (European Committee for Standardization)528
CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization)528
Central American Common Market (CACM)782, 783
Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs)
environmental policy implementation518–19
negotiations for EU membership40
opposition to ECEP520–1
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
intelligence cooperation638
secret prisons635, 636–7
CEPOL (European Police College)622
Cerutti, F.665
CGS (Council Secretariat)328–9
Chad, ESDP intervention590–1, 592–3 (p. 858)
Changing Scales, ERT 1985113
Charter of Fundamental Rights544
Chirac, J.
Amsterdam Treaty negotiations137
on Iraq War637
Nice Treaty negotiations152, 153, 154
views on Santer241
Christian Democrats, transnational network85
Christianity, religious divisions698
Citizens’ Agenda547
citizens’ initiative right168
citizenship699
citizenship rights125–6, 601, 604–5, 608n5, 610n22, 611n23, 739
impact of Lisbon Treaty167–8
provisions of Amsterdam Treaty138–40, 144 see also rights
civil justice cooperation624
civil liberties, conflict with intelligence interests638–9
civil service, Santer's influence243
Civilian Crisis Management (CCM)315, 589
evaluation591–2
clans, Council325–6, 333n30
class divisions in support for Europe692, 695
climate change
energy policy561–4, 567
environmental policy519–21
Club of Berne632–3
coal, electricity generation563
coalition patterns250–1
coalitions249–50, 842
Convention260–1
coordination issues796
in Council of Ministers, differences between old and new member states273
Cockfield White Paper113, 115
co-decision procedure (ordinary legislative procedure)128–9, 329, 342, 371, 668
CAP legislation491
environmental policy515
impact on Commission346n1
inter-institutional effects707
co-determination, Germany300
coding rules, Council326
cohabitation, French government152
cohesion, party groups368
cohesion funds126, 496, 498
Sapir Report, 2003503 see also regional aid
cohesion policy see regional policy
Cold War, influence on European integration6
collective action, Viking and Laval cases549–50
collective agreements545, 552n17, 552n20, 553n20
collective compensation539
collective leadership307
collective public goods, burden-sharing811–12, 822, 824n40
Collective Redundancies Directive546–7, 548
College of Commissioners220–1, 337–8
changes over time226, 229n8
impact of enlargement273
condominio64
comitology committees396, 398
Commission336–7
accountability and transparency670–1
approval by European Parliament340–1, 372
autonomous operation65
balance of power252
bureaucratic drift396
championing of liberal models302–3
changes over time227–8
community action programs752
competences345
competition policy441–2
composition253, 256, 264
coordination issues797–8, 800–1, 802, 805
crisis, 1999151–2
EEC103, 105
environmental policy512, 513
functions337
expansion of297
impact of conciliation procedure346n1
impact on European integration345, 346
impact on policy-making341
effect of Luxembourg Compromise343
governance principles343
guardianship of Treaty342–3
legislative issues341–2
single market program343–4 (p. 859)
theoretical perspectives344–5
involvement, differences between old and new member states273
neo-functionalist theory23, 25, 26–7, 28
OLAF (European Anti-Fraud Office)386–7
organizational change339–40
organizational make-up
College337–8
Directorates General and Services338
output legitimacy665
policy evaluation682–3
policy-initiating role224
powers661
resignation, 1999243–4
role in Amsterdam Treaty negotiations138
role in cohesion policy500
role in consumer law527
development528–9, 531–2
enforcement534–5
role in creation of agencies395, 396, 397–8
role in Nice negotiations153
role in trade policy-making428–30
scrutiny institutions387
size, Nice Summit negotiations154–5, 156
time rules706–7
effects708
use of legal strategies354–5
Commission officials, attitudes towards integration338–9
Commission presidency219, 228–9, 337, 340
Jacques Delors224–6
Walter Hallstein221–3
Roy Jenkins223–4
comparisons226–7
non-performers233–4, 245
Franco Malfatti234–6
Jacques Santer240–5
Gaston Thorn237–40
periods of office706
powers and responsibilities220–1, 229n1
promotion of coordination802
Commission v. UK548
Commissioners
appointment229n8
loyalties801
Committee of Permanent Representatives (COREPER)40, 325
group consensus norms323
promotion of coordination802–3, 805
Committee of the Regions (CoR)129, 750
views on multilevel governance755
Committee on Budgetary Control383
committees, European Parliament370–1
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)8, 484, 491–2
creation103, 105
current policy489–91
de Gaulle's negotiation tactics208
distinctive features485–6
foundations484–5
preferences
differences between old and new member states269–70
rich versus poor member states285
reforms
contributing factors486–7
Fischler Reforms488–9
MacSharry Reforms487
common border system606
Common European Asylum System (CEAS)606–7, 619
Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)122, 127–8, 132, 270, 630–1, 643–5
Amsterdam Treaty140–1
conclusions654–5
group consensus norms323
Lisbon Treaty166, 650–3
post-Cold-War era (1991–2009)647–50
common market408
common organizations of the market485
communicative discourses on EU policy666
national nature668
community action programs752
community building35–6
Community Fisheries Control Agency (CFCA)394
Community Lisbon Program477
“Community Method”121, 670
Community Plant Variety Office (CPVO)394
Community Support Frameworks500
comparative development, EU regions496 (p. 860)
comparative regional integration777
contractual choices785–6
consequences787–9
explanatory factors786–7
externality theory780
external logic of regional integration783–5
internal logic780–2
neo-functionalist framework778–80
outcomes of major integration schemes782, 783
summary of theories789–90
competence creep574, 579, 580
competences
broadening574
governing rules574–5
institutional context579–80
legislative competences575–6
trade law576–7
impact of Lisbon Treaty167
nature and scope571–4
principle of conferral570–1
principles of the order of competences766–7, 774n50
provisions of SEA116–17
social policy field545
subsidiarity and proportionality principles577–9
competition law359
administration by Commission342
development442
competition policy441–2
governance445–8
relationship between state and market443–5
competitiveness
Europe 2020 Strategy480
Lisbon Strategy471–3
performance478
Competitiveness Council475
complementarities474
complete contracts785–6
consequences788–9
explanatory factors786–7
Completing the Internal Market (Commission, 1985)559
compliance836
mediating factors830–1
composite (Verbund) perspective768–9
loyalty principle770–1
structural compatibility769–70
concentration principle, Delors I package498
conciliation committees342
confederal consociation64
Confederation of Socialist Parties of the European Community (CSP)369
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)647
conferral, principle of570–1, 573, 574
Confidence Pact on Employment242
Congo, Democratic Republic of, ESDP intervention591, 594
consensus-seeking, Council322–4
conservative parties, stance on integration843
Constitution of Europe685
constitutional constraints570
broadening of competences574
nature and scope of competences571–4
principle of conferral570–1
rules governing competences574–5
institutional context579–80
legislative competences575–6
trade law576–7
subsidiarity and proportionality principles577–9
Constitutional Convention671
constitutional homogeneity769–70
constitutional pluralism747n29
Constitutional Treaty697
negotiations163–4
coalitions, interests and power politics260–1
small versus big divide262–3, 264
procedures and personalities172
ratification failure164–5
referendums692, 844, 851n32
constrained discretion, EMU458
constraining dissensus716, 849
constructive abstention141, 144
constructivism34–5, 42–3
ideas and integration preferences37–9 (p. 861)
ideational effects on integration outcomes39–40
interpretation of ESDP593
on origins of single market412
and sociological approach50–1, 54
theory35–7
constructivist institutionalism, perspective on Europeanization828, 829–30, 831
consultation procedure341–2
consumer law526
challenges
enforcement538–9
risk of social exclusion537–8
vulnerable consumers538
current stage
enforcement534–5
harmonization536–7
paradigm shift530–1
Private Law codification project531–2
role of European Court of Justice535–6
weaknesses: services and safety533–4
development527
impact of internal market regime529–30
role of Commission528–9
role of SEA527–8
Contact Committee of the Supreme Audit Institutions of the European Union383
contracting theory785–6, 789, 790
consequences of contract choices787–9
explanatory factors786–7
Convention163–4, 264
coalitions, interests and power politics260–1
Constitutional Treaty negotiations163–4, 172, 175n2
small versus big divide262–3
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Pollution568n9
convergence280, 283
Barca Report, 2009504
impact of regional policy502
regional policy499
convergence criteria, EMU124
convergence fund503
Cooley, A.785–9
cooperation, party groups368
cooperation procedure116, 342
coordinated market models294
and market liberalization297
coordination
in Brussels799–800
facilitating factors802–4
inhibiting factors800–2
challenges795–6
conclusions806
EU as a special case797–8
Europe 2020 Strategy479–80
interacting factors804–5
Lisbon Strategy473–4
national level
aspirations798
structures798–9
negative consequences805–6
Coordination Dilemma781
Copsey, N.268
corporatism294
cost harmonization, as justification for social policy548–9
“cost” principle814
Costa v. E.N.E.L. ruling, 1964 353, 359
cost–benefit analyses, relationship to public support for integration721
Council of Europe, intelligence inquiries636
Council of Ministers (Council of the European Union)104, 321, 321–2, 330–1, 727
coalition building, differences between old and new member states272–3
co-decision rights for regions750–1
defense of euro460
evolving institutions
Council Presidency327–8
effects of enlargement329–30
European Council327
negotiation methods325–7
Secretariat328–9
shared legislative culture329
interaction with European Parliament371
joint decision-making322–4
role in creation of agencies395, 396, 398
role in trade policy-making427–8, 429–30
transparency686
(p. 862)
Council presidency257, 265, 327–8
period of office705–6
Council Secretariat, role in Nice negotiations153
Counter Terrorist Group (CTG)633
counter-terrorism631–2, 638
countryside preservation, CAP485
Court of Auditors (ECA)380
Court of First Instance (CFI)107, 357
origins116
Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU)
cooperation with national courts764–5
effectiveness principle762–4
rule of law principle762 see also European Court of Justice (ECJ)
Cowen, B.261
credibility831, 833
Cresson, E.244
Creswell, M.83
criminal matters
judicial cooperation623–4
police cooperation622
crisis vulnerability, poor member states286–9
Croatia, GDP per head, 2007, regional disparities281
Crocodile Club109
cross-border transactors, neo-functionalist theory21–2, 25, 26
cue-taking, as explanation of public support720, 721–2
cultural diversity842
current account balances
correlation with GDP287–8
negative correlation with rapid growth288, 289
customs union408, 409, 423
cycles709
asynchrony705–6
budgetary703, 706
policy cycle677–9
Cyprus
asylum burden816
GDP per head, 2007280, 281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
Czech Republic
attitudes towards further enlargements271
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
referendum725
dairy quotas487
Danish Bottle Case514
DAS (statement of assurance)382
data, sharing with US638–9
data protection743
data surveillance630, 639
Davignon, E.233, 237
ESPRIT112, 239–40
resentment of Thorn238–9
de Gasperi, A.181, 187, 188, 189
de Gaulle, C.206
commitment to EEC207
critique of EDC206–7
“empty chair crisis,” 1965208
on Hallstein230n19
influence on integration process209–10, 215–16
opposition to British EEC membership208, 209
de Groot, S.502–3
de Vries, C.727, 847–8
de Vries, G.632
decentralization67, 68
decision-making67
time pressures711
time rules704
transparency684, 685, 686
decision-making style, impact on regional integration778, 779
defense, provisions of Amsterdam Treaty141, 147n30
defense policy585, 648
Franco–German cooperation199–200
influence of Nordic countries315
Lisbon Treaty170
Maastricht Treaty127–8
Pléven Plan186 (p. 863)
preferences, differences between old and new member states270–1
sociological perspectives54–5 see also European Security and Defense Policy
defense spending592–3
burden-sharing811–12
defensive realism5, 7
Defrenne cases543–4
Dehaene, J.-L.240–1
Dekker, W., “Europe 1990” plan113
delegation, principal–agent accounts12–13
Delgado, J.414
Delors, J.107, 113, 114, 115, 802
Commission presidency52, 224–6, 226–8, 231n33
Delors Committee122, 131
Delors I package498
Delors Report, 1989456
demand-side conditions of integration780
Demir and Baykara case550
democracy661–2, 728
consequences of single market415–16
elections to European Parliament723–4
input legitimacy667–9
legitimizing mechanisms662–4
output legitimacy664–7
pro tempore power-giving704
referendums724, 725–6, 726
throughput legitimacy669–72
democratic accountability, risk of multilevel governance71–2
democratic deficit173, 191, 664
politicization as solution669
role of EMU466
democratization, influence of EU835–6
demographic shift602, 609n10
Denmark
Council presidency, leadership314
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
opt-out of EMU124
ratification of Maastricht Treaty129–30
referendums725
resistance to EMU299
descriptive approach to rights734, 735
Deutsch, K.34, 36, 49, 691–3
developing countries, trade initiatives423
Dewan, T.820
di Pinto directive535
differentiation309–10, 414, 454–5, 833
categorization310–11
implications for leadership312
role of EMU466
temporal712
diffuse reciprocity427
diffuse support for integrationsee affective support for integration
Dinkel, J.782
Directorates General338
coordination issues800, 806
Environment512, 513
disadvantaged groups740–1
discharge procedure382
discontinuity of policy-making708–9
discrimination, rights issues741, 744–5, 747n19
discrimination legislation, provisions of Amsterdam Treaty139
discriminatory trade policies, role in integration783–4
distributive policy preferences, differences between old and new member states269–70
“D-Mark Zone”457
Doc Morris directive536
Dooge Committee109
“double hatting,” Council members321
double majority voting system253
Downes, T.A.741
Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR)531
Draft Treaty on the European Union (EUT), 1984109
drug-trafficking, judicial cooperation623
Dublin Convention608n3, 817–18, 820
Dublin Regulation, 2003619
Duchêne, F.79
Dulles, J.F., influence on Treaties of Rome101
dumping412, 423, 425
anti-dumping measures428
provisions of CAP485
(p. 864)
Dür, A.431
Dyson, K.836
“early agreements”707, 711–12
Eastern Partnership271–2
Easton, D.663
Echelon, accountability635
ECOFIN (Council of Economics and Finance Ministers)125
ecological modernization513
Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)453
asymmetric shock vulnerability457–8
central banking456
foundations455–6
impact of banking crisis453–4
impact of enlargement454–5
impact on political union464
impact on regional policy497–8
institutional arrangements
asymmetry458–60
“fuzzy” boundaries459–60
Optimum Currency Area (OCA) theories457
path dependence457
performance and impact464
economic crisis risk461
EFSF/ESM460–1
trade effects462–3
public opinion465–6
role in democratic deficit466
role in differentiation466
role of labor mobility603–4
Economic Community of West African States783
Economic Cooperation Act408
economic coordination
Europe 2020 Strategy479–80
Lisbon Strategy473–4
performance478–9
economic crisis69, 460, 798
impact on regional policy504–5
implications for EMU453–4
performance of ECB462
state aid445
economic crisis risk, impact of EMU461
economic efficiency doctrine530–1
economic geography, impact of single market416–17
economic policy, evaluation683
economic regionalism417
economic success, relationship to integration781
Ederveen, S., on impact of regional policy502–3
EDF, mergers560
Edwards, E.847–8
effectiveness principle, Union law762–4
efficiency promoting function of EU664
Eisenhower, D.D., influence on Treaties of Rome100–1
Eising, R.72
elections to European Parliament366–7, 723–4
electoral cycle709
electricity supply, national policies558
Elgström, O.328
Elysée Treaty195–6, 313
emerging federation64
emissions targets562–3
Emissions Trading System (ETS)520
employment
agricultural495n73
Confidence Pact on Employment242
impact of Lisbon Strategy477
provisions of Amsterdam Treaty139 see also labor market regulation; unemployment
“empty chair crisis,” 1965208, 234, 343
emulation, role in Europeanization832–3
endogenous growth theory502
energy policy556–7
climate change policy561–4
early measures557–8
future prospects566–7
internal market559–61
security of supply564–6
energy services, consumer law533
enhanced cooperation151, 309
enlargement
1973237
capitalist diversity301
Central and Eastern242 (p. 865)
effects845
impact on CAP486–7
impact on Commission339–40, 342–3
impact on Council329–30
impact on European Court of Justice351
impact on Franco–German cooperation203
impact on intelligence “clubs”634
impact on party groups368
impact on regional policy497–8
impact on trade policy425, 427
implications for EMU454–5
environmental policy implementation517, 518–19
as a foreign policy tool647–8
ideational effects on negotiations40
new member states267
Nice Treaty149, 152
preferences, differences between old and new member states271–2
role in differentiation309
role of Delors225
Spanish and Portuguese accession240
Environmental Action Programs (EAPs)512–13
environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs)515–16
CEE (Central and Eastern European ) states519
environmental policy511
agents of change514–16
burden-sharing814
challenges521–2
climate change policy561–4
evolution512–13
impact516
impact assessment681
impact of enlargement518–19
implementation516–18
international negotiations519–21
provisions of Maastricht Treaty126–7
provisions of SEA117
E.ON, mergers560
epistemes449n16
competition policy447
equal opportunities, provisions of Amsterdam Treaty139
equal pay, Defrenne cases543–4
equality, relationship to rights740–1
equity, doctrine of743
error detection, audit382
Estonia
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
referendum725
ethnic assimilation692
ethnicity, identity issues697–9
EU Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER)395
Euratom (European Community in Atomic Energy) Treaty95, 101–2, 558
influence of United States100–1
Messina conference96–7
Spaak report99
responses99 see also Treaties of Rome
EUREMA (EU Relocation Malta) project817
euro, effect on JHA domain617
Euro crisis806
Euro Group458–9
Euro Payment and Settlement Scheme (TARGET)459
Eurobarometer surveys718, 719, 722,730n11, 847
Euroclash, N. Fligstein52
EURODAC619
EUROJUST618, 623–4
euromissiles crisis199
Europe 2020 Strategy471, 479–80
“Europe of the Regions” paradox754
European Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA)394
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU OSHA)394
European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders (FRONTEX)394, 606, 618, 621
European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD)489 (p. 866)
European Agricultural Guarantee and Guidance Fund (EAGGF)497
European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF)380, 381, 386–7
significance387–9
European Arrest Warrant623
European Asylum Support Office (EASO)395, 619
European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA)394
transparency and accountability399
European Banking Authority (EBA)394
European Central Bank (ECB)124–5, 299, 456, 458
autonomy661–2
performance461–2
periods of office706
European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop)394
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)394
European Chemicals Agency (ECHA)394
European Climate and Energy Package (ECEP)519, 520–1
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), founding fathers
Jean Monnet183–5
Robert Schuman185
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty79, 90, 497, 558
choice of institutions88–90
fault lines in literature80
link to EEC190–1
material versus ideational views82–5
negotiation methods191
negotiations and ratification85–8
state-centric perspectives81
transnational perspectives81–2
European Commission see Commission
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC)528
European Committee for Standardization (CEN)528
European Community Food Law488
European Competition Network (ECN)446, 447
European constitutional settlement173
European consumer concept529–30, 535–6, 537
European Convention of Human Rights737
European Council321, 327
formation237
Franco–German cooperation197–8
impact of Lisbon Treaty168–9
origins116
timescape706
European Court of Auditors (ECA)380, 381–3
significance387–9
European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), Demir and Baykara case550
European Court of Justice (ECJ)103–4, 121, 351, 361
autonomy65, 662
clashes of capitalism303
constitutionalization of Treaties352–4
creation89
expansion of scope297
explanation of role357–9
institutionalization of human rights40
involvement, differences between old and new member states274–5
juridification of political sphere354–7
market-building359–60
neo-functionalist theory22–3, 25, 26–7, 28
output legitimacy665
periods of office706
provisions of Maastricht Treaty129
review of agencies395
on rights741, 744
role in CAP enforcement485, 487–8, 490, 491
role in consumer law535–6
role in development of environmental policy514
role in enforcement of trade liberalization410–11
role in social integration360–1, 364n54
role in social policy development543–4
structure and functions351–2
Van Gend en Loos judgment105
European Currency Unit (ECU)116, 124
European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS)380, 381, 384–6
(p. 867) significance387–9
European Defense Agency (EDA)170, 394
European Defense Community (EDC)643
de Gaulle's dislike206–7
founding fathers186–9
European Defense Community (EDC) Treaty79–80, 90, 585
choice of institutions88–90
fault lines in literature80
material versus ideational views82–5
negotiations85–6, 191
ratification failure86, 96
state-centric perspectives81
transnational perspectives81–2
European Dilemma, A, C.-U Schierup607
European Economic Community (EEC)
capitalist diversity294
founding fathers189–90
growth295
link to ECSC190–1
social policy294–5
European Economic Community (EEC) reforms, role of capitalist diversity295–8
European Economic Community (EEC) Treaty95, 292
influence of United States100–1
institutional structure103–4
legal issues105
Messina conference96–7
negotiation methods191
objectives102–3
significance104–5
Social Policy Title543
Van Gend end Loos judgement353 see also Treaties of Rome
European Election Studies (ESS) project366, 374n4
European Employment Strategy (Luxembourg process)474, 545
European Environment Agency (EEA)394
establishment397
European External Action Service (EEAS)170, 651–3, 654
European Federalist Action movement191
European Federation of Green Parties (EFGP)369
European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF)460–1, 480
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)394
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound )394
European Free Trade Association (EFTA)104, 782, 783, 784
European GNSS Agency (GSA)394
European Green Party (EGP)369
European identity37, 690, 700
causal role in integration691–3
compatibility with national identity695–7
as effect of integration694–5
implications699–700
relationship to institutional integration36
religion, ethnicity, and immigration697–9
research approaches691
European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE)394
European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA)395
European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA)394
European Medicines Agency (EMA)394
European Monetary Institute (EMI)124
European Monetary System (EMS)239
Franco–German cooperation198–9
inception196
European Monetary Union (EMU)
capitalism clashes298–9
explanation131, 132
Franco–German cooperation200–1
influence of Commission344
Maastricht Treaty121, 124–5
negotiation122–3
role of Delors225
Santer's influence242
Werner's plan, 1970235
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)394
European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA)394 (p. 868)
European Parliament365
accountability671
approval of Commission340–1
clashes of capitalism303
Committee on Budgetary Control383
committee work370–1
composition256–7
evolution258–9
elections366–7
German Federal Constitutional Court judgement173
impact of Lisbon Treaty168
influence on EU politics371–2
involvement, differences between old and new member states274
new powers under Maastricht Treaty128–9
party groups367–70
power845
provisions of Amsterdam Treaty141–2
provisions of Nice Treaty156–8
distribution of seats159
provisions of SEA115–16
role in creation of agencies395, 396, 397
role in origins of SEA109–10
selection of Commission president241
shared legislative culture329
sociological perspectives55
time games707
transparency374n2, 671, 686
use of legal strategies355
as watchdog of agencies398–9
weakness661
European People's Party (EPP)367
European Police College (CEPOL)394, 622
European Police Office (Europol)394, 618, 622, 631–2
European Political Cooperation (EPC)82, 643, 646–7
provisions of SEA117
role in origins of SEA110
European Railway Agency (ERA)394
European Refugee Fund (ERF)818–19, 820
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)497
effectiveness503
European Roundtable of Industrialists (ERT)112–14
European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA)394
European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP)585, 595–6, 648, 649
effectiveness595–6
evaluation589–90
Civilian Crisis Management591–2
defense spending592–3
military capabilities591
security missions590–1
evolution
Civilian Crisis Management589
military power589
relationship with NATO588
influence of Nordic countries315
interventions587–8
origins586–7
sociological perspectives54–5
theoretical interpretations
constructivist593
institutionalist approaches594–5
realism594
European Security Strategy (ESS)649
European Social Fund (ESF)497
European social model546
European Stability Mechanism (ESM)460–1, 480
European Standards Bodies528
European Strategic on Research in Information Technology (ESPRIT)112, 239–40
European System of Central Banks (ESCB)124, 125
European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB)460
European Training Foundation (ETF)394
European Transparency Initiative, 2007686
European Union (EU), establishment in Lisbon Treaty166
European Union agencies392–3, 400
coordination issues801–2, 806
creation395–7, 402n15
definition393, 401n7
development397–8
common framework399
transparency and accountability398–9
(p. 869)
effectiveness399
Executive Agencies401n8
executive and regulatory393
identification394–5
summary of agencies394–5
European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EUETS)561, 562
European Union Institute for Security Studies (ISS)394
European Union of Federalists, Conference, 1956191
European Union Satellite Centre (EUSC)394, 631
European Union's Judicial Cooperation Unit (EUROJUST)394
European Venture Capital Association (EVCA)23
“Europeanism”696
Europeanization50, 68, 655, 825–6
categorization of outcomes826–7
conclusions836–7
mediating factors832
domestic828–30
EU-level830–1
of politics836
of the polity834–6
of public policy833–4
recipient-driven831–3
as response to EU adjustment pressures827–8
Europol394, 618, 622, 631–2
Eurosclerosis108, 719
Euro-skeptic parties41
Euro-skepticism717, 843, 844, 846
and national identity847–8
related factors722 see also public support
eurozone summits169
EUT (Draft Treaty of the European Union)109
evaluation of policy measures
definition676
in EU681
ex post evaluation682–3
process-evaluation monitoring682
links to transparency686–7
policy cycle context677–8
policy impact evaluation680
policy outcome evaluation679–80
policy output evaluation679
policy termination680–1
problem definition and agenda setting678–9
transparency677, 684
Everything But Arms initiative423
ex ante policy evaluations (impact assessments)681
ex post policy evaluations682–3
exchange rate mechanism (ERM)456
Thatcher's views213
exchange rates, EMU convergence criteria124
exclusionary conduct447
exclusive competence573
executive agencies393, 401n8 see also European Union agencies
expected consequences, logic of812–13
explicit compensation mechanisms, burden-sharing814
exploitation hypothesis811–12
external threats, as stimulus to integration779–80
externality theory780, 789, 790
external logic of regional integration783–5
internal logic of regional integration780–2
extraordinary renditions635
Faber, A.172
Farrell, H.707, 711
Faude, B.782
Favell, A.51, 55
federal relationship761, 772n2, 773n24
federal systems, coordination problems796, 798–9
federalist movements82, 181–2, 191
feedback loops
ECJ as source27
role in integration20, 21–2
fields, Bourdieusian53
fields of action52–3
finance, sources284–5 (p. 870)
financial crisis see economic crisis
financial market supervision460
financial perspectives499–500
unanimity506n13
financial reforms, Santer's influence243
financial risk382, 387
financial stability, “fuzzy” boundaries459
financial vulnerability, poor member states286–9
Finke, D.172
Finland
asylum burden816
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
referendum725
firms, impact of single market416
first integrative response784
fiscal federalism68
fiscal policy125
constraints288–9
fiscal surveillance, external imbalances287
Fischer, J.173–4
Fischler, F., CAP reforms488–9
Fleischer, J.87
“flexibility clause”756
flexible integration, Amsterdam Treaty142–3
flexicurity547–8
Fligstein, N.25, 51–2, 412, 847
“floor of rights” objective549
followers, definition307
Fontainebleau summit, 1984211
food safety agency802
food safety legislation488
football transfer system, Bosman case577, 579
forced migration, burden-sharing819, 820, 823n15
foreign aid, burden-sharing812
foreign direct investment (FDI)409, 411
foreign policy644
coalition patterns250–1
EPC (European Political Cooperation)646–7
functions645
multilevel governance68
preferences, differences between old and new member states270–1
provisions of Amsterdam Treaty140–1, 144
provisions of Lisbon Treaty170 see also Common Foreign and Security Policy
Fortress Europe620
as trigger for integration projects784
Fouchet Plan,196` 207
founding fathers
European Coal and Steel Community
Jean Monnet183–5
Robert Schuman185
European Defense Community186–9
European Economic Community189–90
influences181
negotiation methods191
political experience182
political ideology181–2
political intentions190
four freedoms543
France
asylum burden815
attitudes towards further enlargements271
Constitutional Treaty rejection165
convergence towards liberal model300
foreign and defense policy270
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
negotiation position, Treaties of Paris86, 87
net migration603
post-war security threats82–3
presidency during Nice Treaty negotiations152, 153, 154
ratification of Maastricht Treaty130
referendums725, 726, 844, 851n32
response to Spaak report99
views on CAP270
vote allocation, Nice Treaty157
Franco–German brigade200
Franco–German cooperation193, 202–3
De Gaulle and Adenauer207
Elysée Treaty195–6
European and international context196–202 (p. 871)
leadership312–13
personal aspects194–5
Pompidou and Brandt234
selection of Commission president240–1
Franklin, M.727
Frattini, F.637
fraud prevention, OLAF (European Anti-Fraud Office)380, 381, 386–7, 387–9
free market
preferences, differences between old and new member states269
free pursuit of interests principle768
free trade agreements412
Freedom, Security and Justice, policy evaluation682–3
freedom of movement359, 576–7
Amsterdam Treaty139–40
EEC Treaty102
Maastricht Treaty125 see also border controls
freeriding811
Prisoners’ Dilemma781
Freiberger Kommunalbauten directive536
French colonies, provisions of EEC Treaty103
FRONTEX394, 606, 618, 621
functional rational design approach, institutional structure88–9
functions of EU, member-states’ visions666–7
fundamental rights739–40, 746n1, 747n9
“fuzzy” boundaries, EMU459–60
Gabel, M.370
Gaillard, F.97
gal (green/alternative/libertarian) stance843–4, 848
Garrett, G.26, 27, 28
gas
dependency563–4
security of supply564–6
Gazprom565
General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT)424
Genscher–Colombo initiative110, 239
Georgakakis, D.55
German Länder750
impact of Lisbon Treaty756
Germany
asylum burden815
attitudes towards further enlargements271
co-determination300
coordination issues799
environmental policy515
Federal Constitutional Court, Lisbon Treaty judgement167, 173
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
Green Party515
negotiation position, Treaties of Paris86, 87
net migration603
perceived security threat to France82–3
political timescape709
post-war rehabilitation182–3
rearmament79, 186
response to Schuman Plan83, 84, 86
response to Spaak report99
reunification122
impact on Franco–German cooperation201–2, 203, 205n27
implications149–50, 151
role in defense policy586
Thatcher's views213
stance on CAP285
unification, implications157
vote allocation, Nice Treaty157see also Franco–German cooperation
Gillingham, J.86
Giscard d’Estaing, V.237
Constitutional Treaty negotiations163, 164, 172
Convention presidency260–1
cooperation with Helmut Schmidt202–3
Elysée Treaty196
European Council197–8
monetary cooperation198–9
personal aspects194, 195
dispute with Jenkins223
response to Margaret Thatcher211
and Thorn's Commission presidency238
(p. 872)
global regulation, influence of clashes of capitalism303
globalization299, 412, 424
attitudes, differences between old and new member states269
impact on CAP487
implications for European integration19
international orientation529
and multilevel governance66
Globalization Adjustment Fund503
goals, policy impact evaluation680
Goetz, K.H.835, 836
Gonzales doctrine528–9, 534, 535
governance66, 661
of competition445–8
EMU124
influence of Commission343
single market413–14, 415–16 see also multilevel governance
governance dilemma292–3
open method coordination301
governance system, compound nature662
government debt, EMU convergence criteria124
government deficit, EMU convergence criteria124
Gradin, A.243
Great Inflation, impact on EMU455–6
Greece
asylum burden815, 816
debt crisis480–1
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
net migration603
Greek crisis286, 287
green currencies486
green parties561
role in energy policy development557
role in environmental policy development515
greenhouse gas reduction520
Greenland, referendum725
Grieco, J.7
gross domestic product (GDP)290n3, 472, 482n17
comparison of member countries279–80
correlation with current account balances287–8
regional disparities281
gross national income (GNI)-based revenue284
group norms, Council323–4, 330
group rights735
growth280, 281, 283
1995–2005282
GDP per head472, 482n17
impact of EMU463
impact of regional policy501–2
Lisbon Strategy470, 472, 477–8
rapid, current account deficits288, 289
Gruber directive535
GSP Plus initiative423
Gstöhl, S.38, 412
Guiraudon, V.51, 54, 55
gulliver syndrome253
Guterres, A., Nice Treaty negotiations153
Gyllenhammar, P., Marshall Plan for Europe112
Gysbrechts directive536
Haas, E.9, 10, 19, 20, 49, 840
on Council322
on integration778–80
habitus, Bourdieusian53
Häge, F.326, 333n34
Hague me682–3
Hague summit, 1969234
Hallstein, W., Commission presidency108, 221–3, 226–8
de Gaulle's views230n19
Hansen, R.611n23
Hanson, B.411
harmonization
consumer law530, 531, 536–7
legislative competences575–6
of rights735, 744, 746n7
Hatton, T.J.612n36
Haughton, T.268
Hayward, J.308, 316
Headline Goal (HG), 2010589
health and safety, consumer law528, 533–4
health care, cross-border patient mobility576, 577
Heisenberg, D.332n19
Helsinki Headline Goal (HHG)589
Héritier, A.707, 711
heroic leadership308, 316 (p. 873)
heterotemporality705–6, 709
High Authority, ECSC88–9, 184, 185, 189
High Representative for the CFSP170
origins of position140, 144–5
high-speed society711
Hill, C.627, 647
Hilson, C.741
historical approach to rights734–5
Hitchcock, W.82–3
Hix, S.323, 368, 370, 669
Hobolt, S.B.367, 726
Hoffmann, S9
Hohfeld, W.N.741–3
home bias414
homogeneity, constitutional769–70
Hooghe, L.41, 43, 836
on MLG64, 65, 67, 70, 72
on multilevel governance500–1
on origins of single market413
Postfunctionalist Theory723
on referendums724
Hoon, G.588
horizontal coordination805
Howe, G.213
HR/VP651–3, 654
human rights736–7, 739–40
impact of Lisbon Treaty167
parliamentarization and institutionalization40 see also rights
humanitarian missions, realist perspective8
humdrum leadership308
policy-making314–15
Hungary
and CAP285
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
referendum725
Hyde-Price, A.8–9
hypocrisy, problem of8
Idealservice directive535
ideas and discourses, role in constructivism35, 37
ideational coordination methods797
ideational factors
effect on integration outcomes39–40, 42
role in European integration37–9, 42, 85
identity690, 847–8
causal role in European integration691–3
as effect of European integration694–5
implications699–700
influence on public support720, 722–3
measurement692, 693
multilevel structure695–7
relationship to European integration42–3
religion, ethnicity, and immigration697–9
research approaches691
value coherence697 see also national identities
identity building666
illegal immigrants database385
illegal immigration617, 620
Imig, D.841
immigration601
identity issues697–9
illegal617, 620
as solution to demographic shift602, 609n10
third-country nationals605–7 see also migration
immigration policy620
sociological perspectives54
immunities, Hohfeld's concept742
Impact Assessment Board387
impact assessments681
role in transparency685–6
implementation of policies
failures, environmental policy516–17
multilevel governance67
process-evaluation monitoring682
transparency686
implicit trading mechanisms, burden-sharing814, 820–1
in camera negotiation, Council325–7, 330
incentives to Europeanization830–1
incomplete contracts785
consequences787–8
explanatory factors787
incrementalism779 (p. 874)
inflation rate
EMU convergence criteria124
performance of ECB461–2
information society, Lisbon Strategy469
infrastructure, regional aid497
infringement procedure352
Inglehart, R.693, 694, 694–5
on public support for integration718–19
initiation stage, policy-making67
initiative right, provision of Lisbon Treaty168
input legitimacy662–3, 667–9
institutional choice, liberal intergovernmentalism11
institutional design
preferences, differences between old and new member states268–9
institutional involvement, differences between old and new member states272
Commission, European Parliament and ECJ273–5
Council of Ministers272–3
transposition of EU law275
institutional plateau, Lisbon Treaty173
institutional rule trajectory7
institutional structure
impact of Lisbon Treaty166–7
provisions of Amsterdam Treaty141–2, 144
provisions of Maastricht Treaty128–9
provisions of SEA115–16
as source of coordination problems796
Treaties of Paris88–90
institutionalist approaches, interpretation of ESDP594–5
institutionalization, neo-functionalist theory24
insulation, Council325–6, 330
integrated approach, impact assessment681
Integrated Guidelines for Growth and Jobs, Lisbon Strategy476, 477, 478, 479–80, 483n44
Integrated Mediterranean Program225
integration, comparative see comparative regional integration
integration outcomes, ideational factors39–40, 42
integration preferences, ideational nature37–9
integration theories3–4, 13–14
constructivism34–5, 42–3
ideas and integration preferences37–9
ideational effects on integration outcomes39–40
socialization effects of integration41–2
theory35–7
intergovernmentalism and liberal intergovernmentalism9–11
multilevel governance62–3, 72
applications67–9
comparison with neo-functionalism63
critiques69–72
shift from government to governance66–7
theoretical project64–5
neo-functionalism27–8
aims and logic19–20
early abandonment18–19
empirical hypotheses24–5
empirical research25–7
updated approach20–4
rational-choice institutionalism11–13
realism4–9
sociological perspectives48, 57–8
“bottom-up” approach49–50
Bourdieu's work53–4
constructivist and interpretative approaches50–1
distinctiveness56–7
Fligstein's work51–2
strengths54–5
integrative responses784
intelligence627–8
distinction from information628
EU capabilities630–2
European intelligence “clubs”632–4
transatlantic cooperation637–9
intelligence cooperation629
Intelligence Division of the European Military Staff (Intdiv)631
intelligence management628 (p. 875)
interactive effects, legitimizing mechanisms663–4
interest groups845
transparency686
interest rates
EMU convergence criteria124
performance of ECB461
intergovernmental bargaining, regional policy499–500
intergovernmental conferences (IGCs)
negotiation process137, 145
role in origins of SEA111–12
intergovernmental institutions, support of small states251–2
intergovernmentalism3, 9–11, 17n59, 22, 28, 34, 840
inter-institutional synchronization710–11
intermediation processes, throughput legitimacy670, 671
Internal Energy Market Program559–61, 567
internal logic of regional integration780–2
internal market
competition443
definition in SEA410
impact on consumer law development529–30
role in origins of JHA domain615 see also liberalization of the market
Internal Market Support Committee (IMSC)114
International Energy Agency (IEA)558
international negotiations, environmental policy519–21
International Political Economy (IPE), and trade policy analysis432–3
interpretivism, and sociological approach50–1
Investigation and Disciplinary Office (IDOC)387
investment diversion, role in integration784
Iraq war, 20037, 649
Ireland
asylum burden816
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
Lisbon Treaty referendums165–6, 261, 264
net migration603
Nice Treaty, Seville mandate159–60
referendums725, 726
Islam, religious divisions698
issue linkage, cohesion policy499–500
Italy
asylum burden815
Commission presidency nomination, 1970235
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
referendum725
Jabko, N.412
Jachtenfuchs, M.324, 325
Japan
growth, 1995–2005282
multinational companies, investment in Europe411
Jenkins, R., Commission presidency223–4, 226–8, 237
Jessop, B.69
“joint decision trap”665
Jolly, S.721
Jordan, A.69
Jospin, L., Nice Treaty negotiations152, 154
judicial cooperation623–4
civil matters624
judicial review764–5
Juncker, J.C.245
Justice and Home Affairs (JHA)122, 132, 613–14, 624–5
asylum policy618–19
external border management620–1
immigration policy620
internal security
judicial cooperation623–4
police cooperation622
judicial cooperation in civil matters624
Maastricht Treaty128
obstacles and driving factors616–18
origins614–16
(p. 876)
Kaczynski, L., deviance from Council norms324
Kagan, R.8
Kaiser, W.85
Kauppi, N.51, 55
Keleman, D.R.399
Kempton, J.429
Kerremans, B.428, 429
Kim, M.697
Kinnock reform339
Kinshasa, ESDP intervention594–5
Kirchhof, P.769
Kitschelt, H.721
Klaus, V., Lisbon Treaty ratification166, 172–3
Kohl, H.111, 238
Amsterdam Treaty negotiations137, 142
cooperation with François Mitterrand202–3
defense policy199–200
Elysée Treaty196
impact of German reunification201–2
monetary cooperation200–1
personal aspects194–5
political union200
selection of Commission president240–1
on political union122–3
Kohler-Koch, B.72
Kok Report, 2005476
König, T.172
Krapohl, S.782
Kreppel, A.367
Kriesi, H.-P.668
Krugman, P.416
Kyoto Protocol513, 520, 561
labor market flexibility603
labor market integration602–4
labor market regulation542
evolution543–6
future development551–2
justifications546–9
Viking and Laval cases549–50
labor utilization and productivity482n17
Laeken Declaration587, 685
Lamers, K.310
Lamfalussy process460
Large Combustion Plant Directive (LCPD)561
large versus small states problem249–50, 264–5
Convention, coalitions, interests and power politics260–1
Council presidency, leveling effect328
Irish referendums on Lisbon Treaty261, 264
management
Commission composition253, 256
composition of European Parliament256–7, 258–9
rotating Council presidency257
supranational and intergovernmental balance251–2
weighted votes252–3
Latin America, regional integration779
Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA)782, 783, 784
Latvia
GDP per head, 2007280, 281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
referendum725
Laursen, F.782
Laval and Partneri case, ECJ275
Laval case549–50
Laver, M.841
law administration, role of Ombudsman384
Lawson, N.213
LEADER program682
leader states, environmental policy514–15
“leaderless” condition of EU308
leadership306, 315–16
as consequence of differentiation309–12
definition307
Franco–German cooperation312–13
heroic versus humdrum308
instability800–1
policy leaders314–15
Leca, J.666
Leconte, C.699
left-right conflict842–4, 848
legal issues (p. 877)
composite (Verbund) perspective768–9
loyalty principle770–1
structural compatibility769–70
effectiveness principle762–4
principle of comprehensive legal protection764–5
principle of free pursuit of interests768
principles of the order of competences766–7, 774n50
rule of law principle761–2
transposition of EU law, differences between old and new member states275
legal norms743–5
legal order352–3
legal rights736
sources743–5 see also rights
legal strategies, use in political process354–7
legality principle765–6
legislative competences571–2
governing rules575–6
legislative policy-making, influence of Commission341–2
legislature, Europeanization835
legitimacy661–2, 831
legitimizing mechanisms662–4
input legitimacy667–9
output legitimacy664–7
throughput legitimacy669–72
Legro, J.6
Lenz, T.785
Leonardi, R.502
“level playing field,” as justification for social policy548–9
Lewis, J.40
liberal intergovernmentalism10–11, 34, 42–3, 49–50, 723
interpretation of Treaties of Paris84–5
problems28, 32n52
views on Commission336, 344–5
views on origins of single market412
liberal model, convergence299–302
liberalization of the market
competition policy443
consolidation298–302
enforcement410–11
preferences, differences between old and new member states269
role of capitalist diversity295–7
role of European Court of Justice359–60
Treaties of Rome408–9 see also single market program
liberals, benefits from left–right competition368
Liechtenstein
asylum burden816
referendum725
“lifeworld”746, 748n30
Liikanen, E.243
Lincoln, A.663
lingual assimilation692
Linz, J.704
Lipgens, W.82
Lisbon Agenda683
consumer law537, 538
Lisbon Strategy469–71, 843
competitiveness rationale471–2
economic coordination473–4
governance and implementation474–7
open method coordination301, 803
performance477–9
Lisbon Treaty132, 301, 327, 334n43, 425
co-decision procedure342
and Commission227, 228
composition256
presidency340
on competition policy442, 443, 444
on external action650, 654
impact
on citizens’ rights167–8
on EU competences167, 573,579–80, 767
on EU decision-making168–70
on EU structure166–7
on European and national parliaments168
on external relations and defense policy170
provisions for treaty revision171
on regional engagement755–7
Irish referendums165–6, 261, 264
JHA domain616
legitimacy problems671 (p. 878)
and nature of EU polity173–4
negotiations and ratification165–6
Party Article369
procedures and personalities172–3
provisions for CAP490
provisions for data protection386
regional policy499
on solidarity810
voting system reform253
Lithuania
alleged CIA secret prisons637
attitudes towards further enlargements271
GDP per head, 2007280, 281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
referendum725
living standards disparities278
London Report, 1981110
lowest common denominator decisions64
loyalty principle770–1
Lubbers, R.240
Luxembourg
asylum burden816
attitudes towards further enlargements271
GDP per head, 2007281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
referendum726
Luxembourg Compromise107, 108, 208–9
impact on Commission343
Luxembourg process (European Employment Strategy)474
Lynch, F.84
Maastricht Accord, legitimation process846
Maastricht Treaty (Treaty on European Union)121–2, 151, 841
on citizenship601
and College term227
and Commission227, 342–3
competition policy443, 444
and differentiation310
EMU124–5
asymmetry458
UK and Danish opt-outs299
and European Court of Justice352, 357
explanation130–2
institutional changes128–9
JHA domain615–16
liberal intergovernmentalist perspective11
main policy changes125–7
negotiation122–3
new Pillars127–8
on political parties369
provision for Ombudsman383
provisions for further discussion136, 145n3
ratification129–30
security provisions586
significance132
social chapter, UK opt-out299
social policy, collective agreements545
on transparency685
Macedonia
ESDP intervention590
GDP per head, 2007281
support for membership272
macro-prudential supervision460
MacSharry, R., CAP reforms487
“mad cow” disease (BSE), repercussions488
Majone, G.345, 413, 664, 665
Major, J., opposition to Dehaene241
Malfatti, F.233, 234–6, 245
Malta
asylum burden816
EUREMA project817
GDP per head, 2007280, 281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
referendum725
Manners, I.8
Mara-Drita, I.52
market liberalization see liberalization of the market
Marks, G.43, 62–3, 65, 836
on MLG64, 67, 70, 72
on multilevel governance499, 500–1
on origins of single market413
Postfunctionalist Theory723
recommendations for treaty reform process174
on referendums724
Marks & Spencer case, ECJ356–7 (p. 879)
Martin Report123
Marty, R.636
Mattli, W.26, 358, 780, 789
maximum harmonization529
consumer law530, 531, 536–7
Mayer, R.190
McCormick, J.696
McDonagh, R.137
McLauren, L.722
Mearsheimer, J.5, 6
media, communicative discourses on EU666, 668
member state autonomy, safeguards767
member states, residual rights of control786
Members of the European Parliament (MEPs)
constituency activities373
elections366–7, 723–4
party groups367–70
periods of office706 see also European Parliament
Mendez, C.501
Menon, A.664
Mérand, F.54, 55, 56–7, 593
Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR)782, 783
incomplete contract789
merger regulation442, 447, 449n9
mergers, energy companies560
Merkel, A.843
and Lisbon Treaty165, 172
proposal of eurozone summits169
Meroni doctrine395, 402n10
Messerlin, P.411–12
Messina conference96–7
Spaak report97–9
Meunier, S.431
Meyer, C.O.593
Meyer-Sahling, J.-H.835
Middle European Conference633, 634
Middle German Commercial Union783, 784
migration278, 601, 602, 603
citizenship rights604–5
labor market integration602–4
Milan Council, 1985212
milieu goals645
military cooperation644
Milner, H.81, 86, 87, 88
Milward, A.86
minimum harmonization principle528–9
minorities’ rights741
Missing Links, ERT 1984112
Mitchell, J.753–4
Mitterrand, F.111, 122–3, 238
cooperation with Helmut Kohl202–3
defense policy199–200
Elysée Treaty196
impact of German reunification201–2, 205n27
monetary cooperation200–1
personal aspects194–5
political union200
selection of Commission president240–1
mixed motives, problem of8
mobilization, regional753–4
modulation, CAP488
Moldova, support for membership271, 272
monetary compensatory amounts486
monetary policy
Franco–German cooperation200–1, 202
provisions of SEA116
monetary unionsee European Monetary Union (EMU)
Monnet, J.79, 183–6
Action Committee98
ECSC negotiations191
European army scheme186
European Council197
role in EEC foundation189–90
Monnet Plan84
monolithic myth of realism6
moral hazard286–7
moral rights736–7 see also rights
Moravcsik, A.6, 7, 14n1, 26, 27
on influence of Commission344–5
liberal intergovernmentalism10–11, 13, 32n52, 33n53, 33n54, 49–50
problems28
on Maastricht Treaty130–1
on nature of EU polity173
on origins of single market412
on output legitimacy664
recommendations for treaty reform process174
(p. 880)
Mostanza Claro directive536
multiannual programming principle, Delors I package498
multidimensional burden-sharing814
multi-functionality, CAP487
multilateral trading system423, 424, 425
ratification of agreements428
multilevel governance (MLG)28, 62–3, 72, 496, 499–501, 754–5, 848
applications67–9
comparison with neo-functionalism63
coordination issues797, 799
critiques69–72
shift from government to governance66–7
theoretical project64–5
multiple identities695–7
multi-speed Europe310–11
Murrah, L.26
mutual recognition principle297–8, 303, 411
civil justice cooperation624
judicial decisions623
Nabucco project566
Nahuis, S.502–3
Napolitano, G., recommendations for treaty reform process174
Narjes, K.-H.112
national competition agencies (NCAs)446
national courts
acceptance of ECJ supremacy358
enforcement of principles of the order of competences767, 774n50
national elections, importance of European integration issues841
national executives, Europeanization834–5
national governments
acceptance of ECJ358–9
coordination805
aspirations798
structures798–9
limited control65
reasons to relinquish authority70
national identities604, 847
compatibility with European identity695–7
effects of European integration697
influence on public support720, 722–3
relationship to European integration36, 38–9, 42
stability41 see also identity
national interest school, German post-war rehabilitation182
national interests, free pursuit of interests principle768
national legislature, synchronization problems with EU710–11
national parliaments
monitoring of rules governing competences579–80
subsidiarity concerns, provision of Lisbon Treaty756
national parties, links to MEPs368–9
national politicians, discussion of EU666, 668
national politics, positions on integration727, 728
national proxies, as explanation of public support721–2
national reform programs (NRPs)
Lisbon Strategy476–7, 483n45
performance478
national regulatory authority (NRA) networks399
national sovereignty
impact of globalization66
obstacles to JHA domain616–17
National Strategic Reference Frameworks (NSRFs)501
national values, clashes with EU policies665–6
nationalism843
nationalism studies
identity as causality691–3
identity as effect694–5
Natura 2000 legislation, implementation problems519
natural rights743
Naurin, D,326
negative legality principle765–6
“negative” rules, TFEU572
negotiation methods, Council323–4
neo-classical realism5–6
normative power argument8
neo-functionalism9, 10, 27–8, 34, 49, 723, 731n35, 840–1
aims and logic19–20
comparison with multilevel governance63
early abandonment18–19
empirical hypotheses24–5
empirical research
macro-level processes25–6
sectoral outcomes26–7
theory of comparative regional integration778–80, 789, 790
updated approach20–1
cross-border transactors21–2
institutionalization24
supranational organizations22–3
views on Commission336
neo-realism4–5, 6
neo-realist voice opportunities hypothesis7
Netherlands
Constitutional Treaty rejection165, 692
environmental policy515
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
referendum726
vote allocation, Nice Treaty157
network environment, Council325–6
networks, European Competition Network (ECN)446, 447
“new approach” directives528
New Governance
role in policy coordination803–4 see also soft law
new member states (NMS)267 see also old versus new member states
new public management388
Nice Treaty149–50, 163
actors152–3
asylum policy606
background151
on Commission composition256
on Commission presidency227
and Commission presidency340
context151–2
defense policy587
distribution of European Parliamentary seats159
key issues154–5
large versus small states problem265n1
negotiations155–6
on composition of the Commission156
on QMV158
on voting weights and representation issues156–8
presidencies153–4
Seville mandate159–60
significance160
social policy545–6
voting system reform253, 254–5
Nicholson, H.J.634
Niemann, A.427
Noël, E.222, 326
Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS)279, 290n5
non-governmental organizations, environmental (ENGOs)515–16, 519
non-majoritan institutions, legitimacy665
Nord Stream pipelines557, 565
Nordic countries
leadership314–15 see also Denmark; Finland; Norway; Sweden
normative effects, role in integration40, 42–3
normative power argument8
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)782, 783
complete contract785–7, 788
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)644
burden-sharing810, 811–12
intervention in Yugoslavian conflicts647
relationship with ESDP588–9, 594
Special Committee633–4
North German Tax Union784
North–South divide, environmental policy517–18
Norway
asylum burden815, 816
referendums725
(p. 882)
Obama, B.269, 271, 652
obligations
attractiveness738–9
Hohfeld's analysis742–3
system-relative character737–8 see also rights
occupational pension age, Barber case544
Océano directive535
OEEC (Organization for European Economic Cooperation), “Plan G”100
offensive realism5, 6–7
Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM)394
oil prices556, 564
oil shocks, 1970s, responses558
OLAF (European Anti-Fraud Office)380, 381, 386–7
significance387–9
old member states (OMS)267
old versus new member states275
differences in institutional involvement272
Commission, European Parliament and ECJ273–5
Council of Ministers272–3
transposition of EU law275
differences in preferences268
distributive policies269–70
foreign and security policy270–1
further enlargements271–2
institutional design268–9
liberalization of the market269
Olson, M.811
Ombudsman380, 381, 383–4, 685, 686
cooperation with EDPS385
significance387–9
one-dimensional burden-sharing814
O’Neill, C.236
Open Method of Coordination (OMC)301, 303, 343, 474–5, 483n46, 797, 803, 805, 832
European Employment Strategy (Luxembourg process)545
and multi-level governance68
performance478
open-source intelligence628
Ophuels, C.F.97
Optimum Currency Area (OCA) theories457
opt-outs311, 316
from EMU124, 455
implications, Council norms324
Lisbon Treaty166, 167
Maastricht Treaty126, 139, 142, 299
order of competences766–7, 774n50
ordinary procedure342 see also co-decision procedure
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)558
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)737
organized crime, impact on JHA domain617
Ostrom, E.324
Ouchi, W.333n30
output legitimacy662, 663, 664–7
ozone depletion520
Paris, Treaties ofsee Treaties of Paris
parliamentary governments
coordination issues796 see also European Parliament; national parliaments
Parsons, C.37–8, 81, 85, 87–8
participation in European community694–5
participative democracy, provision of Lisbon Treaty168
partnership principle752
Delors I package498
Party Article369
party groups372, 373, 668
electoral profiles844
environmental policy515, 519
European Parliament367–70
funding375n26
influence within committees371
integration preferences38
left-right conflict842–4
performance in European Parliament elections724
strategic interaction845–6
Party of European Socialists (PES)367, 369
Passenger Named Records638, 639
passenger rights, consumer law533 (p. 883)
path-dependence, institutionalization24
Patijn, M.139
Patten, C.649
peacekeeping missions, realist perspective8
Pedersen, T.314
people sharing, asylum policy816–17
permissive consensus716, 727, 849
Pernice, I.769
Perraton, J.68
Peters, B.G.69, 71
Petersberg tasks141, 586–7, 630
physical relocation, refugees819
Pierre, J.69, 71
Pierson, P.24, 705
pillar structure, Maastricht Treaty121, 127–8
Pinto, L.53, 56
Pitarkis, J-Y.25–6
“Plan G”100
pledging mechanisms814
Pléven Plan79–80, 83, 186
pluralism, impact on integration778, 779
Poland
alleged CIA secret prisons636
attitudes towards further enlargements271
benefits from CAP285
Catholic values269
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
referendum725
views on CAP270
police cooperation622
policy coordination see coordination
policy cycle
evaluation of policy measures677–8
policy impact evaluation680
policy outcome evaluation679–80
policy output evaluation679
policy termination680–1
problem definition and agenda setting678–9
transparency683–4
policy effectiveness, evaluationsee evaluation of policy measures
policy impacts677–8
evaluation680
policy-making
Europeanization833–4
“high” versus “low” politics644
impact of Commission341
effect of Luxembourg Compromise343
governance principles343
legislative issues341–2
single market program343–4
theoretical perspectives344–5
influence of Commission, guardianship of Treaty342–3
leaders and laggards314–15
policy-making stages67
policy outcomes677
evaluation679–80
policy outputs677
evaluation679
Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit (PPEWU), CFSP140
policy priorities
preferences, differences between old and new member states268–9
policy problems678
transparency683–4
policy termination680–1
policy trade model812
political business cycles709
Political Committee646
political economy
importance of rich versus poor cleavage284–6
views on origins of single market412, 413
political institutions, impact on Europeanization829
political partiessee party groups
political pluralism, impact on integration778, 779
political process, use of legal strategies354–7
political time703–4
conclusions712–13
priority issues704–5 (p. 884)
relevance708–9
synchronization problems710–11
temporal differentiation712
time pressures711–12
timescape and time games705–8
political union
impact of EMU464
Maastricht Treaty, negotiation122–3
politicization65, 668, 669, 840–1
and identity847–8
of issues844–7
left-right conflict842–4, 848
politics, Europeanization836
polity
Europeanization834–6
time rules704
Pollack, M.88–9, 431
“polluter pays” principle814
pollution, acid rain561, 568n9
Pompidou, G.209
cooperation with Brandt234
poor member states
benefits of European integration283
comparison of member countries’ GDP279–80
vulnerability to crises286–9 see also rich versus poor member states
Poos, J.647
population versus territory issue150
Portugal
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
presidency during Nice Treaty negotiations153–4
positive legality principle766–7
Posted Workers’ Directive291n16, 549, 554n62
Postfunctionalist Theory723
post-material value theory719
power asymmetries
commitment devices789
influence on contractual choices786–7
powers, Hohfeld's concept742
Praesidium, Constitutional Treaty negotiations164, 172
preliminary rulings procedure, European Court of Justice356, 358
presidencies
benefits137–8
European Council169
presidential cycles709
coordination issues800–1
price stability125
performance of ECB461–2
primacy principle764
principal–agent analysis12–13
trade policy429, 431–2
principles745
Principles of European Contract Law (PECL)531
Prisoners’ Dilemma781
Private Law codification project531–2
private plaintiffs, access to European Court of Justice356–7
privileges740, 741
procedural impartiality, Council presidency328
process-evaluation monitoring682
Prodi, R.802
cycling metaphor311
product safety, consumer law533–4
productivity, Lisbon Strategy472–3
professionalization, as source of coordination problems796
proportionality principle577–8
protectionism424, 425
Protestant beliefs848
Prüm Decision622
public debt levels286
public order, rules governing competences576–7
public policy, Europeanization833–4
public services, competition policy443–4, 445
public spheres696
public support716–17, 841
definition and measurement717–18, 719
in domestic politics727
elections to European Parliament723–4
for EMU465–6
explanatory factors718–19, 720
cue-taking approach721–2
identity approach722–3
utilitarian approach721
referendums724, 725–6, 726
Puga, D.502
purchasing power parity standard (PPS)290n3
Putnam, R.D.430, 431
Qualification Directive, 2004818
qualified majority voting (QMV)108, 121, 252, 297
for CFSP implementation650
evolution254–5
Nice Summit155, 158
provisions of Amsterdam Treaty140, 141–2, 147n37
provisions of Lisbon Treaty169–70
provisions of Maastricht Treaty129
significance132
quasi-experiments, policy impact evaluation680
Rapid Reaction force587
rational-choice institutionalism (RCI)11–13
rationalist institutionalism, perspective on Europeanization828–9, 830–1
rationality14n2
realism4–9, 14n2
interpretation of ESDP594
interpretation of Treaties of Paris82–3
Reception Conditions Directive, 2003818
reciprocity principle283–4, 285
recycling, Danish Bottle Case514
redistribution of resources285–6, 415, 842
redistributive quotas814
referendums669, 716–17, 724, 725–6, 726, 846–7
on Constitutional Treaty844, 851n32
Reflection Group, 1995136
refugee protection
burden-sharing815
common policy approach817–18, 819–20
funding818–19, 820
implicit trade model820
people sharing816–17, 823n18
criticisms and proposals for reform819–20
regional aid278–9 see also structural funds
regional classification scheme279
regional dimension749–50
analysis across sectors752
analysis over space753–4
analysis over time750–2
conclusions757–8
diversity754–5
impact of Lisbon Treaty755–7
Regional Fund116
regional mobilization753–4
regional policy496, 505
Barca Report, 2009503–4
Commission strategic report, 2010504
contribution to convergence283
effectiveness501–3
evaluation682
evolution497–9
future504–5
motivation283–4
multilevel governance499–501
unanimity of financial perspectives506n13
Sapir Report, 2003503
regional specialization416
RegLeg grouping751
regressive proportionality252
regulatory agencies393 see also European Union agencies
Reif, K.366
religion, identity issues697–9
renationalization70–1
cohesion policy501
Renewables Directive556
representation issues284, 716–17, 728
Commission composition253, 256, 340 (p. 886)
composition of European Parliament256–7
evolution258–9
elections to European Parliament723–4
European Court of Justice351
legitimacy problems667
legitimacy problems672
Nice Treaty149–50, 150, 152, 155, 156–8
distribution of European Parliamentary seats159
referendums724, 725–6, 726
weighted votes252–3
research and development
Lisbon Strategy469, 477
provisions of SEA116–17
resettlement of refugees819
responsibility-sharingsee burden-sharing
restructuring fund503
“Return Directive,” 2008818
rhetorical entrapment, negotiations for EU enlargement40
Rhodes, R.A.W.66
rich member states, comparison of member countries’ GDP279–80
rich versus poor member states278–9
importance in political economy284–6
rights
analysis741–3
attractiveness738–9
conclusions745–6
definitions736
enforcement735–6
fragmentation740–1
fundamental739–40, 746n1, 747n9
harmonization735, 744, 746n7
perspectives734–5
sources743–5
system-relative character736–8 see also citizenship rights
rights basis, social policy544–5
Risse, T.696
Rittberger, B.40
Robertson, K.628
roll-call data, validity375n15
Romania
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
referendum725
Rome, Treaties of see Treaties of Rome
Romero, F.101
Rosa, H.711
Rose, G.5
Ross, G.55
rotating presidency, Council257, 265, 327–8
rule of law principle761–2
effectiveness principle762–4
and legality principle765–6
rural development policy488
Russia
gas pipelines557, 565–6
intelligence services634
S&D (Group of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats)367
Sadurski, W.835
Saint Malo declaration, defense policy587
sanctioning powers770–1
Sandholtz, W.70, 112, 344, 412
Sandler, T.811
Santer, J.233–4
Commission presidency240–5
Santiso, J.704
Santos Palhota case551
Sapir, A.502
Sapir Report, 2003475–6, 503, 683
Sarkozy, N.
on Lisbon Treaty264
proposal of eurozone summits169
Sarrazin, T.698
satellite observation programs631
Saurugger, S.51
Sbragia, A.417
Scandinavian countries, reluctance to join EU38
Scharpf, F.W.662, 665, 705, 805
Schäuble, W.310, 504
Schäuble–Lamers paper, 1994143
Schaus, L.97
Schengen Agreement139–40, 146n22, 309, 311, 600–1
(p. 887) influences607–8
on citizenship rights604–5
on external border control605–7
on JHA domain617–19
on labor market integration602–4
Schengen Borders Code620, 621
Schengen group, external border management620–1
Schengen Information System (SIS)601, 621
Schengen system, role in origins of JHA domain614–15
Scheuerman, W.E.711
Schierup, C.-U, A European Dilemma607
Schimmelfennig, F.11, 13
Schmidt, H.237
cooperation with Valérie Giscard d’Estaing202–3
Elysée Treaty196
European Council197–8
monetary cooperation198–9
personal aspects194, 195
response to Margaret Thatcher211
Schmidt, S.K.26
Schmitt, H.366
Schmitter, P.C.840
Schout, A.399
Schuck, P.820
Schuman, R.79, 181, 185, 186, 188
Schuman Plan83, 84, 86, 88, 89, 185
Scmitter, P.704
scrutinizing organizations380–1
European Court of Auditors (ECA)381–3
European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS)384–6
OLAF (European Anti-Fraud Office)386–7
Ombudsman383–4
significance387–9
Scully, R.41
second integrative response784
second-order election model366, 373
Secreariat General228
“secret prisons”635, 636–7
Secretariat, Council328–9
Secretary-General, Council328
security dilemma5
security of energy supply564–6
Seixas da Costa, F., Nice Treaty negotiations153–4
Sen, A., capability approach547
Serbia, support for membership272
Services, Commission338
services field, consumer law weakness533
set-aside scheme485
Settembri, P.273
Seville mandate, Nice Treaty159–60
shale gas566, 567
shared legislative culture329
short-termism708–9
Single Area Payment Scheme (SAPS)489
single currency, Maastricht Treaty124
Single Euro Payment Area (SEPA)459
Single European Act (SEA)63, 107–8, 151, 410
on border controls601
Franco–German cooperation200
impact117–18
on Commission342
key provisions115–17
origins108–9, 114–15
role of European Parliament109–10
role of European Political Cooperation110
role of intergovernmental bargaining111–12
role of transnational leadership112–14
timeline113
provisions for cohesion498
role in consumer law development527–8, 529
role in defense policy586
Single Farm Payment (SFP) scheme488
single market program407, 417–18, 423
comparison with Lisbon Strategy471
directions for future research
comparative research417
compliance and implementation416
economic diversity416–17
governance concerns415–16
historical influences414–15
explanation of origins412–13
external dimension411–12
governance413–14
impact of Commission343–4
impact on trade policy424–5 (p. 888)
origins408–9
1992 program410
early integration409
role of Delors225
role in environmental policy development514
rule-making and enforcement410–11
Thatcher's role211–12
Single Market Act407
SitCen (Joint Situation Centre)630, 631, 632
Slapin, J17n59
Slovakia
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
referendum725
Slovenia
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
referendum725
Small Farmers Scheme (SFS)488
small states
coalition patterns251
representation284 see also large versus small states problem
Smith, A.55
Smith, K.654
Smith, M.68
“snake in the tunnel”198
Snoy et d’Oppeurs, J.-C.97
social action logics812–13
Social Agenda Package547
Social Charter, 1989544
social citizenship547
social constructivism54
social exclusion, risk from consumer law537–8
“social field,” ESDP (European Security and Defense Policy)593
social integration, role of European Court of Justice360–1, 364n54
social learning processes, constructivist theories36
social market economy551, 555n71
social models472, 481n16
social pluralism, impact on integration778, 779
social policy542
Amsterdam Treaty139
competences572–3
EEC Treaty103, 294–5
evolution
Defrenne cases543–4
EEC Treaty543
Maastricht Treaty545
Nice Treaty545–6
Treaties of Rome543
future development551–2
implications for domestic policy549–51
justifications
capabilities547–8
industrial/social citizenship546–7
market-making548
response to single market546
left-right conflict842–3
Maastricht Treaty126, 545
SEA116
social progress clause550
social security, rules governing competences576–7
socialization696
effects of integration41–2
Inglehart's theory693, 694
societal actors, influence on trade policy426
sociocultural rights735
sociological perspectives57–8
“bottom-up” approach49–50
Bourdieu's work53–4
constructivist and interpretative approaches50–1
distinctiveness56–7
Fligstein's work51–2
strengths54–5
“soft balancing”594
soft law
competition policy442, 445, 446, 447–8
and OMC475
role in policy coordination803–4, 805
Solana, J.144, 630–1, 632, 648–50
Solemn Declaration on European Union,1983111 (p. 889)
solidarity691, 810
citizenship699
limitations285–6
measurement692
nationalism691–2 see also burden-sharing
Solow growth model501–2
Soltz, H.782
Somali pirates, ESDP intervention590
South Stream project566
sovereign debt crisis, 2010
impact on regional policy504–5
responses480–1
sovereignty
intergovernmentalism9–11
rational-choice institutionalism12
residual rights of control786
Soviet Union collapse, impact on EU6–7, 122, 135
Spaak, P.-H.96, 97, 187
EEC negotiations191
Spaak report97–9, 99, 190, 408
Spain
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
net migration603
referendum726
vote allocation, Nice Treaty157
Special Committee on Agriculture(SCA)325
specialization, collective goods provision812, 822, 824n40
specific support for integration see utilitarian support for integration
Spierenburg, D.89
Spierenburg Report339
spillover20, 64, 90, 473, 779
ECJ as source27
effect on JHA domain617–18
EMU as132
role in integration21–2
and sovereign debt crisis480
Spinelli, A.104, 109, 187–8, 189, 191
sport, Bosman case577, 579
Spruyt, H.785–9
St Matthew principle752
Stability and Growth Pact, 2005 reform345
Stability and Growth Pact (SGB) proposal456, 458
Staff Regulations387
staff mediator387
stakeholder consultation685, 687
Stasavage, D.326
state aid444–5
state capacity, consequences of single market415–16
state-centric view14n2
and multilevel governance64
on origins of single market412
tension with multilevel governance68–9
Treaties of Paris81
statist models294
fall from favor296
Steuneberger, B.275
Stone Sweet, A.25, 52, 70, 358
Strategic Defense Initiative586
strategic partnerships653
strong intergovernmentalism22
structural compatibility769–70
structural funds10, 496, 752
distribution preferences, differences between old and new member states270
effectiveness502
evaluation of policy measures682
Sapir Report, 2003503
structural programming500
structural realism5
structure/agency debate181
Stubb, A.143, 310–11, 712
sub-national actors, role in cohesion policy500–1
subsidiarity principle125, 577–80, 751
provisions of Lisbon Treaty756
“sunset legislation”681
Supplementary Information Request at the National Entry (SIRENE) offices601
supply-side conditions of integration781
supporting competences573
supranational agency, impact on integration778, 779
supranational governance, neo-functionalist theory19–20, 25 (p. 890)
supranational institutions, support of small states251–2
supranational organizations, neo-functionalist theory22–3, 25, 26
supranationalism, and Treaties of Paris81–2
supranationality840–1
supremacy principle, EU law353
surveys, Eurobarometer718, 719, 722, 730n11
sustainability
of Europeanization837
of transport policy683
sustainable development513
international negotiations520
Sutherland Report527
SVR (Foreign Intelligence Service, Russia)634
Sweden
asylum burden815, 816
coordination799
Council presidency, leadership314
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
net migration603
Ombudsman383
referendums725
Switzerland
asylum burden815, 816
referendums725, 726
reluctance to join EU38
symmetrical regional heterogeneity778, 779
synchronization problems710–11
systemic risk460
Tallberg, J.328, 329
tan (traditionalist/authority/nationalism) stance843–4, 848, 848
TARGET (Euro Payment and Settlement Scheme)459
Tarrant, A.399
Tarrow, S.413, 664
taxation
rights issues744
rules governing competences576–7
teleological interpretation methods, European Court of Justice353–4
temporal differentiation712
territorial politics757–8
territoriality principle616–17
terrorism618
impact on JHA domain617
judicial cooperation623
responses630
TREVI (Terrorisme, radicalisme, extrémisme et violence internationale)614, 617 see also counter-terrorism
TEU (Treaty on European Union)see Maastricht Treaty
Thatcher, M.111, 206, 210, 237
British Budgetary Question (BBQ)211, 224
fall from power214
influence on European integration214–16
market liberalization296
and monetary union213
relationships with other leaders211, 212–13
role in single market program211–12
and Thorn's Commission presidency238
views on German reunification213
Thielemann, E.R.820
third part access, energy networks559
third-country nationals, asylum policy618–19
Third-Country Nationals (TCNs)605, 611n24
Thorn, G.233–4, 245
three-level game metaphor, trade policy430
throughput legitimacy662, 663, 664, 669–72, 673n7
time
as an institution705 see also political time
time games704–5, 707–8
in enlargement negotiations712
time rules704, 706–7, 709
timescape705–7
elements of continuity708–9
Tobacco Advertising case575–6
Toshkov, D.275
Trachtenberg, M.83
trade, impact of EMU462–3
trade law
governing rules576–7 (p. 891)
“negative” rules572
trade policy422–3
changing context423–4
changes in EU424–5
external changes424
efficacy in pursuit of objectives430–1
and IPE literature432–3
principal–agent and two-level game approaches429–32
role of Commission428–9
role of Council427–8
shaping of objectives429–30
sources of policy preferences426–7
trade-offs
governance dilemma292–3
input and output legitimacy664
trafficking in human beings, judicial cooperation623
transactionalism34, 49
transaction-driven theory of integration22
transfer of sovereign rights350
transformative effects, constructivist theories36
Translation Centre for the Bodies of the European Union (CdT)394
transnational leadership, role in origins of SEA112–14
transnational society20
neo-functionalist theory21–2, 25, 26
transnationalism, and Treaties of Paris81–2
transparency
agencies398–9
CAP payments490
Commission670–1
Council reforms326
definition676–7
European Parliament671
implications of “early agreements”711
links to evaluation of policy effectiveness686–7
policy cycle context683–4
in policy-making685–6
role of Ombudsman384
transport policy, evaluation683
transposition studies830
treaties
Elysée Treaty195–6
negotiation methods191
Treaties of Paris79, 90
choice of institutions88–90
material versus ideational views82–5
negotiations and ratification85–8
state-centric perspectives81
Treaties of Rome18, 95, 294, 408–9
on border controls600
Common Agricultural Policy484–5
EEC Treaty
institutional structure103–4
objectives102–3
significance104–5
Euratom Treaty101–2
exclusion of energy558
incomplete contract785, 787–8
influence of United States100–1
liberal intergovernmentalist perspective11
Messina conference96–7
regional policy497
social policy543, 551
Spaak report97–9
responses99
Treaty on European Union (TEU)see Maastricht Treaty
Treaty on the Functioning of the Union (TFEU)166
on nature and scope of competences571–4
treaty reform process
provisions of Lisbon Treaty171
recommendations174–5
TREVI (Terrorisme, radicalisme, extrémisme et violence internationale)614, 617
Tridimas, G.25–6
trilogue methodology329, 371
triple majority, QMV158
Tsebelis, G.27, 28
on Constitutional Treaty negotiations172
on cooperation procedure371
(p. 892)
Tuendhat, C.229n2
Turkey
accession negotiations831
anxieties over accession284
GDP per head, 2007, regional disparities281
support for membership272
turnout, Euro-elections366
two-level game metaphor, trade policy430–2
UCLAF (Anti-Fraud Task Force)386
Ukraine
gas pipelines565–6
support for membership271, 272
unbundling, energy policy560
unemployment
1990s and 2000s300–1 see also employment
uniformity ideal672
unilateral trade measures423
United Kingdom
asylum burden815
British Budgetary Question (BBQ)211, 224
de Gaulle's opposition to EEC membership208, 209
GDP per head, 2007280
regional disparities281
growth, 1995–2005282
impact of EEC Treaty104
net migration603
opposition to defense policy587
opt-out of Maastrict social policy126
participation in Spaak Committee97–8
“Plan G”100
referendum725
resistance to EMU124, 299
resistance to Maastricht social chapter299
stance on QMV297
United States
asylum burden815
coordination issues807n18
economic impact of EEC Treaty104
as European intelligence partner627, 637–9
growth, 1995–2005282
impact of SEA118
influence on EU foreign policy655
influence on Treaties of Rome100–1
invasion of Iraq, 20037
multinational companies, investment in Europe411
regional aid496
relatio