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date: 26 February 2020

(p. xiii) List of Figures

(p. xiii) List of Figures

  1. 1.1 Schematic representation of main archaeological cultures by key area. 5

  2. 2.1 The present climates of Europe with local Mediterranean winds. 28

  3. 2.2 Proxy climatic reconstruction from two raised mires in the UK. 33

  4. 2.3 Dendrochonologically dated wild animal bone frequencies and cultures from eastern and western Swiss Neolithic lake villages. 36

  5. 2.4 The probability density function of alluvial radiocarbon dates for upland and lowland river catchments in Great Britain during the Neolithic. 39

  6. 3.1 Early Neolithic networks in south-eastern Europe. 65

  7. 3.2 Transhumance and communication: the Dinaric example of early Neolithic farmers and Mesolithic foragers. 69

  8. 3.3 Okolište, the Visoko basin, and the reconstruction of local and regional late Neolithic mobility. 71

  9. 3.4 Distribution of tell settlements, copper production, Spondylus, and shaft-hole axes in south-east Europe. 74

  10. 3.5 The distribution of local and exotic items in burials of the central area of the Varna cemetery 75

  11. 4.1 Reconstruction of Parekklisha–Shillourokambos. 83

  12. 4.2 Map of the ‘arrhythmic’ diffusion of agriculture throughout Europe. 86

  13. 4.3 Early Neolithic Impressed Ware of the central and western Mediterranean. 91

  14. 5.1 Distribution of earliest LBK, 5500–5300 bc and early to late LBK, 5300–4900 bc. 100

  15. 5.2 Circular enclosure at Ippesheim, Bavaria, c. 4900–4800 bc. 106

  16. 5.3 Wheels and wagon parts in the circumalpine region 3500–2500 bc. 109

  17. 5.4 Earliest evidence for wheeled transport in central and eastern Europe. 110

  18. 5.5 Reconstruction of a triangular two-wheeled wagon with detachable rotating axle, based on the wooden drag fragment from Reute, Baden-Württemberg, Germany (3709–3707 bc). 112

  19. 6.1 Main flows of domesticate diffusion during the Neolithization of Europe. 123

  20. 7.1 Summed radiocarbon date probabilities taken as a proxy measure for the Neolithic populations of several regions of north-west Europe. 148

  21. (p. xiv) 8.1 Map of key sites in the Balkans and the Carpathian Basin. 158

  22. 8.2 Schematic representation of cognitive complexity in later prehistoric Bulgaria. 161

  23. 8.3 (a) Plan of Polyanitsa Phase IV; (b) dispersed tell network. 165

  24. 8.4 Spatial scale of mortuary practices. 168

  25. 9.1 Map of a modified ‘wave of advance’ in 200-km arcs, showing the expansion of Neolithic farming and culture into the Mediterranean with additional radiometric dates and broad ceramic groups. 179

  26. 9.2 Diagram summarizing explanatory models for the spread of farming. 187

  27. 10.1 The spread of the Neolithic in western Eurasia. (a) Early Atlantic, (b) Middle Atlantic, (c) the three streams of Neolithization and the palaeogenetic map of the early Holocene. 198

  28. 10.2 Neolithic cultures in central Europe. 200

  29. 10.3 Neolithic cultures in eastern Europe and Siberia. 205

  30. 12.1 The geographical distribution of Neolithic tell settlements in south-east Europe between 6700/6500 and 4600/4500 bc. 241

  31. 12.2 The tell settlement of Berettyóújfalu-Herpály with excavation trenches from 1977 to 1982. 244

  32. 12.3 The tell settlement of Berettyóújfalu-Herpály. Detail of a north–south section showing the stratigraphic sequence. 244

  33. 12.4 The tell settlement of Berettyóújfalu-Herpály. Reconstruction of house 11, a two-storey building, with the objects found within. 245

  34. 13.1 A post-framed structure typical of the main habitation phase of Makri in Greece. 258

  35. 13.2 House no. 4.7, Asagi Pinar layer 4, western Anatolia. 262

  36. 13.3 Complex of structures, Khirokitia Vounous, Cyprus. 264

  37. 14.1 Representative house-plans; (a) early LBK; (b) middle/late LBK; (c) middle Neolithic. 274

  38. 14.2 Different models of household space in the LBK. (a) Layout of pits within the Hofplatz in the Merzbachtal; (b) discard patterns in the flanking pits at Cuiry-lès-Chaudardes; (c) fenced enclosure attached to an SBK longhouse at Atting-Rinkam. 275

  39. 14.3 Examples of settlement layouts. (a) Rows of successive early LBK houses at Schwanfeld; (b) houses and enclosures at Erkelenz-Kückhoven; (c) related geometry of selected houses and the northern enclosure at Köln-Lindenthal; (d) Rössen longhouses with suggested Hofplätze and communal structures at Inden. 282

  40. 15.1 Schematic drawing of the Pfahlbauproblem (the lake-dwelling dispute). 293

  41. (p. xv) 15.2 Reconstruction of two Neolithic lake-dwelling houses (left: Hornstaad-Hörnle, Germany; right: Arbon-Bleiche 3, Switzerland). 298

  42. 15.3 Internal division of a wetland Neolithic house at Ehrenstein (Schussenried culture), Germany. 301

  43. 15.4 Miniature model of houses and surroundings of the Arbon-Bleiche 3 Neolithic lake-dwelling settlement. 303

  44. 16.1 Reconstruction of a Linearbandkeramik house, Cuiry-lès-Chaudardes, Paris Basin, France. 311

  45. 16.2 (1) Tripartite Linearbandkeramik house; (2) bipartite house. 312

  46. 16.3 (1) Options for the front section; (2) options for the central section; (3) options for the rear section; (4) options for the ground plan. 313

  47. 16.4 The abstract structuration of the Bandkeramik longhouse tradition. 322

  48. 17.1 Interpretive plans of early Neolithic rectangular timber buildings in Britain and Ireland. 330

  49. 17.2 Excavation of a possible Neolithic house at Laigh Newton, Ayrshire. 331

  50. 17.3 Plans of the four excavated early Neolithic timber halls in lowland Scotland. 332

  51. 17.4 Interpretive plans of various late Neolithic sub-circular buildings in Britain and Ireland. 333

  52. 18.1 Early Neolithic houses at Dagstorp, western Scania. 348

  53. 18.2 The Pitted Ware site Fräkenrönningen. 351

  54. 18.3 Late Neolithic houses from Fosie IV, Malmö. 354

  55. 19.1 Map showing locations of key sites. 362

  56. 19.2 δ13C and δ15N values on human bone collagen from Neolithic sites in eastern Sweden. 367

  57. 19.3 δ13C and δ15N values on human bone collagen from Neolithic sites in Greece. 370

  58. 19.4 Cattle and human δ13C and δ15N results for selected earlier Neolithic sites in southern Britain. 372

  59. 20.1 Sites in south-east Europe mentioned in the text. 386

  60. 20.2 Sites in south-west Europe mentioned in the text. 387

  61. 21.1 Selective processes and feedback systems determining the interpretation of bioarchaeological evidence. 412

  62. 21.2 Stable isotope analysis of Ukrainian and Latvian late Mesolithic and early Neolithic human and faunal remains. 418

  63. 22.1 Economic remains from selected British Neolithic sites. (a) Histogram showing relative frequency of the main food mammals. (b) Pie charts showing relative frequency of charred plant remains. 432

  64. (p. xvi) 22.2 Age and sex of the cattle from Grime’s Graves, showing the evidence for dairy production. 433

  65. 22.3 Economic remains from selected LBK sites. (a) Histogram showing relative frequency of the main food mammals. (b) Pie charts showing relative frequency of charred plant remains. 435

  66. 22.4 Histograms of cattle metacarpal distal breadth. 436

  67. 22.5 Economic remains from selected continental Neolithic sites in the area north of the LBK. (a) Histogram showing relative frequency of the main food mammals. (b) Pie charts showing relative frequency of charred plant remains. 438

  68. 23.1 The Eneolithic tell of Podgoritsa (Bulgaria) with offsite structures. 451

  69. 23.2 The Starčevo phase at Divostin (Serbia). 452

  70. 24.1 The Maxey-Etton, Dorchester upon Thames, and Fornham All Saints complexes. 466

  71. 24.2 The incised slab from a Grooved Ware pit at Rothley, Leicestershire. 471

  72. 24.3 The profile of the island of Hoy seen from the Stones of Stenness, Orkney. 473

  73. 24.4 Henges in the vales of Mowbray and York. 475

  74. 25.1 Witold Migal’s experimental work on blade production by indirect percussion. 492

  75. 25.2 Witold Migal’s experimental production of blades using the pressure technique. 492

  76. 25.3 Refitted Bandkeramik blade core from Beek-Kerkeveld (the Netherlands), showing orthogonal flaking angles and large core rejuvenation tablets. 493

  77. 25.4 Two ‘daggers’ found in the Netherlands; the smaller one is made from Le Grand-Pressigny flint, the larger one from the Romigny-Lhéry flint type. 493

  78. 26.1 Some of the best-known European Neolithic sites where deep mining has been documented. 500

  79. 26.2 Excavating a deep ‘chimney’ shaft at the early Neolithic flint mine of Casa Montero (Spain). 504

  80. 26.3 Extraction galleries from deep shafts at Camp-à-Cayaux in the mining complex of Spiennes (Belgium). 505

  81. 26.4 Bird’s-eye view, taken from the east, of the monumental ‘lunar’ landscape at the English flint mine of Grime’s Graves. 509

  82. 27.1 (a) Porphyritic andesite from Lambay, Ireland, Eagle’s Nest quarry site; (b) Eagle’s Nest, Lambay, excavation of quarry site. 518

  83. 27.2 (a) Amphibolite axe from Zambujal, Portugal; (b) plaque from Olival da Pega (Évora, Portugal). 520

  84. (p. xvii) 27.3 Distribution of large Alpine axeheads. 525

  85. 27.4 Arrangement of axes in TRB hoards. 526

  86. 28.1 ‘Monochrome’ and painted pottery in the Aegean early Neolithic. 537

  87. 28.2. ‘Barbotine’ pottery with slip. 540

  88. 28.3. The early Neolithic pottery from the Anzabegovo-Vršnik and Starčevo cultures. 541

  89. 28.4 The ‘Impresso (Cardial)’ pottery with decoration made with marine shell impressions. 541

  90. 28.5. The parallel clines of frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroups J, E, and N in modern populations in Europe and initial pottery distributions in Neolithic Europe. 544

  91. 29.1 Typological development of the shapes and decorations of LBK Kümpfe from southern Bavaria. 557

  92. 29.2 Schematic representation of the syntax of Bandkeramik pottery decoration. 558

  93. 29.3 Examples of rare pottery forms from the LBK site of Stephansposching (southern Bavaria). 564

  94. 29.4 Suggested reconstruction of the ceramic inventory in use at any one time in an average household at the LBK site of Stephansposching (southern Bavaria). 565

  95. 30.1 The interaction spheres of early Funnel Beaker Societies. 574

  96. 30.2 Schematic chronological table of Funnel Beaker and Single Grave development in south Scandinavia. 576

  97. 30.3 Early Neolithic pottery from southern Scandinavia. 577

  98. 30.4 Middle Neolithic pottery from southern Scandinavia. 579

  99. 30.5 Younger and late Neolithic pottery from southern Scandinavia. 581

  100. 30.6 Spatial communication patterns indicated by TRB ceramic design. 583

  101. 30.7 Ceramic deposition in front of the ‘Trollasten’ dolmen in Scania near Ystad. 585

  102. 30.8 Find spots for British and Irish pottery assemblages discussed in this section. 587

  103. 30.9 Cross-sectional view of Neolithic pottery from Blasthill chambered cairn, Argyll. 592

  104. 30.10 Base and wall sherds of a complete Neolithic vessel from Blasthill, Argyll. 593

  105. 30.11 Selected dated material belonging to the first Neolithic in the British Isles. 595

  106. 30.12 Selected dated material belonging to the early Neolithic in the British Isles. 596

  107. 30.13 Selected dated material belonging to the middle Neolithic in the British Isles. 597

  108. 30.14 Grooved Ware and other late Neolithic pottery from Britain. 598

  109. (p. xviii) 31.1 Distribution map of the Bell Beaker phenomenon and selection of European Bell Beakers. 607

  110. 32.1 Anthropomorphic figurines from Thessaly, Greece. 623

  111. 32.2 Anthropomorphic figurines from Selevac, Serbia. 624

  112. 32.3 Anthropomorphic and zoomorphic vessels from south-east Europe. 625

  113. 32.4 House models and an oven model. 626

  114. 33.1 Map of Spondylus deposition in Europe, with main sites. 640

  115. 33.2 Principal ornament types made of Spondylus shell. 643

  116. 33.3 The regional and chronological distribution of the main types of Spondylus ornament. 646

  117. 33.4 Phases of Spondylus consumption by region. 647

  118. 34.1 Examples of the different amber bead types. 663

  119. 34.2 The frequency of different types of amber beads from megaliths in Skåne and Västergötland. 664

  120. 35.1 Chrono-typological chart of early copper axes and daggers. 676

  121. 35.2 Distribution map of early Copper Age golden bracelets, disks/lozenges, and gold/silver pendants. 682

  122. 35.3 Copper axe from Osijek, Croatia. 683

  123. 35.4 Giurgiulesti, Moldova, grave 4: plans, section and funerary equipment. 684

  124. 36.1 Chalcolithic metal types in Andalusia. 695

  125. 36.2 A Remedello-type dagger and axe from Sabbione, Italy. 700

  126. 36.3 Statue stela n.1, Arco, Italy. 701

  127. 37.1 (a) Study area (shaded region); (b) selected sites mentioned in the text. 713

  128. 37.2 Copper objects from the mid fourth millennium bc hoard found at Bygholm, Skanderborg, Denmark. 714

  129. 37.3 Irish-style hammered sheet gold lunula (found at Gwithian, Cornwall, Britain). 715

  130. 37.4 Bell Beaker burial assemblage, Barnack, Cambridgeshire, Britain. 719

  131. 38.1 A cluster of early Neolithic pits at Kilverstone, Norfolk. 730

  132. 38.2 Burnt/unburnt and weathered/unweathered refitting sherds from Kilverstone, Norfolk. 736

  133. 38.3 Re-fits within Area E, Kilverstone, Norfolk—pottery in black, flint in grey. 739

  134. 39.1 Cattle bucrania built into the walls of a house at Çatalhöyük, Turkey. 750

  135. 40.1 Linearbandkeramik enclosures. 765

  136. 40.2 Late Neolithic earthworks from Bavaria and Bohemia. 767

  137. (p. xix) 40.3 Künzing-Unternberg. Section through the inner ditch of the middle Neolithic roundel. 769

  138. 40.4 Künzing-Unternberg. 771

  139. 41.1 Map of key places and regions mentioned in the text. 780

  140. 41.2 Aerial photograph of Neolithic enclosure ditches at Masseria Palmori on the Tavoliere Plain, northern Puglia. 783

  141. 41.3 The ‘Manfredi hypogeum’ dug into the side of a later Neolithic enclosure ditch at Santa Barbara near Polignano a Mare, central Puglia. 786

  142. 41.4 Reconstruction drawing of an enclosure, formed by a palisade, wall, and ditch at Lugo di Romagna near Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna. 789

  143. 42.1 Extent of late fifth millennium and fourth millennium bc enclosure distribution in northern and western Europe. 796

  144. 42.2 Plans of selected causewayed enclosures. 798

  145. 42.3 Re-cutting of ditch A610, Sarup II, Denmark. 800

  146. 42.4 Fenced enclosures close to palisades. 802

  147. 43.1 North European dolmens: (a) reconstructed long dolmen at Munkwolstrup in Schleswig; (b) round dolmen at Bautahøj on Zealand. 818

  148. 43.2 Burial and accompanying grave goods from the long dolmen at Bogø, Zealand. 819

  149. 43.3 Plan of the passage grave chamber at Kong Svends Høj, Lolland. 820

  150. 43.4 (a) Passage grave of Rævehøj, Zealand; (b) ‘twin stone’ capstone on the Poskær Stenhus dolmen, Djursland peninsula. 821

  151. 43.5 Map of the British Isles indicating regions with dense concentrations of Neolithic chambered tombs. 823

  152. 44.1 Neolithic rock art styles in the Iberian Peninsula. (a) Levantine; (b) Schematic; (c) Megalithic; (d) Galician-Atlantic. 840

  153. 44.2 Levantine paintings over macro-schematic art at La Sarga (Alcoi, Spain). 842

  154. 44.3 Schematic paintings at Pala Pinta, Alijó, Portugal. 844

  155. 44.4 Megalithic paintings at Antelas, Oliveira de Frades, Portugal. 847

  156. 44.5 Os Carballos, Campo Lameiro, Spain. 848

  157. 45.1 Common motifs in the rock carvings of Valcamonica and Valtellina. 861

  158. 45.2 Selected examples of Valcamonica and Valtellina rock carvings. 862

  159. 46.1 Carved rock surface, Ormaig, Kilmartin, Scotland, photographed at night. 873

  160. 46.2 Main areas of distribution of rock art in the British Isles. 874

  161. 46.3 Transcription of carvings on a rock surface at Evenhus, Trøndelag, Norway. 878

  162. 46.4 Carved rock surface, Ausevik, Sunnfjord, Norway. 882

  163. (p. xx) 46.5 Decorated cist slab, Mjeltehaugen, Sunnmøre, Norway. 883

  164. 47.1 View from Grotta dei Piccioni along the Orta gorge, Abruzzo. 899

  165. 47.2 Modified triton shell from Grotta dei Piccioni, Abruzzo. 900

  166. 47.3 Location of caves at Porto Badisco, Puglia. 903

  167. 47.4 Stalactites and stalagmites in Għar Dalam, Malta. 907

  168. 48.1 Measuring the orientation of one of the tholos tombs at Los Millares, Almería, Spain. 914

  169. 48.2. One of the seven-stone passage graves typical of the Portugese Alentejo: Anta de la Marquesa. 918

  170. 48.3. Histogram showing the orientations of 177 seven-stone passage graves of the Alentejo. 919

  171. 48.4. The orientations of 41 megalithic sepulchres at Montefrío and the orientations of 48 tholos and related passage graves at Los Millares. 920

  172. 49.1 Map showing Neolithic and Copper Age burial sites in south-east Europe. 929

  173. 49.2. (a) Crouched burial with aurochs skull, pit-dwelling 7, Golokut, Serbia; (b) burials from Topole-Bač; (c) burials 8 and 9 (phase III) placed above the floor of building 24 (phase I–II), Lepenski Vir. 933

  174. 49.3. Male burial 2/1975, late Neolithic phase Ib, Gomolava, Serbia. 938

  175. 49.4. Varna culture phase: (a) female Burial 245 and (b) male Burial 404 from Durankulak. 940

  176. 49.5. Map showing areas with Neolithic and Copper Age cemeteries containing extended supine burials. 945

  177. 49.6 Tisza culture male figurines with a sickle (a) and axe (b) placed on right shoulders, Szegvár-Tűzköves, Hungary; (c) group of late Vinča culture figurines with a mace-head and axes placed on right shoulders, Stubline, Serbia. 947

  178. 50.1 (a) Early-middle Neolithic figurines from Italy; (b) cave art, Porto Badisco. 963

  179. 50.2 Statue-menhirs and statue-stelae. 965

  180. 50.3 Prehistoric body imagery from Sardinia. 973

  181. 50.4 Small anthropomorphic figures from Copper Age Iberia. 978

  182. 51.1 Grave 41 at Aiterhofen, Lower Bavaria. 990

  183. 51.2 (a) Complex 9 from the pit enclosure at Herxheim, Rhineland-Palatinate; (b) a calotte from Herxheim, showing the deliberate fashioning of edges. 992

  184. 51.3 Burial 70 at Trebur, Hesse. 995

  185. 51.4 An assemblage with human remains from the Hetzenberg, Baden-Württemberg. 997

  186. 52.1 Skeleton of a 40–50-year-old woman from Frälsegården. 1010

  187. (p. xxi) 52.2 Collection of crania in the passage grave of Rævehöj. 1011

  188. 52.3 Graves 1 and 2 at the PWC cemetery at Ajvide, Gotland. 1014

  189. 52.4 The mortuary house at Bollbacken under excavation. 1016

  190. 53.1 Vignely (Seine-et-Marne, France): selected middle Neolithic graves. 1025

  191. 53.2 La Chaussée-Tirancourt (Somme, France): interior of allée sépulcrale. 1030

  192. 53.3 Le Câtel statue-menhir, Guernsey. 1037

  193. 53.4. Three figurines from the Links of Noltland, Westray, Orkney. 1038

  194. 56.1 Model of basic material and institutional components of western Eurasian societies of the third millennium bc. 1101

(p. xxii)