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date: 23 February 2020

(p. 758) Subject Index

(p. 758) Subject Index

abortion:
and Asian American public opinion529
and class562, 563
and Latino public opinion508
and religion542, 545 see also social issues
Abu Ghraib177, 254
accountability, and democratic politics:
and elections714
and executive self‐surveillance68
inspectors general (IGs)68–9
and government responsiveness to public opinion714–15
and horizontal accountability65–6
and journalism's role65, 71, 74
broader context69–70
and media accountability66–8, 91
limitations of67
and opinion polls254
and pathologies of American democracy:
media718–20
political elites715–18
public opinion720–5
and social accountability66
and vertical accountability65
accuracy of opinion polls316–17, 328–30
and alternatives to preelection polling:
data aggregators327–8
Iowa Electronic Market (IEM)326–7
and historical trends in presidential elections325–6
1936 election and Literary Digest290, 320–1
1948 election321–2
1996 election322
2000 election322–3
2004 election323–4
2008 election324–5
and impact of new voting procedures329–30
and Interactive Voice Response polls329
and measurement of318–20
lack of agreed measure316
selecting winning candidate318–19
statistical measures319–20
vote share estimates319
and pollster/news industry relations329
and reporting styles318
and significance of317
acquiescence response effects355–6
adolescence, and political socialization454–6
advertising, political:
and campaign advertising208–10
learning208
mobilization effects209
negative campaigning209
persuasive effects209
priming208–9
and exaggerated effects of158
and online experiments162–3
affective intelligence374, 387
affirmative action:
and ideology378–9
and Latino public opinion506
and opinion polls258–9
Afrocentrism, and black American public opinion496–7
age, and interest in news111
agenda‐setting:
and foreign policy665
and framing194–5
and the Internet28–9
and the media47
and public‐elite interactions173 see also framing; priming
Air America86, 243
(p. 759) al‐Jazeera694
Almond‐Lippmann consensus, and foreign policy659
al‐Qaeda691, 693–4, 698, 701, 702
American Association for Public Opinion Research251, 292, 297, 324
American Community Study (ACS)164, 521
American Institute of Public Opinion290, 321
American National Election Study (ANES)214, 334
and media use measures140–1
and non‐response rates334–5
and trust questions221
American Newspaper Publishers Association92
American Sociological Society308
American Tract Society76
Amnesty International115
anger:
and learning390
and opinion formation388
and participation391–2
and risk‐taking409
and terrorism and war392
anxiety:
and attention390
and election campaigns394
and learning390–1
and opinion formation388, 389
and participation391
and terrorism and war392
appraisal theory, and emotions385, 386–7
ARPANet23
Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (AALDEF)524
Asian American public opinion:
and abortion529
and attitudes and beliefs12
and Democratic Party523–4, 526, 527
and demographic characteristics:
diversity521, 532
geographic concentration520
geographic dispersion521
and foreign policy issues528–9
and future research532–3
and health care529
and immigration529–30
and Iraq war528–9
and media influences on530–1
and National Asian American Survey522, 525–6
and participation524
and partisanship523–4, 526–7, 532–3
and population growth520, 528
and Republican Party523, 524
and social welfare policies529
and socioeconomic status521
and survey research on522–4
limitations of522
National Poll of Asian Pacific Islanders523
Pilot National Asian American Political Survey522–3
and voter behavior524
Asian language media530–1
Asian Pacific American Legal Center524
Associated Press94
associational press64
attention, political:
and effects of soft news123–4
and emotions389–90
and terrorism699–700
attitudes:
and class:
classical debate over influence of553–5
recent controversies over influence of555–7
and cognitive approach to public opinion369–70, 373–4
automaticity370–3
and confirmation bias375
and dimensions underlying171–2
and disconfirmation bias375
and effects of soft news127–8
and expectancy value model of171
and Generations X & Y460
and genetic influences421–2, 461–2
attitude position422–4
attitude strength424–5
ideology426–8
and motivated reasoning374, 375
attitude polarization375
and religion12–13, 541–2 see also attitude structure
(p. 760) attitude structure:
and alternative sources of444–5
class444
mass media444–5
self‐interest444
value orientations444
and attitude constraints437, 438, 439, 440, 441, 575
and black political belief systems494
and consistency of opinions437
and critiques of research on441
and definition of437
and future research446
and importance of436
and liberal‐conservative ideology441–2
and measurement of437–9
correlations439
factor analysis438–9
Guttman scaling438
principal component analysis438–9
scaling methods438
and party identification442–4, 446
and temporal changes in439–40, 445–6
attitude theory, and development of survey research288–9
audience costs, and foreign policy663–4
authoritarianism:
and genetic influences428–9
and social issues630–1
automaticity:
and cognitive approach to public opinion370–3
and emotions387
automobile travel, and framing of189
behavior, and effects of soft news128–30
behavioralism, and political communications research47–8
beliefs:
and belief system437, 575
black political belief systems494
and cognitive approach to public opinion373–4
and confirmation bias375
and disconfirmation bias375
and motivated reasoning374, 375
attitude polarization375
and theological beliefs539–40 see also attitudes; attitude structure
big government, and public opinion639–40, 653–4
and defense652–3
and energy policy649–50
and environmental protection650–2
and immigration647–8
and labor unions646–7
and media coverage:
education644
energy policy649
environmental protection651
immigration647
labor unions646
medical care644
social security641
urban problems645
and partisan conflict640, 654
assistance to the poor642–3
defense and national security653
energy policy649, 650
environmental protection651
immigration648
labor unions647
medical care644
regulation650
urban problems646
and regulation650
and welfare state640–1
assistance to the poor642–3
education644–5
medical care643–4
racial issues645
Social Security641–2
urban problems645–6
biological bases of public opinion417–18 see also genetics; molecular biology; neuroscience
black American public opinion:
and attitudes and beliefs12
and black nationalism492, 494–6
Afrocentrism496–7
and black political belief systems494
and class491, 495
and development of survey research on488–9
(p. 761) civil rights movement491–2
Marx's Protest and Prejudice491–2
Southwide Sample Survey of Negro and White Opinions490–1
and egalitarianism497
and factors shaping488
and focus of research on488
and future research501, 502
and gender497–8
and group consciousness490–1, 494
and group identity494
and ideology493–4
and impact of Obama's election500–1
and linked fate498–500, 501–2
and methodological issues, race of interviewer effects500
and partisanship492–3
and political knowledge573–4
and racial consciousness494–5
and racial identity494
and religion491–2
and social identity496, 501
Black Power movement492
Black September690–1
blogs27, 112–13
and agenda‐setting28
and interest groups98
bounded rationality379–80
and framing197
BP Gulf oil spill54, 56
brain imaging421
broadcasting:
and public broadcasting95
and regulation of93
Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR)291
cable channels97
and partisanship94
campaigns15
and agenda‐setting195
and campaign advertising208–10
learning208
mobilization effects209
negative campaigning209
persuasive effects209
priming208–9
voter reaction to162–3
and campaign events211–12
debates211–12
party conventions211
unexpected events212
and campaign visits211
and critical role of204
and development of research field204–7
change in conception of campaign effects206
hypodermic needle theory of propaganda205
indirect campaign effects206–7
minimal effects thesis204–5
normative implications of campaigns207
retrospective voting205
voters' shifts206
voting research205
and emotions394
and foreign policy662–3
and framing176
and future research213–15
data quality214
experiments214
measurement214
methodological issues214–15
natural experiments214
theory‐driven research215
and ‘ground war’ activity210–11
personal contact210–11
and the Internet35–6, 461
and mediated messages212–13
endorsements213
interpersonal discussions212–13
media coverage213
and opinion polls318
and race issues609
and soft news131
capital punishment:
and gender gap in support for474
and media coverage of630
and trends in opinion on627
cellphones, and survey non‐response336–7
chat rooms28
Chicago Council on Global Affairs659
childhood, and political socialization454–6
(p. 762) China, and political effects of soft news133
Chi‐Town Daily News115
Christian Right535, 546
church attendance541, 547
Citizens for the American Way92
citizenship, and the Internet231
and changing context for citizenship37–8
citizen deliberation and the public sphere25–31
and citizen knowledge33–5
and citizen mobilization35–7
and citizen participation31–3
and criteria for online public sphere:
absence of distraction from political deliberation30–1
absence of external coercive restraints30
discursive equality and reciprocal respect29–30
inclusion of broad array of citizens27–8
influence on public discussion agenda28–9
rational critical discussion29
civic engagement:
and political engagement225
and pre‐adult political socialization455
and younger generations459–60
influence of new media460–1 see also engagement
civil rights movement:
and black American public opinion491–2
and media coverage of82–4
class, and public opinion552–3, 564–5
and American exceptionalism553
and attitude structures444
and black American public opinion491, 495
and classical debate over influence on553–5
and conceptualization of557–8
education558–9
intersecting identities560
occupation558
social mobility559
subjective social class identification559
and impact on policy preferences560–4
abortion562, 563
government spending561, 563
inequality562, 563
redistribution561, 563
and linked fate555
and partisanship554–5
and recent controversies over influence on555–7
CNN677
and CNN effect665
and polarized audience244
cognitive appraisal, and emotions385, 386–7
cognitive approach to public opinion368, 379–80
and affective intelligence374
and architecture and processes of cognition368–9
long‐term memory368, 369
spreading activation369
working memory368–9
and automaticity370–3
implications of372–3
and belief structures and ideology373–4
and bounded rationality197, 379–80
and cognitive frames196–7
and confirmation bias375
and disconfirmation bias375
and heuristics379–80
and ingredients of opinion376–9
ideology378–9
self‐interest376–7
social identifications377–8
and models of survey question effects360–1
and motivated reasoning374, 375, 380
attitude polarization375
and political evaluations369–70
automaticity370–3
memory‐based models369–70
online models370
and schemas373–4
Colbert Report111, 124
comedy news111, 121, 123, 133
and impact on attitudes127
and political engagement124
Committee on Public Information46
communication effects, and public‐elite interaction:
and agenda‐setting173
and conceptual clarification172–4
(p. 763) and conditions moderating elite influence178–9
future research179–81
and elite strategies of communication:
framing175–7
future research177–8
and framing172
and future research174
and implications for normative theory178–9
and normative implications of elite influence181–3
and persuasion173–4
and priming173
communications revolution:
and democracy19–20
and democratizing effects98
and impact of4, 96–8
and traditional media3–4
and transformation of political communication4
changes in news organizations4
individual access to online information4–5
informational interdependence5
Comparative Study of Electoral Systems296
conditional effects, and technological innovation25
confirmation bias375
conflicted conservatives442
congregations539
consistency theory375
content analysis, and online databases144
and choice of source144–5
and human vs computer‐based coding146–8
and identifying stories145
and incorporation of audio‐visual material148–9
and keyword choice145
and limitations of story counts148
and new and hard‐to‐find sources149
and time period146
and unit of analysis145–6
Cooperative Campaign Analysis Project (CCAP)164, 165
co‐production, and political news8–9, 97, 106
cost‐benefit analysis, and risk402
Countdown with Keith Olbermann243
courts, and social issues624
Craigslist115
credit crisis, and framing of192
criminal justice:
and gender gap in attitudes towards474
and racial cast of media coverage611
and trends in opinion on627
critical theory, and public opinion302–3
and Baudrillard310–11
and Blumer307–9
and Bourdieu309–10
and characteristics of303
and Frankfurt School306–7
and Gramsci305–6
hegemony305–6
and the Internet311–13
and orthodox Marxism303–5
cultivation theory223–4
culture wars542
and religion537
Current TV117
cynicism:
and exposure to soft news127, 128
and political trust221
Daily Show with Jon Stewart99, 111, 124, 461
and content analysis of127
data aggregators327–8
debates:
and campaigns211–12
and impact on political knowledge238–9
deception, and the Internet246
defense, and public opinion652–3
deliberative polls296–7
democracy:
and communications revolution19–20
and consensus underlying220
and empirical democratic theory270
and ideology of the American Revolution270–1
and journalism71
assumptions about role of61
Tocqueville's error on role of62–4
and judging role of public684–5
(p. 764) and news industry, role of89, 105, 220, 236–7
and nineteenth‐century conceptions of:
Bryce274–6
Dewey276–7
Lieber272–4
Mill274
Tocqueville271–2
and paradox of270–1
and pathologies of American:
media718–20
political elites715–18
public opinion720–5
and the public good715–16
and public opinion269–70
responsiveness to714–15
and religion544
and twentieth‐century conceptions of:
Beard279
Bentley278
Dewey280
Elliott280
group politics280–1
liberalism281
Lippmann279–80
Lowell279
pluralism279–81
post‐behavioral era281–2
Progressive era277–8
democratic engagement226
Democratic Party:
and Asian American public opinion523–4, 526, 527
and black American public opinion492–3
and female politicians480
and gender gap in support of471, 475
and income inequality592
and Latino public opinion511, 512, 513
demography:
and foreign policy666
and media organization17
and risk perception411–12
denominations538–9
diffusion principle, and technological innovation24–5
digital citizenship97
digital divide27, 102–3
disconfirmation bias375
Dr Phil Show124
Drudge Report3, 86
Earned Income Tax Credits643
easy issues, and social issues as623–4
ecological symbiosis, and informational interdependence6–8
economic policy594–6
and religion543
economic welfare, and public opinion599–600
and definition of589–90
and economic policy594–6
media coverage594–5
Social Security594–5
taxation595–6
welfare programs595
and factors influencing590
and future research596–7
biased information processing597–8
citizen decision‐making599
understudied aspects598–9
and income inequality590–2
media coverage591–2
partisan differences592
and macroeconomic changes592–4
media coverage593–4
and media coverage590, 599–600
economy, and voter behavior589
editorial judgment685
education:
and class558–9
and political socialization458
and political trust222
and public opinion644–5
and role of news industry105
education stratification hypothesis34
egalitarianism:
and black American public opinion497
and genetic influences429
election campaigns, see campaigns
elections:
and foreign policy662–3
and soft news132
and timeliness of reporting108
(p. 765) and vertical accountability65 see also campaigns
elections, and opinion poll accuracy316–17, 328–30
and alternatives to preelection polling:
data aggregators327–8
Iowa Electronic Market (IEM)326–7
and historical trends in presidential elections325–6
1936 election and Literary Digest290, 320–1
1948 election321–2
1996 election322
2000 election322–3
2004 election323–4
2008 election324–5
and impact of new voting procedures329–30
and Interactive Voice Response (IVR) polls329
and measurement of318–20
selecting winning candidate318–19
statistical measures319–20
vote share estimates319
and pollster/news industry relations329
and reporting styles318
and significance of317
electoral politics, and race608–10
elites715–17
and American democracy726
and benevolent leadership715–16
and influence on public opinion661–2
and knowledge of elite consensus240
gas tax holiday240–2
and manipulation of public717
and mobilization strategies15, 722–3
and motivated reasoning717
and news industry91
and news narratives256
and opinion leadership on social issues632
and partisanship716–17, 724
and pathologies of American democracy715–18
and threat to democratic governance717–18 see also public‐elite interactions
embedded reporters131
emotion384–5, 395–6
and affective intelligence374, 387
and attention389–90
and conceptions of385–6
cognitive appraisal385
neural processes386
physiological385
and early research on385
and growth in research on384
contribution of395
and learning390–1
and measurement issues386
and opinion formation388–9
direct effects388–9
indirect effects389
and participation391–2
and political manipulation of393
and public opinion14–15
and research applications:
election campaigns394
group‐based emotions394–5
mass media393
terrorism and war392–3
and research challenges395–6
and risk388–9, 392, 406–9
affect heuristic406–7, 408
and survey research296
and theories of386–7
affective intelligence387
cognitive appraisal386–7
motivated reasoning387
endorsements:
and campaigns213
and knowledge of239–40
energy policy, and public opinion649–50
and media coverage649
engagement, political221, 225–6
and civic engagement225
and civic participation225
and comedy news124
and definitional difficulties225
and democratic engagement226
and gender476, 482
women's lower levels of477
and general influences on226–7
and media influences on227, 230–1
individual dispositions229–30
newspapers227
television228
and political participation225, 226
and social capital225 see also participation
Enlightenment, and public opinion302, 384
entertainment:
and political news99, 461
and political views100 see also soft news
Entertainment Tonight124
enthusiasm:
and attention390
and opinion formation388
and participation391
environmental impact statements68
environmental protection, and public opinion650–2
and media coverage651
equal rights, and trends in opinion on626–7
Ethiopian famine, and media coverage of683–4
ethnicity, and public opinion12
ethnocentrism377
Eurobarometer296
European integration, and framing195–6
European Social Survey296
euthanasia, and media coverage of630
evaluations, political:
and cognitive approach to public opinion369–70
automaticity370–3
memory‐based models369–70
online models370
and motivated reasoning374, 375
and soft news127, 128, 129, 132 see also attitudes
evolution, and framing194, 199
exit polls296, 316
and 2000 presidential election323
and 2004 presidential election323–4
experimental research:
and artificiality of laboratory setting163
and media effects142
and political communications48–50
and political knowledge582–3
and racial issues614–15 see also online panels
experts, and influence on public opinion240–2
Facebook3, 97
facial similarity, and voting preference159–60
factor analysis (FA)438–9
Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting92
family, and political socialization454–6, 464
fear:
and attention390
and opinion formation388–9
and participation391
and politics of393
and risk‐taking409
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)89, 92, 93
Federal Emergency Management Agency68
Federalist Papers270–1
Federal Relief Agency288
Five Thirty Eight317, 328
flat earth hypothesis, and framing199–200
Flexible Spending Accounts (FSAs)598
focused interviews294
focus groups296
force, and government use of:
and diversionary use664
and gender gap in support for473–4, 481–2
and public opinion663–4 see also war
foreign news, and decline in117
foreign policy, and public opinion7, 658, 669–70
and Almond‐Lippmann consensus659
and Asian American public opinion528–9
and audience costs663–4
and cooperative internationalism661
and elections662–3
and foreign policy goals660
and functional interdependence661
and future research658–9
American politics and international politics connections667–8
demographic variations666
integration and synthesis668–9
(p. 767) and government use of force663–4
diversionary uses664
gender gap in support for473–4, 481–2
and influence of661, 662
and Latino public opinion510–11
and media effects664–6
agenda‐setting665
CNN effect665
framing665
government control of message665
inattentive public665–6
indexing models665
priming665
soft news666
and militant internationalism661
and multilateral action660
and opinion polls257, 258
and partisanship716
and presidential influence on public opinion661–2
and rallies of support during crises664
and religion543–4
and stability of661
and structure of public opinion661
and support for involvement in international affairs659–60
and United Nations660
and voter behavior662
Fox News86, 243
and polarized audience244
and selective exposure161
fragmentation:
of news audiences134, 719
of news industry101–2
framing7
and analogies198
and automobile travel189
and bounded rationality197
and categorization197–8
and cognitive frames196–7
and defining issue framing190–2
as dynamic process191
and emotions389, 393
and equivalence frames191
and European integration195–6
and evolution194, 199
and experimental research50
and factual assertions189
and flat earth hypothesis199–200
and foreign policy665
and frame elements and effects193–6
agenda‐setting194–5
frame valence196
priming195
whole story frames194
and impact on public discourse200
and individual effects of frames197
and limits on impact of199
and manipulation of public198–9
and news frames:
conflict frame193
generic nature of193
issue frames193
personalization frame193
strategic game frame193
and news framing192–3
and political trust223
and prospect theory403–4
and public‐elite interactions172
elite strategies of communication175–7
factors moderating elite influence179
future research177–8, 179–81
implications for normative theory178–9
normative implications of elite influence181–3
and public opinion14, 723
and role of news industry90, 91
and valenced nature of frames189–90
Frankfurt School, and public opinion306–7
freedom of speech:
and critical theory312–13
and First Amendment90, 92, 236
and the Internet30
Freedom Rides490
Gallup International Association291, 296
Gallup Organization290, 356
gas tax holiday240–2
gay rights:
and gender gap in support for474
and media coverage of630
and trends in opinion on626–7 see also social issues
(p. 768) gender:
and attitudes and beliefs12
and black American public opinion497–8
and gender gaps472, 481–2
and government use of force473–4, 481–2
and morality issues474
and origins of gender differences482
implications of482–3
and partisanship471–2, 475
and political effects of471, 481–2
and political engagement476, 482
women's lower levels of477
and political knowledge476–7, 482, 573
and racial policies473
and religion542–3
and research challenges483
and risk perception411
and social welfare policies472–3, 481
and support for female politicians478
gender stereotypes478–80, 482
women voters481
and turnout471, 482
and voter behavior471, 475
and women's issues475
General Social Survey334
generation effects, and political socialization457, 459–60
Generation X459, 460
Generation Y459, 460
genetics, and public opinion421–2
and attitudes and beliefs13, 421–2
attitude position422–4
attitude strength424–5
and future research431–2
and ideology426–7, 428
liberal or conservative427
strength of427–8
and implications of links between430–1
and molecular genetic research420–1
and opinionation425
and partisanship425–6
and personality traits463
and political expertise425
and political socialization461–2
and public opinion417–18
and religiosity429–30
and risk414
and twin studies418–20
and value orientations426–7, 428–9
authoritarianism428–9
egalitarianism429
social orientations429
Global Attitudes Project661
GlobalPost117
global warming652
Google3, 312
Great Society640, 645
group conflict, and racial attitudes608
group consciousness:
and black American public opinion490–1, 494
and Latino public opinion508
group identity:
and black American public opinion494
and group‐based emotions394–5
and public opinion377–8
Gulf of Tonkin incident (1964)84
Gulf War (1991)676–8
and impact of visual information682–3
and media coverage of684
gun control:
and gender gap in support for474
and trends in opinion on627
Hamas701
hard news:
and contrasted with soft news99, 122
and decline in101, 109, 110, 117, 719–20
and definition of122
health care:
and Asian American public opinion529
and public opinion643–4
Health Savings Accounts (HSAs)598
hegemony, and Gramsci's conception of305–6
heuristics379–80
hot cognition hypothesis, and emotions387
Huffington Post3
Human Rights Watch115
ideal speech:
and criteria for online public sphere:
absence of distraction from political deliberation30–1
(p. 769) absence of external coercive restraints30
discursive equality and reciprocal respect29–30
inclusion of broad array of citizens27–8
influence on public discussion agenda28–9
rational critical discussion29
and the Internet25–6
ideology:
and attitude structures441–2
and black American public opinion493–4
and cognitive approach to public opinion373–4
and definition of441
and genetic influences426–7
approaches to studying428
liberal or conservative427
strength of427–8
and Latino public opinion506, 507, 508, 514
and media segmentation719
and partisanship723–4
and political knowledge574–6
and public opinion378–9
and racially conditioned613
and voter behavior574–6
immigrants, and pre‐adult political socialization456
immigration, and public opinion647–8
and Asian American public opinion529–30
and Latino public opinion510
and media coverage647
income inequality590–2
and media coverage of591–2
and partisan differences592
indexing hypothesis:
and foreign policy665
and new narratives256, 262
individualism, and public opinion378
Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs)598
inequality:
and income inequality590–2
media coverage591–2
and political trust222
informational interdependence718, 720
and contrast with earlier communication models5
and co‐production of political news8–9
and ecological symbiosis6–8
and features of5
and new research approaches to political communication9–10
and new social relations of political news9
information environment, and need for holistic view of55–6
information processing:
and biased processing597–8
and motivated reasoning14
and public opinion10–11 see also cognitive approach to public opinion
infotainment110–11
and political attention124 see also soft news
innovation:
and conditional effects25
and differential effects25
and diffusion principle24–5
Inspector General Act (1978)68
inspectors general (IGs), and executive self‐surveillance68–9
instrument design361
and context effects359–60
and future of361–2
and models of survey question effects360–1
cognitive models360–1
and public opinion348–9
and question design effects349
and question form effects:
acquiescence response effects355–6
balanced and imbalanced forms354–5
closed‐question preclusion effects350–1
‘don't know’ or ‘no opinion’ option351–3
middle response option353–4
open‐question preclusion effects350–1
and question order effects359–60
and question wording effects356–7
and response order effects357–9
cognitive elaboration model358–9
cognitive satisficing model359
contrast effects357, 358
explanations of358–9
primacy effects357, 358
recency effects357–8
(p. 770) Interactive Voice Response (IVR)316, 329
Interchurch World Movement287
interest groups:
and the Internet35
and regulation of news industry92
and websites and blogging98
international politics, and public opinion658
International Social Survey Program296
Internet:
and access to24
and advantages of term22
and citizen deliberation and the public sphere25–31
and citizen knowledge33–5
and citizen mobilization35–7
and citizen participation31–3
and conditional effects25
and controlling excesses102
and criteria for online public sphere:
absence of distraction from political deliberation30–1
absence of external coercive restraints30
discursive equality and reciprocal respect29–30
inclusion of broad array of citizens27–8
influence on public discussion agenda28–9
rational critical discussion29
and critical theory311–13
and diffusion principle24–5
and digital divide27, 102–3
and election campaigns35–6, 461
and expansion of3
and impact on news industry96, 111–14
and impact on political knowledge238, 245–6
endorsements240
and individual access to information4–5
and measurement of media effects156–7
and media organization17
and misinformation246
and newspapers, free distribution of content111–12
and origins and development of23–4
and partisanship34–5
and political engagement228–9
and political socialization460–1
and social capital32
intersecting identities, and class560
investigative journalism, and decline of719–20
Iowa Electronic Market (IEM)326–7
Iran, and internet news coverage115–16
Iran hostage crisis (1979‐81)700, 701
Iraq war:
and Asian American public opinion528–9
and impact of visual information682
and partisan divisions over682
and public knowledge of105
and public opinion252, 256
and trends in support for679–81
Islamic Jihad701
issue frames193
issue publics:
and the Internet34
and political knowledge580–2
issue salience, and social issues627
item non‐response, see survey non‐response
item response theory438
Japan, and political effects of soft news132–3
journalism:
and accountability of government65, 66–8, 74, 91
broader context69–70
limited role in67
and changing shape of newspaper industry64–5
and decline in investigative719–20
and democracy71
assumptions about role in61
Tocqueville's error on role in62–4
in twenty‐first century85, 86
tabloid spirit85–6
weakness of86 see also news industry; newspapers; news values
judiciary, and social issues624
Katrina, Hurricane68
and racial divide on government response to611
(p. 771) Katrina, Hurricane (political):
and aggregate public knowledge579
and American public's level of571–3
international comparisons572–3
media's role572–3
and candidates' issue stands238–9
and consequences of limited knowledge and sophistication576–8
policy preferences577–8
and consistency in level of238
and debates238–9
and effects of soft news124–7
and elite consensus240
gas tax holiday240–2
and elite cultivation of ignorance578
and emotions389–91
and endorsements239–40
and future research582–3
experimental research582–3
ignorance582
measurement582
and gender476–7, 482, 573
and importance of571
and the Internet33–5, 238, 245–6
and issue publics580–2
and likeability heuristic578–9
and measurement of573–4
and media exposure237
and media's role580
and misinformation579–80
and newspapers238
and partisan media243–5, 724
and political awareness measures142–3
and political sophistication574–6
and racial gap573–4
and radio238
and rational public720–2
and reliance on others578
and television237–8, 239–40, 580
effects of remote control use242–3
Knowledge Networks (KN)164, 165
labor unions, and public opinion646–7
and media coverage646
language, and political significance of198
Late Show with David Letterman121, 123
Latino National Political Survey (LNPS)505, 612
Latino National Survey (LNS)505, 612
Latino public opinion:
and abortion508
and acculturation507, 508, 514
and affirmative action506
and attitudes and beliefs12
and changing composition of Latino population506
and common political views505–6
and Democratic Party511, 512, 513
and dual nationality509
and existence of514
and foreign policy, Latin American countries510–11
and group consciousness508
and growth in study of505
and home country ties509–10
and ideology506, 507, 508, 514
and immigration510
and interpersonal networks515
and Latino National Political Survey505
and Latino National Survey505
and liberal policy preferences506, 508, 514
and media influences on515
and minority protection506
and morality issues508
and partisanship511–12
intergenerational transmission512
national origin effects512
and political socialization508–9
and racial context515–16
and Republican Party513–14
and self‐identification as moderate/conservative506, 507, 508
and socioeconomic status507
and Spanish language media515
and stability over time506, 507, 509
and transnational ties amongst population509–10
and voter behavior512–14
leadership, and gender stereotypes478–9
learning:
and campaign advertising208
and emotions390–1
and soft news125–7
and television124–5
LexisNexis Academic Universe144
(p. 772) life cycles, and political socialization456–8
early adulthood456–8
generational effects457
inter‐cohort differences457
likeability heuristic578–9
linked fate:
and black American public opinion498–500, 501–27
and class555
listwise‐deletion342
Literary Digest286
and 1936 presidential election290, 320–1
litigation, and social accountability66
lobbies and interest groups, and regulation of news industry92
local news, and growth of soft news110
loss aversion, and prospect theory404
macroeconomic indicators, and public opinion592–4
and media coverage593–4
majority, and tyranny of271, 272, 274, 276
managerial democracy263
market research, and development of survey research289–90
Marxism, and public opinion:
Frankfurt School306–7
Gramsci305–6
hegemony305–6
orthodox Marxism303–5
Matthew Effect25
media effects156
and analytical challenges in studying149–50
and economic welfare590
and experimental research142
and Internet156–7
and media exposure measures139–40
alternatives to142–3
critiques of140–1
limitations of143, 158
reverse causality142
selection bias141–2, 158
social desirability141
statistical conclusion validity142
and pathologies of American democracy718–20
and political awareness measures142–3
and public opinion10, 16
and traditional models of media impact5
and use of media data143–4 see also content analysis; online panels
media organization17–18
and demographic influences17
and the Internet17
and political reporting17
and research challenges18–19 see also news industry
Medicaid595, 640, 643
medical care, see health care
Medicare640
memory, and cognitive approach to public opinion368–9
political evaluations369–70
methodology, and public opinion research16–17, 293–4
and biological approaches:
molecular genetic research420–1
neuroscience methods421
twin studies418–20
military, and public opinion653
minimal effects thesis, and campaign studies204–5
misinformation:
and the Internet246
and political knowledge579–80
Mississippi Summer Project (1964)83
mobilization:
and campaign advertising209
and the Internet35–7
molecular biology, and public opinion417
and ideology428
and molecular genetic research420–1
morality issues:
and gender gap474
and Latino public opinion508 see also social issues
Moral Majority546
moral traditionalism631
(p. 773) motivated reasoning14, 374, 375, 380, 724–5
and attitude polarization375
and economic welfare597–8
and elites717
and emotions387
MSNBC86, 243
muckraking journalism80–1
Multi‐City Study of Urban Inequality612
Mumbai terrorist attack690
Munich Olympic Games terrorist attack690–1
My Lai massacre84
MySpace97
National Annenberg Election Study (NAES)239
National Asian American Survey (NAAS)522, 525–6, 612
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)66
National Association of Broadcasters92
National Black Election Studies612
National Black Politics Survey (NBPS)495, 612
National Council on Public Polls (NCPP)319, 322
National Environmental Policy Act68
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)336
National Opinion Research Center (NORC)292
National Poll of Asian Pacific Islanders523
National Public Radio95
national security, and public opinion652–3
and partisanship716 see also foreign policy; war
Nation of Islam492
neuroscience, and public opinion:
and ideology428
and political expertise425
and public opinion417
and research methods421
and risk413–14
new communication technology, and impact on traditional media3–4
New Deal640
new media:
and limitations of term22
and political socialization460–1 see also Internet
news:
and audience production of106, 114
Iran protests115–16
Twitter115
YouTube114–15
and collaborative news116–17
and co‐production of8–9, 97, 106
and decline in audience for109–10
and democratic role105
and impact of Internet111–12
and interactive news
audience participation113–14
blogging112–13
and new social relations of9
and quality of106 see also hard news; news values; soft news
news industry89
and changes in4
and democratic role89, 105, 220, 236–7
and impact of technological change96–8
democratizing effects98
Internet96, 111–14
public participation in news production97
social networking97
and modalities95–6
and new media climate:
growth of soft news99–100
partisan punditry98–9
and ownership patterns94–5
public broadcasting95
and political functions of89–90
informing citizens90
monitoring governments91
supporting political actors91
and pressing issues for:
controlling Internet excesses102
digital divide102–3
fragmentation101–2
quality of news101–2
shrinking budgets100–1
and regulation of92–3
broadcasting93
(p. 774) extent of93
Federal Communications Commission92, 93
lobbies and interest groups92
and structure of93–4
and uncertain future of103
newspapers:
and accountability of government65, 66–8, 74
broader context69–70
limited role in67
in colonial period75
and decline in advertising revenue24, 64–5, 100
and economic problems of24, 64–5
in eighteenth century75–6
and impact on political knowledge238, 240
endorsements239, 240
and Internet:
free distribution of content111–12
interactive news113–14
in nineteenth century76–7
associational press64
black press80
circulation of62, 76, 77, 78
content of63–4
democratization of information77–9
disguised partisanship79
independent papers78–9
lack of local content62
partisanship76–7
penny press77–8, 285
relationship with local government62
sensational journalism79
supply‐side explanations for quantity of63
Tocqueville's view of62–3
watchdog role78
and ownership patterns94
and political engagement227
and political trust222–3, 224
in Progressive era80
impact on readers80–1
muckraking80–1
in twentieth century:
circulation of81, 82
civil rights movement82–4
Second World War82
Vietnam War84–5
watchdog role82
Watergate85, 91
in twenty‐first century85, 86
tabloid spirit85–6 see also news industry
news values106–7
and comedy news111
and consequence and impact107
and decline of hard news101, 109, 110, 117, 719–20
and editorial judgment685
and event‐centered news107
and growth of soft news99–100, 109–10
and infotainment110–11
and objectivity600
and timeliness107–8
and variation by medium108–9
9/11 terrorist attacks691, 703
non‐response bias16, 261–2 see also survey non‐response
normative theory, and public‐elite interactions178–9
objectivity, and news values600
occupation, and class558
Oklahoma City bombing (1995)691, 693
Olympic Games terrorist attack (1972)690–1
online media databases, and study of media effects, see content analysis
online panels, and experimental research on media effects157
and advantages of158, 159, 165–6
and campaign advertising162–3
and causal inference160
and cost advantages163
and criticisms of163–4
and identifying specific causal factors159
and improved randomization159
and overcoming self‐reporting biases158–9
and physical appearance of candidates159–60
and realism163
and sampling methodologies164–5
and selective exposure160–1
and subject pools163
opinion formation, and emotions388–9
(p. 775) opinion polls:
and accountability254
and anticipation of news narratives255–6
and concerns over251–3
and construction of myth of engaged public253, 254–5, 262
and critiques of:
Blumer308
Bourdieu309–10
postmodernism310–11
and deciding what polls to commission and report256–7
and demand for251
and ‘don't knows’253, 256, 259–60
interviewer behavior340–1
meaning of341–2
question form effects351–3
question wording340
respondent characteristics340
as elements of news256
and elite cuing of opinion256
and foreign policy issues257, 258
and fragility of majorities260–1
and functions of251
and groundedness of public opinion251–3
and interpretation of results260–2, 348–9
and non‐response bias16, 261–2
and proliferation of714
and public opinion as news output262–3
and question wording255, 257–60, 340, 356–7
and race issues258–9
and response rate bias16, 261–2
and sources of251
and straw polls:
nineteenth century285–6
Oprah Effect, and soft news122–3, 134
and definition of123
and effects on audience:
attention123–4
attitudes127–8
behavior128–30
political learning124–7
type of show124
and political effects of130–3, 134–5
Oprah Winfrey Show122, 131, 133
O'Reilly Factor461
parents:
and political socialization462, 464
and pre‐adult political socialization455
Parents' Television Council92
participation:
and Asian American public opinion524
and effects of soft news128–30
and emotions391–2
and gender476, 482
and the Internet31–3
and newspaper circulation81
and political engagement225, 226 see also engagement, political
participatory democratic theory122
partisanship:
and Asian American public opinion523–4, 526–7, 532–3
and attitude structures442–4, 446
and big government640, 654
assistance to the poor642–3
defense and national security653
energy policy649, 650
environmental protection651
immigration648
labor unions647
medical care644
regulation650
urban problems646
and black American public opinion492–3
and cable channels94
and class554–5
and democratic governance725
and gender gap471–2, 475
and Generations X & Y460
and genetic influences425–6
and ideology723–4
and impact of partisan media on political knowledge243–5, 724
and Iraq war682
and Latino public opinion511–12
intergenerational transmission512
national origin effects512
(p. 776) and media segmentation719
and motivated reasoning597–8, 717, 724–5
and newspapers:
in eighteenth century75–6
in nineteenth century76–7
and parallels with religious affiliation443
and pre‐adult political socialization454, 455
and public opinion11
and response to campaign advertising162–3
and sharpening of716–17
and social issues627–8, 632
and twenty‐first century media34–5, 86, 98–9
and voter behavior443, 724
passive learning, and television124–5
penny press77–8, 285
Pentagon Papers84, 85
personality:
and political socialization463
and risk405–6
physical appearance, and voter choice159–60
Pilot National Asian American Political Survey (PNAAPS)522–3, 612
polarization:
and opinion polls258–9
and partisan media94, 243–5, 719, 724
policy, see big government; economic welfare; foreign policy; race; social issues; social welfare policies; terrorism; war
political communication:
and changes in news organizations4
and impact of communications revolution4
and individual access to information4–5
and informational interdependence5
co‐production of political news8–9
ecological symbiosis6–8
new social relations of political news9
and new research approaches9–10
and transformation of4–5
political communication research57
and advances in43
and experimental approaches48–50
and Laswell's definition of communication43
and observational approaches48, 49–50
and problems with50–2
and recommendations for future of44, 53
holistic view of information environment55–6
increased field observation54–5
less disciplinary specialization53–4
and scope of57
and statistical analysis47, 48
and three generations of43–5
factors affecting44
first generation (1900s to mid‐1940s)45–6
second generation (mid‐1940s to early 1980s)46–8
third generation (mid‐1980s to the present)48–50
political parties:
and impact of new media36
and social accountability66 see also Democratic Party; partisanship; Republican Party
political reporting:
and decline in18
and media organization17
political socialization, see socialization
polls, see opinion polls
Pollster317, 328
popular sovereignty:
and constriction of713
and obstacles to715
and public opinion270, 271, 275–6
Postal Act (1792)63, 75
post‐materialism625
postmodernism, and public opinion310–11
preference construction, and opinion polls341
prejudice, and group‐based emotions394–5
presidential elections, and opinion poll accuracy316–17, 328–30
and alternatives to preelection polling:
data aggregators327–8
Iowa Electronic Market326–7
and historical trends325–6
1936 election and Literary Digest290, 320–1
1948 election321–2
1996 election322
2000 election322–3
2004 election323–4
2008 election324–5
(p. 777) and impact of new voting procedures329–30
and Interactive Voice Response polls329
and measurement of318–20
selecting winning candidate318–19
statistical measures319–20
vote share estimates319
and pollster/news industry relations329
and reporting styles318
and significance of317
primary campaigns, and endorsements239
priming:
and automaticity371
and campaign advertising208–9
and definition of173
and foreign policy665
and framing195
and public‐elite interactions173
and public opinion14, 723
and racial priming609–10
principal component analysis (PCA)438–9
Progressive era:
and conceptions of public opinion277–8
and muckraking journalism80, 81
Project for Excellence in Journalism (PEJ)110, 114, 116
propaganda:
and first generation of political communication research45–6
and hypodermic needle theory205
and terrorism691
prospect theory:
and framing191
and public opinion14
and risk403–5
loss aversion404
value function403–4
weighting function404–5
protest movements262
public broadcasting95
Public Broadcasting Act (1967)95
Public Broadcasting System95
public‐elite interactions:
and communication effects171–2
agenda‐setting173
attitude formation171–2
conceptual clarification172–4
expectancy value model of attitudes171
framing172
future research174
persuasion173–4
priming173
and conditions moderating elite influence178–9
future research179–81
and elite mobilization strategies722–3
and elite strategies of communication:
framing175–7
future research177–8
and implications for normative theory178–9
and knowledge of elite consensus240
gas tax holiday240–2
and normative implications of elite influence181–3
and opinion leadership on social issues632
and research agenda on170
public opinion:
and aggregate opinion721
and conceptualization of16–17
changes in269, 302
and critical theory302–3
Baudrillard310–11
Blumer307–9
Bourdieu309–10
Frankfurt School306–7
Gramsci305–6
hegemony305–6
Internet311–13
orthodox Marxism303–5
and democracy269–70
and elite mobilization strategies722–3
and features of:
attitudes and beliefs11
differences in policy areas13
gender factors12
genetic factors13
racial and ethnic factors12
religious factors12–13
socio‐economic factors11–12
and the Federalist Papers270–1
and framing14, 723
and government responsiveness to714–15
and hegemony of715
(p. 778) and ideology of the American Revolution270–1
and influences on13
elite mobilization15
emotions14–15
information processing14
media effects16
priming and framing14
risk aversion14
and informational interdependence720
and information processing10–11
and measurement of16
and nineteenth‐century conceptions of:
Bryce274–6, 284–5
Dewey276–7
Lieber272–4
Mill274
Tocqueville271–2
Wilson277
and origins of term269
and popular sovereignty270, 271, 275–6
and priming14, 723
and rationality of720–2
and twentieth‐century conceptions of:
Beard279
Bentley278
Dewey280
Elliott280
group politics280–1
liberalism281
Lippmann279–80
Lowell279
pluralist democracy279–81
post‐behavioral era281–2
Progressive era277–8
and tyranny of the majority271, 272, 274, 276
Public Opinion Inventory422
Public Opinion Quarterly292, 293
public policy journalism600
public relations686
public spending, and class‐based support for562, 563
public sphere:
and criteria for online public sphere:
absence of distraction from political deliberation30–1
absence of external coercive restraints30
discursive equality and reciprocal respect29–30
inclusion of broad array of citizens27–8
influence on public discussion agenda28–9
rational critical discussion29
and the Internet25–31
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)80
race, and public opinion:
and continuing relevance of606
and electoral politics608–10
and future research615–16
and impact of Obama's election605–6
and media coverage of609, 610
crime611
social welfare policies611
and opinion polls258–9
and persistence of racism607–8
and pre‐adult political socialization454
and racial attitudes:
changes in607
group conflict608
symbolic racism607
and racial divide on public policy610–11
and racial policies:
gender gap in support for473
ideological opposition607–8
white opposition607, 610–11
and racial priming609–10
and recent research on606
and trends in scholarship on611–15
civil society organizations613
cognitive turn612–13
contextual turn613–14
electoral contexts614
expanding survey population612
experimental research614–15
methodological advances614
political institutions614
racially conditioned ideology613
social movements613
Rachel Maddow show243
racial consciousness, and black American public opinion494–5
(p. 779) racial identity, and black American public opinion494
radio:
and impact on political knowledge238
and ownership patterns94
and regulation of93
raking, and survey non‐response344
random digit dialing (RDD)333
Real Clear Politics317, 327
Red Army Faction691, 697, 700–1, 702
redistribution, and class‐based support for562, 563
reference groups, and partisanship444
regulation:
and news industry92–3
and public opinion650
religion, and public opinion:
and abortion542, 545
and attitudes and beliefs12–13, 541–2
and black American public opinion491–2
and conceptualizing and measuring religion538
congregations539
denominations538–9
religiosity541
theological beliefs539–40
and democratic values544
and economic policy543
and foreign policy issues543–4
and future research544–7
political meaning of religion545–6
relationship with political attitudes546–7
role of elites545
and gender gap in attitudes towards474
and genetic influences on beliefs429–30
and models of religion536–7
culture war537
pluralist537
shared values536–7
and political importance of535, 536
and recently emergence of study of535–6
and sexuality and gender roles542–3
and social issues628
and social welfare policies543
and tolerance544 see also social issues
remote control (tv), and impact on political knowledge242–3
Republican Party:
and Asian American public opinion523
and female politicians480
and income inequality592
and Latino electorate513–14
response effects, see instrument design
response rate bias, and opinion polls16, 261–2, 321 see also survey non‐response
responsiveness to public opinion, government714–15
retrospective voting205
risk402
and cost‐benefit analysis402
and economic models of402, 403
and emotions388–9, 392, 406–9
affect heuristic406–7, 408
and future research:
communication of risk information412–13
demographic influences411–12
genetics414
neuroscience413–14
and management within a democracy409–10
and personality405–6
and prospect theory403–5
loss aversion404
value function403–4
weighting function404–5
and public opinion14
Roper Center292–3
Saddleback Church539
sadness, and risk‐taking409
sampling methods332
and development of288, 293–4
and online panels164–5
and probability‐based sampling164
and random digit dialing (RDD)333
Saturday Night Live99, 111
Saudi Arabia, and soft news133
schemas, and political knowledge of citizens373
Second World War, and newspaper circulation82
(p. 780) Sedition Act (1798)76
selection bias:
and media use measures141–2
and survey non‐response344
selective avoidance, and remote control use242–3
selective exposure, and online experiments160–1
self‐interest:
and attitude structures444
and public opinion376–7
sensational journalism79
September 11 terrorist attacks691, 703
sexuality, and religion542–3
Slate3
social accountability66
social capital:
and civic engagement225
and the Internet32
social desirability, and media use measures141
social identity:
and black American public opinion496, 501
and partisanship444
and public opinion377–8
social issues, and public opinion622
and definition of622–3
and distinctiveness of opinion633
and explaining opinion630
authoritarianism630–1
conflicting values631–2
elite opinion leadership632
and future research633–4
and media coverage of628–30
and partisanship627–8, 632
and religion628
as second dimension of political conflict624–5
and shared characteristics of623–4
about ends not means623
easy issues623–4
minimal resource requirements623
role of courts624
stability of opinions624
and trends in opinion on625–8
issue salience627
liberal direction625
partisan conflict627–8
and trends in scholarship on:
crime and guns626, 627
equal rights626–7
private behavior626
socialization, political453–4
and biological attributes463
and challenges of research on463–4
selection effects464–5
and characteristic of research on:
life spans453
micro‐macro relations453
and development over adult life cycle456–8
early adulthood456–8
education458
generational effects457
inter‐cohort differences457
major life experiences458
and future research464–5
and genetic influences461–2
and Latino public opinion508–9
and personality463
and pre‐adult political socialization454–6
and role of news industry90
and women477
and younger generations459–60
Generation X459, 460
Generation Y459, 460
influence of new media460–1
social mobility, and class559
social movements:
and framing194
and group‐based emotions394
and race issues613
social networking8, 97
social orientations, and genetic influences429
Social Science Research Council (SSRC)292, 293, 319
Social Security:
and media coverage of594–5
and poverty reduction594
and public opinion641–2
Social Security Act (1935)641
social surveys, and development of survey research287
(p. 781) social welfare policies:
and Asian American public opinion529
and gender gap in support for472–3, 481
and media coverage of594–5
racial cast of611
and religion543
and Social Security594 see also social issues; welfare state
Society Works Best Index429
soft news7
and audience characteristics121–2
and comedy news111
and contrasted with hard news99, 122
and democratic function of122
and distinctions within123, 124, 133
and effects on audience (‘Oprah Effect’)122–3, 134
attention123–4
attitudes127–8
behavior128–30
definition of123
political learning124–7
type of show124
and foreign policy666
and growth of99–100, 109–10
and infotainment110–11
and political effects of130–3, 134–5
Southern Baptist Convention539, 545
Southwide Sample Survey of Negro and White Opinions490
Spanish language media515
spreading activation369
state, the, and conceptions of277, 279
Lieber273
statistical analysis, and political communications research47, 48
stereotypes, and gender stereotypes478–80, 482
Strategic Vision251
straw polls285–6
subliminal advertising371, 372
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)643
Supreme Court, United States, and social issues624
surfing, and news channel viewing242–3
survey non‐response332–3
and future research344–5
and item non‐response334, 339
causes of339–40
implications of339
interviewer behavior340–1
meaning of ‘don't know’ responses341–2
question wording340
respondent characteristics340
statistical treatment of344
and sampling methods332, 333
and treatment of342–3
item non‐response344
listwise‐deletion342
model‐based approaches342–3
unit non‐response343–4
and types of333–4
and unit non‐response333–5
biased results337–8
causes of335–6
cellphones336–7
implications of337–9
as increasing problem334
poll accuracy338
representativeness of polls338–9
rise in334–5
statistical treatment of343–4
survey research:
and challenges facing297–8
declining response rates297
lack of reporting on methods297
misuse of polls297
rethinking role of297–8
and development of (1930s‐1950s)286–7
1936 presidential election290–1
attitude theory288–9
focused interviews294
government, business and academic partnerships291
government‐sponsored surveys287–8
institutionalization of survey research291–3
journals292
market research289–90
methodology293–4
pressures for286–7
sampling methods288, 293–4
(p. 782) social surveys287
and development of (post‐1960)295–7
computers295
deliberative polls296–7
emotion measurement296
exit polls296
focus groups296
internationalization of polling296
Internet surveys295
political role295
rolling cross‐sectional surveys296
telephone surveys295
and evolution of16
and non‐response bias16
and probability‐based sampling164
and straw polls:
nineteenth century285–6
Survey Research Center (SRC, University of Michigan)292, 356
surveys, see opinion polls
talk shows:
and audience characteristics121–2
and presidential appearances on121
taxation595–6
Telecommunications Act (1996)24, 92
telephone surveys295
and survey non‐response, cellphones336–7
television:
and civil rights movement83–4
and emotional power of393
and impact on political knowledge237–8, 580
endorsements239–40
remote control effects242–3
and impact of visual imagery393
and ownership patterns94
and passive learning124–5
and political engagement228
and political trust223, 224
and regulation of93
and social issue coverage628, 629
and Vietnam War84–5 see also soft news
Temporary Assistance to Needy Families595, 643
terrorism7–8
and attacks as media events702–3
and claims of responsibility693
and contagion effects of media coverage695–8
inspirational effects697–8
modes of attack696–7
and counterterrorism691
support for699–700, 700–1
and definition of690 n2
and demagoguery703–4
and emotions392–3
and gender gap in attitudes towards473–4, 481–2
and hero‐versus‐villain narrative703–4
and the Internet694
and media coverage of692–3
commercial imperatives692
contagion effects695–8
terrorist grievances700
and media organizations:
relationship between692
as terrorist weapon693
and modern global media environment694–5
and ‘new terrorism’694
as propaganda691
and publicity690–1, 692, 694
and public reaction to698
attention and intimidation699–700
response to terrorist grievances700–1
sustaining community support701–2
and ritual communication703
and state of research on704–5
and suicide terrorism697
and support for female politicians479
as theater698
terror management theory (TMT)392
Tet Offensive (1968)84, 684
The View122, 123, 124, 129
timeliness, and news values107–8
Time Sharing Experiments in the Social Sciences (TESS)157
(p. 783) tolerance, and religion544
Tonight Show with Lay Leno121 n1, 122, 124
traditional media:
and adaptation to new technologies3–4
and changes in news organizations4
Transatlantic Trends poll661
trust, political220–1
and cynicism221
and decline in221
and influences on221–2
individual level222
macro‐level222
and media influences on222, 230
cultivation theory223–4
differential effects224
humanization of policy makers224
individual dispositions229–30
knowledge content224
mechanisms of222–4
media content222–3
media framing223
newspapers222–3, 224
sense of efficacy224
television223, 224
and risk management410
turnout:
and gender471, 482
and newspaper circulation81
twin studies418–20
and attitude position422–4
and attitude strength424–5
and ideology:
liberal or conservative427
strength of427–8
and partisanship425–6
and political socialization461–2
and religiosity429–30
and value orientations428–9
authoritarianism428–9
egalitarianism429
social orientations429
Twitter3, 97, 115
Tyra Banks Show122
United Nations, and public opinion660
United Press International94
unit non‐response, see survey non‐response
values:
and attitude structures444
and genetic influences426–7, 428–9
authoritarianism428–9
egalitarianism429
social orientations429
and social issues631–2
Vanderbilt Television News Archive144
video‐sharing114–15
Vietnam War, and media coverage of67, 84–5, 677
viral emails, and misinformation246
visual imagery, and emotional power of393
voluntary associations:
and civic participation225
and social accountability66
voter behavior:
and aggregate public knowledge579
and Asian American public opinion524
and economic influences589
and effects of soft news128–30
and facial similarity159–60
and foreign policy662
and gender gap471, 475
and ideology574–6
and Latino public opinion512–14
and likeability heuristic578–9
and motivated reasoning597–8
and partisanship443, 724
and policy preferences237
and reliance on advice578
and social issues627–8
war, and public opinion10
and casualties679, 682
and emotions392–3
and gender gap in support for473–4, 481–2
and impact of visual information682–3
and Iraq war252, 256
Asian American public opinion528–9
partisan divisions682
public knowledge105
trends in support for679–81
and presidential influence on677–8
and role of media675
editorial judgment685
Gulf War (1991)676–8
(p. 784) lack of follow‐up684
led by public683–4, 685–6
limitations of675–6
and selective attention678
and success prospects681
and support for678–9
War on Poverty640
Washington Post, and Watergate85
Watergate, and media coverage of85, 91
welfare state, and public opinion640–1
and assistance to the poor642–3
and education644–5
and media coverage:
education644
medical care644
social security641
urban problems645
and medical care643–4
and racial issues645
and Social Security641–2
and urban problems645–6 see also social welfare policies
women:
and political engagement477
and political socialization477
and support for female politicians478
gender stereotypes478–80
women voters481 see also gender
women's issues, and gender gap in support for475
Works Progress Administration288
World Values Survey296
YouGov/Polimetrix164–5
youth, and political socialization456–8
Generations X & Y459–60
influence of new media460–1
YouTube97, 114–15