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date: 20 November 2019

(p. 1125) Subject Index

(p. 1125) Subject Index

4.2 ka event 33
8.2 ka event 29, 39, 207
Abensberg-Arnhofen 500
Abeurador 387
Abruzzo region
caves 897–901
cremation burials at Grotta Continenza 92, 961
enclosed settlements 788
Abu Hureya 178
Åby 350
Acquaviva 699
acropolis-polis settlements 239
actinolite-hornblende schist rock type (AHS) 517
adaptation
of animals and plants 63, 107, 129–30, 176, 362
of people 317, 319, 546
Adlestrop 1028
aDNA see ancient DNA
Adriatic basin 68–9, 89–90
Aegean region 64, 87–9, 122, 184
Aegina 648
aesthetics 160–2
age differences 160–2
in diet 373–6
in mortuary treatment 702, 898, 905, 932, 939, 990, 1013, 1014, 1029, 1032, 1040
see also children
agent-based modelling (ABM) 45
agriculture see farming
Ai Bunar 158
Aichbühl culture 997
Aichbühl 202
Ain Ghazal 263, 674
Ain Mallaha 178
Aiterhofen 640, 990
Ajdovska Jama cave 929, 944
Ajmana 929, 931, 932
Ajvide 366, 1014
Al Claus 703
Alcalar tombs 815
alcohol 609
Aldenhovener Platte 562
Alentejo region 608, 814, 917–20
Alepotrypa cave 386, 369, 370, 647, 929, 939
Alföld Linear Pottery Culture (AVK) 935, 937
Alfriston 1031
allées couvertes or allée sépulcrales 816, 1030, 1084
Almazaraque 260
Almhov 353
Almizaraque 695, 696
Alpine
foreland 13, 35, 103, 107, 396, 1056, 1064
jade/jadetite 16, 521, 522, 721
lake villages see lake villages, Alpine
region 29, 130, 294, 296, 297, 712, 714, 857, 1038
Alsónyék-Kanizsa-dűlő 929
Altheim 699, 767, 768, 775
Altheim culture 766, 767, 768, 997
Alvastra 438, 1016
amber 657–68, 718
amber beads 658–9, 661–8, 721
Amesbury archer 606, 613–14, 1098
Anatolia 180, 181, 184, 1053
domestic space 261–2
(p. 1126) ancient DNA (aDNA) 142–3, 545, 547, 833, 1078–9
domesticated animals 76, 122, 128, 393, 435, 437, 746, 1054
Iberia 224
south-east Europe, Chalcolithic 76
Sweden (TRB and PWC) 216, 439
see also mtDNA
Anghelo Ruju 973–4
angle de chasse 484
animal husbandry see farming
animals
assemblages 431–4, 747–8
Baltic region 419–20
biographies 749–51
bones
in burials 927–8, 934–5, 936, 942, 943, 995
in caves 905
treatment 806
ceremonial consumption 754–5
classification 748–9
consumption changes 365–7
domestic see cattle; farming; goat; pig; sheep
figurines 623–4, 627–30
kept in caves 396
kept in houses 299
in lake settlements 294
as motifs on amber 658
in rock art 871, 877, 879, 885
sacred 747, 749
scavenging human remains 804, 1028, 1035
secondary produce (milk, wool, labour) 415
shell figurines 647–8
slaughtering 402
and social identity 751–5
and social status 745–56
south-eastern Europe 391–4
spatial division in settlements 302
subsistence practices with 389–90
Ukraine 416–19
wild 36, 81, 398, 401, 418–19, 746–7, 751
badger 419, 746
beaver 419, 439, 1032
boar see wild boar
brown bear 419, 747
in decorations 221, 849, 885, 1006
deer see deer
fox 392, 419, 747, 866
as grave goods 935, 943, 1024
hamsters 130
hares 392, 746
marten 392, 419
mice 130
otter 419, 439
pigmy shrews 130–1
remains 282, 413, 439, 898, 1057
seals 40, 363, 366, 419–20, 1074
spiritualism 936–7
voles 130, 470
wild cat 419
wildfowl 419, 1074
wild horse 416, 419, 439
wolf 419, 747
Anta de la Marquesa 918
Anta Grande de Zambujeiro 814
Antelas 815, 847
Antequera 914–15
anthropomorphic art
breasts 160, 627, 804, 807, 816, 830, 966, 972, 1037–8, 1039
hair 932, 964, 969, 971, 1036
engravings 865–7, 966, 972 see also statue-menhirs; statue-stelae;
figures on vessels 975
painted figures 845–6, 908, 972
pendants 971
phalli 160, 464, 807, 866, 906, 1039
‘plaque idols’ 977–8
vessels 622, 625
antimony 702, 703, 716, 717
antler sleeves 415
antler tools 506–7, 508, 943
Anza 386, 392
Anzabegovo 929, 930
Anzabegovo-Vršnik culture 540, 541
Aosta 701
Apulian Tavoliere 185
aquatic resources 370–1, 413, 417 see also lakeside settlements
(p. 1127) Arbon-Bleiche 3 111, 292, 298, 302, 303, 753, 1057
archaeoastronomy 913–17
architecture
Anatolia 261–2
Cyprus 83, 264
Greece 257–259
Italy 259–60
Arco 701
Arconciel/La Souche 197
Arenal de la Costa 387, 398
Arene Candide 185, 387, 395, 399, 400, 644, 961, 963
Armeau 435
Arnesano 906
Arnhofen 504
arrowheads
Bell Beaker 605, 611, 718
Britain and northern France 732, 1026, 1028, 1032
central Europe 199, 219, 768, 775
Mediterranean area 93, 699, 702, 904, 962, 969
Mesolithic 87, 346
on rock art 841, 850
Scandinavia 352, 354, 881
south-east Europe 73
arsenic 717
arsenical copper 695, 699, 716
artefacts 15–17
aesthetics 160–2
copper age 162
copying between communities 11
in lake settlements 300
value and social status 75
Ascott-under-Wychwood 372
Aşikili Höyük 674
Asparn-Schletz 199, 994, 1060
astronomy 43, 911–23
enclosures as observatories 776–7
influence on architecture 104–6
Astuvansalmi 881
Aszód-Papi földek 929
Atting-Rinkam 275
aurochs 419–20, 435–6, 753, 806, 933 see also cattle
Ausevik 881, 882, 884
availability phase 217
Avgi 929
awls 678
amphibolite 517, 519, 520, 651
axes or axeheads 201–2
battle axes 115
miniatures shaped in amber 664–7
Britain 222–3
bronze 884
as carvings in rock art 873
copper 676, 678, 681, 683, 701–2
flat 699
deposition 525–7, 807
flint 515–27
functions 522–5
hammer axes (Pločnik) 678–9
hoards 681
Ireland 223
jade 1095
metal 720
miniature 524
polishing 523
social identity 527
southern Scandinavia 217
stone sources 506, 515–27
types 679
Azmak 929, 930
Backstone Beck 880
Bad Abbach-Alkofen 767, 768
Badbury barrow 873
Baden 677
Baden culture 108, 111
Baden-Württemberg 996–7
Bagnolo 863, 864–5
Baia Hamangia 158
Balaci 681
Balbridie 329, 332, 336, 738
Balearic islands 185
Balfarg Riding School 598, 599
Balkan-Anatolian cultural complex 542
(p. 1128) Balkans 158, 161–2, 184, 197
colonization 1052–3
communities 166–9
burials 934–41
farming 184
figurines 624
households 164
routines 449–50
shell exchange networks 651
shells 648
social networks 170
tell settlements 246
Ballaharra 1032
Ballygalley 330
Ballyglass 330, 338
Ballyharry 128
Ballymacaldrack 595
Ballymacdermot 824
Baltic Sea region
amber 657–8, 661, 1105
ceramics 8, 203, 206
isostatic rebound 42
metallurgy 712, 713
shell middens 216
subsistence practices 14, 216, 217–8, 366, 419–20, 439, 660
see also Scandinavia
Baltic Sea 40, 216, 363, 606, 658
Barbotine pottery 540
Barca 929
Bardal 878
Barkaer 346
barley 122, 126, 294, 390, 391, 395, 420
hulled 204
in the Aegean region 122
in Ireland 128
movement to Britain 127, 128
naked 396
Barnhouse 334, 470, 599
Barranc d’en Fabra 260
Barrow Hills 1031
Barsebäck 3 665
baskets 454, 506, 564, 841
Battle Axe culture (BAC) 348, 351–3, 355
flat graves 1013–14
Battonya 640, 644–5
Bauma Serrat del Pont 387, 396
Baume d’Oulen 387, 400
Baume Ronze 387
Bautahøj 818
Bazoches 801
beads
animal tooth 1014
clay 564
copper 674, 712, 941, 942, 944
fossil shell 1024
limestone 937, 942, 943, 944
metal 720
spondylus shell 642–50, 943, 989
variscite 815
Beaker pottery see Bell Beaker pottery
beer 609
Beaurieux, Aisne Valley 202, 996
Beckton 333
Bečmen 681
Bedburg-Garsdorf 435
Beek-Kerkeveld 492
Beijing 777
Bejsebakken 612
Bélesta 387
Belgium 126, 219–20, 1079
Bell Beaker culture 719
burials 611–12, 614
expansion 1098–9
rock art 882–3
settlements 612–13
Bell Beaker metal 717
Bell Beaker Phenomenon (BBP) 605
archipelago 606–8
expansion 678
mobility 613–14
Bell Beaker pottery 114, 115, 581, 605–6, 609–10, 678, 694, 718
in burials 611–12
Ben Lawers 880
Benta Valley 1104
Berettyóújfalu-Herpály 244–5, 929, 936
Bergerac 488
Bernburg 640, 649
Beşenova Veche 929, 931
Beusterburg 767, 801
(p. 1129) Bickse-Galagonyás 929, 936
Big Men societies 323
Biggar Common West 591, 594–5
bioarchaeological evidence 411–12
Bischheim culture 201–2
Bjärstamon 350
Bjerggårde 806
Björnsholm 345
Black Sea 40, 42, 639
Black Sea coast 417, 539, 935, 939, 944, 1059, 1097
Blackpatch 500
blade cores 492
blade production 483–8, 490–1
Blagotin 386, 393, 929, 930
Blandebjerg 579
Blasthill 592, 593
Blicquy culture 484
boats 41
Bocca Lorenza/Gurnitz 698
Bodrogkeresztúr complex 943
Bodrogkeresztúr-Kutyasor 929, 937
bog deposition 1017
bog surface wetness (BSW) 30–4
Boghead 335
Bogø 819
Bohemia 559
Bohemian cups 607
Boleráz pottery 111, 677
Boleráz-Cernavoda III 76
Bollbacken 350, 1015–16
Bømlo/Hespriholmen 522
bones see individual species (e.g. human bones); see also skulls
Bonu Ighinu culture 972
Borgeby 1013
bornite 703
Bosnia 72–3
Botoš 648, 929, 936
Bouco-Payrol 703
Bougon 1027, 1030
Boulder Borno 1 863, 864
boulders, rock art 865
bovids see cattle
Boyne Valley 877
Bozejewice 276
bracers 611
Breitenloo 292
Briar Hill 799, 805
Britain 222–3
anthropomorphic art 1038–9
axehead sources 517, 524
axehead deposition 525–6
Bell Beakers 607, 608, 610
bracers (wristguards) 611
causewayed enclosures see Britain, enclosures; causewayed enclosures
chambered tombs 822–5, 827–8
copper 717
dairying 441–2
deforestation 38
diet 40
domesticated plants and animals 127–8, 365, 373, 440–2, 1074–5
fluvial activity 38
houses 13, 327–39
Mesolithic–Neolithic transition 221–3, 440
long barrows 464
monument complexes 465, 472 see also henges
mortuary practices 223, 610, 1027–9, 1031–2, 1035, 1084
movement of plants and animals from the continent 127–8, 222, 440
passage graves 472
petrology 516–17
plants 440–1
pottery 469, 586–99
settlement occupation 334–7, 736–7
rock art 872–4, 879–81, 886
tin ore 712
villages 334
wild species, role in subsistence 440–1, 747
Brittany
axeheads 202, 518, 524, 527, 815
long mounds 815
menhirs 527, 815
megalithic art 829, 860, 1036, 1039
Mesolithic burials in shell middens 221
monument complexes 43
passage graves 815
statue-menhirs 1038
stone rows 828
tombs 221
Brixlegg 201
(p. 1130) Brochtorff Circle 970–1
Brockley 522
Brodzany-Nitra phase 943
Bronze Age
expansion 1093–6, 1099–108
pile dwellings 298–9
pits 730
rock art 858–9, 882–4
Broom Heath 736–7
Bruchsal-Aue 799, 805, 806, 996
Brunn am Gebirge-Wolfholz 556
Brunn-Wolfholz 278
Brześć Kujawski 640
Büdelsdorf 799, 803
Bug-Dniester culture 203, 204, 416
Bukovic 387, 397
Bulgaria 161, 391, 1076, 1103
cemeteries 491, 641, 934–5, 941, 945
Copper Age 73–4, 170, 675, 681
crops 390–1
figurines 622
house models 629
spondylus shell ornaments 646–7
tells 237
Bundsø/Lindø 579, 1018
Burgäschi/Ost 292
burials 337–9, 1084–5
age differentiation 168, 702, 898, 928, 932–3, 990–1, 1014, 1029, 1032, 1040
Atlantic France 221–2
Britain 223
Chalcolithic/Copper Age 167–9, 683–5, 694, 939–45, 961–2, 977
in chambered tombs (entombment) 19, 814–28, 830–3, 962, 970, 1040
disarticulated 831, 962, 970, 998, 1008, 1027
disturbance 1012, 1030
individual/intact burial 830–1, 1008, 1009–10, 1012, 1026
collective/multiple/successive burial 816, 830, 962, 970, 998, 1008–9, 1026–7, 1030, 1040
re-arrangement of bones 822, 831, 962, 1011, 1026–7
removal of bones 1008, 1011, 1012, 1027, 1084
of children 88, 455, 611, 898, 900, 932–3, 936, 941, 942, 943–4, 960, 1013, 1040
of cremated remains 92, 216, 350, 464, 465, 610, 799, 900, 934, 938, 944, 991, 1015, 1027–8, 1029
Scandinavia 1015
single burial deposits 1032
in ditches 782, 784
double burials in graves 936, 1013
re-arrangement of bones 1013–14
removal of bones 1014
around houses 960, 992
within houses 181–2, 976
at enclosures 776, 805, 993, 996, 998, 1015–16, 1034–5
excarnation/exposure before burial 782, 805, 975, 996, 1028, 1031, 1040
disarticulation before burial 804–5, 1031 see also human bone
fragmentation 991–4
gender differentiation 12, 610–11, 936–7, 942, 946, 962, 990–1,1101, 1104
grave goods see grave goods
Greece 258
Iberian peninsula 972–9
integrity of bodies 1023
Italy 260, 960–9
Lengyel culture 201
Levant region 263
under long barrows or long mounds (unchambered) 1026, 1031
Low Countries 220
Maltese islands 970–1
mass burial 977, 991–2, 994
Mediterranean 181–2
Michelsberg culture 202
in mines 1036
multiple burials in graves 220, 221, 702, 931, 943, 989, 996, 1032
north western Europe 1023–41
northern Europe 1005–19
personhood 988–1000
(p. 1131) position of body in grave 937–8, 941, 942, 944–6, 1026
presentation of bodies 1023–4
representation of bodies 1024, 1036–9
rock art in 883
in rock-cut tombs 962, 971
under round barrows (unchambered) 1007, 1032, 1085
Sardinia and Corsica 971–2
secondary burial 258, 537, 563, 831, 898, 992, 998, 1009, 1012, 1015
single burials in graves 971, 989–90, 1013, 1024–6, 1029, 1031–2, 1040
south eastern Europe 927–48
southern Scandinavia 216–17
in storage pits 455–6, 998
at settlements 246, 935, 941, 960, 989, 991, 996–7, 1017
wagons in 113
in wetlands 1017
Bury Hill 797
Butmir culture 70–3, 158, 244
Buxheim 767
Buz-ki site 204
Bygholm 713, 714
Bylany 282, 562, 563
Cabeço da Arruda 814
Cabrières 704
Cairnholy I 824, 828
Caldeirão 975
Calden enclosures 767, 802
calendars
enclosures as 776–7
monuments as 105
Callis Wold 1031
Camí de Can Grau 387, 398
Camp-à-Cayaux 505
Campo Lameiro 849
Camster Long Cairn 338
Camunnian style of rock art 858
Can Hassan copper 674
Can Tintorer 713, 720
Cana Barn 475
Capo Alfiere 787
caprines (sheep and goats) 413, 419, 434, 546 see also goat; sheep
Cardial 92, 93–4, 215, 224, 395, 429, 487, 540, 746
Carizüela 975
Carlshögen 1009, 1011
Carnac 126, 815
Carpathian Basin 111, 158, 160, 197, 240, 556, 648, 679–80
burial practices 935–8, 941–4
political economy 1103
Carpathian Starčevo culture 556
carvings, rock art 873, 878–9
Casa Montero 500, 504, 505–6, 510
cassiterite see tin ore
Çatalhöyük 674, 750
Catalka 675
Catalunya 260
categories
of organisms 748–9
structuring 774
Catignano 963
cattle 372, 413–14
age at death 433, 441
and aurochs 103, 122–3, 128, 413, 746
Britain 127, 128, 440–1
bucrania 755
burials 222, 677, 680
burial of bones 472, 755, 805–6
carvings of 221, 973–4
ceremonial consumption 754
dairy 433–4, 441, 546
farming 103, 122–3, 125–6, 435, 441, 546, 746
herding 84, 88, 92, 1075
increased importance 1076
Ireland 125, 128, 223, 440
labour 302, 389–90, 398, 401, 415
in lake-settlements 294
lifestyles 750
Linearbandkeramik (LBK) 1058
for meat 393, 397, 401, 441, 597
(p. 1132) reproductive cycles 129
size 431, 435–6
skulls 464, 755, 806
and social identity 752–4
see also animals; farming
causewayed enclosures 467, 795–808
Caven 863
caves 388
animals kept in 399–400
art, Italy 963–4
underground religion 895–909
Çayönü Tepesi 674
c-ditches 784, 785
Cemmo boulders 859, 863
Cenad 929
Cendres 397, 399
cenotaphs 941
central Europe 6, 1053–4
agriculture 197–201
enclosures 763–77
extent 196
mobility 99–115
settlements 201, 202
subsistence practices 412–16
centralized complexity 1095
ceramic design 72–3
ceramics see pottery; see also figurines; house models
cereals see plants, cereals
Cernatul de Jos 929, 931
Cernavodă 677, 929, 934
Cernica 648, 929, 934–5
Cerny group 487, 753
Cerro de al Virgen 387, 398, 694
Cerro Virtud 694
chaîne opératoire 641
Chalcolithic see Copper Age
Chalk Hill 372
Cham/Řívnáč culture 766, 767, 768
chambered tombs 18, 814–28, 830–3
allées couvertes or allée sépulcrales 816, 1030, 1084
Bell Beakers at 611–12
Clyde cairns 824
Costwold-Severn 824, 1028
court cairns 824, 1028
dolmens 817–9, 1008
forecourts 824
Hebridean 824
Iberian 829
radiocarbon dating 223, 815, 826
rock-cut tombs see rock-cut tombs
megalithic tombs 182, 221–2, 224, 338, 694, 814–5, 817–28, 875, 972, 976–7, 1006–8, 1084–5
acoustic effects 828
closing or destruction (condemnation) 1034
deposition of animal bones at 126, 366, 752, 1028, 1032
deposition of material culture in 524, 584–5, 661–4, 666, 697, 714, 815
distribution of 41–2, 797, 831–2
orientation of 43, 918–23
origins of 221, 825
passage graves see passage graves
portal dolmens see portal dolmens
tholos tombs 814, 977
timber chambers 817, 1027
wooden mortuary structures preceding 822
chambers, mining 504
Champ Châlon 1027
Champ Durand 806, 1035
Channel Islands 522
axes 519
Chara 1 623
charcoal 396, 398, 399
charring 389, 735–6
plant remains 430–1
vs. waterlogging 396
Chasséen South 803
Chassey-Lagozza culture 697, 975 see also Lagozza-Chassey culture
Chaves 387
Chez Reine 797, 799
(p. 1133) Chigborough Farm 330
children
as offerings 805
as potters 562
burials in caves 898, 900
burials in flat graves 1013
Chiozza da Scandiano 961
chisels, metal 675
chronology of the Neolithic 4–6
Church Hill 500
Ciclame 387
Ciclami 400
Ciempozuelos style 607
circular enclosures 104–6
Circum-Alpine region 111 see also Alpine
lake settlements 291–304 see also lakeside settlements
Cissbury 500
city-states 1099–100
Clacton 732
Clairvaux Station III 387, 396
Claish 329, 332, 336, 337, 1077
clay figurines 630
indicators of personhood 160, 161–2
clay preparation 560
clay working 591–3
clearance 43
cleaving 521
climate 27–9
influence on lake settlements 293–4
Mediterranean region 176, 177
spread of agriculture 207
climate change 29–34, 46, 1063–4
cause of mobility 85
‘climax period’ (Chalcolithic/late Neolithic) 158, 159, 160, 161–2, 170
burial practices 168
settlements 167
clothing 721
Cluj 929, 931
Clyde cairns 824
Ćmielow settlement 490
coastal settlements 40–3
marine resources 367–8, 369
Coldrum 1028
Collared Bowls 589
Colline Metallifere 702
colour in pottery 536, 538, 539–40
Combe Obscure 387, 400
communities 1059–62
contact between 10–11, 197
Copper Age 166–9
as definition of Neolithic 1074
tell settlements 236, 245
Comunidad Valenciana 696
Condé-sur-Ifs/Ernes 815–16, 831, 1026
Coneybury 440, 731
Connemara 124
construction materials 764
contact between communities 10–11, 197
Contrada Casone 783
cooking 337
pottery 593–4, 597, 599
vessels 748
Copa Hill 713, 716
copper
connection with amber 665–6
Italian Peninsula 697–702
jewellery 934
origins 674–5
socioeconomics 696–7
in southern Scandinavia 217
Copper Age/Chalcolithic 73–6, 158, 675–6
burial practices
and art 976–9
Italy 961–2
communities 166–9
early 677
early to middle, burial practices 939–48
households 163–6
Iberian peninsula 694
Italian peninsula 699–702
late 678
middle 677, 680
personhood 159–62
rock art 881
social networks 169–71
societies, ephemeral 1097, 1098
copper artefacts
central Europe 201
north-western Europe 714–15
(p. 1134) copper axes 515, 681, 683, 701–2, 720
amber shaped as 665
copper beads 674, 712
copper daggers 486–7
copper extraction 716
copper metallurgy
central and eastern Europe 107, 111
link with Bell Beaker phenomenon 610
copper mining 698–9, 703
copper production 695–6
copper smelting 716
Corbally 464
Corded Ware culture 5, 36, 109, 113–15, 415, 609, 962, 1059, 1096–9
metallurgy 678–80
Corlea 713, 715
Corsica 184
burial practices 972
metals 703
Cortaillod 699
Coţofeni 680
Cotswold-Severn tombs 824, 1028
court tombs 338, 824, 1027–8
Cova 387, 396
Cova de l’Or 185, 387
Cova de la Sarsa 387
Cova de las Cendres 185, 387
Cova Fosca 387
Cowie 332, 333
Crannon 626
cremation 938, 944, 1027–8, 1029
Scandinavia 1015
single burial deposits 1032
Crete 88, 184, 197
Croz del Cius 702
Csáford 681
Csepel group 608 see also Bell Beakers
Cuartillas 260
Cùccuru S’Arriu di Cabras 971, 973
Cueva de los Murciélagos 387, 396
Cueva de Romeral 814
Cueva del Toro 387, 396
Cugnaux 804
Cuiry-lès-Chaudardes 275, 278, 279, 280, 282, 311, 312, 753, 1057
social equality 317
cult houses 352
cultigens 125–7
cultural change 10
cultural identity see identity
cup-and-ring motifs 848, 860–1, 880–1
cursus monuments 465–8, 474
Cyclops cave 386
Cyprus 82–4, 184
domestic space 263–5
Cys-La-Commune 640
daggers 699, 702
copper 486–7, 676, 677
flint 610
metal 678
in rock art 703, 863–6, 873
Dagstorp 348, 352
Dagstorp-type houses 347
dairying 400–1, 415, 433–4
increase 1076
tolerance gene 545–6
Dalladies 880
Dalmatia, animal husbandry 397
Danilo 387, 395, 397, 640
Danilo culture 556
Danube basin 197
Danube Gorges 539
Danube region
Bronze Age tells 1103–4
pottery styles 559
Danube valley 412–13
Danubian cultures 279
Danubian see Linearbandkeramik
Darion site 219
data, treatment of 773–5
Decea Mureşului group 929, 942
decentralized complexity 1095, 1106
decoration
on amber 658
copper powder 674
megalithic art 829–30
on figurines 628
on passage tombs 875
pottery 536–8, 539–40, 575, 580
rock art see rock art
schematic art 843–6
techniques 560
wall paintings 904–5
decorative motifs 558–9, 564–5, 567–8
deer
antlers 415, 506–7, 508, 902, 943
bones 398, 934, 936
in decorations 627, 753, 785, 863, 871, 877–8, 905
elk 420, 419, 885
hunting 81, 84, 92, 386, 746, 905
red deer 204, 392, 414–17, 419, 432, 435, 438, 751
roe deer 204, 392, 416–17, 432, 435, 438, 440
Defensola 500, 505, 507, 510
Déhus 1036–8
deities 464, 467, 468, 543, 752, 831, 866, 1024
demic diffusion model 139–40, 141, 145–6, 150, 265
demography, linked to mobility 70–3, 85
Den of Boddam 500
dendrochronology 299
Denmark
Bell Beaker settlements 612
flat graves 1014
foraging to farming 150
houses 346–8
megalithic tombs 1007–8
deposition
axeheads 525–7
structured, pits 733–4
Dereivka 417, 418
Derenburg 372–3
Deszk-Olajkút 929
Devnja cemetery 929, 939
diet 40, 218, 361–388, 418,
age differences 373–6
local variability 368, 371–2
sex differences 373–6
shift at outset of the Neolithic 223, 364–6
diffusion and population growth 139–40
Dikili Tash 257, 625, 640, 642, 648
Dimini 257, 640, 641–2, 929, 938
Dimitra 642
Dispilio 642
dissolution of bodies 991–4
ditches 731, 781–91
axes deposited in 526, 807
burial practices 782
causewayed enclosure ditches 795, 797–804
c-ditches 784, 785
circular (Kreisgrabenanlagen) 766
combined with palisades 763, 766, 769–70
combined with wall constructions 770
deposition in 584, 806–7
entrances 770
functions 775–6
around settlements 766, 768
system-ditches 797–9, 802
v-shaped 768–9, 771, 773
see also enclosures
Divostin 386, 392, 452, 455
DNA studies (modern DNA) 103, 142–3, 206, 215–16 see also ancient DNA
Dnieper-Donets culture 203, 204, 416–18
Dnieper Rapids 370, 376
cemeteries 417
Dobrudža 935, 945
dogs 81, 419, 753
Dolmen de Coutignargues 921
Dolmen de Matarrubilla 916
Dolmen de Menga 914–15
Dolmen de Soto 965, 968
dolmens 817–19, 821, 1006, 1007–11
portal 824–5
Dolní Vĕstonice 543
Dolnoslav 158, 169
Dolnoslav-type personhood 160
Dombate 815
domestication see farming
domestic space 315
Anatolia 261–2
Cyprus 263–5
design 336–7
Greece 257–259
Iberia 260
and identity 265–6
Italy 259–60
Levant region 262–3
Mediterranean region 256–66
religious iconography 470
social lives 449–57
societal norms 309–10
see also houses
(p. 1136) domus de janas tombs 971–2, 973
Donja Branjevina 929, 930
doorways 336
Dorchester upon Thames 467, 474
Dösjebro 346, 351–2
Dourgne 387
Dragsholm 658, 1013
Drenthe 527
dress 841, 977, 1024
dress ornaments 721, 866, 1024 see also ornaments
Dresden-Prohlis 556
Drumirril 880
Dudeşti 929
Dudeşti-Boian culture 934
Duggleby Howe 1031–2
Dullenried 295
Durankulak 158, 164, 246, 640–2, 648, 929, 934–5, 939–41
Durrington Walls 334, 337, 734
Dürrnberg 206
dwellings
caves as 898, 902
societal norms 309–10
see also houses
Eagle’s Nest, Lambay 518, 519
Early Holocene (c. 10000–6000 bc), Mediterranean region 177
early Neolithic (EN) 4, 5
axeheads, regional patterns 523 see also axeheads
climate 29, 177,
flint mines 510, 511, 1083
religion 463–4
sea levels 42
settlement 37, 66, 91, 221, 334, 729–31, 901, 906, 1052, 1054–7
eastern Europe 6
extent 196
pottery 203–6
spread of agriculture 99–115
Eaton Heath 737
Echiré 1035
eclogite 201–2
Ecsegfalva 386, 391, 392, 393, 1056
Edera 387, 399, 400
egalitarian societies 317–22
Egolzwil 3 292
Ehrenstein 301
Eilean Domhnuill 334
Eilsleben 435
einkorn (triticum monococcum) 122, 126, 294, 391, 395
El Mirón 387
El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 28
elk see deer, elk
elm decline event 35
Elsloo, Limburg 312
Emmeln 713
Emmeln-2 714
Emmeloord 612
(p. 1137) emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum dicoccum) 122, 126, 199, 204, 294, 391, 396, 414, 420
deposition in ditches 807
in Ireland 128
movement to Britain 127
Emmersdorf 640
enclosures 766, 1085–7
burial practices 1015–16, 1034–5
causewayed enclosures 467, 795–808
Central Europe 763–77
central Italy 787–8
ditches 781–91
entrances 770
functions 775–7
henge enclosures see henges
human remains in 804–6
Kreisgrabenanlagen circular enclosures see enclosures, roundels
pottery deposition 584
rondels see enclosures, roundels
roundels 104–6, 201, 764–77
entrances aligned on astronomical events 776–7
southern Italy 784–7
Tavoliere enclosures 781–4
see also settlements
Enderupskov 352
Endrőd-Öregszőlők 929, 930
energy requirements 430
Enkingen 281
Ensisheim 373
entrances 336
environment
cause of mobility 85
central and eastern Europe 196–7
environmental change 45–6
environmental modelling 44–5
Epicardial 94, 101, 183
Epilengyel 107
Epipalaeolithic stage 81, 82, 260
Er Grah tumulus 126, 222
Ercsi hoard 681
Erdwerk (earthwork) see enclosures
Ereta del Pedregal 387, 398
Erglodd 716
Erkelenz-Kückhoven 282, 283, 765–6
Ertebølle/Ertebölle culture (c. 5400–4000 bc) 216, 217, 219, 345–6
Ertebølle pottery 573–4
Escoural 814
Essenbach 563
Estonia 420
Esztergályhorváti 929, 937
ethnicity 11
Eton Rowing Course 335
Etton 432, 436, 797, 799, 803, 807
Eurasian societies 1100–2
western 206–7
Evenhus 878, 885
Eweford 1083
exchange networks
Bronze Age 1096, 1099, 1103–4, 1106
flint 502
metal 75–6, 107
pottery 220, 538, 651, 697
exogamy 70
extramural cemeteries 934
Fågelbacken 1015
Fakkemose 1013
Familiar, Foreign and Other 157
family barrows 1101
farming
adaptation to new environments 129
animals 64, 82, 122, 127, 181, 745–7, 749–55, 1082
caprines (sheep and goats) 434, 546
cattle 103, 122–3, 125–6, 435, 441, 546, 746 see also cattle
pigs 68, 123–4, 316, 434, 1076
sheep 413
climatic effect on 44, 207
coastal regions, alternative resources 41, 217–18
cultures
Funnel Beaker culture (TRB) 366–7, 414, 660, 1006
Khirokitia culture 84
Körös-Criş culture 416
(p. 1138) Linearbandkeramik (LBK) 101, 199, 219, 413, 429, 434–7
Pitted Ware culture (PWC) 366, 582
Tripolye/Trypillia culture 418
deforestation 35, 38, 827
development 163, 421
emergence, debate over 139–47, 385, 1073, 1080
environmental effect 35, 46, 130
evidence of early Neolithization 64, 67, 177, 195, 206, 746, 1073, 1080
exchange networks 650
farmsteads 91, 93, 388, 561–2, 567–8
and foraging 69, 143, 146, 150, 178, 204, 349, 413, 419, 574–5, 1074–5, 1078–9
garden agriculture 14, 107, 185, 396, 437, 450–7, 1055, 1058, 1063, 1075
herding 14, 66, 71, 76, 88, 92, 178, 197, 279, 389, 391, 394, 396, 401, 752, 1055 see also farming, pastoralism
herding camps 68, 901
transhumance 63, 67–9, 176, 279, 389, 395, 399, 467, 1078
intensive vs. extensive 389
lakeside settlements, Circum Alpine region 294
land suitability 68, 107, 175–6, 697, 764, 1103
land-use, changes 35, 37
manuring 364
mobile 64–7, 72, 130, 177–8
origins 178, 184–5
pastoralism 185, 186, 197, 394, 467, 677, 849, 959, 960, 1081, 1097, 1100–1 see also farming, herding
personhood 159–60
plants 101, 103, 401, 421, 737–8, 1075
population, effect on 150, 317, 430
pottery, links with 203, 536–7, 543
regions
Baltic region 420
Britain and Ireland 127–9, 222–4, 440–1
central Europe 197–201, 412–16
Crete 88
Cyprus 82–4
Mediterranean 177–8
Scandinavia 218, 437–9, 878
south eastern Europe 65–6, 390–4
southern Europe 401
south western Europe 394–400
seasonal 105, 368, 402, 430, 913
sedentary 327, 430
in settlements 278, 355, 452
skills 159–62
small scale 389, 392–3, 1055
storage of produce 402, 430
Fatjanovo culture see Corded Ware culture
faunal assemblages 431–4, 747–8
feasting 167, 186, 188, 220, 222, 402, 440, 441, 456, 457, 466, 469, 472, 566, 644, 754–5, 831, 906, 1058, 1076
funerary feasts 754, 995
Federsee 297, 298
Federsee bog 109
females
diet 373
exclusion of 841, 905
grave goods 611, 648, 936, 942, 943, 945, 946, 990
as potters 562
marrying in (virilocality) 279, 562, 567, 568
mobility 539
quarrying 510
representations of 160, 539, 701, 841, 858, 860, 866, 867, 905, 964, 966, 971, 972, 976, 980, 1037 see also anthropomorphic art, breasts,
abstract signs for 829, 866
tasks 280, 510, 562, 568–9, 642
fences see palisades
Ferriter’s Cove 125, 223, 440
Fertile Crescent 674
fields 430, 451, 612, 863
figurines 647–8, 776, 980–1
anthropomorphic 993
(p. 1139) body parts 1039
deposition 627
detail on 629–30
in enclosure ditches 776
female 543,964, 972–3, 976
around graves 1036–8
idols 977–8
materials 630
pottery 536–7
Sardinia 972–3
varieties 622–30
Fikirtepe culture 261, 1053
Filitosa 972
Fiorano Culture 788, 790
fire-pits 337
firesetting 703
first Neolithic (FN), pottery, Britain and Ireland 588, 594–5
fish 40, 178, 204, 413, 419, 439, 452, 746, 753, 787, 1074
freshwater 8, 204, 364, 368, 371, 417–9,
in Scandinavian rock art 871, 877, 879
scales as temper in pottery 536
shift away from in diet 365–6
symbolic significance 752
weirs 41, 612
fish-hooks 162, 674
fishing 40, 186, 197, 386, 413, 416, 419, 420, 644
camps 68, 84
freshwater 294, 302
lake settlements 294
persistence during Cardial period 185
Flagstones 595, 1035
flaking 521
pressure 485–7
flanking pits (LBK) see loam pits
flat axes 699
flat graves (TRB) 1013–15
flint
deposition in ditches 806–7
functions 501
flint axes 515–27, 721
flint daggers 493, 610
flint knapping 483–8, 489, 720
flint mines 184, 202, 222–3, 499–503, 521, 1083
chronology 508–9
scale 510
social structures 510–11
techniques 503–8
flint working 721
Flomborn phase (early LBK) 275, 283
Flomborn pottery 559
flooding 42
floodplains 38–40
fluvial activity 35–40
Foggia Plain/Tavoliere 779
folk taxonomies of animals 748–9
Folkton drums 470, 881, 1039
Fonelas 695
Font Juvénal 387
Fontanarosa Uliveto 784
Fontbrégoua 387
Fontvielle 921–2
food 13, 178
animals 435
bread 159
consumption in caves 902
cooking 337, 431, 564
flour 159
management, Mediterranean region 177, 178, 180
marine 40–1, 218, 365, 369, 439
meat 204
offerings 831, 995
as prestigious 180, 188,
processing 259, 262, 389, 401, 431
production see farming
refuse/remains 164, 302, 314, 386, 415, 431, 735, 738
residues in pottery 16, 390, 545–6, 593–4, 597, 599
sharing 991, 1058
Spondylus 644
special deposits 895, 898
storage 44, 130, 164, 177, 180, 262, 430, 564
charring of stored plant foods 389
taboos 752
see also animals; beer; dairying; diet; farming; feasting; fish; hunting; milk; plants; wine; animals by species
foodways 376 see also animals; diet; farming; feasting; fish; hunting; plants
Fore group 748–9
forest-steppes 196
Fornacce Cappuccini 788
Fort Harrouard 1036
Fosie IV 354
Fourknocks 1029
fowling 413
Fräkenrönningen 350–1
Frälsegården 1009–11
France
anthropomorphic art 1036–8, 1039
Atlantic 220–2
Bell Beaker phenomenon 608, 611, 613, 1032, 1098
burial practices 1024–7, 1030
causewayed enclosures 797, 799, 1035
chambered tombs 813, 814–6, 1084
condemnation 1034
domesticated plants and animals 126–7, 395, 1076
fluvial activity 38
menhirs 829, 1036, 1084
metals 703–4, 713, 716
mortuary practices 611, 799, 1084–5
Neolithization 93, 94, 126, 185, 197, 395, 396, 397 see also Cardial; LBK
submerged coastal sites 42
tin ore 712
western 126–7
Franchthi 88, 178, 370, 386, 392, 536, 648, 929, 931
freshwater resources 370–1, 417
Freston 799
Friebritz 769
frontier model 542
Fuchsberg 577–8
Fucino lake basin 898–900
Fundeni 683
Fundeni-Lungoci 681
funerary rites 19–20 see also mortuary practices
Funnel Beaker culture see TRB
furniture 337, 470
furniture models 629, 630
Füzesabony-Gubakút 929, 935
FYROM (Macedonia) 140, 390, 538, 930
figurines 622, 624, 626–8
hunting 392
Spondylus 645–6
Gachnang-Niederwil 298
Gádor, Loma de Huéchar 695
Galabnik 649
Galatin 246
Galician-Atlantic rock art 848–9
galleries (mining) 504, 506
gallery graves (southern Scandinavia) 1007
Gammellung 1017
Garboldisham 881
Gârleşti 929, 941
Gaudo culture 699, 702, 962
Gavrinis 221
Geleen-Janskamperveld 282
gender differentiation see sexual differentiation
geochemical analyses 516–17
geographical boundaries 6–7, 104
Germany
amphibolite axeheads 517
Bell Beaker presence 606–7
chambered tombs (northern Germany) 816–22, 883
Corded Ware culture 114
copper tools 698
domestication of cattle 122–3
enclosure ditch shape 799
foraging to farming 150
long barrows 833
mortuary practices 989–99
Neolithization 102
pottery (northern Germany) 575–82
pig husbandry 124
population fluctuations 150, 1079
roundels 766 see also Kreisgrabenanlagen
wild resources 439
Għar Dalam cave 906–7, 970
Giant’s Hills 1031
Giurgiulesti 683
Gläntan 352
(p. 1141) Glăvanesti Vechi 929, 931
Global Lake Level Database 29
Globular Amphora culture 677, 680
Glycymeris glycymeris Linne (dog-cockle) 539, 642–5, 652
goat 122, 124, 397–8, 751
domestication 746
for meat 394
movement to Britain 127
see also caprines
Göbekli Tepe 180
Göhlitzch grave 883
gold 678, 696, 720
artefacts 715
in grave goods 681
jewellery 682
value 1062
goldworking 162
Goljamo Delčevo 158, 929, 941
Golokut 929, 931, 933
Gomolava 929, 937–8, 946
Goodland 597
Gorzsa 158
Goseck 105
Gotland Island 439
Gozo 970–1
Gradešnica 929, 931
Graiglwyd 517
grain storage 315, 732
Grapčeva 387, 400
grave goods 563, 699, 702, 927, 1026
Bell Beaker burials 609, 611–12, 614
Carpathian Basin 942–3
with children 611, 612, 941, 1014, 1060
copper beads 941
copper daggers and axe 702
in caves 902, 906
at Durankulak 246, 934, 935
in dolmens (southern Scandinavia) 822, 830
early to middle Neolithic 931
Eastern Balkans, Copper Age 939–41
with female adults (predominantly) 942
flint arrowheads 702
figurines 971, 976, 980
Gaudo culture 702
gender differences 610–11, 946, 962, 989, 1014
gold 75, 681
hunting trophies 753–4
identity 612, 932, 990, 991, 1024, 1026
idols 977–8
inherited social status 1060
in Italy 961
kurgan burials 1100
Late Neolithic 934–5, 936–7
long dolmen at Bogø 819
with male adults (predominantly) 702, 936, 941, 942, 946, 1014
Maltese rock-cut tombs 970
metal 681–5
in the Mediterranean 182
personhood and identity 990–1
‘pit grave’ culture 976
placement around body 937
pottery 563, 936, 942, 977, 1024
religious significance 464–5, 468
Remedello 962
Rinaldone 702
at Salzmünde 998
shells 75, 641, 652, 1024
single grave burials (Britain) 1085
in southern Scandinavia 217, 658,
stone plaques 939
specialist 1100
Swifterbant 220
tholos tombs 977
tombe a grotticelle 962, 971
waisted axes 468
weapons 977
graves 731 see also burials
Gravon 799
Great Hungarian Plain 245
Great Langdale 517, 521, 522
Great Men societies 323
Greece 392
axeheads 517, 523
caves and rock sheters 85, 178
colonization 85, 1052–3
Copper Age 675
crops 390
diet 269, 388, 394
domestic space 257–259, 1055
(p. 1142) emergence of Neolithic 87–9, 539
environments 177
feasting 456
figurines 622, 624, 627, 629–30
gardens and houses 456
grazing livestock 393
hunting 392, 746
‘meat’ culling of sheep 393
metals 677, 680
mortuary practices 930–1, 934, 938–9
obsidian 488, 651
ploughing 393
pressure flaking 485
routines 449–50, 455
settlements 240, 256, 258, 388, 394, 449, 450, 455, 781, 786
shell exchange networks 651
shell ornament production 642, 648
Greifensee-Böschen 299
Grimes Graves 433–4, 441, 500, 504, 506, 507, 508–9, 521, 713, 1036
Grisy 804
Grivac 158
Grödbygård 349
grog 560, 598
Grønjægers Høj 827, 828
Grooved Ware pottery 589–90, 598–9, 731, 734
cosmology associated with 472, 473
houses associated with 331–2
‘package’ 472
in henge ditches 1035
at palisaded enclosures 1086
in pits 731, 734, 880
origins in Orkney 470, 589
associated with rock art panels 880
motifs found in late Neolithic art art 470, 881
Großgartach culture 201, 994
Grotta Continenza 900–1, 961
Grotta dei Piccioni 897–8, 899–900
Grotta del Genovese 387, 398
Grotta dell’Uzzo 387
Grotta della Madonna 387
Grotta della Monaca 698
Grotta della Zinzulusa 902
Grotta delle Venere 902
Grotta di Cala Colombo 905
Grotta di Porto Badisco 896, 902, 903–4
Grotta Rifugio di Olieni 971
Grotta Sant’Angleo 897–8
Grotta Santa Maria 902
Grotta Scaloria 387, 398, 902–3
Grotte Gazel 387
grottes bergeries (animals kept in caves) 396, 399–400
Grotto del Cavallo 387
Guernsey 1036–8
Gumelniţa culture 246, 941
Gura Baciului 929, 930, 931
Gwernvale 595–6
Gwithian 333, 715
Haddenham 799, 807, 1038
haematite 721
hair-rings 678
Hajdučka Vodenica 931–2
Hajdúszoboszló 929, 942
Halaf culture 263
halberds 699, 701, 702
Halberstadt 372–3
Hall Farm Reservoir 737
Hamangia culture 246, 934
Hamangia-type personhood 160
Hambledon Hill 371, 372, 432, 436, 441, 799, 805, 1035, 1074–5
hammer axes 678–9
hammering 521
Hammer 885
hammerstones 698–9, 703, 880
Hanau-Klein-Auheim 280
Hanstedgård 439
haplogroups 542–5
Hardinxveld 367–8
Hârşova 640, 644
Hauslabjoch Iceman see Ötzi the Iceman
Hauslabjoch pass 701
Hazelton North 338, 369, 372, 595–6, 1027, 1083
Hazendonk group 220
hearths 337, 470, 731, 799
Hebridean Wares 589
Heidelberg-Handschuhsheim 997
Heilbronn 804, 805, 806
Heilbronn-Klingenberg see Klingenberg
Helgoland 522
Hemmed 352
Hencida hoard 681
henges 337, 463, 465, 473–6, 1035
Herxheim 563, 992–3, 1060
Hienheim 435
high altitudes environments 43–4
Hinkelstein culture 201, 566, 994
Hitra 883
Hitzkirch-Seematt 292
Hjelle 439
Hjelmars Rör 3 665
hoards 721
deposition of stone axeheads 526–7
long blades 490
metal 681
Hoca Çeşme 261
Hochdorf-Baldegg 292
Hockwold-cum-Wilton 333
Hódmezővásárhely-Bodzáspart 929, 942
Hódmezővásárhely-Gorzsa II 929
Hódmezővásárhely-Kökénydomb 929
Hódmezővásárhely-Kopáncs 929
Hoëdic 221
Hofplatz model 275, 278, 280, 282
Hohlestein 206
Hohlenstein-Stadel cave 997
Holland see Netherlands
Holm of Papa Westray North 365
Holoka 767
Holzmaar 29
Homolka 768
Horgen culture 108, 109, 114, 296
horizontal settlements, south-eastern Europe 238–40, 243
Hornstaad 202
Hornstaad-Hörnle 298, 299
households
in Balkans 163–6, 240, 245
in Circum-Alpine villages 300–3
differences between neighbouring households 263, 283, 297, 315, 488, 489, 490, 559, 567, 685, 1057
gardens 401, 450–4, 456–7
interpretation from house remains 256, 279, 1056–7
as mode or scale of production 66, 391, 395, 401, 402, 561, 1063, 1076
pottery breakage 737
pottery production 561–2, 567
shifting 67
social organization 70, 72, 300–3, 317, 319
at Italian enclosures 784, 786, 787
house models (ceramic) 245, 624, 626, 627, 628, 629
houses 12–14, 66, 1055–6
abandoned 276, 338, 450, 784, 976
Anatolia 261–2
Bell Beaker 612
Britain 327–8, 329–35
building 184, 754, 1083
burning 164, 259, 339, 450
Cyprus 264
design 336–7
emergence 1055–7
and gardens 401, 450–7
Greece 257–259
Iberia 260
internal layout 163–4, 301–2, 336–7
Italy 259–60, 783, 786, 790
Ireland 128, 327–8, 329, 464
at lake settlements 107, 297–303
Levant 262–3
lifespan 299–300
Linearbandkeramik (LBK) longhouses 273–8, 311–14, 320–2
front sections 314–15
central sections, 315
origins 275
rear sections 316
structuring principles 274–5, 277, 311–14
variation and change 320–1
Mediterranean region 81, 93, 180, 255–66
rebuilding 276, 787
Rössen 201
social behaviour 455–7
societal norms 309–10
south-east Europe 66, 70, 72
southern Scandinavia 345–55
standardization 163–4
at tells 70, 72, 73, 236, 237 239, 240, 242–6
and tombs 337–8, 826
(p. 1144) ‘house societies’ 242, 1061
Hov 500
Hüde 438, 439, 713, 721
human bones
arrangement 1027
burnt 337, 805, 989, 1015
in caves 898, 900, 903, 906, 934, 936, 938, 941, 944, 997
cleaned 805
defleshed 776, 989, 993, 1009, 1028, 1084
deposition in enclosures 776, 799, 801, 804–6, 993, 996, 998, 1015–6, 1035
displaced in burials 936, 943, 1013
fragmented 805, 1009–11
gnawed by animals 804, 1028, 1035
at houses 337, 350, 352, 464
at the Manfredi hypogeum 905
in megalithic tombs see burial, chambered tombs
at settlements 220, 898, 931, 932, 989, 996, 1005, 1017
in wetlands 1017
human representations see anthropomorphic art
Hungary 391
Bell Beakers 608
cemeteries 930
flat, extended or horizontal settlements 169, 391
hunting 392
Neolithization 102–3
roundels 764
Spondylus shells 645–6, 651, 652
subsistence practices 413, 414
tells 238, 239, 243
hunter-gatherer-fishers
rock art 877–9, 884–5
subsistence strategies 419
hunter-gatherers 41, 101, 102, 107, 123, 203–4, 260, 294, 316, 430, 441, 900, 1051–2, 1077–9, 1081–2 see also Mesolithic; Neolithization
Mediterranean region 92, 177, 180
Natufian 178
pottery 203, 535–6, 537, 543
sacred animals 747
hunting 14, 43, 68, 69, 81, 82, 84, 92, 93, 94, 123, 184, 185, 204, 218, 261, 279, 294, 302, 355, 386, 392, 398, 401, 402, 413, 414, 415, 419, 420, 746, 1026, 1078
beliefs concerning 747
depictions of 841–2, 859, 879, 904, 905, 964, 975, 976, 979, 980,
and social relations 413, 753, 905, 1076, 1081–2
Hurst Fen 732, 736–7
husbandry see farming
Hutton Moor 475
Hygind 806
hypogea 785–6, 970
Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni 970
Iberia
axeheads (stone) 517, 519, 527
Atlantic 224, 517, 694, 814, 829, 844, 848, 921, 977, 1078, 1095
Bell Beaker presence 608, 610, 613,1098
burial practices 611, 972–9
domesticated animals and plants 396, 397
domestic space 260
metal 693–7
Neolithization 94
rock art and megalithic art 815, 829, 839–52, 973, 975–6, 979
schist plaques 527, 977–8
social differentiation 1062
tombs 222, 224, 815–6, 826, 921, 922, 976
see also Spain
identity 11–12, 187, 188, 979, 1083
and animals 751–5
and art 631, 878, 980–1, 1076
community or collective 166–7, 236, 302, 319, 401, 781, 1029, 1055
and houses 265–6, 275, 276, 283, 300, 309–10, 452, 455, 1055
and funerary practices 19, 164, 260, 612, 614, 831, 932, 935, 937, 980–1 990–1, 994, 996, 1012, 1018, 1023, 1026
and metalwork 704, 1103
and mines 500
and monuments 468, 469, 781, 833
(p. 1145) and personal ornaments 649–50, 667–8
and pottery 182, 350, 538–9, 566–8, 580, 582, 586, 935, 1062
and stone tools 486, 488–9, 491, 516, 523, 526, 527
and subsistence practices 367, 401, 453–4, 457
and weapons see warriors
idols (schematic art) 843, 845, 977–8
Ile Longue 1036
Ilıpınar 929
Impressed Ware pottery (Britain and Ireland) 589, 596–7, 781, 787
Impresso or Impressed Ware
enclosed settlements 781, 787–8
occupation sites 68–9, 93, 94, 1078
origins 89
pottery 68–9, 90, 91, 93, 539–40, 541
anthropomorphic figures on 845, 975
schematic art designs on 845
see also Cardial
Inden 1 769
indirect percussion 487–8
individuality 987–8
in burial practices 988–1000
Indo-European language 140–1, 144–5, 187, 1097
Ipogeo Manfredi 387, 398
Ippesheim 105–6
Irchonwelz 281
Ireland 223–4
axeheads 523, 526
Bell Beakers 608, 614
causewayed enclosures 223
chambered tombs 822–5
copper 616, 716–7
copper mining 716, 1098
domesticated animals and plants 128–9, 223, 365, 440, 1074–5
gold 712, 715
houses 329–34
megalithic art 829, 874–7, 885–6
Mesolithic–Neolithic transition 221–3, 440
mortuary practices 611, 1027–9, 1036, 1040
passage tombs (passage graves) 825, 874–7, 879, 885
plants 440–1
pottery 586–99
red deer, introduction 751
rock art 872–4, 879–81, 886
tin ore 712
movement of plants and animals from the continent 127–8, 222, 440
settlement occupation 334–7, 736–7
rock art 872–4, 879–81, 886
villages 334
wild species, role in subsistence 440–1, 747
Irish Stone Axe Project (ISAP) 517
Irlbach 557
Iron Gates region, Danube 370, 376, 392 394
Istállóskő Cave 929, 936
Italian Peninsula, metals 697–702
Italy 398
animal husbandry 397, 399, 400
axeheads 517, 523, 524
Bell Beakers 608, 609
burial practices 960–9
caves 399, 897–906
cereals 37, 395
copper artefacts 679, 697–702
domestic space 259–60
enclosures 779–90
flint blades 486
flint mines 502
lake levels 29
Neolithization 93–4
mortuary practices 611, 960–2
pottery 90–2
quarries 524
wild animals and plants 395, 398
Jablines 280, 500, 505, 506, 507, 509, 510
jadeitite 201–2, 720
jadeitite (jade) axes 521–2, 525, 721, 1095
Jaričište 929, 931
Jászladány 681, 929
Jericho 139
jet 718
(p. 1146) jewellery 677, 678
evidence of personhood 990–1
gold and silver 682
grave goods 934, 943, 946
shells 643, 644, 648, 649–50
Jistebsko 517
Jonquières 805
Jovades 387, 398
Junacite 929
Jungfernhöhle cave 563
Kalythies cave 386, 394, 929
Kamegg 769
Karanovo
culture 5, 73, 86, 158, 197, 242, 243, 262, 540, 677, 930
site 158, 166, 237, 240, 241, 647, 929, 930, 948
Karbuna 649, 679
Karelia 206, 881
rock art 879
Karleby 59, 665
Karsdorf 372–3
Kastri 648
Kastria 386, 394
Kefala / Kephala 370, 386, 394, 929, 938
Keszthely pottery 559
Khiamian 81
Khirokitia
culture 83, 84
site 362, 369
Vounous 264
Kideris Mose 713, 717
Kilgreany Cave 125, 128
Killeaba 1032
Killin 522
Kilverstone 335, 730, 735–7, 739–41
Kinbeachie 329, 330
Kisköre-Gát 929, 937
Kitsos cave 386, 394, 648
Kivik 883
Kleinkems 500, 502
Klingenberg 767, 770, 800, 803, 805, 807
Klintebakke 576, 579
Klokkehøj 1008, 1009, 1011
Knap Hill 795, 801
Knap of Howar 334, 362, 365
Knappers (site) 880
knapping 259, 489, 491, 503, 507, 508, 590, 610, 720, 721, 735
debris 487, 735, 880 see also knapping, waste
techniques 483–8
traditions 483, 485, 487, 490
waste 281, 483, 490 see also knapping, debris
Knossos 64, 88, 183, 184, 386, 393, 402
Knowe of Yarso 1027
knowledge 75, 92, 219, 317, 449, 454, 467, 476, 503, 507, 590, 642, 650, 828, 1012, 1078, 1094, 1105
astronomical 104, 105, 912
of building materials 819, 820
of environment and land 177, 315, 453, 745, 1052
esoteric 472, 820
metallurgical 696, 711, 717, 1107
reproduction of 964
ritual 1060
technological 184, 500, 609, 1099
transfer/transmission of 99, 490, 511, 527, 587, 590
Knowth 338, 362, 470, 473, 476, 825, 829, 876, 881, 1039
Kodžadermen-Gumelniţa-Karanovo culture (KGK) 73, 246, 677, 939
Kojadermen-Gumelniţa-Karanovo culture see Kodžadermen- Gumelniţa-Karanovo culture
Köln-Lindenthal 282, 765–6
Kolomyïshchina II 419
Kong Svends Høj 820, 828
König Surbold 820
Konyár-Ziegelei 929, 936
Köpingsvik 362, 366, 367
Kornsjövägen 350
Körös culture 5, 120, 158, 391, 413, 418, 455, 545, 546, 746, 931, 1052, 1053, 1056 see also Starčevo–Körös–Criş complex
Korsnäs 362, 366
(p. 1147) Kouveleiki 362, 370, 386, 394
Kovačevo 240, 241, 386, 390, 929, 931
Kozludža 649
Krasnoye Selo 500
Kreisgrabenanlagen 104, 201, 766, 768, 771 see also roundels
Kremikovci 241, 242, 540, 929, 930
Krems-Wachtberg 543
Kretuonas 420
Krumlovský les 500
Krzemionki 500, 502, 505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 516, 521
Kujavia 277, 414, 754
Kümpfe 557–8, 563–4, 565
Künzing-Bruck 767
Künzing-Unterberg 766, 769, 771–3, 775
Kurgan culture 5, 246
kurgan hypothesis 140, 144
kurgans 113, 140, 1099–100
Kutná Hora 768
Kvarnby-S. Sallerup 500
Kvistofta 12, 665
Kyndeløse 1011
La Balme de Thuy 387, 398
La Cabanne des Clausis 703
La Capitelle du Broum 703, 713, 716
La Chasse 797
La Chaussée-Tirancourt 816, 1030, 1034
Laconi 965, 972
La Coterelle 799
La Creusette hoard 490
lactase persistence 434, 545–6
lactose tolerance 143, 369, 1058, 1076
La Draga site 93, 183, 260, 387, 396, 397
La Folie 607, 611
Lagnano da Piede 90, 783
Lagozza culture, or Lagozza-Chassey culture 5, 860, 960, 961 see also Chassey-Lagozza culture
La Grande Rivoire 387, 396
La Hoguette 101, 102, 104, 197, 200, 206–7, 556, 1026
Laigh Newton 329, 331
Lake Constance 108, 111, 202, 292, 295–7, 299, 302, 679
lake levels 29, 31, 300
lakeside dwellings 105, 202
lakeside settlements 107, 108, 111, 114, 491
lake villages
Circum-Alpine region 13, 36, 292, 296–7, 299, 396, 769
Greece 258
La Lámpara 387, 396
La Marmotta 387, 395, 397
Lambay 517–9, 521, 522, 598
Landbogården 1009–11
landscape
actions in/use of 14, 38, 44, 202, 345, 355, 364, 401, 526, 1083, 1107
agricultural 897, 901
altering/transforming 216, 385, 500, 501
cultural 401, 403, 787, 896, 897, 905
enculturation of 398, 402, 403
forested/wooded 76, 392, 797, 833
miniaturized 624
monumental/monuments in 19, 43, 168, 221, 346, 465, 474, 509, 822, 831, 832, 847, 906, 918, 962, 977, 981
natural 816
open 66, 72, 790, 808, 833, 1106
perception of 42, 376
rock art in 849–51, 872, 874
sacred 465
settlements in 295, 296, 339, 345, 350, 840, 843
Landshut-Sallmannsberg 282
Langelandsvej-Starup 802
language 144–7, 151
distribution 140, 144
and genes 139–40, 150, 187
Indo-European see Indo-European language
movement of 7, 144, 146, 1098
Languedoc 92, 185, 703, 712, 713, 716, 922
Langweiler 279, 765–6
Lánycsók 929, 931
La Pijotilla 696, 973, 977
La Pileta cave 844, 845
La Razza di Campegine 789, 790
La Revilla del Campo 387, 396
La Sarga 842, 843
Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) 34, 41
(p. 1148) late Neolithic 4, 5
animals 294, 369, 413, 415, 431, 439, 751, 753–4, 905, 943
climate 32, 46
cultivation 431, 439–41
enclosures 766–70, 905, 1086 see also henge monuments, post circles, stone circles
figurines 972, 977–8, 1038
metals 169, 695, 704
mortuary practices 182, 260, 465, 608, 785, 825, 898, 906, 934–9, 944–6, 971–2, 977, 996–8, 1009, 1029
personal ornaments 646–7, 651, 662
pottery 72, 354, 581–2, 589–90,
rock art 850, 879–83
settlement 260, 613, 788, 1095 see also tells
statue stelae and menhirs 964, 972, 978, 1037
La Vaquera 387, 396
La Vela 788
Lažňany
group 944
site 929
Le Câtel menhir 1037
Le Chenet des Pierres 387, 395
Le Crès 362, 369, 375
Le Grand-Pressigny 487, 488, 490, 491, 493
Le Manio 815
Le Petit-Chasseur 611
Le Pinacle 522
lead 674, 712, 720, 722
lead isotope analysis 170, 702, 716, 717
leaders 318, 323, 901, 1105, 1106
leadership 301, 1061, 1095, 1100
Leceia 613, 696
Leirfall 882
Lengyel culture 5, 71, 107, 201, 243, 274, 276, 278, 281, 284, 311, 321, 414, 574, 576, 766, 772, 774, 928, 930, 935, 936, 937, 943, 1059, 1060 see also Epilengyel; Protolengyel
houses 276, 277, 281
pottery 200
site 201, 769, 929, 937
Lepenski Vir 37, 158, 163, 169, 241, 242, 362, 386, 392, 412, 537, 539, 650, 752, 929, 930–3, 941, 948
Lerna 241, 929, 938
Levant 34, 84, 176, 177, 182, 183, 186
domestication in the 64, 81, 175, 178
domestic space 262–3
influences on Europe 87, 88, 178, 184, 264, 543, 545
Neolithization 81, 82, 175, 178
pottery 89
spread of Neolithic from 84–7
Levantine style rock art 839–43, 845–6, 849–52, 973, 975, 977
levigation 591
Lhéry 488
Libiola mine 698, 699, 702
Liepen 1 831, 1010
Limburg
pottery 556
region 219, 312
Limensgård 349, 354
Limensgård-type houses 347, 349
Lindebjerg 1013
Linear Pottery culture see Linearbandkeramik
Linearbandkeramik (LBK) 5, 99–104, 199–201, 219, 296, 412, 429, 546, 677 see also Alföld Linear Pottery culture
architecture 276, 311–14, 320–2 see also houses
adzes and axes 521–3, 1062
boundaries 87
burial practices 103, 516, 522, 641, 988–94, 1060–1
contact with other cultures 10, 11, 158, 199, 217, 416, 556
crisis 199, 284, 1063
emergence 100–02, 1053–4
enclosures 765–6, 796, 992
flint knapping 487, 489
homogeneity 320–2
households 278–81
hunting 746
isotopic analysis 372–5, 1054–5
longhouses see houses
shell ornaments 641–52
Linkardstown tombs 1028
Linköping 352
Links of Noltland 470, 598, 1038
Lipari 92, 184, 698
Lismore Fields 127–8, 329, 330, 432, 441, 738, 1074
Ljubljana Marsh 109, 298
Llandegai 330, 467
loam pits (LBK) 274–5, 277–8, 280–3, 312–4, 753–4, 992, 1057
Lockerbie Academy 329, 332
Locmariaquer 126
loess 764
and the Linearbandkeramik 37, 100, 104, 199, 219, 1060
Mesolithic settlement on 102–3, 413, 434, 437, 764
Lohals 1013
Loma de Belmonte 695
Loma de Huéchar 695
Loma de la Rambla de Huéchar 695
long barrows 43, 201, 833, 1006, 1007, 1031
and longhouses 337, 346, 826, 1083
in Britain 218, 223, 338, 371, 464–5, 1031–4, 1084
Passy long mounds 1024–6
in Scandinavia and north Germany 346, 578, 659, 797, 817, 833, 1006–7
long blade production 486–91, 508
longhouses see houses, LBK longhouses
Los Millares 694,–6, 814, 845, 914, 920–1, 972, 977, 1098
Lough Gur 327, 330, 333, 336
Low Countries 219–20
Neolithization 126, 147, 150, 367, 376, 437, 1074, 1079
Lugo di Grezzana 790
Lugo di Romagna 387, 395, 780, 788–90
lunette entrance 785
Lunigiana 701, 866, 965, 966–7
lunulae 715
Macedonia (FYROM) see FYROM
Macedonia (Greece) 65–6, 87, 184, 237–8, 246, 628–9, 939, 1052
Macroschematic art 845–6
Madžari 626
Maes Howe 337–8, 472–3
Magheraboy223, 803, 807
Magoula Koutsouro 623
Măgura-Buduiasca 386, 391
Majkop culture 112–13, 1099
Makó/Kosihy-čaka 5, 675
Makri 257–9
Makriyalos 181, 257–8, 386, 392–3, 402, 456, 523, 629, 642, 1058
Mala Triglavca rock shelter 387, 400, 546
Malăk Preslavec 929
males
and axes 115, 353, 516, 523, 969, 1062
and flint working 488, 510
grave goods 641, 699, 939, 944–6, 702
representations of 160, 829, 841, 866–7, 905, 932, 947, 964–7, 975, 978 see also anthropomorphic art, phalli
social roles 140, 491, 756, 936, 1100–1
Malmö 218, 349, 353
Malone 526
Małopolska 414
Malta
burial practices 970–1
caves 906–8
temples 913
Manfredi hypogeum 387, 398, 785–6, 905
Marievka 418
Marin 299
marine environment 40–3
marine resources 129, 178, 216–18, 366–9, 420, 439, 644, 941, 1074
shift away from 223, 365–6
maritime colonization 87, 89, 92–3, 185, 1078
maritime contacts, Bronze Age 1104–7
maritime images in rock art 871, 878–9, 882, 885
Marmara region 65, 261–2
Marne hypogea 1037
Maroslele-Pana 929
marriage
between hunter-gatherers and farmers 140–4, 185, 219
bridewealth 750, 753
mobility 63, 70, 72, 140, 146, 1078
pottery production 562, 614
virilocality 279, 562, 567–8
Mas d’Is 93, 387, 397
Masseria Candelaro (Valente) 782, 961
Masseria Centonze 784
Masseria di Gioia 387, 397
Masseria Fonteviva 782, 784
Masseria Fragennaro 785
Masseria Giuffreda 781
Masseria La Lamia 781
Masseria Monte Aquilone 783
Masseria Palmori 782, 783
Matera 259, 779–80
material culture
boundaries 10, 157, 199, 300, 606
commonality 1061–2
change in 8, 104–5, 275, 580–1, 660, 678, 1059
diversification 67, 283, 489, 651
and habitus 449–50, 967
identity 265–6, 568, 580, 631
cultural 10–1, 35, 66, 128, 350, 516, 586, 1061
personal 160, 168, 640
interaction 72, 76, 261–2, 353, 1076
mobility and migration 67, 113–4, 127, 222
representations of 841–2, 884, 979
uniformity 310, 317, 605–6, 996
Matrensa 785
mature farming period 160–3, 168–170
Maumbury Rings 1035
Maxey-Etton 465–6, 470
Maydanetskoe 419
Mayen 767, 799
meat consumption 317, 402, 441, 754, 1075
‘meat’ mortality pattern 393–4, 397–8, 400, 401
Mediterranean region 6, 175–7
axeheads 518–19, 524 see also jade/jadetite
domestic space 256–66
economy 181, 394–403, 1086
movement across 41, 121–2, 175, 429, 1078, 1098–9
Neolithic evidence 180–4
Neolithization 64, 81–95, 147, 177–80, 184–8
pottery traditions 182–3, 556
sea and coastline 40–2, 176
stable isotope analysis 364, 368–70
winds 27–8
megalithic tombs see chambered tombs, megalithic tombs
megalithic yard 911
Megara Iblea 785
Méhtelek-Nádas 386, 391
Meisternthal 105
Melos obsidian 64–5, 88, 184
men see males
menhirs 221, 224, 527, 699, 752, 815, 829, 846, 865–7, 1085 see also statue-menhirs
Menneville 199, 755, 1034
Menteş 929
Mersin-Yumuktepe 674
Merzbach valley 275–8, 283, 766
Merzbachtal see Merzbach valley
Meseta 185, 387, 396, 608, 612–3, 696, 844
(p. 1151) Mesolithic
amber 657–8, 667
architecture 242, 345–6, 467
axes 223, 518
contact to Neolithic societies 68–9, 197, 217, 219, 877, 1078
continuity with Neolithic 66, 85, 90, 101–2, 219–20, 416–7, 420, 487, 871, 901, 1053, 1078
domesticates, use of 103, 121–6, 197, 386, 414, 437, 442, 1076, 1087
isotopic evidence 218, 223, 365, 367–8, 370, 417–9
Mediterranean region 88–9, 177–8
pottery, use of 101, 182, 185, 197, 544, 556, 573–5
rock art 877, 879, 881, 885
Mesolithic–Neolithic transition see Neolithization
metal
beads see copper beads
decline 680, 714, 718
exchange 75–6, 107
figurines 630
as grave goods 681–5
hoards 159, 680, 683, 714, 721
ornaments and small objects 162, 677–8, 698–9, 702, 71–4
sources and sourcing 170, 712, 717
metallurgy
Anatolia 73, 174
and Beaker populations 608, 610, 678, 694
chronological inconsistencies 678–80
knowledge of 717, 720
origins 674–5
south-eastern Europe 73–5, 675–8
and social stratification 75, 169, 673, 680–1, 685–6, 697, 701, 704, 718–22, 1062, 1086, 1096–8, 1100–7
metalworking 695–6, 698, 702–3, 716–7, 720–1 see also goldworking
Mezőkövesd-Mocsolyás 929, 935
Michelsberg culture 5, 108, 124, 202, 487, 574, 766, 996–7