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date: 19 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter focuses on instrument design, their effects, how they occur, and how they can be dealt with, beginning with the effects of question design on the attitudes, subjective judgments, and opinions of the respondents. It then studies how the actual wording and content of survey questions change the conclusions that researchers would draw with regards to public opinion. The next section centres on how the context and order in which both the questions and response alternatives are presented can impact the results. The final part of the chapter considers how various question-design effects can be understood as part of a more basic cognitive-psychological model of the question-and-answer process.

Keywords: instrument design, question design, survey questions, wording, response alternatives, cognitive-psychological mode, question and answer

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