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date: 21 August 2019

(p. 867) Index

(p. 867) Index

Academy, the 44–5, 114, 116–19
the New Academy 483
Adkins, A. 6, 7–8, 13
Adler, Felix 855–6, 861
Adorno, Theodor 478
Aenesidemus of Cnossos 119–20, 123–4
aesthetics 272, 468, 488, 489, 494, 597
aesthetic element in magnificence 53
aesthetic goods as valued 303
conscience and aesthetic appreciation 285
creation and contemplation of art 497, 499, 571
emotion as aesthetic 749, 763
parallels with moral sense 360–2, 364, 408
affection, see emotion
afterlife 36 n27, 195, 198, 269, 274, 390–1, 673, 679, 683, 688
agathos (good) 7–9
aidōs (shame or respect) 1, 9–11, 731, 736
akrasia (weakness of will) 57–8, 135 n28, 141, 176, 646, 699, 710–13, 732
Alexander of Aphrodisias 48, 79, 624
Alexander the Great 44, 94, 116, 261
alienation 287, 478, 484, 486–8, 491–2
in Hegel 472–3, 487, 512–13, 515
in Marx 519, 522
altruism 395, 536, 560
and egoism 325–6, 577, 712–13, 814
as natural sentiment 218
possibility of 306, 314
amoralism 252, 289, 820, 838
ambition 256, 260, 390, 396–7, 409
amore propre, see love (self-love)
analytic/synthetic distinction 858–9
analytic tradition 150, 488, 581–606, 739, 852–3
anger 366, 632, 653–4, 733
in Ancient accounts of emotion 50, 639–44, 647, 649, 651, 751–2, 756, 758–9
appropriateness of 106, 692
as a reaction, see reactive attitudes
animals 236, 400 n, 828
‘animal spirits’, see spirit
lacking intellectual capacities 48, 156, 158, 360, 378, 412, 530–1, 533–4, 572, 779–80
man as a rational animal, see rationality (human possession of)
responsibility, standing and treatment of 81, 284, 304, 362, 366, 409, 412–14, 555, 715, 768, 778–80, 808, 844
shared nature with 89, 102, 104, 215, 281, 286, 366, 369, 412, 534, 540, 573
Annas, Julia 107–8, 113, 759
Anscombe, G. E. M 638, 861
and modern moral philosophy 118
Antiochus 99–100, 118, 133 n15, 195 n52
anti-realism 661, 820, 838–9
about normative and evaluative facts 819 n3
Kant and ‘irrealism’ 833, 840
moral and ethical distinction 838 see also quasi-realism, moral realism
appetite, see desire
applied ethics, see practical ethics
Aquinas, Saint Thomas 147–64, 167–8, 172, 215, 624, 654–5
ethical outlook 150–64, 185–6, 488, 498, 732–3
and happiness 153–4, see also eudaimonism
on natural law, see natural law
on virtue 152–4, 156–8, 161–3, 171, 654, 733
Arcesilaus of Pitane 116–20
(p. 868) Archimedes 80, 108
aretē (excellence) 1, 7, 21, 25, 52, 489; see also virtue
Aristocles 114–15
Aristotle 44–61, 179, 207, 246, 488, 592
and Aquinas 161–3, 167–8, 654
on desire 80, 639, 643, 651, 759
on division of the soul, see tripartite soul
on causes 825–6
on ethical development, see ethical development
on freedom 75, 693
on happiness 46–7, 49, 57, 61, 132–3, 139, 162, 518, 674, 826–8; see also eudaimonism, flourishing
and human sociality 217, 565, 568
influence on Sidgwick 548–50
interpretation and criticism of Plato 822–3, 825 n16
on justice, see justice
Luther's antagonism towards 186, 191
metaethical views, see moral realism
on moral responsibility 614
on pleasure 58–9, 90, 133, 137, 474, 643–7, 651, 655, 751
political influence on Hegel 472, 516
on powers 174
views on equality 778–9
Aristotelianism, see Aristotle
Aristotelian ethics, see Aristotle, virtue ethics
armchair philosophy 858; see also psychology (armchair psychology)
asceticism 51, 53, 139, 141, 143, 299, 301, 400, 500, 652, 761
ataraxia, see tranquillity
atheism 262, 264–5, 272, 274, 289, 408, 418; see also theism
and scepticism 112 n4
and virtue 361
Augustine 161–3, 167–8, 193, 198, 207, 258–61, 267, 468
on justice 769
on the passions 193, 652–4, 658
and rationalism 312, 314, 318, 320–1, 332
authenticity 699–701, 748
autonomy 126, 266, 388, 475, 566, 571, 691–706, 779
‘global’ versus ‘local’ 698
Kant's understanding, see Kant
‘personal’ versus ‘moral’ 697, 703
and political philosophy 698, 704–6
relationship with freedom 691, 693, 696–9
Rousseau's understanding, see Rousseau
as social 701–2, 704
Ayer, A. J. 355, 839
emotive theory of ethics 595–6, 598–601, 819–20
on free will 610, 614–16
Bacon, Francis 234, 239, 244, 255, 256
Balguy, John 194–7, 338–44, 347, 351
beatific vision 151–2; see also Aquinas
beauty 130, 134, 270–2, 307, 355, 468
as expressive not factually representative 598; see also expressivism
Platonic form 822
sentimentalist analogy 360–2, 364, 661
Benedict, Ruth
on guilt and shame 9–10
beneficence 16, 340–3, 366, 371, 407, 461, 535, 539, 593–4, 747–8, 761–2
and justice 773, 775–6
universal beneficence 351–2, 355
benevolence 17, 39, 379, 384 n15, 390–7, 404–8, 434, 548, 577, 663
of God 197, 485
role in sentimentalist thought 267, 269–71, 364–7, 369, 371, 373–4, 660–1, 664 n130, 741
Bentham, Jeremy 293–304, 392, 558, 679–80
influences and legacy 118, 309, 415, 476, 527–8, 544, 847
on justice and equality 775, 782
and practical ethics 844, 849–50
on proof of utility principle 294, 299–302
(p. 869) quantitative measure of utility 530, 532
on rightness 293–8, 300, 586
scalar interpretation 293–7
Berkeley, George 272 n111, 853
Berlin, Isaiah 578, 812
bioethics 99, 108–9
Bobzien, Suzanne 75–7, 79
Bonaventure, Saint 168–9, 171–2
Bradley, F. H. 564–71, 572–3, 575, 579, 581–2
on errors of abstraction 567–70
on goodness and the good life 565–7, 570
and metaphysics 565–6, 568–9, 571
Bradstreet, Anne 235, 256, 258–9, 261
bravery, see courage
Broad, C. D. 305, 544, 554, 595, 615
Buddhism 474, 497, 500
Butler, Joseph 235, 275, 365, 377–97, 548, 851 n28
on conscience 733–4
against egoism 711
and naturalism 196, 199, 207–9, 213, 217–18, 378–83, 385–7, 393, 395, 733
psychology 378–9, 386–7, 389, 394–6, 575
teleology 378, 386–8
Calderwood, Henry 545–6, 548–9, 552
Calvin, John, see Calvinism
Calvinism 186, 190–1, 259, 262, 264, 266, 268–9, 272
Cambridge Moralists 548–50
Cambridge Platonism, see Platonism
cannibalism 304, 796–8
capital punishment 489
Carnap, Rudolph 595–6, 598–601
Carneades of Cyrene 116–120, 231
casuistry 861
in Christian moral thinking 199–203
systems of 201–3, 851–2
Categorical Imperative, the 253, 388, 448–9, 452, 454 n8, 457, 460, 466, 470, 474, 703, 821, 832–3
first formulation (universal law) 448–51, 455, 457–60, 833, 837
second formulation (humanity) 448, 450–1, 457, 459–60, 697, 781, 833, 837
third formulation (kingdom of ends) 280, 448–9, 452, 697, 703
categorical requirements or imperatives 222, 435, 445–7, 449, 452, 455, 565, 575, 588, 696–7, 737, 819 n4, 832
Catholicism 150, 188, 193
and casuistry 200–3
and ‘independent morality’ 191–2, 208, 264
character 27 n, 50, 55, 60, 103, 171 n8, 260–1, 269, 303, 306–8, 763–4
evaluation of 362, 407–10, 430–1 611, 643, 663–4, 692–3, 752, 758; see also vice, virtue
in freedom and responsibility 52, 75, 77, 79–80, 409–10, 511, 517, 572, 616, 625, 753
of God 197–99
as inherited 568
public and private 268, 270, 272, 275, 400, 416
Schopenhauer on empirical and intelligible 474
shaping character, see ethical development
stability or robustness of 750–1; see also situationism
virtues of, see virtuesee also disposition
charity 170, 202, 305, 372
imperfect duty of 837
and justice 324, 326, 773, 775–6
Charleton, Walter 232, 237, 239–41, 246
Chisholm, Roderick 615, 628
Christian morality 17, 51, 189, 207, 260, 272, 406–8, 485, 651–3, 658
and casuistry, see casuistry
and citizenship 290
and conscience 731, 737–8
relationship with moral philosophy 184–6, 190, 192, 194–7, 265–7
and unbelievers, see pagan ethics
Chrysippus 97, 98
Cicero 87, 90, 98–100, 103, 115–16, 231, 268, 332, 406–7, 439, 650 n76, 660
on grief and emotion 757–8, 760
on justice 769, 775
(p. 870) Clarke, Samuel 187, 194–6, 235, 246, 268, 273–5, 410, 548, 725
objectivity and intuitionism 337–40, 347, 351–2, 389 see also rationalism
Cleanthes 757–8
Hume's characterization 416
Cohen, G. A. 776
common-sense morality 302–5, 309, 444–5, 447–8, 453, 454 n8, 455–7, 567, 592, 719, 853
role in Sidgwick's philosophy 547–9, 551–4
compassion 378, 390, 394, 397, 422, 655, 733
in Homer 16–17
as morally foundational 474
in Rousseau 281, 283–9
compatibilism 73, 549, 609–10, 612–21, 623–4, 629
insulationist 610–11, 614–15, 619–21
integrationist 614–19
conceptual analysis 479, 711, 150, 852–5, 858–9, 861–2
taken as the task of philosophy, see analytic tradition
conformism 126
conscience 211, 430, 461, 471, 512, 535, 537, 548, 729–42
in Butler 199, 378–90, 392–3, 548
in Nietzsche 475
in Rousseau 284–6
consciousness 470, 729
of appetites 249–50
class consciousness 520
and death 83
of desire 575
eternal consciousness 571, 573–4, 576; see also Green
in Hegel 472
moral consciousness 289, 454, 456, 680, 762, 804, 810
of pleasure and pain 530, 680–1, 685
self-consciousness 4, 281, 284, 286–7, 445–6, 453, 509–10, 517–18, 532, 538, 572, 665, 778
states of 680–3
consequentialism 99, 212, 292–3, 427, 443, 592, 611
actual and expected value versions 834
basis of its fundamental principle 833, 837
and duty 592
and emotion 638
and impartiality 353; see also impartiality (and utilitarianism)
and moral fact internalism 834–5, 838
and motive 576; see also utilitarianism (and motive)
constancy (virtue) 242–5
constructivism 389–90, 776
Humean 372–3
Kantian 372, 388–9, 546, 704
continental tradition 505, 523, 581, 739
contractarianism 416, 446–7, 515, 694–5, 704, 839
Kant's contract theory 466, 476
in Rawls 476–7, 788; see also Rawls see also Hobbes
contractualism 280, 611, 638, 725–6
Cook Wilson, John 345 n18, 589–90, 592, 602
cosmopolitanism
Cynic conception 95–6, 98
Hegel's rejection of 473, 516
in Kant 466
in Sidgwick 555, 559
in Shaftesbury 271–2
Stoic conception 97, 104, 271
courage 144, 170, 535
in Aristotle 52–4, 644–5
as good by definition 341
in Homer 7, 15–16
in Hume 406–7, 415, 417
in Plato 24–5, 27, 640, 692
in Spinoza 253, 658
Critical Theory 478, 480
Cudworth, Ralph 262–3, 266, 268, 273, 360, 363, 658
objectivity and intuitionism 338–40, 344
on voluntarism 186, 190–2, 265
(p. 871) culture
a cultured mind 560
multiculturalism 706 see also sociality, society
Cynicism 93–8, 113
nature over culture 93, 94–8
Cyrenaics, the 88–90
death 107, 144, 370, 414, 511, 513, 567, 578, 674–7, 688–9
Epicurean account, see Epicurus
fear of 82–7, 89, 91, 253–4, 646, 676
harmfulness of 82–5, 89, 91, 676
and hedonism 83, 87–9, 646, 676
Nagel's account, see Nagel, Thomassee also happiness (and death)
Decalogue, the 176–7, 207
Deism 194–6, 272
de la Mare, William 148, 168–9, 171 n9, 172
Descartes, René 80, 125, 258, 265, 332, 388, 484, 554, 590
on emotion 654–6
on happiness 244–8, 315, 318–19, 255, 259
on inner awareness 729
desire 318–19, 378, 388, 390, 393–6, 468, 494, 550–1, 624, 639, 649, 652–7, 660
aiming at what we 566, 711–12
causal role 616, 630, 655
grounding normativity, see sentimentalism
higher-order reflection on 139, 362–3, 394, 428, 529, 533, 616–17, 699–704
Hume's account, see Hume
inability to control, see akrasia
in Kant's ethics, see Kant
in Mill, see Mill
for mutual sympathy, see Smith (sentimentalism)
and one's greatest good, see goodness (and egoism)
and ‘passions’ in early modern thought 237, 245–50, 252–7, 259, 261, 263–4, 266–7, 269–71, 273–4, 654–8
philosophers’ focus on transparent 739
relationship with reason, see reason
to be rational, see rationality
Stoic understanding 756
as unable to explain morality 221–2
undistorted awareness of 740
deliberation 156, 457, 739–40, 779
and death 82
and free will 79–81, 453, 629
not about independent ends 826
role of moral appraisal in 804 see also practical reason
deontology 99, 229, 292, 302, 305, 391, 402, 444, 550, 698, 771, 789
Kantian conception, see Kant, Kantian ethics
and the internal perspective 838; see also Kant (and moral fact internalism)
Democritus 74
determinism 155, 609–11, 613–15, 619–30
as compatible with free will, see compatibilism
in early modern philosophy 266, 273–4, 485
and Epicurus 74–5, 79–81, 118
hard determinism 609, 629–30
in Hume 407, 409, 417
as false, see libertarianism
as incompatible with free will, see incompatibilism
in Mill 529
and Stoicism 263
theological determinism 609, 619 see also free will
Dewey, John 477, 595, 856–9, 861
dialectic 116, 117 n11, 139 n41, 570, 590
Hegelian conception, see Hegel
Diderot, Denis 271, 284–6, 290
dignity 290, 365, 521, 533–4, 736, 777
for kant 444, 461, 696–7, 781, 837; see also rationality (valuing or respecting as an end in itself)
Diogenes 93–6, 103; see also Cynicism
(p. 872) Diogenes Laertius 95, 113, 115–16
discourse ethics 478–80; see also Habermas
disposition 251, 280, 287, 387, 416, 447, 460, 509, 511, 713, 750
fixed nature and causality of 77, 79, 121–2, 125–6, 169 n, 175, 409–10, 493
moral dispositions 50–6, 101, 126, 171, 324, 368, 473, 475, 550, 644–5, 663, 674, 692; see also virtue, vice
resulting from socialization 753
divine command 221–6, 339, 349, 363, 399, 424, 436
in Descartes 315–16
in later Christian ethics 185–92, 194–7
in Scotus and Ockham 176–9, 181, 207, 221 see also voluntarism (theological)
divine sanctions 135, 297, 434, 436; see also afterlife
in Butler 390, 392–3
as corrupting or undermining morality 363, 399, 408
role in early modern philosophy 222–4, 232, 269
role in later Christian ethics 187, 193, 195, 198
in Sidgwick's ethics 556
divinity 14, 80, 90, 108, 117, 134
and ‘blessedness’ 134, 136–7, 140
divine ideals 574
divine providence 74, 80, 155, 196, 220, 237, 265, 272, 388 n32
divine revelation or guidance 151–2, 156–7, 184–5, 189, 194–7, 495, 780, 783, 785–6, 788
Platonic ‘assimilation to’ 129, 139, 142, 144 n66, 145, 652 see also God, theology
Dodds, E. R. 3
Dominicans, the 147–8
doubt 200–1
dualism 4, 286, 318, 473–4
duty 187, 236, 263–4, 269, 281, 303 n31, 351–4, 424, 468, 471, 473
abstract versus particular 567, 570
and belief 555
Clarke's fundamental duties 273–5, 351
conflicts between, see obligation
as expressive not factually representative 598–9; see also expressivism
to God, see obligation
grounds and reasons of 342–4
as imaginary 497
Kantian conception, see Kant
Mill's understanding 535, 549
as modern notion 13, 547–8, 550, 557, 737
Moore's account, see Moore
and motivation, see motivation
natural duty 403, 407
to oneself 479
perfect and imperfect duties 449–50, 458–9, 461, 466, 771, 773, 837
personal duties 352–3
positive and negative 773–4, 776, 785, 837
and ‘positive’ law 196–7, 297, 315, 340,435 n28, 785
Prichard's account, see Prichard
prima facie, see Ross
to promote happiness 295, 298, 301
relationship with rights, see rights
in Sidgwick's philosophy 549–50, 552–3, 558, 560
‘special duties’, see obligation (to specific others), partiality
to strangers 715, 718–20
universality of 514, 516, 567, 703; see also Kant
whether intrinsically motivating 307, 589, 594; see also internalism (motivational internalism)
egoism 198, 358–9, 577, 710–17
as contradictory 308–9
ethical egoism 269, 308–9, 380, 592, 713–16, 818–20, 821 n9, 838–9, 838
psychological egoism 188, 301 n28, 302, 325–6, 362, 366, 394–6, 474, 497, 566–7, 572, 661, 710–14, 716, 814
rational egoism 308, 354–5, 383, 545–9, 551, 556–8, 560, 713–14, 716–18; see also Sidgwick
emotion 100, 303–4, 330, 366, 434, 468, 528, 632, 638–66, 680, 704, 744–64
(p. 873) in Aristotle, see Aristotle
as basis for morality 280, 283–4, 422; see also Hume, Rousseau, sentimentalism
and conscience 731, 733
as expressive 747–8, 752, 755
as form of ethical perception or knowledge 638–42, 652, 656–62, 664, 745–7, 754, 763; see also sentimentalism
human capacity for 531
in Kant, see Kant
moral sentences as expressive of, see emotivism
and motivation 106, 638, 664, 726, 749, 755–6; see also sentimentalism
natural affections 269–71, 366, 393
in Nietzsche, see Nietzsche
as an object of evaluation 638, 654, 683; see also virtue (and emotion)
in Plato, see Plato
recognition of 400, 402, 461
Stoic analysis, see Stoicism
in teaching 560, 645–6
value of negative emotions 682–4
and virtue, see virtue
whether cognitive 105, 641–2, 646, 654, 656, 660–2, 665–6, 744–5, 750–5, 760–3, 819
emotivism 411, 595–6, 598–605, 661, 819
empiricism 347–8, 476–7, 548, 581, 583, 659, 733, 859
Epicurean 85
impact on practical philosophy 844–7, 854, 856, 858–9
Kant's rejection of 455, 466, 473, 489–91
Lockean 583, 695 n3
logical empiricism, see logical positivism
Millian 527, 529, 538, 583, 735
Enlightenment, the 97, 160, 271, 465, 467, 492, 546, 785, 789
Epictetus 97, 98, 103, 231, 243, 255, 256–7, 655, 693, 732, 756–7
Epicurus 73–91, 96, 231–4, 237–8, 240, 248, 255, 259, 656, 684
on death 73, 81–7, 88, 239, 400, 646, 676
on freedom of choice, see free will
on pleasure and hedonism 73, 75, 83, 87–91, 102, 134, 400, 646–7, 655, 685
and rationalism 77, 313, 319
epistemology 434, 475, 496, 500, 529, 595, 621, 781
epistemic defects 369, 797; see also false belief
and forms of scepticism 112, 590
foundationalist 350, 469–70
impact of linguistic analysis, see language
moral epistemology 314, 337–8, 355, 656, 834; see also moral knowledge
and rationalism 312–14, 329
role in early modern moral philosophy 230–1, 241–2, 244
of Sidgwick 552–4, 556, 558, 587 n8, 588
equality 478, 486, 517, 539, 705, 777–83
acknowledging equal standing 461, 701, 777–8, 789
economic equality 418, 522, 777–8; see also Marx
of flourishing, see flourishing
and justice 769, 776, 789
Nietzsche's rejection of 499–500, 779
objectivity of 778, 780, 812
in Rawls 476
of the sexes 513–14; see also Hume
and utilitarianism 298, 782
ergon; see function
error theory, see Mackie
eternal law or standards 153, 157, 220 n50, 264, 270, 274–5, 320–4, 780
ethical development 409, 475, 513, 611, 687, 741, 850, 856
Aristotle's account 49–50, 56, 58, 101, 319, 565, 645–6, 650, 674, 686, 731–3, 751 n33, 753–5
(p. 874) childhood conditioning of conscience 735, 739–41
Green on development and progress 573–9
Kant on natural and moral perfection 460–1, 469, 673, 748, 761
Plato and Platonic accounts 21, 24, 28, 101, 144–5, 641–3, 645–6, 650
Rousseau's account, see Rousseau
Smith's account 422–4, 431–2, 439
Stoic account 101–5, 106–7, 650, 686, 748, 755–60, 763
Thomistic account 162
eudaimonia, see flourishing
eudaimonism 37, 179, 312, 572
in Aquinas 152–4, 158–9
in Aristotle 37, 38 n32, 216 n30, 572, 683
in Plato 37–8, 40 n35, 100
in Rousseau 280
Schopenhauer's rejection of 496
in Stoicism 98, 100
Eudemian Ethics, the 44–5, 53–4, 58, 59
Euthyphro dilemma 15 n33, 223, 314–15, 320, 322, 386 n26, 735, 782
evil, see goodness
evolution 108, 286, 439, 480, 554, 584, 713, 828
existentialism 127 n.
expressivism 297, 411, 439, 595, 598–601, 661, 808; see also emotivism
fairness 7–8, 10, 197, 212, 273, 305, 326, 351–2, 355, 406, 416, 514
and justice 769; see also Rawls
as limited by capitalism 522
fallacy of composition 538
false belief 140–1, 304, 365, 646, 658, 746
prediction and probability 834, 836
fatalism 80; see also determinism
felicity 234, 237–9, 242, 246, 248, 253, 263, 270, 274
feminism 417, 427–9, 704; see also Hume, Mill
and practical ethics 844
Fichte, Johann 469–72, 484, 486
flourishing 499, 665, 676, 683–4, 693–4, 726
Aristotle's eudaimonia 46, 99, 826, 132–3, 162, 513, 674, 683–4, 693
Aquinas’ account 152, 154–60, 162
equal opportunity to 519, 522
Hegel's account 513, 517–18
public flourishing 268, 270, 693
given Rousseavian psychology 280, 282, 287, 290, 696
social nature of 772; see also friendship, love, sociality
Foot, Philippa 208, 800, 808, 861
Forms, the 26 n10, 31 n19, 47, 135, 142, 163, 314, 316, 822–4, 826, 828–9
Form of the Good, see Idea of the Goodsee also moral realism (in Plato)
fortitude (virtue), see courage
Foucault, Michael 289
Franciscans, the 148, 167–82, 624–5, 654
account of the will, see voluntarism
Frankfurt, Harry 612–14, 616–17, 700–1, 703
Frankfurt School 478, 502, 508 n8; see also Critical Theory
free will 52, 117–18, 245, 249, 252, 407, 409, 469–71, 473–4, 549, 609–32
and consciousness 571–2
as contra-causality 75–6
and Epicurean defence 73–81, 118, 624–5
Franciscan account, see voluntarism (ethical)
free will scepticism 610, 629–32
in Hegel, see Hegel
Hobbesian freedom, see Hobbes
human possession of 785
in Hume, see Hume
Locke's account of liberty, see Locke
Mill's views 529
in Nietzsche, see Nietzche
positive and negative liberty 699, 773
and responsibility 80, 169–70, 175, 246, 266, 322, 474, 609–21, 623–6, 629–32
role of freedom in Kant, see Kant (on free and rational agency)
and spontaneity 407 n6, 454–6, 470, 491, 616
Frege, Gottlob 599
(p. 875) Freud, Sigmund 83, 478, 673–4, 687–8
on consciousness 738–41
friendship 269, 352, 366, 390, 468, 647, 650 n77, 663, 688, 762
in Aristotle 49, 54, 59–60, 753–4
and natural law 162
and partiality, see partiality
in Plato 39, 813
satisfaction of 569
function 693
Aristotle's ergon argument 47–9, 61, 209, 213, 216, 825–8
God's design 378, 386–8
of and within society 40, 569 see also telos
Furley, Richard 75–7, 79
game theory 416, 476
Gaskin, Richard 3–4
Gassendi, Pierre 73–4, 78, 80–1, 237, 239–41, 246, 262, 317
general will, the 280, 284, 287–8, 411, 696;see also Rousseau
generosity 51, 53, 57, 341, 401, 539, 658
in Descartes 245–8, 656
God 91, 297, 446, 656
concept of grace 159, 162, 186, 193, 258–9
commands of, see divine command
contrasted with humans 60–1
and essence 313–14, 316 n12, 317, 320–5, 327–9, 332
existence of, see theism
as freely legislating morality; see voluntarism (theological)
and free will, see free will
God's plan 155, 157, 259, 495
and Hegel 505, 517, 518
inherent goodness of 190–1, 386
and justice 163, 177–8, 186, 194, 197, 320, 322–3
Kingdom of 487, 574
knowledge or understanding of 215 n28, 249, 254, 327–8, 331–2, 471, 485, 652, 658
and love, see love
mankind made in image of 263–4, 286, 771, 781
mind of 574, 848
ordering and constituting nature 330–1, 694
responsibility for our conduct 266, 322, 407 n6
and obligation, see obligation
providing moral sense 364, 732–5, 738
punishment and reward of, see divine sanctions
revelation of, see divine revelation
role in Clarke's derivation 273
in the self-help tradition 240, 249, 252, 254–6, 260
special relationship with 240
union or relationship with 151, 153, 162, 185, 321
as a utilitarian 187, 197, 392–3, 547 see also Butler
golden rule, the 266, 273, 351, 724–5; see also fairness, impartiality
goodness 25, 177, 266–7, 319, 324, 388, 479, 538, 661, 665, 682–5, 689
as ancient focus 548, 550, 557, 692
in Aquinas 153–6, 158–9
in Aristotle 46–8, 129 n2, 131–2, 216, 683–4, 686, 825–7
attitude towards promotion of others’, see impartiality, partiality
in Bradley, see Bradley
the common good or interest 268, 270, 275, 365, 405–6, 437–8, 477, 515, 520, 529, 540, 577–9, 772–3
as directly perceived 346 n20, 588, 594;see also Cook Wilson, Moore
as divinely legislated, see voluntarism (theological)
and egoism 711–12, 715, 717–18
epistemic role, see knowledge (and the Good)
as expressive not factually representative 598–601; see also expressivism
generic versus true notion 573–4
(p. 876) as independent from duty, see Prichard
inherent in practical reason 215
judging 330, 688
of the many against the few 725
meaning of, see metaethics, Moore
Moore's discussion, see Moore
natural goodness, see Rousseau
and natural properties, see Moore, naturalism
as an objective property, see moral realism
as perfection, see Green
in Plato and Platonism 25, 30–1, 37, 41–2, 129–32, 138–9, 144, 590, 640, 642, 684–6, 688, 822–3; see also Idea of the Good
as pleasure, see pleasure
in Pyrrhonsim 122–7
as a simple property 348–9, 583, 586, 601–2, 853
relationship with rightness 353, 355;see also utilitarianism
relationship with virtue, see virtue
Sidgwick's account, see Sidgwick
in Stoicism 100, 648–9, 651, 684, 686
in Spinoza 658
supreme or ultimate good 42, 244–8, 258, 550–1, 574, 683, 686
in utilitarianism, see utilitarianism
weighing in a life 677–8
good will, the, see Kant, will
gratitude 16, 260, 341–4, 352, 366, 371, 427, 593, 647, 762
ingratitude 747–8
role in moral praise and blame, see reactive attitudes
Green, T. H. 292, 546, 564, 571–9, 581, 851
on the common good 577–9
on free will 571–2, 576
metaphysical account 571–2, 574, 717
perfection of capacities 573–8
social nature of the self 578–9; see also identity
Grotius, Hugo 207–8, 215, 218, 221, 231, 236, 326, 414–15, 694
on justice and rights 768, 771–3, 784–5, 788
guilt 9, 13, 409, 472, 681, 712
contrast with shame 10–12, 736–7
relationship with conscience 729–31, 736–8, 740–2
as a reaction, see reactive attitudes
Habermas, Jürgen 478, 480
habit, see disposition
Hall, Pamela 154–60
happiness 119, 132–9, 168, 475, 548, 624
in Aquinas, see eudaimonism (in Aquinas)
in Butler 378, 382–5, 390, 394–7
and death 49, 83, 91, 672, 674–9
in Descartes, see Descartes
as desire satisfaction, see desire (value of satisfying)
early modern treatment 230, 234–42, 244–9, 252, 254–5, 259, 263, 269–72, 274–5, 658; see also Descartes, Spinoza
and the good life, see eudaimonism
the general happiness 187–8, 237, 251, 437; see also utilitarianism
and harmony 28–31, 35, 100–1, 270, 324–6, 687; see also Leibniz, Plato
in Hegel 513
and the human condition 672–89
Kant's account, see Kant
of love, see love
and luck 30, 35, 49, 384
maximization of, see utilitarianism
Mill's account, see Mill
as pleasure, see hedonism
Schopenhauer's view 474, 496–7, 673–4, 684–5
as social 569
in Spinoza, see Spinoza
and virtue, see virtue (and happiness)
Hare, R. M. 355, 861
prescriptivism 604–5, 800 n9
Harman, Gilbert 750, 804–9
moral genealogy 808
hedonic calculus 415–16, 532
hedonism 550, 686
(p. 877) Bradley's criticism of 566–8, 570
Butler's criticism of 394–7
and other values 90, 532–3, 679–81, 685
Epicurean, see Epicurus
ethical 575, 584, 640, 680, 685
in Hume 407, 417
paradox of 307, 397, 528
Plato's question of 22, 25, 42
psychological 567, 575
Shaftesbury's criticism of 269–70
Sidgwick's account, see Sidgwick
in utilitarianism, see utilitarianismsee also Bentham, Mill, pleasure
Hegel, Georg 467, 471–3, 478, 483–4, 486–94, 505–18, 520
and British idealist ethics 564–8
dialectic 471–2, 505, 508–12, 514, 518, 565, 822
on freedom and free will 472–3, 491, 510–11, 514–15, 517, 520
holism 505–7, 509, 514, 522, 564
influence on American Pragmatism 857
metaphysics, see metaphysics
on reason and rationality 472, 484, 487, 490–1, 508–9, 512, 514, 517–18
on spirit, see spirit
Heidegger, Martin 501–2, 507, 523
Herodotus 498, 793, 796, 798, 803–4
heroic morality, see Homer
heteronomy 446, 452, 455, 465; see also Kant
hexis, see disposition
honesty 326, 352, 493, 663
as a basic principle 352, 354, 479, 549
and equivocation 201
and ignorance 200
in Kant 835 n39, 461, 466, 471
lying to promote truth 305
Plato's ‘noble lie’ 692
shared interest in 211–12
in social relations 688
in Spinoza 253
as a virtue 54, 169, 365, 401, 403–4, 409, 461, 536–7
honour 7–9, 14, 16–17, 51, 53, 60, 130–1, 392, 408, 644, 660, 688, 736, 769
honouring God 340, 352, 782
in Japanese Samurai culture 795
sense of 659–60, 693
Hobbes, Thomas 232–6, 241–3, 248–52, 262, 264–75, 330, 446, 778
on death 82, 239
on freedom 614–15, 696
on justice and rights 769, 784–5
on human nature and natural law 50, 210–13, 217–18, 234, 236, 252, 269, 285, 287, 358–9, 362–4, 394, 694–5, 742
on God and voluntarism 194, 224, 399
morality as legislated convention 190, 211–13, 238–9, 251, 269, 339–40, 403, 694, 839
on pleasure and desire 237–40, 270
on self-knowledge 234, 240, 269
subjectivism 799
Homer 1–18
competitive/cooperative distinction 7–8
and duty 13
and the gods 5, 14–15
on guilt and shame 1, 9–11, 737; see alsoaidōs
and honour 17
and intentions, see intention
on mind and psychology 2, 3, 4–5
and responsibility 6, 12
and virtue 7–8, 15–16
Huby, Pamela 74–5, 79, 81
human nature 50, 95, 102, 131, 168, 176, 261, 266, 269, 290, 687, 780
as ‘fallen’ 163, 653, 742
and conscience 741
as determining ethical value 154–9, 179–80, 186, 188–9, 206–20, 226, 263;see also naturalism
and ‘economic man’ 559
Hobbes’ view, see Hobbes
holistic conception of 213–15, 217
and human rights 788
human weakness 258–61, 500; see also Nietzsche
Hume's theory, see Hume
influence on thought processes 121–2
Marx's conception, see Marx
(p. 878) and modern biology, see evolution
and natural goodness, see Rousseau
perfection of, see Green
and sentiments 358, 363, 366–7, 782; see also sentimentalism
Smith's view, see Smith
as social in character, see sociality
human rights 478, 480, 770, 774, 778, 782, 785–9
political conception of 786–9
proliferation of claims 786
Universal Declaration of 777, 782, 786–7, 789
Hume, David 229, 231, 248, 270–3, 275, 280, 297, 332, 399–419, 484, 583, 853
account of virtue (artificial and natural) 359, 366–70, 400–12, 415–17, 438, 663–4, 741, 799, 830–1
advocating female equality 405, 407, 413–14, 417
anti-religious stance 399–400, 407–8, 412, 417–18, 485, 741–2
on free will 610, 614–16, 619–20, 626–7, 696
on human nature and psychology 373–4, 400, 402–3, 407, 409–10, 412, 415–17, 741–2, 810, 831
on justice and equality 773, 783
metaethical views, see moral realism
metaphysical views, see metaphysics
on reason and passion 360, 363, 368, 372–3, 402–3, 405, 409–12, 415, 439, 662–5, 830–2, 851
scepticism 810
subjectivism, see subjectivism
Hutcheson, Francis 187, 271–2, 406–8, 848
criticism of Clarke 273, 275
on God 197
on human nature 218
on simple ideas 346
on kinds of pleasure 531–2; see also pleasure (ranking of)
metaethical status 661–2
moral sense and sentiments 191, 337, 359–60, 362–70, 401, 408, 410, 446, 659–62, 666; see also sentimentalism
hypothetical or pragmatic imperatives 222, 435, 446, 449, 452, 466, 819 n4, 833, 862
Idea of the Good 47, 129–32, 138–9, 145, 822–4
ideal observer, see impartiality
idealism 474, 484, 486–8, 491–2, 496, 518, 520, 546, 554, 595, 598
British idealism 564–79, 581–3, 589, 596–7
German idealism 467, 471–3, 487
rationalist idealism 581
subjective idealism 469
transcendental idealism 443, 469–70, 473, 508
identity
as determined by societal relations 568–71, 578–9; see also sociality
of God and nature 331–2
of persons over time 82, 85, 89, 136, 578
and the realization of desire 566
Iliad, the 1, 4, 5–11, 13, 14
imagination 172, 247, 263, 300, 328, 367, 417, 659–60
affective imagination 749
human capacity for 531
imaginative identification 795
role in conscience 737
in Smith's ethics 370–1, 422, 424–30
immoralism 259, 385
immortality 73, 133, 558
of the soul, mind or self 135–7, 232, 254, 318–20, 331, 400, 466, 488, 688
tediousness of 85–6
impartiality 31, 287, 351, 355, 368, 390, 514–15, 539, 716, 720–6
in consequentialism, see consequentialism
in Kantian ethics, see Kantian ethics
Hume's ‘general viewpoint’ 401, 411–12, 416, 664, 830–2
(p. 879) ideal observer or impartial spectator371–3, 416, 425, 430–7, 439, 831
Point of View of the Universe 557–8, 722
and utilitarianism 540, 551, 555, 638, 723–5
towards welfare 710, 723–4, 726
towards will of each 710, 725
incompatibilism 73–4, 80, 609–15, 619–24, 626, 630; see also free will
Consequence Argument for 621–3
Direct Argument for 623
incontinence, see akrasia
indeterminacy
of ethical questions 596, 601, 603, 605; see also Stevenson
quantum indeterminacy 625–6, 628
and undeterminacy in causation 74–5, 78, 80–1, 571, 610, 625–30; see also libertarianism
Indian philosophy 116
individualism 559, 568, 577, 704–6, 725, 738, 772, 815
Cartesian 554
Marx's opposition 522
in Mill 529, 568–9, 697, 702 see also liberalism
induction 424, 427, 574
Mill's ‘inductive school’ 529
integrity 261, 403, 566, 663, 736, 740
intention 395, 576, 604, 711–12
and foresight 555
and free will 610–12
in Homer 6–7
and motivation 711
and virtue 27 n, 171, 384
internalism 416
moral fact internalism and externalism 833–6, 838, 840
motivational internalism 359, 372, 548, 589
intervention 787–8
intuition 107, 191, 435, 485, 720
and Kant 449, 456, 459
Marx's suspicion of ‘settled intuitions’ 523
Moore's understanding 584, 587, 590, 594
in practical ethics 199, 862
and Spinoza's ‘active affects’ 658 see also intuitionism
intuitionism
and Aquinas 157
in analytic metaethics 579, 587, 595–7, 599, 601–2, 604
and casuistry 199
epistemological and methodological distinction 338–9
Green's criticism of 572, 574
Mill on the ‘intuitive school’ 529
Rashdall's criticism of 302–6
and Rawls 775 see also Moore, Ross, Sidgwick
invisible hand 424, 429, 434, 558; see also Smith
ironism, see Rorty
Jacobi, Friedrich 485, 488
James, William 856–7
Jesuits, the 148–9
Jesus Christ 97, 257, 265, 484, 731
as an exemplar 430
justice 117, 281, 354, 438, 461, 472, 551, 624, 762, 768–77
Aristotle's account 52–3, 54–5, 163, 768–70, 776
and capitalism, see Marx
distributive 54, 326, 769, 770 n1, 776, 778
duties of justice 550, 593, 771–3, 776; see also obligation (of justice)
as equality, see equality
as fairness, see fairness; see also Rawls
foundation in rights, see rights
for future generations 555
and God, see God
as grounds of moral argument 808, 812
and motive 269, 404–5, 408
and Homeric ethics 14
Leibniz's account 324–6
Mill's account, see Mill
natural justice 55
Plato's account; see Plato
(p. 880) Rawls’ account, see Rawls
Smith's account, see Smith
Thomistic account 160–1, 163, 769
virtue of 25–9, 52–5, 324, 365, 367, 369, 403–6, 550, 663, 775, 813, 830; see also Aristotle, Plato
wide and narrow conceptions of 54–5, 768–9, 772, 774–7
justification 632, 665
and impartiality 720, 722–6; see also impartiality (towards will of each)
through non-coercive discourse, see discourse ethics
to others 307, 426–8, 430, 432, 450, 611
of reasons 631
and self-evidence 350, 354, 444
just war 200, 289, 414–15
Kant, Immanuel 443–62, 513, 521, 555, 587
on autonomy and legislation 388, 390 n36, 446, 448–53, 455, 461, 466, 469–70, 488, 490, 517, 566, 693, 696–9, 701–3, 734, 747, 760, 762
basis of morality in pure reason 443, 445–8, 455–6, 461, 465–6, 488–91, 495, 549, 588, 659, 703–4, 734, 746, 782, 788, 832–3, 837–8, 840
on conscience 734, 737–8
on dignity, see dignity
on desire 836
on desire and emotion 445, 446, 453–5, 466, 469, 489–91, 575, 659, 696, 699, 762
on domains of ‘right’ and ‘ethics’ 460–1, 466, 471–2
on emotion 745–9, 759–63
on free and rational agency 444–56, 458–61, 467, 470, 472, 488–91, 511, 575, 627–8, 679, 681, 696–7, 747, 760, 762, 782
on the good will 292, 444, 447–8, 452, 461, 466, 673 n3, 679, 687, 835–6
on happiness 246, 341, 445, 447, 449–50, 454, 456, 458, 460, 461, 466, 471, 673, 679–84
influences and precursors 231, 275, 345, 410, 415, 548–9
on justice, rights and equality 770–1, 773, 775, 777–8, 780–2, 785, 787, 789
metaethical views, see moral realism
and moral fact internalism 835–6, 838
on the moral law 443, 445–9, 452–8, 460, 468–9, 496, 575, 659, 696–7, 703, 761–4, 781
on practical reason, see practical reason
moral psychology 444, 446, 575, 666, 760–3
on motivation 363, 445, 448, 454 n8, 460–1, 466, 659, 762
views on naturalism 218–19, 782
on religion 408
role of consequences 576, 835–8
on the self 443, 445, 454, 490, 575, 699–700
universalization and universal validity 444, 448–51, 455, 457–9, 466, 480, 490, 567, 575, 696–7; see also categorical imperative (first formulation)
on virtue 45, 50, 54, 450, 452, 458–61, 466, 473, 679, 682, 745–6, 749, 760–4
Kantian ethics 12, 229, 253, 443–62, 457–62, 465–80, 568, 570, 572
and absolutism 567, 738
accounts of rights, duties and justice 773–4
and emotion 638
and impartiality 39
and modern values 13–14
and principles of rationality 833
Kierkegaard, Søren 483, 491–6
on agency and identity 492–5
on choice 493–5, 498
on Christianity 195–6, 493–4
kingdom or realm of ends, see categorical imperative (third formulation)
knowledge 248, 328, 348–51, 465, 469–70, 480, 553–4
(p. 881) acquisition of 149, 345, 500, 529
and belief 300, 349–50, 488, 590
as discovery of essence 811
distinct from being cultured 560
of God, see God
and the Good 41, 822–4
as a good 305, 307
limits of knowledge and understanding 443, 454, 488, 508, 517
moral or ethical knowledge, see moral knowledge
as necessary for good judgement 408, 411, 415–16, 425
parallel with action 571, 574
philosophy and ethics as a branch of 107–8, 244, 314–15, 583, 589, 596, 599, 601, 606
in Plato 24, 31, 41, 822–4; see also the Forms
private knowledge 729; see also conscience
pursuit of 487, 532, 560, 578, 827
rational underpinning of, see rationalism
relationship with virtue, see virtue
scientific knowledge, see science
Stoic branches of 98, 107–9
theory of, see epistemology
Korsgaard, Christine 556, 703–4
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm 191, 207, 236, 501, 614, 630
on happiness 324
and rationalism 313–15, 322–6, 332
La Rochefoucauld, François de 230, 235, 240–1, 258–61, 267, 688
language 424, 494, 602, 665
capacity for 779–80
concepts without terms 783
descriptive and evaluative functions 600, 604–5, 861; see also Hare, Stevenson
impact of linguistic analysis 844–7
as proper object of philosophical investigation, see linguistic turn
representative and expressive functions 598–9; see also Carnap
role in reasoning and judgement 489–90
rules of 426
as shaping thought and character 568, 579
study of everyday usage, see ordinary language philosophy
theory of signs 602–3
liberalism 704–6
in Mill, see Mill
libertarianism 80, 609, 612, 620, 624–9
agent-causal 610, 625–8, 630–1
event-causal 625–6
political position 768, 776
linguistic turn, the 602–3
Lipsius, Justus 234, 240, 241 n20, 242–3, 245, 254, 261–2
Locke, John 207, 236, 258, 262, 266–7, 269, 350, 359, 484, 583, 614–15, 659, 853
on conscience 730
on justice rights and equality 771–3, 776, 777–8, 780–1, 784–5, 789
on liberty 73, 78–81, 477, 696
on mortal pleasures 91
on natural law 695, 704
on primary and secondary qualities 364, 661
on simplicity 345 n19, 346 n22
logical positivism 595–7, 599–601, 603, 819
logical empiricism 854, 858–9
love 130, 250, 324, 329–30, 402, 639–43, 652–3, 657–8, 662–4, 668
disinterested love 198–9, 325–6
duty of 461
for God 151, 177, 179–81, 193, 198, 254, 322, 326, 332, 653–4
Kant's ‘practical love’ 762–3
of mankind 367
as natural to us 267
as necessary for happiness 434–5
role in moral praise and blame, see reactive attitudes
of self, see self-love
Lucretius 76–9, 83, 86–7, 231, 242 n22, 624
Luther, Martin 185 n3, 186, 191, 193, 198, 203, 259
Lyceum, the 44
(p. 882) Mackie, J. J. 415, 839
argument from queerness 124, 802
denial of objective values 112, 123–4, 799, 810
error theory 416–17, 810–11, 819–20, 829
Machiavelli, Niccolò 231, 256, 560, 694
Malebranche, Nicolas 267, 313–15, 320–23, 332, 656 n110
McInerny, Ralph 151–2, 153, 158–60
MacIntyre, Alisdair 15, 75, 79, 638, 783
and Thomism 147, 151, 160–4
magnificence (virtue) 53
magnanimity 53, 245 n35, 656
Mandeville, Bernard 259, 272, 394, 400, 403, 406, 408
Marxism 477–8, 520, 523, 785
Marx, Karl 272, 473, 478, 491, 505, 518–23, 557
on exploitation 519, 521–2
on justice 519, 772
on human nature 478, 772
and ideology 520–3
materialism, see materialism
on rationality 519, 521, 523
materialism 262, 273–4, 473
Epicurean 74, 82
Hobbesian 237, 239, 250–1
Marxian 518, 523
Marcus Aurelius 97, 98, 103, 231, 240, 243, 255, 257, 268
maxims 479, 552–4
aphoristic literary form 234–5, 255–62, 268, 474, 497–8, 501
in Descartes 244–5, 255, 257
medicine 121–2
Aristotelian analogies 44, 47, 56, 58
Empiric school 121
metaethics 371–2, 466, 476, 583–606, 665, 770, 810, 852–4
distinction from normative ethics 843
moral metaphysics 818–40; see also anti-realism, moral realism
metaphysics 622, 771, 782, 784
and the Analytic tradition 579, 581–2
of Aristotle 693, 824–8
Bradley's avoidance of, see Bradley
deflationism and minimalism 802, 811
egoist metaphysical commitments 838–9
in Green, see Green
of Hegel 471, 508
of Hume 368, 830
and Kant 699, 471, 491, 627, 699, 782
metaphysical goodness or perfection324–5, 330
metaphysical realism 582–3, 587–9, 590, 594, 596–8, 602
metaphysical nominalism 784
of Morals, see Kant
in Mill 529, 538, 568
Nietzsche's metaphysics of the soul 500–1; see also will to power
as ‘nonsense’ 854
and reactive sentiments 619
rejection of 597–8, 602–3
relationship with action 250–1
relevance to moral philosophy 48, 130, 139, 230–1, 248–52, 263, 265, 274–5, 314–15, 318–20, 327–9
in Schopenhauer 473–4, 496–7
and Sidgwick 555, 717
Smith's disinterest in 431
of Spinoza 331, 656
status of ethical facts, see metaethics
Mill, John Stuart 293, 527–41, 558, 584, 674
on desire 529, 531, 537–8
on egoism 188
feminism 527–9, 772, 812
on freedom 529, 697–8
on conscience 735, 738–9
on the constitution of happiness 47, 528, 530–2, 534, 537, 539, 679–80, 687
higher and lower pleasures 529–34, 537, 575, 687; see also pleasure (ranking of)
influences and legacy 45, 73, 292, 415, 476, 527–8, 544, 552, 557
on justice 535, 538–41, 770–1, 773, 775–6
liberalism 477, 521, 527, 529, 705
individualism, see individualism
Marx's criticism of 522
(p. 883) on nature and naturalism 210, 212–14, 216–17, 429
and practical ethics 844, 850
on proof of utility principle 529, 537–8, 541, 553
psychological account 529, 537–8, 541, 687, 735
on virtue 535–7, 539, 541
whether act or rule utilitarian 535–7, 541, 567
Montaigne, Michel de 231, 240 n16, 241, 261, 498
question of relativism 259, 795–8
Moore, G. E. 546, 558, 581–90
advocating conceptual analysis 150, 582, 590, 853–4, 859
on duty 589, 591–2
on free will 614–15
objectivity and intuitionism 348–9, 341, 351, 354–5, 579, 586–7, 590, 595, 597, 601
on meaning of ‘good’ 348, 583–90, 592, 595, 601–2, 604, 605–6, 853; see also open question argument
metaphysical realism versus idealism582–3, 587–90, 594–7, 602
moral realism 583, 587, 606
on natural and non-natural properties 209, 338, 347–8, 584, 595, 601–2, 824, 828; see also naturalistic fallacy
and practical ethics 852–3
and utilitarianism 292–3, 302–3, 305, 337, 355, 592
monism 581, 597, 656
about basic moral principles 338, 352–5
moral crisis 477, 861
moral dilemmas 49, 52, 553
moral facts, see metaethics
moral framework 806–8; see also relativism
morality
as social phenomenon 12
distinction with ethics 818–19
moralism 803–4
moral education, see ethical development
moral knowledge 469, 604, 688
and conscience 733
Descartes’ view 656
and forms of relativism 800–3, 811
Green's view 573–4
Kant's view 659
Moore's view 583–4, 586–7, 589, 591
and moral fact internalism/externalism 834
naturalist understanding 219
Platonist understanding 263–5, 267, 273, 642, 658
positive and non-positive 180
Prichard's view 591–4
Ross’ view 592–4
Rousseau's criticism of Diderot on 284–5 see also epistemology, knowledge (philosophy and ethics as a branch of)
moral luck 49, 52, 407, 512
moral principles 15, 187, 443, 457, 459, 472, 478–9, 547, 549–52
conflicts between, see obligation
and directly perceived properties 588, 590, 593–4, 604; see also Moore
impartial application and selection of 720–6
and practical guidance 154, 199–200, 258, 461, 490, 692, 722; see also maxims
publicity of 555, 722
as rationally agreeable 280–1, 284, 448; see also Kant, Kantian ethics
respecting and acting on 454, 456, 460–1, 468, 692, 697–9, 761–4
as self-evident 351, 353–5, 444, 541, 549, 552–3, 584, 586–7, 591, 594, 716
form of fundamental principles 833
whether monistic or pluralistic, see intuitionism, monism, pluralism
universality 160–1, 164, 189, 351, 443–4, 447–8, 516, 567; see also relativism
moral psychology 402, 548, 730, 742, 744–64
of Hume, see Hume
Kant's account, see Kant
of Mill, see Mill
and Ockham 176
(p. 884) Plato's account, see Plato
Rousseau's account, see Rousseau
of Scotus 197
of Shaftesbury 363
Smith's account 373, 430–1, 436, 439
support for sentimentalism 358
in Williams’ relativism 801
moral realism 190–1, 264–5, 270–1, 273, 337–42, 344, 388–9, 548, 587, 820–40
about normative and evaluative facts 819 n3
in Aristotle 820 n8, 821, 824–9, 840
Cornell realism 829
distinction with ethical realism 820, 821 n9, 838–9
and forms of relativism 801, 820
in Hume 821, 829–32
in Kant 832–9
in Moore, see Moore
naturalist 355
in Plato 820 n 8, 821–4, 828
in sentimentalist thought 362–3, 367, 371, 374, 662
strong and weak 820, 838, 840 see also anti-realism
moral sense, see intuitionism, sentimentalism
More, Henry 262–3, 266, 658
motivation 41, 53, 241, 259, 424, 497, 604, 625, 703
to benefit 104–5, 661
and conscience 733, 735
as disinterested 198–9
and emotion, see emotion
force of duty independent of 771
and freedom 696–7; see also autonomy, free will
in infancy 89
and intention, see intention
as a determinant of moral appraisal 126, 193, 269–70, 275, 284, 353, 404, 409, 426–7, 429–31, 497, 575–6, 591, 663; see also intention, virtue
and obligation 187–8, 211, 275, 342–4, 353
to pleasure, see hedonism
reflective identification with, see desire (higher-order reflection on)
relationship with consequences 576–7
shared motivational attitudes, see relativism (Moral Reasons view)
question of holism 101–2, 105–6
Nagel, Thomas 717
on death 82, 84–5
naturalism 179, 206–26, 234, 249, 258, 265, 415, 439, 501, 571, 858
in Butler's ethics, see Butler
and conscience 733–5
and basic human equality 782–3
in Hume's ethics, see Hume
and modern science 108–9, 828; see also evolution
Moore's objection to, see naturalistic fallacy
and moral realism, see moral realism
and natural law 207–12, 214–15, 217–22, 224–6, 695
as non-legislated morality 189–92, 196–7, 199, 220–2, 225–6, 263
metaethical naturalism and non-naturalism 209, 338, 347–8, 584, 594–6, 599, 601–2, 604, 821, 823–4, 828–9, 840
about ‘the passions’ 285–6
in Sidgwick 551
Stoic conception 99, 101, 107, 108–9, 136
about virtue and excellence 211–12, 214–16, 218, 378–81
about welfare and the human good 214, 216–17, 577
natural law 176–7, 194, 206–26, 231, 326, 434, 469, 694–6, 785
distinction from naturalism 208, 219–20, 226
Hobbesian account, see Hobbes
(p. 885) and practical ethics 848, 850
Thomistic account 152–60, 186, 207, 214–15, 220–1, 225–6, 694, 733, 783
whether voluntarist 189–91, 220–6
naturalistic fallacy, the 209, 348–9, 355, 584–6, 595, 601
neo-Aristotelianism 506, 656, 772
neo-Kantianism 475, 483, 502, 855–6
neo-Platonism 131, 312, 314, 316–18, 330–1, 468, 505, 510 n14, 652, 658; see also Platonism
neo-Stoicism 243 n24, 658
Newton, Isaac 273–4, 423, 821
Nicomachean Ethics, the 44–7, 52–61, 132, 136–7, 139, 148, 207, 644–6, 683, 732, 751–2, 769, 824, 826–8
Nietzsche, Friedrich 97, 143, 252, 261, 408, 415, 474–5, 478, 483–4, 490–1, 497–502
against Christian morality 474, 483, 500, 737, 779
egoism 839
on emotion 474
on free will 474
genealogy 500, 737
on masters and slaves 474–5, 500
metaethical position 839 n44
rank-ordered society 499–500
on the self 498
versus systematization 498–501
the will to power 474–5, 501
non-cognitivism 294–5, 355, 360, 372, 411, 439, 604–5, 661–2, 665, 763–4, 819–20, 829
interpretation of Hume 831
non-conformism 697, 702
Nozick, Robert 776
obligation 225, 236, 343, 380
and animals 412
and God 163, 180–1, 190, 221, 223, 225, 236, 263–4, 340, 351, 377, 386, 848
grounds and source of 446, 466, 735
of justice 539–40, 688, 773, 775
moral obligation 5 n9, 39, 179–80, 187–9, 194, 212, 269, 274–5, 297–8, 353, 364, 461, 533, 618, 691, 735; see also duty
of parental care 407, 413–14, 514, 773
ranking of 808
relationship with autonomy 694–8, 703, 706
relationship with motivation, see motivation
as removal of freedom 211
of rulers 414
to specific others 392, 715, 726; see also partiality
and supererogation 203, 536
occasionalism 321–2
Odyssey, the 1, 6, 8, 14
Ockham, William 167, 169–70, 175–6, 179–82, 207, 221, 624
and rights 784–5
open question argument 209, 348, 585, 601–2; see also naturalistic fallacy
ontology 112, 138, 144, 313–14, 317, 331, 338, 434
ontological stance-independence 368, 371, 388–9
ontological status of ethical facts, see metaethics (moral metaphysics)
ordinary language philosophy 605
Origen 614 n14, 624–5, 652
original position, see Rawls
pain 390, 497, 647, 687, 688
appropriateness of 54, 95
and death 83, 646, 676
different types of 533
and evil pleasures 300
as an internal sanction 735, 738–9; see also Mill (on conscience)
mixed with pleasure 642
natural fact of 121, 124, 126, 647
Stoic understanding 756
sympathy towards 283, 390, 497; see also compassion see also pleasure
pagan ethics 168, 192–3, 195, 272
(p. 886) Paley, William
voluntarist critique 187–8
on utilitarianism 187–8, 297, 546, 558
Parfit, Derek 349, 550, 556–7, 717, 725–6, 824, 840, 845
partiality 269–70, 355, 387, 390 n37, 430, 539, 660, 710, 717–24, 726
towards certain others’ welfare 715, 719
towards friends and family 715, 718–22, 726
towards oneself, see egoism, self-interest
Pascal, Blaise 258, 685–6
passion, see desire, emotion
Peirce, Charles Sanders 480, 602–3, 857
phenomenology 396, 629, 711, 730, 756, 810
of moral objectiveness 830–1
Philo of Larissa 118, 207
Philodemus 89, 91
philosopher-ruler 28, 30, 36 n26, 37, 38, 40
philosophy
analytic tradition of, see analytic tradition
continental tradition of, see continental tradition
sub-fields of moral philosophy 843
as a ‘way of life’ 94, 97, 113, 120–1, 142, 145
philosophy of life 473–4
philosophy of mind 230, 249, 387–8, 431, 666, 755
Photius I of Constantinople 119
phronimos 103; see also practical wisdom
phronēsis, see practical wisdom
physicalism 331
pity 16–17, 394, 422, 474, 497, 655, 746, 749;see also compassion
Plato 21–42, 99, 129–32
analogy of the cave 685–6, 822–3
and definition 22–3, 30–1
on desire 639–41, 684, 687
on emotion 639–43, 645–6, 650, 654, 656, 662, 665, 687, 692
and freedom 74
and the good, see goodness
and happiness 29, 30–5, 37–40, 138, 142, 643, 684–7
and human sociality 568
influence and legacy 44–5, 59, 81, 468, 488, 548, 550, 572
and justice 25–9, 31–7, 42, 590–1, 641, 692, 768–9, 776, 822
metaethical views, see moral realism
metaphysical views 823–4
on natural law 206–7
Paradigmatist strategy 26–7, 29, 31, 40
on pleasure 29, 30, 40–2, 640–3, 645–7, 655, 685
on psychology 744, see also tripartite soul
and rationalism, see Platonism
on relativism 801
on self-interest 290
on the soul, see tripartite soul
and virtue 21, 24–8, 31, 33, 139–40, 145, 650, 654, 692, 698, 823 see also Platonism
Platonism 232, 240, 468, 505, 624, 652–4
Cambridge Platonists 235, 240, 256, 262–8, 270–5, 313, 658
ethical theory 129–32, 136–145, 190
in modern metaethics 824, 828
of Moore 583, 587–8
and rationalism 312–16, 319–22, 325, 330–2, 483
relationship with Plato 129, 131–2, 139, 145 see also Plato, Plotinus
pleasure 79, 95, 119, 131, 222, 224, 468, 649–50, 657–64, 717
of body versus soul 318, 320, 642, 646, 655
desire-dependent pleasures 395–6
from doing evil 300, 302–3, 341
Epicurean account, see Epicurus
equating with desire 538
as felt sensation or mental state 90, 530–3, 537, 551, 557, 659–60, 680, 685
friendships of 60
and goodness 216, 325, 341, 355, 400, 446, 575, 585; see also hedonism
Kant's reading 465, 489, 680–1, 761
of mutual sympathy 425, 428
ranking of 238, 303, 529–34, 537, 575
relationship with happiness 22, 29, 40–2, 58–9, 91, 133, 270, 324–5, 537, 643, 660, 679–82, 685; see also hedonism, pleasure (ranking of)
in revenge 751
(p. 887) Stoic understanding 756
‘true’ versus ‘empty’ 90
as utilitarian good, see utilitarianism (as hedonistic)
Plotinus 129, 131–2, 135–6, 468
on happiness 131 n5, 132, 137–9
on virtue 139–45
pluralism
about basic moral principles 337–8, 352–5, 391, 775
about moral outlooks 812–16
polis (polity) 26–9, 30–1, 33, 36 n25, 40, 41, 55, 472, 516
conflict between cities 687
justice of the 692
political philosophy 24, 268, 523, 548, 569, 722
and autonomy, see autonomy
of Hume 414
political and legal theory of Kant 460, 471–2
of Rawls, see Rawls
of Rousseau; see Rousseau
of Sidgwick 559
politics 46, 55, 61, 96, 230, 488, 492, 496, 500, 517
as divinely legislated 189
obligation and rights as political 695 see also society (political participation)
Politics, the 45, 646, 674, 753
Popper, Karl 502
‘popular or political’ virtues 140–5
Porphyry 129, 131 n2, 132, 143–5
positivism 502, 785
impact on practical philosophy 844–7
logical, see logical positivism
possible worlds 85
postmodernism 97, 480, 812
practical ethics 103, 184, 560
current styles of 862–3
historical relationship with philosophy 843–62
professional ethics 844, 849–50
practical reason 606
and Ancient scepticism 117
in Aquinas 155–7, 159, 162, 215, 220–1
in Aristotle 56, 162, 749–50
in Butler 386 n26, 388, 390
contrast with theoretical reason 851
in freedom and autonomy 617–18, 630–1, 698
in Gassendi 230
in Grotius 215, 218
in Hobbes 213
and Hume 411, 851
Kant's treatment 388, 446–52, 455, 457, 465–6, 469–70, 473–5, 488, 491, 745, 760, 833
and MacIntyre 161–2
in Mill 210
Moore's distancing from 588–9, 594, 606
and practical ethics 851
in Rashdall 304
Sidgwick's treatment 383 n12, 546–7, 556–8, 587–9, 839, 846 n10, 854
practical identity 702–3
practical wisdom 51, 55–7, 61, 103, 119, 642, 674, 692, 750, 754
contrast with theoretical wisdom 826; see also virtue (of thought or intellect)
practical syllogism 57–8
pragmatism
American Pragmatism 587 n10, 855–61
Rorty's pragmatism 799, 809–812, 860 n65; see also relativism (Moral Truth view)
prescriptivism, see Hare
Price, Richard 337–8, 340, 344–52
on simple ideas 345–9
Prichard, H. A. 292, 337, 352–4, 579, 589–95
on duty and the good 590–4
primary and secondary qualities 344, 347, 364, 661–2, 799
Probabilism; see casuistry (systems of)
progressivism 2, 3, 12, 14, 17
projectivism 661, 665, 808
in Hume 829–31
promise keeping 300–1, 352–4, 549, 711
conditions of 342
and free will 613
in Hume 365, 403–4, 412, 413 n8, 416
in Kant 449–50, 458
promisor-promisee relation 340, 341 n8, 353, 591
shared interest in 211–12 see also honesty
(p. 888) Protagoras 46, 262, 264, 813
relativism 798–9, 801
prudence 122, 474, 606, 771
Bentham's view 297 n18
in Butler 384–6, 393, 397
in Epicurus 82, 88, 656
in early modern philosophy 213, 237–9, 242, 245, 253, 256, 270, 274
in Kant 455, 781, 839 n43
prudential struggle and free will 625
prudential wisdom 141
in Smith 425, 431
virtue of 156–8, 170, 237, 385, 401, 406–7, 416
psychoanalysis 478, 754
and conscience 730, 738–41
psychology 230, 255, 261, 555, 565
‘armchair’ psychology 396, 599
Butler's account, see Butler
Descartes’ scientific 244
and egoism 717, see also egoism (psychological)
felicity at odds with 238–9
folk psychology 250
and free will 614–21; see also compatibilism
and human happiness 672, 674–5, 680, 682, 688; see also happiness (and the human condition)
Mill's account, see Mill
psychological association 396
in Pyrrhonist scepticism 120
and relativism 809–13
Rousseau's account, see Rousseau
Stoic understanding, see Stoicismsee also psychoanalysis
psychopathy 373–4, 619, 780
Pufendorf, Samuel von 188, 191, 207–8, 221–5, 236, 240, 259 n62, 323
on justice 771–3
on natural law 848
Pyrrho of Elis 114–16, 119–20
quasi-realism 416, 819–820, 829, 832 n35, 838; see also projectivism
queerness, argument from, see Mackie, J. J.
Quietism 116, 198
Quine, W. V. 858–60
Rand, Ayn 51
Rashdall, Hastings 292–3, 302–9, 854 n50
rationalism 312–32, 489, 581
and Butler 389 n33
in Clarke and Cambridge Platonism 187, 258, 262, 265, 267
in Epicurus 77
and Hume 410–15, 417
and intuitions, see intuitionism
and sentimentalism 358–60, 362–3
Schopenhauer's rejection of 496
rationality 77, 174, 252–4, 494–5, 509, 540, 719
and choice under scepticism 121
of capitalism, see Marx
desire in accordance with 306–8, 575
differing systems of 161
and egoism 713; see also egoism (rational egoism)
and emotion 106, 603; see also sentimentalism
and free will 79–81, 319, 469,630–1
as an ideal 253–5, 257, 281, 290
identification with 141–2, 144–5, 242–3, 245, 248, 254, 259, 266, 454, 490, 618
and Kantian agency, see Kant
in patterns of reasons 618
rational and non-rational parts of soul, see tripartite soul
as requiring sociality 215
as subversive and rationalizing 281, 284–5, 288–9
underpinning morality 39, 178, 189, 192, 194–5, 274, 327, 410, 415, 442, 824; see also rationalism, Kant
(p. 889) valuing or respecting as an end in itself 451–2, 459–60, 697, 761–4, 781, 837; see also Kant
Rawls, John 45, 82, 217, 457 n, 476–8, 544, 553, 606, 698
influence on human rights 786–9
on justice and fairness 476–7, 522, 540, 546, 705, 774–6, 779–80
Kantianism 476–8
original position 476
pragmatism 861
reflective equilibrium, see reflective equilibrium
variations in 781
veil of ignorance 430 n19, 476, 776
reactive attitudes 287, 611, 613, 615, 618–21, 629, 632, 755–6
desiring revenge 751, 756
rational appraisal of 621
and shame 736
realism
metaphysical realism, see metaphysics
about moral facts, see moral realism
reason 243, 460, 486, 488 492
activity of soul according with 827, see also function (Aristotle's ergon argument)
appeals to 301
and Cambridge Platonism 265–6
discovering truth through 574
as distinctive 48, 158; see also function
as distinguishing philosophy 151, 184–5
and emotion 658, 660, 745, 747, 751, 763; see also sentimentalism
and essence 321
and freedom 77, 78–81, 245, 329, 453, 458, 490–1; see also Kant, voluntarism (ethical)
judgements and direction of 304, 319, 393, 587–9, 619, 658, 687, 694–5; see also practical reason
having ‘good reasons’ for action 280, 297, 343 n13, 445, 550, 606, 617–18
in Hegel, see Hegel
and human weakness 258
Hume's account, see Hume
in Kant, see Kant
luck as contrary to 825
morality as accessible to 187, 189, 194, 263, 266–7, 274, 284, 360, 410, 415, 588, 694, 703–4, 783, 785–6; see also rationalism, Kant, Kantian ethics
and motivation 687, 695; see also internalism, sentimentalism
not passive but ruling 759
in Ockham 179–80
in Plato 28; see also tripartite soul
postmodern critique of 480
public reason 788–9
in religious theory, see theology (rational theology)
Rorty's understanding, see Rorty
as seeking the Forms 822
in Sidgwick 548–9, 555, 557–8; see also practical reason
in Smith 439
in Spinoza 253, 265–6, 328, 331 see also rationality
reason-responsiveness 617–18; see also compatibilism (integrationist)
Reformation, the 185–6
reflective equilibrium 476–7, 553, 861–2; see also Rawls
Reid, Thomas 433, 627, 771, 773, 848–9
reincarnation 135
relationships, see sociality, society
relativism 119, 123–4, 259, 471, 785, 793–816
and change 808
descriptive variation 401–2, 404–5, 412, 422–3, 434–5, 498, 573, 793–6, 798, 801, 803–4, 806–7
happiness as a relative notion 138
and Hume 367–8
internal criticism and dissent 794–5, 807–8, 815
in MacIntyre 164
metaethical moral 570, 577, 604–5, 794, 796–816, 820
between moral frameworks, see moral framework
Moral Historicism view 799–805, 812
Moral Plurality view, see pluralism (about ethical outlooks)
(p. 890) Moral Reasons view 799, 804–9
Moral Truth view 799, 808–13
and Nietzsche 501
and ethical egoism 715–16, 838
scope and grounding of human rights 786–9
self-refutation 801, 805, 812
normative moral, see tolerance
Republic, the 4, 21 n1, 23–6, 30–41, 135, 140, 639–42, 692, 822–3, 839
responsibility 126, 184, 475, 479
and accountability 618–19, 806
in Aquinas 161
in Aristotle 52
in Butler 387, 388 n30
causal 12, 409
of children 284, 379
for emotions 752–5, 758–60, 763–4
in Epicurus 80
and free will, see free will
in Homer 6
in Hume 409–10
in Mill 536
and reactive attitudes, see reactive attitudes
in Scotus and Ockham 175
retributivism 304–5, 392–3, 555, 769
rights 103, 281, 284, 436, 452, 473, 477, 695
conventional or juridical rights 404–5, 409, 413, 460–1, 472, 771
and corresponding duties 771–4
Hegel's discussion 511–13, 515
institutional protection of 705, 786; see also intervention
Mill's account 536–7, 539–41, 770–1, 850
natural rights 240, 249, 251, 297, 404, 413–14, 695–6, 704, 778, 783–9
relationship with justice 768–76, 785, 789
subjective rights 770–7, 783–6 see also human rights
Romantics, the 483, 486, 491, 519
Rorty, Richard 799–800, 809–12
view on truth and reason 811–12
Ross, W. D. 292, 301, 589, 601
intuitionism and objectivity 337, 346 n20, 350–3, 554, 579, 594
on the meaning of ‘right’ 592–3
on naturalism and non-naturalism 594–6
on prima facie duties 16, 303 n31, 354, 554, 593–4
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 272, 280–90, 517
on autonomy and freedom 693, 696–7, 701
account of human development 281–2, 286–7
educational theory 282, 287–8, 290
moral psychology 280–9
on natural goodness 286–7
political philosophy 280, 282, 287–90, 411
Russell, Bertrand469, 581–2, 596–8, 602
and conceptual analysis 150, 582, 590, 853–4, 859
disparaging view of ethics 846–7, 853
sacrifice 17, 39, 560, 570
Abraham's sacrifice of Isaac 495, 196
and egoism 558, 712–13, 715, 717, 719
and utilitarianism 298–9, 306–8, 415, 536, 540, 556, 558, 772
scepticism 231, 240, 254, 261, 400, 499, 556, 558, 565, 590–2
about free will, see free will
as a practical activity 120–2, 125; see also ataraxia
about status of ethics 112–17, 118–20, 122–7, 259, 342–3, 466, 796, 799, 810–11, 849;see also relativism
taxonomy of 112–14
scholasticism 149, 175, 200, 203, 223, 232, 487
on fundamental and formal morality 188
Luther's antagonism towards 191
and moral systematization 184–6
nature and natural law 179, 190, 207–8, 218
and the passions 654–6
and psychology 80, 654–5
Schopenhauer, Arthur 473–4, 478, 491, 496–7, 500, 578
denial of moral imperativeness 496–7
science 478, 602, 684, 694
as area of ethical application, see bioethics
as an end in itself 571
and free will 610
Marx's usage 520, 523
(p. 891) and religion 149, 544
as revealing ultimate reality 854
scientific knowledge as philosophical foundation 247–8, 255, 273–4, 314–15, 320, 469, 508, 529, 856, 858; see also naturalism
scientific language 599–600
the ‘new science’ 230, 234, 239, 242, 244, 247, 249, 251, 272
Schelling, Friedrich 471, 484
Schiller, Friedrich 467–9, 473, 483, 487, 490
Schlegel, Friedrich 483, 486, 490–1, 497
Scotus, John Duns 167, 169–79, 181–2, 207, 221, 624
secularism 163, 265–6, 272, 417–18, 730, 735,