Abstract and Keywords
Three major questions in research on European integration consider how Europeans see themselves, how they see one another, and how they interact. The first two questions concern different aspects of identity; the third deals with solidarity. All three are interrelated. This article links the literature on identity and solidarity to those wider considerations of legitimacy, stability, and purpose, arguing that while the literature is complicated, it is also worth the effort. That argument has five parts. The first introduces the notion that identity may play a causal role in the European process. The second suggests that identity may be less cause than effect. The third looks at the interaction between multiple identities. The fourth makes the link to religion, ethnicity, and immigration. And the fifth concludes with implications for our understanding of European integration.
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