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date: 19 January 2020

(p. 863) Index

(p. 863) Index

Note: Page references in bold type indicate main discussion on prominent names and topics.

à Kempis, Thomas 487, 620
Abelard, Peter 745, 746, 748
Abrams, Meyer H. 118, 141, 293, 471–2, 478, 607, 702, 712
accommodation theory 136
Achebe, Chinua 705
Adorno, Theodor 28, 855
Ælfric 45 n.4, 47, 48, 49, 56, 714
aesthetics
and Blake 436–7
German 139
and morality 105, 111
and post-secularity 843–4
and Ruskin 485
and the sublime 126–8, 182, 183
worship as 291
after theory 854–5
afterlife 712–14, 717–21
in medieval literature 713–14
in 18th-century literature 711, 764–5
Agamben, Giorgio 855
agnosticism 494
Ainsworth, Henry 73
Albright, W. F. 286
Aldhelm of Malmesbury 39–40
Alembert, Jean le Rond d' 97, 99
Alfred the Great 39–40, 41, 47, 56
allegory
and biblical interpretation 20, 168, 200, 201, 230–1, 272, 353–4
in Bunyan 580–2, 584–6, 763
in medieval literature 372, 674–5
in Reformation literature 91, 92, 203
in wisdom literature 276
Allen, Walter 441
Allen, William 70
alliteration
biblical 216, 248, 260
in early English poetry 38, 49, 55, 58–9
in Prayer Book 570
Alter, Robert 209–10, 215, 216, 219, 256–7, 301
Alter, Robert and Kermode, Frank 8, 18, 188, 208, 209-10, 639
Alternative Service Book 245, 572, 680
Altizer, Thomas J. J. 20, 29, 188, 449, 454, 459–60
Amalarius of Metz 674
ambiguity
in biblical narratives 221–2, 315
in literature 144, 191
Ambrose of Milan 200, 230, 402
American Revolution
and Enlightenment thought 97, 117
and Romanticism 121
Amis, Martin, Time's Arrow 772–3
ancient vs.modern debate 110–11
Ancrene Wisse 746, 779–81
Andersen, Jennifer L. and Sauer, Elizabeth 398
Anderson, Pamela Sue 784 n.11
Andrewes, Lancelot 68, 404, 533–4, 536, 730
Anglicanism 12
and Auden 523, 834
and Eliot (T. S.) 16, 523, 831
liberal 100, 101, 118, 122
and modernism 167
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 41
Anglo-Saxon Gospels 56, 60
Anselm of Canterbury 40, 530, 745, 746–7
Apocalypse of Paul 716–17
Apocalypse of Peter 716
apocalyptic literature 342–58
definition 342–3
in English literature 354–8, 367–9
in history 350–3
and postmodernism 188
and prophetic literature 343, 349
and revolution 346–7 see also Bunyan, John; Daniel; 1 Enoch; 4 Ezra; Revelation
apocalypticism, and modernism 166, 168, 169
apRoberts, Ruth 648
Aquinas, St Thomas
and divine love 693–4
and Great Chain of Being 665
and Joyce 505, 514, 517–18
and theology 364
(p. 864) Arcand, Denys, Jesus of Montreal 721
Arditti, Michael, Easter 13
argument from design 102, 108, 127, 149, 601
Ariès, Philippe 710
Aristotle 301–2, 311, 651, 795
Arnold, Matthew 156, 639–53
and the Bible 205–6, 291, 639, 641–2, 644–9, 652
and Butler 604–5
and culture and religion 13, 187, 238, 641–7, 652
and German criticism 150, 157
and Hebraism and Hellenism 173, 489
and Keble 610, 620
as literary critic 639–47
and poetry 639, 650–2
and religion and imagination 20
and Wordsworth 475
works
‘The Bishop and the Philosopher’ 641–2
Culture and Anarchy 643–5, 646, 649
‘Dover Beach’ 158
‘Dr Stanley's Lectures on the Jewish Church’ 642
God and the Bible 645, 647
Literature and Dogma 645, 647, 649
‘On the Study of Poetry’ 650–1
St. Paul and Protestantism 645
Arnold, Thomas 149, 609, 629–30, 648
Articles of Religion 66, 68, 70
Arundel, Thomas, Constitutions of 1409 93
Asad, Talal 599
Ashbery, John 182
Ashton, John 338
Ashton, Rosemary 143
assent, religious 21, 149
Astell, Mary 812
atheism 107–8, 129, 431
and Hardy 484, 495
atonement 720, 742–8
compassion and the self 752–5
death and suffering 755–8
law and mercy 747–50
penal substitution theory 748–9, 754
ransom theory 742, 744–5, 747
sacrifice and sacrament 750–2
sacrifice and victory 743–7
and suffering 704, 705
in Victorian thought 148–9, 154
Attridge, Derek 295
Atwood, Margaret
The Handmaid's Tale 320, 845
Oryx and Crake 358
Auden, W. H. 23, 175, 320, 523–31, 680
conversion 523–8
and death 722–3
and Kierkegaard 523, 525–7, 831, 834, 835
and salvation 830, 832, 833–5
works
‘Anthem’ 38
The Dyer's Hand 834
For the Time Being 528–9
Friday's Child 529, 835
‘Hell’ 722–3
Homage to Cleo 531, 540
Horae Canonicae 529–30
‘Insignificant Elephants’ 527
New Year Letter 524, 527
Ode to Terminus 531
Precious Five 531
The Sea and the Mirror 523–4, 528
‘September 1, 1939’ 526
‘Spain 1937’ 526, 540
Auden, W. H. and Kronenberger, Louis 526
Auerbach, Erich 207–8, 210, 218, 220, 529, 539
Augustine of Canterbury 36, 55, 57
Augustine of Hippo, St
and allegory 230
and angelic fall 47–8
and apocalyptic 351, 357
and Bible as literature 200
and City of God 43
and divine love 693–4, 698
and evil 699
and postmodernism 187
and semiotics 27
and sexuality 779
Augustinians 82, 87
Austin, J. L. 299, 506
author, implied 315, 325, 336
Authorized Version see King James Bible
autobiographical criticism 335
autobiography, spiritual 433–4, 575, 578–9, 585, 817–18
autonomy, and Enlightenment 117, 122, 132, 295
avant-garde
and modernism 171, 175
and postmodernism 181–2, 185, 189–90, 192
Backscheider, Paula 434
Bacon, Francis 304, 384
Badham, Paul 167
Bagehot, Walter 477
Baillie, John 832
Bal, Mieke 209, 235–6
Baldwin, William 91, 272
Bale, John 389
Ballard, J. G. 845
Balsamo, Gian 519
Balthasar, Hans Urs von 164, 830
Bancroft, Richard 71
Banville, John, Shroud 849
Bar-Efrat, Shimon 208
Barfield, Owen 531
Barnes, Julian, A History of the World in Ten and a Half Chapters 5, 6, 185, 186
Barnes, Robert 89
Barratt, David, Pooley, Roger and Ryken, Leland 17
Barrett, Michèle 816
Barth, J. Robert 469–70
(p. 865) Barth, Karl
and art 832
and the Bible 432 n.1
and Blake 454
and modernism 164, 168, 169–71
and systematic theology 830
Barthelme, Donald 303
Barthes, Roland 310, 311–13, 318
Barton, John and Halliburton, John 15
Battenhouse, Roy 20
Battestin, Martin C. 440
Baxter, Richard 402
Bayly, Lewis 577
Beard, Thomas 382–3, 389
beauty, and the sublime 183, 823–5
Bechler, 438
Beckett, Samuel 19, 24, 510
Waiting for Godot 693
Bede, Venerable 36
Bede's Death Song 39–40, 695
and Bible as literature 200–1
and CÆdmon 37–9, 55
and good and evil 697
and purgatory 714
Behn, Aphra 812
Oroonoko 811
Behrendt, Stephen 452
Bell, Bernard Iddings 187
Belloc, Hilaire 175
Bentham, Jeremy 601, 633
Bentley, G. E. 807
Bentley, Richard 103, 111
Beowulf 41–7
and Genesis B 44–5
and good and evil 695–7
and Grendel 42–4, 696, 697
and homiletic tradition 46
manuscript tradition 41–2
and righteous heathen 49
and scriptural references 42–3, 45–6
Bergson, Henri 496, 533
Berkeley, George 107, 128
Berlin, Adele 208, 216, 248
Bernard of Clairvaux, St. 780–1
Bernstein, Charles 186
Berrigan, Ted 190
Bhabha, Homi 850
Bible
authority 19
contextual study 9, 136
cultural influence 54, 72, 75, 206, 641–2
and evil 691, 692–4
feminist readings 544, 547–50
historical criticism 135–8, 156–7, 165, 168, 177
literal sense 24, 136, 231
literary criticism 27, 639–49, 652
literary influence 55–6, 221, 727–8
literary readings 9, 104, 188, 652–3
and liturgy 671–3
loss of familiarity with 7–8
oral transmission 55
paraphrases 48, 74, 202, 245
polyglot 74
and reason 103–4, 106
as unity 209, 210
The Bible Code 211
Bible and Culture Collective 188, 209
The Bible as Literature (Henn) 18
Bible as literature 17, 18–19, 275–6
in 17th century 202–3
in 18th century 203–4
in 19th century 204–6, 647–9, 652–3
in 20th century 206–11
academic study 197
contemporary trends 211
in early Church 199–200
in Jewish study 207–8
in Middle Ages 200–2
and as sacred text 197–211
Bible and literature, academic study 8
biblical criticism 614
and Arnold 639–40, 641–2, 644, 646–9, 652
and prophetic literature 292, 294
and systematics 8–9
Bishops' Bible 69, 71, 201
Blair, Hugh 110, 603
Blake, William 19, 20, 109, 320, 448–63, 581
and apocalyptic 354, 355, 357, 450, 452, 454, 459
and the Bible 204, 225, 451, 453, 457, 459, 691
and Christianity 449, 454–7
and Job 275, 280, 283
and Milton 702, 719
motifs and symbols 453–7
and paradise 803
and passion story 752–4
as prophetic 292, 293, 450–2, 453–5, 458, 462–3, 544–5
and Romanticism 119, 123, 127, 128, 292, 293, 457
theological reading 450–3, 456
works
All Religions are One 456
America 454, 459–60
The Book of Urizen 451, 457
Europe 458
The Four Zoas 449, 452, 454–5, 458, 753–4
‘The Ghost of Abel’ 753
Jerusalem 448, 449, 451, 453–6, 458–61, 462, 829
The Last Judgement 719
The Marriage of Heaven and Hell 451, 452, 454–6, 459, 461, 702, 806–7
(p. 866)
Milton 450–1, 456
On Another's Sorrow 795
Songs of Innocence and Experience 452–3, 456, 807
There is No Natural Religion 452, 460
Visions of the Daughters of Albion 459
Blamires, Harry 505 n.8
Blanchot, Maurice 189
Blickling Homilies 47, 56
Bloom, Harold 26, 189, 208, 277, 449, 515
Boccaccio, Giovanni 56
body 776–91
in Ancrene Wisse 779–81
in Brontë (Charlotte) 785–6
in Christian thought 776–9
in Donne 781–2
in Kennedy 789–90
in Lawrence 787–9
in Wollstonecraft 782–5
Boehme, Jacob 128, 807
Boling, Robert G. 233–4
Bolingbroke, Henry St John, Viscount 106
Bonhoeffer, Dietrich 169, 170–1, 833
Book of Common Prayer
1549 65–6, 81, 91, 669, 676, 677
1552 68, 561–2, 571
1637 73
1662 561, 562, 571, 669
attitudes to 245, 608
Collects 561–73
influence 72, 249
and literature 679
Ordinal 728–9
Psalter 728
and purgatory 716
Book of Homilies 65–6, 72
Booth, Wayne 336
Boswell, James 16, 204, 593–4
Boulger, James D. 477
Bouquet, A. C. 176
Bowie, Andrew 139
Boyle, Robert (critic) 513 n.14
Boyle, Robert (scientist) 74, 102, 103, 296
Bradbury, Malcolm 172
Bradbury, Ray, Fahrenheit 451 358
Bradley, F. H. 177, 648
Brantley, Richard E. 477
Bridget of Sweden 365
Bridgewater Treatises 601
Bristow, Richard 70
Brontë, Charlotte 152, 785–6
Jane Eyre 786
Brontë, Emily, Wuthering Heights 144–6, 767–8
Brook, Stella 569
Brooke, Stopford A. 187, 469, 471, 477–8
Brooks, Cleanth 175
Brooks, Peter 262 n.5
Brown, Dan, The Da Vinci Code 9, 211, 333
Brown, Meg Lota 405
Brown, Raymond Edward 324, 337
Brown, William P. 247
Browne, Sir Thomas 225, 709
Browning, Robert 149, 703
‘The Bishop Orders his Tomb’ 830, 831
Christmas Eve and Easter-Day 151, 160
‘A Death in the Desert’ 160–1, 320
‘One word more’ 584
The Ring and the Book 158
‘Sordello’ 719
Brueggeman, Walter 234, 235
Brummitt, Mark 304
Brunner, Emil 170
Bucer, Martin 83, 84, 86, 88, 568
Buckley, Vincent 646
Budgen, Frank 511
Budick, Sanford and Iser, Wolfgang 27
Bultmann, Rudolf 168, 170, 171, 186, 336–7
Bunyan, John 575–88
and salvation 829
use of the Bible 68, 203, 320, 575–6, 577–8
works
A Confession of my Faith 575, 578–9
A Few Sighs from Hell 577
Grace Abounding 575, 576, 578–80
The Holy War 575, 584–6
The Life and Death of Mr Badman 575, 581–4
Pilgrim's Progress 487, 489, 575, 577, 580–1, 586–7;
and apocalyptic 352, 354;
and good and evil 698, 718;
heaven and hell 803–4;
Second Part 586–8
A Reason of my Practice 575
and redemption through suffering 762–4
A Relation of the imprisonment of Mr. John Bunyan 578
Some Gospel-truths Opened 580
Burgess, Anthony, A Clockwork Orange 771–2
Burgess, Thomas 417
Burke, Edmund 99, 603
and the sublime 111, 127, 181, 183
Burnet, Thomas 702, 805
Burns, Robert 244
Burton, Robert, The Anatomy of Melancholy 283
Butler, Joseph 590–605
ecclesiastical career 596–7
and reason 105, 107, 590, 592, 599–600, 601–2
reputation and influence 600–5
and uncertainty 590, 593, 599, 602, 604–5
works
Analogy of Religion 591, 592–6, 597, 600–1, 603, 611, 614
‘Charge on External Religion’ 597–9
Rolls Chapel sermons 591–2, 594, 596, 600–1
Butler, William 57
Butt, George 603
Byatt, A. S.
Babel Tower 757
The Virgin in the Garden 757
The Whistling Woman 757
Byron, George Gordon, 6th Baron 125, 205, 238, 272, 283, 615, 720, 807
(p. 867) CÆdmon, Hymn 36–9, 49, 55
Calvin, John 67, 79, 84–6, 94, 231–2, 351
and atonement 748–9
and Daniel 346
Institutio Christianae religionis 85
Calvinism
and Arnold 645–7
and Bunyan 581
and Church of England 100, 252, 386–7
and Enlightenment thought 102, 107
Cambridge Platonism 805, 811–12
Campbell, R. J. 495
Canney, M. A. 294
Carafa, Giovanni Pietro (later Paul IV) 87, 88
Carlyle, Jane 153
Carlyle, Thomas 119, 150, 154
and German criticism 142–3
Sartor Resartus 703–4
Carmi, T. 257
Carr, S. L. 453
Carroll, Robert P. 25, 246 n.1
Carus, Paul 694
Cary, Norman 834
Cassian, John 201
Cassiodorus 200
catchwords, in prophetic literature 290–1
Catherine of Siena 365
Cavendish, Margaret 817
Cavill, Paul 42, 46
Caxton, William 59, 60
Celan, Paul 28, 191
censorship 93, 505
Certeau, Michel de 29
Challoner, Richard 74
characterization
in John's Gospel 327–8
in Pentateuch 218–20
Chard, Leslie F. 477
Charles I 73, 74
Chaucer, Geoffrey
and alliteration 570
and wisdom 275, 278
works
The Canterbury Tales 59, 272, 275, 320, 334;
and the church 365, 366, 368–9, 375;
and hell 805;
and liturgy 674, 675;
and pastoral ministry 726, 729–30;
and theodicy 700–1, 702;
and theology 366–70, 374–9
Parliament of Fowls 717
Troilus and Criseyde 59–60
Chauvet, Louis-Marie 672
Cheke, John 65
Chenu, M.-D. 166
Chesterton, G. K. 175, 282, 483, 626
children, and evil 705
Chillingworth, William 100
Chrétien de Troyes 56
Christianity
and conversion of the English 35–6
demythologizing 9, 168
in education 6–7
and embodiment 776–9
and German criticism 134–8, 144
as morality 590, 595, 642, 644–50, 652
rationalization 590–605
and tragedy 22
in Victorian literature 148–62 see also incarnation; redemption; salvation
Christology
of Barth 170
of Dream of the Rood 743–4
of John's Gospel 330
of Lewis 663–5
and Old Testament 231, 247, 344–6
church
as body of Christ 364, 375, 736, 777, 782
in medieval literature 366–70, 375–6
in medieval theology 364–6
as New Jerusalem 800
church attendance, decline 6, 7
Church of England
and biblical criticism 640–1
and dissent 576
and drama 386
and Enlightenment thought 100, 101
and Latitudinarianism 101, 104–5
and Newman 634
pastoral ministry 726
and religious communities 734, 812
Cixous, Hélène 517
Clare, John 732
‘The Parish’ 734
Clarke, Samuel 103, 107, 582, 591
Claudel, Paul 175
Clements, R. E. 294
clergy
and Oxford Movement 736
and pastoral ministry 728–40
Clifford, Richard 292
The Cloud of Unknowing 698–9
Clough, Arthur Hugh 151, 159–60, 225, 610
Cochrane, C. N. 528
Cockburn, Catherine 811, 812
Cohen, Leonard 278
Colenso, John William 641–2
Coleridge, John Taylor 608, 614
Coleridge, S. T. 20, 21, 109, 298
and the Bible 205, 308, 320, 639
and Butler 591, 601
and Donne 303, 403
and French Revolution 123, 355
and German criticism 140–1, 143
and hell 807
and Herbert 403
and imagination 128–9, 141
and Keble 620
and organicism 126, 129
(p. 868)
and prophets as poets 293
and Romanticism 118, 123, 293, 469–70
theological reading 465–7, 468–72, 479
works
Aids to Reflection 466, 467
The Ancient Mariner 470, 471–2, 830, 831
Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit 639
Lay Sermons 467
On the Constitution of Church and State 467
The Statesman's Manual 467, 470
Collects (Book of Common Prayer) 561–73
and alliteration 570
constituents 564–5
Cranmerian 561–2, 563, 564–72
definition 562–3
and doctrine 566–7
and doubling 568–9
and rhythm 569
Sarum Missal 563, 565–8, 569, 570
and wordplay 569–70
Collingwood, R. G. 525
Collins, Anthony 104, 107, 292
Collinson, Patrick 90
Colonna, Vittoria 87
Comber, Thomas 602
commitment, and literature 22–3
Comte, Auguste 483–4
Conder, Josiah 607, 608
Congar, Yves 166
connotation 168, 311–14, 318–19, 414
Conrad, Joseph, Heart of Darkness 225, 355, 704–5, 850
Contarini, Gasparo 86, 87, 88
Conway, Anne, Viscountess 811–12
Cosin, John 571
cosmology
Anglo-Saxon 43, 46
of John's Gospel 326–7, 328, 332
medieval 364 see also heaven and hell; purgatory
Coulson, John 21, 54, 149
Coverdale, Miles 63–4, 66, 89, 201, 244, 249, 565, 728
Cowley, Abraham 292
Cowper, William 732, 803
‘The Task, The Winter Morning Walk’ 733
Crabbe, George, ‘The Parish Register’ 732–3
Crace, Jim, Quarantine 185, 320, 849
Cranmer, Thomas 64, 67, 383
and Book of Common Prayer 65–6, 81, 561–73, 676
and Henry VIII 86
Crashaw, Richard 404, 740
Hymne to Sainte Teresa 801
critical theory 6, 8, 852–3
criticism, German 131–46
definition 131–5
and English literature 140–6, 150, 151, 156–7, 177
radical 139–40
responses to 138–9
Cromwell, Thomas 63–4, 86, 565
Crowley, Robert 91
Culler, Jonathan 29
Culpepper, R. Alan 324, 338
cultural studies 25–6
cultural theory 854
culturality 847–51
culture
and globalization 844–5
and religion 13, 187, 238, 641–7, 652, 834–5
Cuming, Geoffrey 565–6, 570
Cunningham, Valentine 24, 28, 854
Cupitt, Don 188
Cursor Mundi 56, 795
cursus 569
Cuthbert, St, and Bede 39
Cynewulf 41, 55
Dalziel, Pamela 483
Damrosch, David 208
Damrosch, Leopold Jr. 441
Daniel (book) 343–7
and Christology 344–6
date 348, 640
and eschatology 344, 345
influence 344, 349, 355
and world empires 345–6, 352
Daniell, David 71
Danielou, Jean 166
Dante Alighieri 56, 201, 354, 535–6, 537–8, 713, 717
Darby, John Nelson 345–6
Darwin, Charles, The Origin of Species 124–5, 149, 490, 640
Davie, Donald 244–5, 248, 251, 254
Davie, Grace 7
Davies, J. G. 449
Davies, Oliver 186–7
Davies, R. T. 570
Davies, Stevie 303
Davis, J. C. 579
Davis, Philip 148, 149–50
Day-Lewis, C.
and liturgy 680
Noah and the Waters 225
Dearmer, Percy 562
death 709–23, 777–8
in 17th-century literature 717
in 18th-century literature 710–11, 764–5
in 19th-century literature 721–2, 765–71
in 20th-century literature 711–12, 722–3, 787
and eternity 712, 716–21
in medieval literature 710, 713–14, 717
and purgatory 712–16
and redemption 765–71
and the sublime 183
in Victorian literature 786 see also afterlife; heaven and hell
(p. 869) ‘death of God’
in postmodernism 183–5, 706
in theology 20
deconstruction 27, 28, 187, 189, 209, 319, 852
and rhetorical criticism 235
Deen, Leonard W. 478
Defoe, Daniel 433, 445
Robinson Crusoe 74, 109, 433–6, 848
Deguy, Michel 186
deism 107, 117, 119, 127, 431, 593, 600–1
De la Mare, Walter 406
demythologization 9, 168
denotation, in Synoptic Gospels 307–11, 312, 319
Derrida, Jacques 27, 181, 189, 506, 854
and endings 24
and genre 186
and Joyce 510, 515
and return to religion 842
Des Forêts, Louis-René 185
Detweiler, Robert 20
Deutero-Isaiah 259, 692–3
Deuteronomic history, and Judges 228, 233–4
Dibdin, F. T. 472
Dickens, A. G. 82
Dickens, Charles 152
works
A Christmas Carol 355, 761
Dombey and Son 677–8
Little Dorrit 617
Dickinson, Emily 23, 167, 191, 546
‘A Word Made Flesh is Seldom’ 332
Dillistone, F. W. 21–2, 830, 836
Dionysius the Areopagite 418, 694, 801
dissent
and Butler 597–8
rational 102, 107
and Wordsworth 476–7 see also Bunyan, John
Dix, Dom Gregory 530
Dobbins, A. C. 804
Doctrine Commission, Believing in the Church 15
Dodd, C. H. 325
Doddridge, Philip 74, 493
Donne, John 90, 398, 399–410, 848
and atonement 748–9
and Bible 20, 72, 202
critical responses to 403–6
and death 709, 715
and embodiment 781–2
and heaven 801–2
and prophetic literature 302–3
and Psalms 248, 251, 252–3
sermons 403
and theology 398, 399–402, 406–10
works
‘The Cross’ 830
Devotions upon Emergent Occasions 401, 409, 796
‘Divine Meditations’ 252–3
‘The Flea’ 782
‘Good Friday’ 407–8, 748
‘Good Lord, Deliver Us’ 782
‘The Good Morrow’ 782
Holy Sonnets 225, 252, 320, 399, 405, 406–8, 663, 749, 782, 830
‘Hymn to God the Father’ 401, 408
‘Litany’ 409
Pseudo-Martyr 400–1
The Second Anniversary 801, 802
Doolittle, Hilda 175
Doomsday 797
drama, 16th-century 382–96; see also mystery plays
The Dream of the Rood 4, 40–1, 49, 743–4
Dryden, John 74, 90, 225
and Herbert 403
Duffy, Eamon 81, 561, 675
Dunbar, William 674, 720
Duncan, Joseph 798
Dunn, Mark, Ella Minnow Pea 845
Durrell, Lawrence 173
Eagleton, Terry 16, 25, 789, 854, 856
Ecclesiastes (book)
and experience 280, 282, 286
as literature 274, 280–2
Eco, Umberto 312
Edgeworth, Maria 110
Edmund of Canterbury, Mirror of Holy Church 364
education
and Christianity 6–7
and collective act of worship 7
for women 811 n.2, 813, 816, 819, 822
Education Act 1944 6–7
Edward VI
and Book of Common Prayer 65, 66, 676
and Reformation 81
Edwards, Michael 24
Eleazar, Ed. 713
Eliot, George 11, 152
and Christianity 484–90, 496
and German criticism 143–4
and Hardy 484
and nature 617
and passion story 755, 757
and religion of humanity 144, 483
and Strauss' Life of Christ 144, 483, 484, 640
works
Adam Bede 486–7, 617, 678, 755
book reviews 485–6
Daniel Deronda 355, 489–90
Felix Holt, the Radical 355, 488–9
Middlemarch 355, 489, 669, 856
The Mill on the Floss 225, 487, 620
Romola 355, 488
Scenes of Clerical Life 486
Silas Marner 487
Eliot, T. S. 533–41
and Anglicanism 16, 523, 831
and Arnold 639
and Bible as literature 18, 206
(p. 870)
and Buddhism and Hinduism 176, 177, 533, 534, 536, 539–40, 833
and death 712
and Donne 404
and modernity 19, 20, 173, 176–7, 182
and salvation 832–3
works
Ash Wednesday 536–9
The Cocktail Party 21, 795
Coriolan 538–9
‘The Cultivation of Christmas Trees’ 538, 540–1
‘The Elder Statesman’ 541
Four Quartets 21, 28;
‘Burnt Norton’ 539;
‘The Dry Salvages’ 540;
‘East Coker’ 539, 540, 678–9, 681–2, 727, 833;
‘Little Gidding’ 540, 833
‘Gerontion’ 533–4, 535, 536
‘The Hollow Men’ 535, 537
‘Journey of the Magi’ 320, 358, 536
‘Marina’ 537, 539
‘Mr Eliot's Sunday Morning Service’ 533
Murder in the Cathedral 539
‘Religion and Literature’ 16–17
‘Religion without Humanism’ 833
‘Revelation’ 832–3
‘A Song for Simeon’ 536
‘Sweeney Agonistes’ 535
The Varieties of Metaphysical Poetry 535
The Waste Land 175, 355–6, 534–5, 537, 712, 795, 833
‘Whispers of Immortality’ 533
Elizabeth I 67, 68, 69–70, 81, 92, 501, 677
Ellmann, Maud 514 n.15
Ellwood, Thomas 426–7
embodiment see body
emotion
and morality and religion 639, 642–4, 647–8, 649–50, 652
and reason 783, 784
empiricism
and Butler 593, 601–2
and Fichte 138
and Kant 133–5
and Locke 443
Empson, William 187, 405, 472
Encyclopédie 97, 99, 108
endings, literary 24, 311
England
conversion to Christianity 35–6
and Enlightenment 98
Victorian 148–62
English
Bible in 57, 61–4, 70–2, 73–5
medieval literature 57–60
Middle English 60–1
prayer book 65–6, 68
Reformation literature 64–5
English Literature, as contested term 3–4
Enlightenment 97–111
and autonomy 117, 122, 132, 295
in Britain 98, 99, 100–8, 117, 165
and critique 132
in France 97, 99–100, 101, 108, 117
and literature 97–8, 109–11, 291, 431–45
meaning 98–9
and morality 102, 104–5
and prophets 295
and reason 97, 98–9, 106
and Romanticism 108, 111, 116–18, 124–5
and the sublime 111, 127
and theology 98, 101–8, 164–5
1 Enoch 347
enthusiasm, religious
and 18th-century novels 431, 441
and Butler 597, 601–2
and Romanticism 116
Erasmus, Desiderius 80, 87, 100
and humanism 62, 83, 89
and Luther 62, 89
New Testament translation 63, 89, 201
and theology and literature 89–91
eschatology
in Lewis 665–6
synthetic 345–6
in Wesley (C.) 673 see also apocalyptic literature
2 Esdras 344
esotericism, and modernism 174, 176–7
Essays and Reviews 640–1, 648
Essick, Robert N. and Viscomi, Joseph 453, 456
Etchells, Ruth 17
eternity 712, 716–21
ethical criticism 336
evangelicalism
and Brontë (Charlotte) 785–6
and Cowper 733–4
and literary criticism 17
and personal salvation 829
and Victorian religion 148–9, 150
Evans, Mary Ann see Eliot, George
evil
in the Bible 691–4
in Blake 807
moral 691, 694, 765–71
natural 691, 694
and Romanticism 807 see also suffering; theodicy
evolutionary theory 124–5, 149, 490, 640
Ewald, George W. 294
exempla 584
existentialism, and poetry 19
Exodus 39, 40
experience, religious
in Arnold 642–3, 646–8
in Job 275, 280
and modernism 167
Victorian portrayals 153–7
Exum, J. Cheryl 236
4 Ezra 347–8
(p. 871) Fairchild, H. N. 474, 477–8
Farrar, F. W. 805
Farrer, Austin 18
feeling, and Romanticism 117–18, 120, 123–4
Feltoe, C. L. 563
feminism
difference 813–14 n.6
and interdisciplinarity 852–3
liberal 813–14 n.6
postmodern 813–14 n.6
radical 318, 813 n.6
and readings of Scripture 4–5, 26, 544
and revisioning 543–56
feminist criticism 8, 209, 235–6, 298, 311, 810–26
and John's Gospel 335
and Lawrence 788
and Ostriker 544–50
Fenton, James, Out of Danger 845
Ferrar, Nicholas 400, 731
Ferretter, Luke 17–18
Feuerbach, Ludwig
The Essence of Christianity 483, 486–7
and German criticism 139, 144, 186, 187
and religion of humanity 144, 483, 485
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb 138–9, 145
Fiddes, Paul A. 24
fideism 139
Fielding, Henry 445
An Essay on the Knowledge of the Characters of Men 441
Joseph Andrews 211, 225, 438, 677
Shamela 110, 438
Tom Jones 110, 439–42, 600
Fielding, Sarah 110
Filipczak, Dorota 826
Fiorenza, Elizabeth Schussler 544
First World War
effect on literature 787
effect on theology 169, 172
poetry 532, 548 n.3, 738–9
Fisch, Harold 28, 257, 290
Fish, Simon 714
Fish, Stanley 192, 401
Fisher, Roy 182
flood story 4–5, 46, 185, 225, 692
form and content
and Bible as literature 211, 280
in modernism 171, 175, 177
in postmodernism 190
form criticism 312, 320
Forrest, James F. and Sharrock, Roger 582
Forster, E. M., A Passage to India 845
Forsyth, Neil 693
Fortna, R. T. 337
Fortunatus, Venantius 41, 744
Foucault, Michel 186, 317, 852
Fox, Everett 216
Foxe, John 65, 388, 577
fragmentation, and modern literature 19, 20
France
and Enlightenment 97, 99–100, 101, 108, 117
and Reformation 85–6
Franke, William 519
Frazer, James G. 176, 186, 206, 704–5
Fredriksen, Paula 337
Freer, Coburn 251
Frei, Hans 137–8, 209
French Revolution
and Enlightenment thought 97–8
and Romanticism 121, 123, 355, 356, 478
Frere, Walter Howard 562, 568–9, 571
Freud, Sigmund
and atheism 484
and H.D. 548 n.4
and modernism 171, 182
and radical criticism 139
Friedman, Susan Stanford 505 n.7
Frith, John 89
Frost, David L., Emerton, J. A. and MacIntosh, A. A. 245
Frost, David L. 244, 249, 255, 569, 680, 683–4
Froude, James Anthony, The Nemesis of Faith 152, 153–4
Frye, Northrop 19, 24, 208–9, 719, 795, 796, 807
Fulford, Tim 478
Fulke, William 70
Fuller, Thomas 562
fundamentalism, religious 169, 845, 854
Furlong, Monica 575
Gallican rite 563
Gallicanism 100, 101
Galloway, Kathy, Talking to the Bones 727
Gamble, Sarah 825–6
Gardiner, Stephen 88
Gardner, Helen 18, 20, 187–8, 679
Garnett, Jane 603–4
Garrod, H. W. 474–5
Gaskell, Elizabeth 785
The Gast of Gy 714
Gawaine and the Green Knight 760
Geikie, Cunningham 238
Gelineau Psalms 255
gender theory 13
Genesis A 39, 44, 47, 49
Genesis B 39, 44, 47, 48, 49
Geneva, and Reformation 84–5, 88, 100
Geneva Bible 67–8, 70, 71, 72, 74, 90–1, 201, 351, 578
marginal notes 69, 346
genre
epistolary 637, 764
and Gospels 312–14
and postmodernism 186 see also drama; novel
genre criticism 8
ghosts 714, 715–16
Gibbon, Edward 101 n.1, 494
(p. 872) Gibson, Mel 198, 831
Gilbert, Sandra 545
Gill, Frederick C. 477
Gill, Stephen 467, 472, 475–6
Gilley, Sheridan 620
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, ‘The Yellow Wallpaper’ 820–1
Gilmour, Robin 152
Gitay, Yehoshua 292
Gladstone, William Ewart 475
globalization 844–6
glosses 414–16, 417
gnosticism
and Blake 451, 457–8
and John's Gospel 336–7
modern 173–4, 177
God
and argument from design 102, 108, 127, 149, 601
and history 836
as literary term 647–9
and love 693–4, 695, 697, 698–9, 702, 706
Godden, Malcolm 41
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 143, 490, 703
Golding, Arthur 68
Golding, William 225
Lord of the Flies 705
Goldsmith, Oliver, The Vicar of Wakefield 110
Good, Edwin 234, 235
Goodman, Christopher 67
Goodman, Nelson 298
Gordis, Robert 281
Gordon, George 16, 17
Gore, Charles 149
Gospel of Mary 333
Gospel of Nicodemus 794–5
Goulborn, E. F. 564
Gower, John, Vox Clamantis 354
Graves, Richard Perceval 477
Gray, Thomas, ‘Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard’ 711
The Great Bible 64, 69, 86, 272, 565
Greaves, Richard L. 576–7, 580
Green, Thomas 796
Greenberg, Hannah 808
Greenblatt, Stephen 90, 713, 714–16
Greene, Graham 19, 829, 845
‘The Destructors’ 705
Gregory the Great, Pope 35–6, 47, 49, 55
Grotius, Hugo 101, 352
Gubar, Susan 545
Guibbory, Achsah 402, 405
Guide for Anchoresses 746, 779–81
Guillaume de Lorris, Roman de la Rose 56–7
Gunkel, Hermann 294, 302
Gunn, David M. 236, 237
Gunn, Giles 20
gynocriticism 545–6
Habermas, Jürgen 854
Haldane, J. B. S. 657
Halewood, William H. 434
Hall, Lindsey 805
Hamilton, Carson C. 474
Hammermeister, Kai 139
Handel, Georg Friedrich 239
Hardison, O. B. 674
Hardy, Thomas 320, 483
and Christianity 483–5, 490–6, 842
and Eliot 484
and nature 617
works
‘Before Life and After’ 693
A Changed Man 493–4
The Dynasts 490, 495–6
Far from the Madding Crowd 225, 484, 491, 492
‘God's Funeral’ 158–9, 490
‘Hap’ 693
Human Shows 494
Jude the Obscure 225, 272, 484–5, 490, 492–3, 495
A Laodicean 491
The Mayor of Casterbridge 492
Moments of Vision 494, 495
Poems of the Past and Present 494
The Return of the Native 491, 492
Satires of Circumstance 494
Tess of the d'Urbervilles 225, 484, 490, 492, 495, 678, 768–9
Two on a Tower 491
Under the Greenwood Tree 491
The Woodlanders 491
Hare, Augustus 467
Hare, Julius 465
Harris, Terry 604
The Harrowing of Hell 795
Hartman, Geoffrey H. 141, 208
Hartman, Geoffrey H. and Budick, Sanford 28
Hartshorne, Charles 693
Harwood, Edward 74
Havelock the Dane 57
Hawkes, Terence 27
Hays, Mary 110
Hazlitt, William 205
‘H.D.’ 548, 556 n.7
Heaney, Seamus, Station Island 713
Heard, Gerald 527
heaven and hell 394, 716–17, 793–808
in 20th-century literature 722
and antinomy of falling and rising 796
in Beowulf 46
in Blake 806–7
in Bunyan 803–4
in Byron 720
in Chaucer 374
descent of heaven to earth 797–800
and Enlightenment 122
harrowing of hell 720, 793–6, 803, 807
heaven as garden 718
(p. 873)
imaginative ascent to heaven 800–3
in Lewis 720
and life as pilgrimage 803–4
in medieval literature 46, 374, 797–9
in Milton 354, 423, 718–19, 793, 798, 804
and Romanticism 807
in Shakespeare 712
in Shelley 719
and theodicy 805–6
and war in heaven 804 see also death; paradise; purgatory
Heber, Reginald 609
Hegel, G. W. F. 138, 164, 454
Heidegger, Martin 19, 189
Hemming, Laurence 186–7
Henn, T. R. 18
Henry VIII
and Bible translations 61, 62–3
and break with Rome 81, 93
and Ireland 501
and Lutheranism 82, 86
Henson, John, Good as New 10–11
Herbert of Cherbury, Edward Herbert, Baron 100, 593
Herbert, George 20, 27, 72, 202, 272, 398, 399–410
and afterlife 720, 801–2
and atonement 748, 750–2
critical responses to 403–6
and hymns 672
influence of liturgy 572
and pastoral ministry 730–2
and poet as prophet 294
and Psalms 248, 251–2, 253, 405
and salvation 830, 831
and theology 398, 399–402, 406–10
works
‘Affliction (I)’ 400
‘Affliction (IV)’ 251–2
‘The Agonie’ 751
‘The Bunch of Grapes’ 751
The church 320, 399
‘The Church-porch’ 408–9
‘The Collar’ 615
‘Divinitie’ 409
‘Easter’ 408
Echo 801–2
‘Even-song’ 731–2
‘The Flower’ 407, 409, 410
‘The Holdfast’ 408
‘Jordan (II)’ 409
‘Love bade me welcome’ 830
‘Love III’ 680–1
‘A Priest to the Temple’ 730–1, 732
‘The Pulley’ 720
‘The Quidditie’ 407
‘Redemption’ 731
‘The Sacrifice’ 404, 750–1
‘The Sunne’ 409
The Temple 72, 237, 400, 401–2, 403–5, 406–8
Herbert, Mary, Countess of Pembroke 65, 72, 202, 248, 249–51, 253
Herder, Johann Gottfried von 125, 140, 292
hermeneutics
and Erasmus 89
of suspicion 416
Herrick, Robert 740
The white Island 797
Hervieu-Léger, Danièle 599
Heywood, Thomas 386
hierarchies
gender 813, 823
in Lewis 659–60
Higher Criticism 13
Hilary of Arles 38
Hildegaard of Bingen 354
Hill, Christopher 575, 580, 584
Hill, Geoffrey 189–92, 320, 830
Hilton, Boyd 148, 149
Hilton, Walter, Scale of Perfection 364, 698
Hippolytus, commentary on Daniel 345
historical criticism 135–8, 168, 284, 289
and John's Gospel 324, 336–8
historicism, new 8, 90, 158, 161, 335, 406
history
edifying 237–8
and feminism 543
and God 836
and myth 137
and Romanticism 123–5
Hobbes, Thomas 104, 592
Hoby, Thomas 68
Hodgson, John A. 478
Hoffman, Lawrence 670, 684
Hoffman, Melchior 351–2
Hogarde, Miles 91
Hogg, James 12
Hölderlin, Friedrich 139, 189
Holladay, William L. 249
Holland, Peter 384
Holocaust
and poetry 28, 855
and theodicy 691, 706
Hooker, Richard 100
Hopkins, Gerard Manley 12, 320, 831
and the Bible 244
and Ireland 11, 501–2
and modernity 25, 29
and nature 617
works
‘Felix Randall’ 737
‘The Wreck of the Deutschland’ 637
Hopper, Stanley Romaine 19
Hornig, Gottfried 136
Hornsby, Teresa 304
Hort, F. J. A. 467
Horton, Robert F. 238
Houghton, Walter 148
Howard, Henry Earl of Sussex 65, 89, 92
(p. 874) Howitt, William 476
Howlett, David 37
Hudson, Henry 467–8
Hügel, Friedrich, Baron von 166, 174
Hulme, T. E. 116, 117
human nature
in Brontë (Emily) 768
in Butler 592
in Enlightenment thought 105, 431–2
and Feuerbach 139
in Fielding 441
in Hobbes 592
in Romanticism 116, 118–19, 122–3, 125
in wisdom literature 274–5
humanism
and Calvin 85
and Erasmus 62, 83, 89–90
and literature 89–91
and More 86, 89
and Reformation 65, 80, 81, 86, 87, 89 see also Wyatt, Thomas
Hume, David
and Butler 600–2
and evil 691, 692
and natural religion 108
Hunter, Alastair 248, 255, 256
Hunter, Paul J. 435
Hunter, William B. 413, 417
Huppé, Bernard F. 38
Hus, Jan 83, 84
Hutchens, S. M. 168
Hutcheson, Frances 105
Hutton, R. H. 484, 629
Huxley, Aldous, Brave New World 358
Huxley, T. H. 490, 492, 494, 640
hymnody, and literature 12, 609, 672–3, 800
iconoclasm
and Enlightenment 98, 108
and postmodernism 184, 191
idealism, transcendental 124, 138, 143
identity, national
and edifying histories 237–8
and Reformation 82, 88
and Romanticism 124
identity, personal
doubling 145
and gender 543–56, 811, 826
and the novel 109
ideology, and narrative 310, 317–19
image, empirical, in Kant 134
imagery, and wisdom literature 276, 278–80, 284
imagination
in Coleridge 128–9, 141, 469–70
and Enlightenment 111
and reason 20, 111, 141, 183, 657, 753–4
and religion 20, 21
and Romanticism 20, 119, 125, 128–9, 457
and the sublime 183
transcendental 134–5
incarnation
in Auden 529–31, 834
in Blake 460–1
and the body 777–8
in Donne 782
in Eliot (T.S.) 533–4, 539–40, 541
in Herbert 731
in Joyce 511, 513–14, 517
and kenosis 799, 836
in Lewis 664
in Victorian thought 149, 151
individualism
and Enlightenment 295, 433
and the novel 433–4, 445
and prophecy 291, 295
and redemption 771–2
and Reformation 701, 829 see also autonomy
indulgences 365, 388, 393, 713
and Luther 82–3
and Newman 636
Ingarden, Roman 309–10
Inge, William Ralph 206
inspiration
of the Bible 136, 198, 203, 205, 314
Bible as source of 54, 211, 245, 320
and Eliot (T. S.) 177
and poetry 23, 120, 203, 292, 295
interdisciplinarity 851–3
interpretation
and biblical criticism 640
and Enlightenment 103–4, 106
feminist 543
fourfold exegesis 201
Jewish 232–3
midrashic 28, 208, 549
of revelation 353–4
and translation 9–10, 61, 62 see also allegory; glosses; typology
intertextuality
and John's Gospel 331–2
in Joyce 516–17
in Old Testament 234, 236, 257
and postmodernism 185
and Synoptic Gospels 312–14, 315, 317–19
and wisdom literature 275, 277, 280, 282, 284, 286
intuition
in Kant 132–3, 183
in Schleiermacher 142
in Wordsworth 142
Ireland, and Roman Catholicism 499–501
Irenaeus of Lyons 350, 694
Irigaray, Luce 236
irony
in biblical narrative 221, 234, 331
in Hardy 491, 493–4
in Joyce 502, 509, 512 n.12
in Newman 628–9, 634–5
and Romanticism 126
(p. 875) Irwin, Michael 441 n.9
Isaacs, J. 71, 74
Jabès, Edmund 184, 188
Jackson, Gordon 244, 245, 247–8, 249, 255–6
Jackson, J. R. de J. 471
Jacobi, Friedrich Heinrich 139
Jacobson, David 257
James, Henry 175, 484
James I and VI 67, 70–1
James, William 177, 578
Jameson, Frederic 847–8, 851, 854
Jarrett-Kerr, Martin 21, 22–3
Jasper, David 188, 209, 467, 470, 852
and liturgy 676, 683, 684
Jasper, David and Detweiler, Robert 670
Jay, Elisabeth 24, 26
Jean de Meun 56
Jeffrey, Frances 476
Jemielity, Thomas 303
Jenkins, David 23
Jenson, Robert 168, 170
Jerome
and Bible as literature 199
and Vulgate 7, 55, 57, 63, 70, 199, 514
Jesuits
and Catholic Reformation 79, 87, 88, 93
and Joyce 500, 503–4, 514
Jesus
Arnold's views 643, 644, 646–50, 652
and salvation 830 see also atonement; incarnation; passion story
Jews, in John's Gospel 326–7, 328, 330, 334–5
Jewsbury, Geraldine, Zoe 152–3
Joachim of Fiori 345, 351, 352
Job (book)
and apocalyptic 343
dialogues 283, 285, 287
and experience 280, 286
as literature 275, 283–6
narrative framework 283–5, 287
and Paradise Regained 426
as poetry 205, 259, 286–7
and suffering 283–4, 287, 692, 693, 701
Jobling, David 234
John Chrysostom 199
John Climacus, St. 776–7
John of Damascus 799 n.2
John, Gospel of 323–38
in English literature 332–5
and historical criticism 324, 336–8
and Jews 326–7, 328, 330, 334–5
and Johannine community 326, 327, 329, 331, 337–8
and literary criticism 324, 325, 335–6, 337–8
literary devices 330–2
narrative elements 325–8
Prologue 326, 332
style 329
vocabulary 329–30
Johnson, Samuel 16, 203, 302, 443, 484
and Butler 593–4, 601
Jolas, Eugene 519
Jonah (book) 291, 293
Jonah and the whale 5, 28, 185–6
Jones, David 175, 523, 531–3
The Anathemata 531–2, 752
In Parenthesis 532–3
Jonson, Ben 90
Josipovici, Gabriel 19, 209, 210–11
Journal of Literature and Theology 6, 24, 188
Jowett, Benjamin 640
Joyce, James 18, 20, 173, 175, 302, 499–520
and death 722
works
‘The Dead’ 722
Dubliners 500, 502–4, 517
Exiles 504
Finnegans Wake 19, 225, 508, 513, 518–19;
and death 722;
and the Fall 507, 514;
hypertextuality 500;
incompleteness 310 and Roman Catholicism 509, 512, 515–16
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man 505, 508–10, 515, 517–18;
and hell 805–6;
and Ireland 173, 499;
and language 11–12, 504, 511;
and Roman Catholicism 499–501, 502, 504, 508–10
Stephen Hero 403, 500, 502, 504–5, 506, 509, 515, 517
Ulysses 500, 501, 502, 505, 507–19, 722
Judaism, and feminist revisioning 549
Judges (book) 227–39
and biblical criticism 233
in Christian tradition 230–2
cultural-historical approaches 236
in English literature 227, 237–9
in Jewish tradition 232–3
literary approaches to 227, 233–6
outline and structure 227–30
Julian, John 608
Julian of Norwich 57–8, 540, 698–9, 744, 817
Jung, Carl 171, 550
Jüngel, Eberhard 192
Junius, Franciscus 39, 48
justification 83, 87, 92–3
Justin Martyr 199, 350
Kallman, Chester 524, 528, 535
Kant, Immanuel
and aesthetics 139, 181–2, 183, 824
and critique 132–5, 140, 143, 145
and Enlightenment 122
influence 164
and knowledge 132–4
and morality 124, 184
and philosophy of religion 164
and reason 99, 117, 134–5
and schematism 133–4
and the sublime 127–8, 181–2, 183–4, 824
Kazantzakis, Nikos, The Last Temptation 333
(p. 876) Kearney, 436
Keats, John 120, 126
Keble, John 467, 572
and Oxford Movement 403–4, 465, 611–12, 736
works
The Christian Year 607–21;
influence 607, 610–11, 619–21;
and Jacob/Esau narrative 225;
and nature 617–18;
and theology 611, 620–1;
use value 608–10
‘Holy is the Sick Man's Room’ 736–7
‘The National Apostacy’ 614, 616
Tracts for the Times 611–12
Kelley, Maurice 414–16, 417, 419
Kelly, Dan 805–6
Kempe, Margery 57–8, 699, 817
Kennedy, Alison L.
Original Bliss 789–90
Paradise 844
kenosis 799, 836
Kermode, Frank 8, 18, 24, 188, 208, 209, 210, 693
Kesey, Ken, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest 808
Kierkegaard, Søren
and Auden 523, 525–7, 831, 834, 835
and fideism 139
influence 169
King Horn 57
King James Bible 74
and atonement 720
and Bible as literature 206, 209
and English culture 54–5, 70–2, 201–5, 578
and hymnody 673
and Psalms 246, 249
and Renaissance prose 8, 72–3
revision 74–5
Kingsley, Charles 404, 467–8, 740
and Newman 625, 630
Kitson, Peter J. 478
Klaeber, Friedrich 44, 696–7
Klein, Lillian R. 229
knowledge
as intuition and concept 132–5
and understanding 140–1
and virtue 633
Knox, John 67
Koosed, Jennifer and Linafelt, Tod 236
Kugel, James 206–7, 208, 216
Kundera, Milan 431–2
Kuschel, Karl-Josef 832
Lacan, Jacques 854
LaHaye, Tim 211
Lamb, Charles and Gifford, William 476
Lamentations (book) 253
Landy, Francis 262 n.5
Lang, Bernard 278–9
Lang, Frederick K. 505 n.8, 512 n.12, 513
Langland, William
and the church 365, 366, 367, 369, 375–6
and theology 366–9, 376 see also Piers Plowman
language
divine source 409
inclusive 10, 319, 682
and the ineffable 27–8, 418–22
liturgical 561–73
and meaning 312
of poetry and religion 611–12, 617, 647
symbolic 612–13, 618
Lanyer, Aemilia 72–3
Larkin, Philip
‘Aubade’ 721
‘Poetry of Departure’ 721
Latin
and Bible as literature 199–200
in Joyce 501, 502
in liturgy 673–5
and problems of translation 60
and the vernacular 4, 36, 38–40, 56–7, 58, 63
Latitudinarianism 101, 104–5, 441, 581, 601
law
in Arnold 646–7
in Blake 461–3
Law, William 43, 432
Lawrence, D. H.
and the Bible 7
and the body 787–9
and commitment 22–3
and death 711–12
and H.D. 548 n.4
and modernism 173
and pornography 508
works
Kangaroo 678
Lady Chatterley's Lover 787–8
The Rainbow 7, 225
St. Mawr 333–4
‘The Ship of Death’ 712
Women in Love 789
Le Doeuff, Michèle 813 n.5, 814–15, 818–19
Le Goff, Jacques 713
Lead, Jane 805
Leavis, F. R. 172, 489
Leeuw, Gerardus van der 422
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm 103, 118, 431, 693, 812
Leiden Riddle 40
Lennox, Charlotte 110
Leo XIII, Pope 165, 503
Lessing, Doris
Briefing for a Descent into Hell 808
The Memoirs of A Survivor 705
Levi, Peter 28, 244, 245, 248, 249, 255
Levinas, Emmanuel 705
Lewalski, Barbara 405
Lewis, C. S. 17, 175, 303, 655–67
and Bible as literature 206
and good and evil 658, 659–63
and heaven 720
and Prayer Book 569
and reason and imagination 657
and redemption 662, 663–7, 830
(p. 877)
and supernaturalism 656–9
and theodicy 705–6
works
The Chronicles of Narnia 663, 664–5, 705;
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe 659, 720;
The Voyage of the Dawn Treader 713;
The Last Battle 665–6
The Four Loves 661
The Great Divorce 663, 799, 807
Mere Christianity 655–6, 663, 664, 666
‘Myth Became Fact’ 664
Out of the Silent Planet 662
Perelandra 662, 663, 705–6
The Pilgrim's Regress 666–7
The Problem of Pain 655, 705
The Screwtape Letters 660–2, 663, 705, 706
‘Song’ 656–7
That Hideous Strength 662–3
Till We Have Faces 657, 664, 667
Lewis, Wyndham 175
Liber monstrorum 41–2
liberalism, theological 164, 169, 187, 469, 640, 829
liberation theology 26, 829, 837
liberty, in Blake 461–2
Lindbeck, George 187
Lindsay, David 663
literalism 24, 136
literary criticism
and Arnold 639–40, 641–7
and biblical studies 209–10, 234–5, 324, 325, 335–8
and gynocriticism 545–6
and interdisciplinarity 851–3
and Shakespeare and Marlowe 384–5, 387
and theology 27–8
The Literary Guide to the Bible (Alter and Kermode) 8, 18, 188, 208, 209–10
literature
16th-century 382–96
18th-century 431–45, 732–5, 782–5
20th-century 523–41, 737–40, 771–3
ancients vs.moderns 110–11
devotional 80, 91
early English 35–49, 55–6, 743–4
and Enlightenment 97–8, 109–11
feminist 13
and German criticism 131, 140–6
and liturgy 677–9
in liturgy 679–82
liturgy as 684–6
and modernism 164, 171–8
post-colonial 26
and postmodernism 180–6
and Reformation 64–5, 79–80, 88–92
and religion 19–20, 21, 25–6, 639–41
Literature and Theology
academic study 6, 8, 15–29
and after theory 854–5
and cultural studies 25–6
and culturality 847–51
future prospects 841–56
and globalization 844–6
in Great Britain 20–5
and interdisciplinarity 851–3
and Islam 28
and literary theory 27
and mysticism 28–9
origins 15–17
and post-secularity 842–4
and postmodernism 187–8
in United States 17–20
Littleton, Jacob 436
liturgy 669–86
and Bible 671–3
as drama 673–4
and language 561–73
in literature 677–9
as literature 684–6
modern 682–4
modern language 669–70
and poetry 20, 41, 245–6, 672, 674
and story 15
vernacular 54, 65–6, 93, 249, 675–6, 684–5 see also Book of Common Prayer; hymnody; Psalms
Livingston, James 649
Locke, John
and biblical scholarship 104
and continental Protestantism 101 n.1
and morality 105
and reason and revelation 74, 101–2, 433, 593
and resurrection 812
and Tristram Shandy 442–3
Loisy, Alfred 166
Lollards, and vernacular Bible 57, 93
Louis XIV 100
love
and God 693–4, 695, 697, 698–9, 702, 706
as redemptive 742, 743–50, 752, 754–5, 758, 763, 768
and salvation 832
Lowry, Malcolm 845
Under the Volcano 722
Lowth, Robert 104, 203–4, 247, 272, 293, 294
Loyola, Ignatius 87, 93, 514
Lubac, Henri de 166
Lumsden, Roddy 684–6
Luther, Martin 79, 82–4, 87, 88
and allegorical interpretation 231
and apocalyptic literature 342, 344, 351
and Augustinians 82, 87
(p. 878)
and biblical translation 62–3, 201
and English Reformation 82, 86
and individual salvation 829
and Indulgences 82–3
and justification 83, 92–3
and prophets 289
and real presence 84, 93
as writer 83, 84
Lux Mundi 149
Lydgate, Tertius 367
Lynch, William F. 19
Lyotard, Jean-François 180–7, 191, 824
Macaulay, Thomas 205, 584
McCabe, Herbert 685–6
MacCulloch, Diarmaid 83, 561, 563
McDannell, Colleen and Lang, Bernard 799
Macdonald, George 467, 468, 478
Mace, Daniel 74
McEwan, Ian, Enduring Love 706
McFarland, Thomas 126, 478
McGrath, Alister E. 71, 718, 720, 794, 798, 802–3
Mackenzie, Henry, The Man of Feeling 110
McNay, Lois 555
Macquarrie, John 754
Mailer, Norman, Ancient Evenings 173
Maison, Margaret 152
Maitland, Sarah 6
Marks, Herbert 289–90, 303
Marlowe, Christopher
and performance 385
and theology 382–4, 388–9, 390–1, 395–6
works
Dr Faustus 7–8, 68–9, 94, 383, 385, 389, 395–6, 701–2
The Jew of Malta 382, 385, 389
Massacre at Paris 388
Tamburlaine 390–1
Martel, Yann, Life of Pi 846
Martin of Braga, De correctio rusticorum 48
Martin, Gregory 70
Martyn, J. Louis 326, 327, 337
Martz, Louis 405
Marvell, Andrew 16, 90, 237, 272, 677
Marx, Karl
and modernism 171
and radical criticism 139
Mary Tudor 66–7, 81, 91–2
Mason, Emma 619
mass, and linguistic meaning 93
Matthew, Thomas 64
Maurice, F. D. 149, 467, 683
Mays, James 294
meaning
in prophetic literature 290–1
sacred 93, 201
and Synoptic Gospels 311–14
Mede, Joseph 345, 352
Meeks, Wayne 329
Melville, Herman, Moby Dick 275, 281, 848
Mensch, James 705
metanarratives, and postmodernism 180–1, 182–5, 192
metaphor
in John's Gospel 330, 331
in prophetic literature 298–9
in Psalms 246–7, 248
in Song of Songs 259, 261, 263, 265–7, 269–70, 780
in wisdom literature 276, 281–2, 285–6, 300
Methodism
in Eliot 486
and reason 107
Mettinger, Tryggve 277
Middle Ages
and Bible as literature 200–2
and English literature 57–60, see also Chaucer, Geoffrey; Piers Plowman
and theology 363–6
midrash
and biblical interpretation 232
and literary criticism 28, 208, 549
Milbank, John, and postmodernism 185, 187, 188, 190
Miles, Jack 691, 692
Mill, J. S. 467
millenarianism 128, 351, 355, 584, 829
Miller, Dan 454–5
Miller, Henry Knight 442
Miller, Hugh 504
Miller, J. Hillis 25, 157–8
Millet, Kate 788
Mills, John 74
Milton, John 320, 413–28
and afterlife 717
and Bible as literature 202–3
and poet as prophet 294, 417–18
and poetics of the ineffable 418–22
and Psalms 248, 253–4
and religion and politics 73
and right reason 104
and salvation 829, 830
and Song of Songs 272
and theodicy 699, 702
theological reading 413–14, 416–18, 422–6
and wisdom literature 275, 286, 421
works
Areopagitica 583
At A Solemn Music 800
De Doctrina Christiana 243, 413–16, 417, 418–19, 425, 427, 575
Defensio Prima 415
Lycidas 801
‘On the Morning of Christ's Nativity’ 424
On Time 801
Paradise Regained 203, 286, 320, 422, 426–9, 701
The Reason of Church-Government 417–18, 426
Samson Agonistes 202, 238, 286, 426, 428, 524 see also Paradise Lost
(p. 879) ministry, pastoral 726–41
modernism 3, 164–78
and eastern religions 175–6
and literature 164, 171–8
and theology 9, 164–71
monologue, dramatic 151, 158–62, 257
Montgomery, James 254, 474, 609
Moore, Marianne 175
Moore, Stephen 19
morality
and aesthetics 105, 111
and emotion 639, 642–4, 647–8, 649–50, 652
in Hardy 492–3
and the novel 110
and reason 102, 104–5, 108, 111, 242, 592
religion as 590, 595, 642, 644–8, 649–50, 652
and Romanticism 124
and the sublime 184
and voluntarism 138–9
More, Hannah 603, 783 n.9, 813
More, Henry 811–12
More, Thomas 80, 86–7, 89, 399
and humanism 86, 89, 90
works
A Confutation of Tyndale's Answer 65
Dialogue Concerning Heresies 65
The Supplication of Souls 714
Utopia 65, 87, 714
Morgan, Edwin 830, 836–7
Morris, William
‘A Death Song’ 721
‘The Earthly Paradise’ 721
News from Nowhere 721
Morrison, Toni 810
Morton, A. L. 580
Moseley, Virginia 504, 512 n.12
Mossner, E. C. 592, 600–1, 603
motivation, in biblical narrative 220–3
Moulton, Richard 206
Mozley, Thomas 610
Muilenberg, James 234
Muller, Max 176
Müntzer, Thomas 346, 351
Murdoch, Iris
Henry and Cato 756
Nuns and Soldiers 755–6
The Time of the Angels 756
The Unicorn 756
Murphy, Daniel 833, 834–5
Mystère d'Adam 48
mystery plays 4–5, 48, 61–2, 201, 385–6, 389
and good and evil 697–8, 795
and trade guilds 4, 674
mysticism
and deconstruction 187
and dissent 28–9
medieval 698–9
myth
and collective memory 5
and history 137
in Lewis 664, 706
in postmodernism 186
proleptic theory 5, 186
narrative
and ideology 310, 317–19
and meaning 311–14
New Testament 307–20, 325–8
postmodern 180–1, 185–6, 188
and prophecy 293
and redemption 766, 768, 770, 774
and truth 307–11 see also characterization; motivation
narrative criticism 310–11, 324, 338
naturalism
of Butler 592–3, 595
supernatural 119, 125, 156, 478, 806
nature
in Butler 592–4
in Eliot (George) 617
in Hardy 490–2, 495, 617
in Keble 617–18
in Lewis 657, 659
and the sublime 127
in Wordsworth 477–9, 702
New Criticism 90, 289, 405, 852
New Historicism 8, 90, 158, 161, 335, 406
New Theology 496
Newman, Barnett 183–4
Newman, John Henry 11, 467, 624–37
and Coleridge 831
and heaven and hell 807
influence 604
and Joyce 504, 514–15
and Keble 608, 610, 612
as satirist 625, 629–36
works
Apologia pro Vita Sua 608, 624–7, 630, 631, 633
Callista 624, 636
Development of Christian Doctrine 624
Difficulties Felt by Anglicans 634–5
The Dream of Gerontius 624, 637
The Grammar of Assent 21, 149, 624
The Idea of a University 504, 624, 627–9
letters 637
Loss and Gain 152, 624, 633–4, 636
Lyra Apostolica 611, 624
The Present Position of Catholics 635–6
Newsome, David 149, 471
Newton, Isaac 345, 431
and Butler 592
and Enlightenment 103, 104, 105, 108, 109
Newton, John 584, 733
Nicholas of Lyra 61
Nicolls, Charles 384
Nicolson, Adam 54
Niebuhr, Reinhold 168, 832, 834, 835
Niebuhr, Richard 168, 848
(p. 880) Niebuhr, Ursula 832, 834
Nietzsche, Friedrich 139, 484, 490, 705, 842
Zarathustra 797
Nightingale, Florence 817
nihilism 138–9
Noah story 692
in medieval literature 376
in medieval mystery plays 4–5
in modern readings 5, 185
Nonconformity, and culture 644–5
Noon, William 516
Norris, John 812
Northern Passion 795
Norton, David 201, 209
Noth, Martin 233
nouvelle théologie 166
Novak, Max 433–4
Novalis (Friedrich Leopold von Hardenberg) 115, 139, 848
novel
17th-century 762–4
18th-century 431–45, 764–5
20th-century 771–3
development 74, 109
feminization 110
Gothic 807
impact of German criticism 144
postmodern 185–6
and redemption 760–74
religious 152
sentimental 110
Noyes, Alfred 579
Nuttall, Geoffrey A. 580
Oates, Joyce Carol 795–6
O'Brien, Flann 308
Ochino, Bernardino 87, 88
Oecolampadius, John 83
Offor, George 582
Old English, poetry 36–47, 55–6, 59, 695–7, 743–4
Old Testament
and evil 691, 692–3
and intertextuality 234, 236, 257
The Oldest Systematic of German Idealism 124
O'Leary, Joseph 186–7
Ondaatje, Michael 845
Ong, Walter 56
Opfel, Olga 71
Opland, Jeff 39
Orchard, Andy 41
organicism, and Romanticism 125–6, 129
Origen 103, 199, 336, 350, 618, 627, 805 n.3
originality, and Romanticism 119–20, 125, 244
Orthodoxy, Radical 185, 188, 848
Orwell, George 829
Nineteen Eighty-Four 358
Ostriker, Alicia 544–50, 555
and the Bible 547–50
and subversion and rebellion 544–7
Otto, Rudolf 420, 428
Owen, Wilfred 225, 320
The Owl and the Nightingale 746
Oxford Movement 149–50, 603
and Butler 497, 603
and Keble 403–4, 465, 611–12, 618, 736
and Newman 611, 619, 631–2, 634–5
and Wordsworth 465, 476, 477, 590
Ozick, Cynthia, The Puttermesser Papers 11
Paine, Thomas 98, 204
Paley, Morton D. 478
Paley, William 149, 601
Palmer, Thomas 57
pantheism
and Ranters 580
and Romanticism 126, 129, 224, 477
parables 18
heaven symbolism 798
in John's Gospel 331
in Synoptic Gospels 198, 313, 316, 320
in wisdom literature 276, 284
paradise 713–14, 717–18, 797–8, 802–3
interim 714
Paradise Lost (Milton) 48, 73, 90, 413
and atonement and salvation 749–50, 830
and the Bible 16, 202–3, 225, 354
celestial dialogue 423–5
and De Doctrina Christiana 414–16, 417, 425
and divine inspiration 120
and embodiment 783
and good and evil 702–3
and heaven and hell 354, 423, 718–19, 793, 795, 796, 798, 804
and poetics of the ineffable 418–22
portrayal of Eve 822–3
and predestination 94
theological reading 416–18, 422–6, 700
and war in heaven 804
parallelism, in Hebrew poetry 203–4, 216, 217–18, 247–8, 259, 295
paraphrases, biblical 48, 74, 202, 245
parataxis 214, 260, 266
Parker, Matthew 69
Pascal, Blaise 100, 161, 184
passion story 742–58
compassion and the self 752–5
death and suffering 755–8
law and mercy 747–50
sacrifice and sacrament 750–2
victory and suffering love 743–7
pastoral ministry 726–41
in Chaucer 726, 729–30
in Herbert 730–2
and women 727
Pater, Walter 20
patriarchy 810–26
and interpretation 231–2, 235
(p. 881)
and literary canon 26
and reading of Scripture 4–5
Patrick, St, and love and evil 695
Patrides, C. A. 252, 403
Paulson, Ronald 439 n.4, 441
Peacham, Henry 292, 302
Peake's Commentary on the Bible 18
The Pearl 58–9, 354, 717, 797, 798–9
Pentateuch 214–25
and biblical criticism 640–1
cultic and legal material 215–16, 295
endings and transitions 217
influence on literature 224–5
literary features 214–24
narrative style 214–15, 218–20
poetry 216–18
Pepys, Samuel 73
Pereiro, James 612
performance
and faith 599
and Renaissance theology 385, 393–6
Perkins, David 471–2, 475
Peterson, Linda 150
Petrarch (Francesco Petrarcha) 56, 59, 65, 89
Phillips, Carl 410
philosophes 97–8, 99, 100, 108
philosophy, natural 102–3, 105
Pickstock, Catherine 185, 672
Pierce, C. S. 312
Piers Plowman 48–9, 58–9, 91, 354, 493, 674–5
and harrowing of hell 720, 795
and passion of Jesus 746, 747–8
and theology 366–9, 370–4
Piper, H. W. 478
Pirmin, Scarapsus 48
Pius X, Pope, Pascendi 165, 503–4
Pizan, Christine de 815 n.8
Platonism, and Lewis 657–8, 659
pluralism, religious 846
Poe, E. A. 807
poetics
and the imagination 128–9
and organicism 125–6
and the sublime 126–8
poetry
18th-century 732–5
19th-century 639, 736–7
20th-century 523–41, 737–40
avant-garde 185, 189–90
biblical 202
and death 710
and dramatic monologue 151, 158–62
and existentialism 19
Hebrew 104, 199, 202, 203, 205, 207, 216, 259–72
and Holocaust 28
and the ineffable 27–8, 418–22
and liturgy 20, 41, 245–6, 672, 674
lyric 259, 293
and mysticism 28–9
oral vernacular 55
pastoral tradition 726–41
in Pentateuch 216–18
and poet as priest 619–20
and postmodernism 182–3, 189–92
as redemptive 116, 118, 120, 128
and religion 650–2
Romantic 115, 124, 125–6, 292, 355–6
and silence 28
translation 38, 244
Victorian 149, 157–62
and women 73, 545–9, 620 see also Psalms; Song of Songs
Pole, Cardinal Reginald 80, 87, 88, 92
politics
and apocalyptic 351–2
and Barth 169–70
in Eliot (George) 488–9
and post-colonialism 849–50
and Reformation 81, 83
and religion 73, 92
and Romanticism 123–4
and the vernacular 56–7, 58, 61, 80
and women 816–17
Pollard, David 462
Pollock, Mary 160
Polzin, Robert 234
Pope, Alexander 74, 103, 109, 111, 122
and Eden 719
Essay on Man 106, 225, 445, 698
pornography 507–8, 790
positivism 483, 484
post-colonialism 26, 28, 318, 335, 845, 849–51
post-liberalism 187, 829
post-secularity 3, 187, 190, 842–4
post-structuralism 27, 209, 852
The Postmodern Bible 19
postmodernism 180–92
definition 180–3
French 185–6
and literary endings 24
and midrashic interpretation 28
and novels 185–6
and poetry 185, 189
and secularism 842–3
and the sublime 181–2, 183–4, 191–2
and theology 185, 186–9
Pound, Ezra 24, 173, 174–5, 176, 302, 534, 548 n.4
prayer, and poetry 541
Prayer Book see Book of Common Prayer
predestination 87, 91, 94
Price, Richard 105, 601
Prickett, Stephen 149, 209, 293, 466–7, 470–1, 610, 612
Priestley, Joseph 99, 107
Primers 565–6, 675–6
(p. 882) printing
and Enlightenment 109
and Reformation 83, 84, 85
Pritchard, R. E. 249–50
progress
and Enlightenment 98, 117, 122, 431
and Romanticism 115–16, 118, 124–5
prophetic literature 289–304
and apocalyptic literature 343, 349
and catchwords 290–1
as divine speech 301–2
and Law 295, 300
and performativity 290, 297, 304
rhetorical model 292, 295–6
Romantic model 292–6, 303
and wisdom literature 296–9, 301–2
Protestantism
and Arnold 644–5
and drama 385–8
and Enlightenment 99–101, 295
and German criticism 131–46
and modernism 167–71 see also Reformation, Protestant
Proverbs (book)
and context 279
and experience 279–80, 286
as literature 274, 277–80
Providence, divine
and 18th-century novels 431, 434, 435–7, 442, 444–5
and Arnold 642
and Defoe 433–4
and Marlowe 391
and Mede 345, 352
and Milton 418, 422
and Newton 345
and Shakespeare 394, 396, 434
Prynne, Jeremy 183
Psalms (book) 199, 243–57
influence on poetry 248–54, 727–8
literary approaches to 255–7
as poetry 212, 245–8
translations 56, 57–8, 65, 66, 72, 89, 93, 202, 243, 244–5, 409
in worship 200, 243, 245–6, 253, 672
puns, in prophetic literature 290–1
purgatory 94, 373, 394, 637, 663, 713–14
and Reformation 714–16
Puritanism
and Bible translation 70–1, 73
and control of representation 5
and drama 387 see also Bunyan, John; Milton, John
Purver, Anthony 74
Pzywara, Erich 188–9
Quakers
and Bunyan 580
and Wordsworth 472, 476
queer criticism 311, 318
Radical Orthodoxy 185, 188, 848
Radzinowicz, Mary Ann 254, 428
Raine, Kathleen 449
Ramsey, Michael 686
Ranters 577, 579–80
Ratcliff, E. C. 562
Raworth, Tom 190
reader-response criticism 310–11, 335–6
real presence
and Cranmer 66
and Luther 84, 93
realism
Christian 832–5
and Crabbe 733
natural 617–18
and Ruskin 485
and Synoptic Gospels 309–10
reason
and the Bible 103–4
and emotion 783, 784
and Enlightenment 97, 98–9, 106
and Hume 108
and imagination 20, 111, 141, 183, 657, 753–4
and Kant 99, 117, 134–5
in Lewis 657–8
and liberal Anglicanism 100, 101
and morality 102, 104–5, 108, 111, 141, 592
and revelation 74, 99, 101–2, 117, 433, 593–6
and Romanticism 117–18, 124
and sentiment 105, 110, 601–2
and understanding 140–1
redemption
in Blake 449, 452, 454–6, 457–61
in Coleridge 472
in Donne 408–9
in Eliot 534
and Enlightenment 102
in Herbert 406, 408–9
in Lewis 662, 663–7, 830
and love 742, 743–50, 752, 754–5, 758, 763, 768
in Marlowe 68–9
and the novel 760–74
in Paradise Lost 427
and prophetic literature 300
and Romanticism 116, 118–19, 128
and salvation 761–2, 763–4, 765, 774
and suffering 21, 40, 438, 445, 486–7, 720, 761–71
through death 765–71
and time 771–3
in Victorian era 148–9
Redman, Robert 566
reference, in Synoptic Gospels 307–11
Reformation, Catholic 79–82, 87
and Council of Trent 79, 88
and literature 89, 91–2
and religious orders 82, 87, 88
and spirituali 87
(p. 883) Reformation, German 82
and Calvin 84–6
and Luther 62–3, 79, 82–4
Reformation, Protestant 79–94
and Bible translations 67–8, 69–70
and English literature 64–5, 68–9, 89–92
and Enlightenment 100–1
and national identity 82
and passion story 747–8
and politics 81
and purgatory 714–15
revisionist history 81–2
and the state 366
and theology and literature 92–4 see also individualism; literature
religion
comparative 176
and culture 13, 187, 238, 641–7, 652, 834–5, 848–51
eastern 175–6
and Enlightenment 97–8, 101
falsifiability 107–8
and globalization 845–6
of humanity 144, 483–4
and literature 19–20, 21, 25–6, 639–42
as morality 590, 595, 642, 644–8, 649–50, 652
natural 99, 103, 106–8, 117, 126, 128, 460, 474, 593–5
and poetry 650–2
and politics 73, 92
privatization 13, 593
and science 102–3, 165, 592, 640, 652
and tragedy 20
in Victorian England 148–9
Religious Thought in the Nineteenth Century 13
Renan, Ernest 161, 645
Reserve, doctrine of 618–19, 620
resurrection, bodily 580, 709, 712, 713, 715, 718, 777, 780–1, 786
resurrection of Christ 761
in Blake 462, 753
in John's Gospel 327, 328, 331, 332
in Jones 532
in Langland 367, 675
in Lewis 659, 662
and Strauss 137, 155
in Synoptic Gospels 308–9, 311, 317
in Victorian literature 155–7, 159–60
in Wordsworth 474
revelation
and Eliot (T. S.) 832–3
and historical criticism 135–7
progressive 176
and reason 74, 99, 101–2, 117, 433, 592–3, 595–6
Revelation (book) 342–3, 348–50, 799
attitude to secular power 344, 349–50
date 348
influence 354–6, 797–8
interpretation and use of 350–3
readings 353–4
Revised Version, Bible 74–5
Rheims/Douai Bible 70, 74, 201
rhetoric, and the prophets 292, 295–6
rhetorical criticism 234–5
Rich, Adrienne 543, 545–6
Richard of St Victor 342, 536
Richards, I. A. 150, 283, 535, 537
Richardson, Samuel 436, 445
Clarissa 109, 110, 437–9, 764
Pamela 109, 110, 436–7, 439
Sir Charles Grandison 110
and Sterne 442 n.12
Richetti, John 441 n.9
Ricks, Christopher 189
Ricoeur, Paul 24, 484, 852
Riffaterre, Michael 277
righteousness, in Arnold 643, 645–50
Riley, Denise 190
Riley, Peter 182
Roach, Richard 805
Roberts, Michèle 544, 549, 550–6
works
The Book of Mrs Noah 5, 6
Daughters of the House 551–3
Impossible Saints 553–4
‘Restoration Work in Palazzo Te’ 555–6
Wild Girl 320, 550–1
Robertson, F. C. 467
Robinson, Henry Crabbe 473, 474
Robinson, John, Honest to God 9
Roe, Nicholas 478
Rogers, John see Matthew, Thomas
Rogers, Pat 434
Rolle, Richard 57, 201, 370, 698, 744
Roman Catholicism
and Elizabethan drama 387–8
and Joyce 12, 499–520
and Mary Tudor 66–7, 81
and modernism 165–6, 171
romance
17th-century 586
18th-century 432, 440–1
Romanticism 115–29
and apocalyptic 355–6
definition 115–16
and Enlightenment 108, 111, 116–18, 124–5
and heaven and hell 807
and history 123–5
and imagination 119, 125, 128–9, 469–70
influence 144–5, 154
and organicism 125–6, 129
and origins 118–21, 123–4, 125
and prophetic literature 292–6, 303
and Scottish Presbyterianism 12
secular theodicy 118–21, 702
and society 116, 118, 121–3, 125
and the sublime 126–8
and Victorian literature 149–50 see also Coleridge, S. T.; Wordsworth, William
(p. 884) Rosengarten, Richard A. 440 n.6, 442 nn.10, 11
Rossetti, Christina 225, 320
and The Christian Year 610, 619
Rossetti, Dante Gabriel, ‘The Woodspurge’ 617–18
Roston, Murray 293
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 116, 117, 784 n.10, 822, 823–4
Rowell, Geoffrey 806
Rowley, Sharon M. 38
Rowling, J. K. 831
Royal Society 102, 103
Royce, Josiah 177
Ruether, Rosemary Radford 781 n.8
Rushdie, Salman
Midnight's Children 225
The Satanic Verses 28, 185, 845, 848, 849
Ruskin, John 6–7, 150, 404, 485
Russell, Bertrand 693
Ruthwell Cross 40
Rüvner, Tuvia 257
Ryan, Robert M. 449, 454, 467, 477, 478
Ryken, Leland and Longman, Tremper III 209
Ryley, George 401
sacramentalism
and atonement 750–1
in Lewis 657–8, 659–60
Said, Edward 851–2, 854
Orientalism 850
The World, the Text, and the Critic 850, 851
St. Patrick's Purgatory 713
Saintsbury, George 205
salvation 829–38
corporate 829, 836, 837–8
individual 829, 836
and love 832
and redemption 761–2, 763–4, 765, 774
and transcendence 837
Sanday, William 167
Sandys, George 202
Saramago, José, The Gospel According to Jesus Christ 333
satire
and Browning 160–1
and Byron 720
and Chaucer 59–60, 368–9
and Erasmus 87
and Fielding 439
and Luther 83
and Newman 625, 629–36
and Piers Plowman 369, 370, 372
and Pope 719
and Trollope 152
Saussure, Ferdinand de 27
Scaliger, Julius Caesar 292
scepticism
and Butler 593–4, 597, 599, 603
and Hume 600–2
Scheinberg, Cynthia 157
Schelling, Friedrich von 124, 129, 138, 139, 140
schemata, transcendental 133–4
Schiller, Friedrich 116, 139, 140, 143, 292, 488
Schlegel, A. W. 115–16
Schlegel, Friedrich 115, 139
Schleiermacher, F. D. E.
and fideism 139
and German criticism 139, 142
and modernism 164, 187
Schoenfeldt, Michael C. 72
scholarship, biblical 73–4
and Enlightenment thought 103–4
and modernism 167
scholasticism 373
and modernism 165
and Reformation 80, 82–3, 87, 89
Schreiner, Olive, The Story of an African Farm 11, 152–3, 154–6
Schwab, Raymond 175
Schwartz, Regina 209, 718–19
science
and modernism 165
and narrative/postmodernism 180–1
and religion 102–3, 117, 592, 640, 652, 785
and Romanticism 125
and theology 601, 785
Scofield Reference Bible 345, 352
Scott, Nathan A. Jr. 19–20
Scott, Sir Walter 151–2
Scottish Enlightenment 98
Scottish Metrical Psalter 250–1
Scripture
patriarchal readings 4–5
and Word of God 136–7
Second World War, effect on theology 11, 21, 166, 172
secularism 842–3
and Butler 590–1, 593
and Chaucer 374–9
and Enlightenment 97, 100–1, 432, 445
and humanism 89–92
and liturgy 670
and Romanticism 118–19, 478
Sedgwick, Adam 477
Selby, T. G. 483
selfhood
in Blake 462, 752–4
in Kant 134–5, 183
in Lewis 660–2, 666–7
in Murdoch 755–6
and novels 109
and passion story 752–5
and Romanticism 121–2, 124
in Yeats 754–5
semiotics
and Augustine of Hippo 27
and Barthes 311–13
Semler, Johann 135–7, 144
sensibility 123, 133, 176, 783
and Sterne 442–3
sentiment
and reason 105, 110, 601–2
and Romanticism 116
(p. 885) Seth, Vikram, A Suitable Boy 11
Seward, William 600
sexuality
in Ancrene Wisse 780
in Christian thought 777, 778–9
in Donne 782
in Lawrence 787–9
in Wollstonecraft 784, 822
Shaffer, Eleanor 161
Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl 105, 107, 110, 111
Shairp, J. C. 620, 639
Shakespeare, William 68
and good and evil 700, 807
and humanism 90
influence of Bible and Prayer Books on 72, 91
and performance 385
and redemption 760, 830
and Reformation 80
and theology 382–4, 388–9, 391–3, 394–5, 396
and tragedy 22
works
Henry VIII 383, 389
King Lear 25, 354, 383, 492, 757, 830
The Life and Death of King John 388, 393
Measure for Measure 395, 747
Merchant of Venice 225, 334–5
A Midsummer Night's Dream 798
Othello 700
Romeo and Juliet