Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 17 September 2019

(p. 995) Subject Index

(p. 995) Subject Index

I/II/III structures 409–11, 416–17
A' chains 789–94
A' movement 61–3, 603–4, 763, 764, 777–8
a-structure see argument structure
ablauting process 847
Absolute Themes 823
Abstract/Impersonal Style Dimension 180
abstraction in linguistic studies 296
academic prose vs. conversation, corpus-driven research 172–4
Acceptability (ACC) 215
accomplishments 713–14
accusative construction and privileged syntactic argument 721
achievements 713–14
achrony 22
actants 230
action tier 599
active accomplishments 713–15
active/passive relation in Simpler Syntax 778–85
activities 713–14
actor in Role and Reference Grammar 715–17
Actor-Undergoer Hierarchy (AUH) 716–17
ad hoc concept 691–3
adaptive function of grammar 35
Addressee layer at Interpersonal Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 375–6
adjectives and Frame Elements 327–8
adpositions 57, 416
adverbial clauses and corpus-based research 168
adverbial complements, micro valency 245
adverbial conjunctions in English 399–400
adverbials in relevance theory 696–7
adverbs 58
affirmative questions 152
affixation 509, 510, 515–16
ordering 520–2
Affixes layer of Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 382
AGENCY system 818–19
agglutinating languages 520
agreement and emergentism 269–72
agreement dependency 269–72
agreement paradigms 296
agreement rule, English 872–3
ajectives, valency 238
Aktionsart, theory of 713–14
alignment
constraints 542–3
generalized 540, 541–3
harmonic 543–6
allolexy 462
alternative argument realizations 603
ambiguity 153, 623
and Data-Oriented Parsing 649
in ‘WXDY?’ construction 846
analogy and grammaticalization 404
analysis phase 112
analysis, definition of 344–5
analytic languages 520
anaphora 264–6, 307, 628–31
anaphora resolution 336
anaphoric binding 444
anaphoric pronouns 37
Anglocentric frameworks 358–9
Anglocentrism 481
annotations and semantic frames 321–2
AntecedentPath 445–6
antipassive in Simpler Syntax 785–7
antisymmetry 352–3
Antitopic Exclamative 146
antonymy and Lexical Units 335
applicative in Simpler Syntax 787–9
apriorism of frameworks 358
architecture
syntactocentric 584, 587
argument dependency 269–71
argument satisfaction 597–8
argument structure (a-structure) 155–6, 453
constructions 114–16, 128–35
and syntactic valency 516
argument-flagging patterns 353–4, 356–7
(p. 996) arguments
vs. complements 241
thematic vs. non-thematic 434
articles
definite vs. indefinite 572–4
languages with 579
in relevance theory 697–8
and uniqueness 564
Articulator see Output Component
Ascriptive Subact 389, 393
at Interpersonal Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 376–7
of Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 382
aspect in relevance theory 698–9
assemblies of symbolic structures 102
assumptions about the world and relevance theory 682
atom metaphor of valency theory 230
attested languages 355–6
attribute-value matrix (AVM) 779, 870
Auditor's Economy 613
autohyponymy 617
Autolexical Syntax 587
autonomous syntax 10–11
autonomy principle 232
auxiliaries, taxonomy of 415–16
auxiliary fronting 656–9
auxiliation 412–15
AVM (attribute-value matrix) 779, 870
avoid synonymy condition 619
axiom links 75
background frames 318
bare argument ellipsis (BAE) 764–9
bare nominals 574–5
and markedness constraints 558–67
bare output conditions 488
Basic Discontinuous Lambek Calculus (BDLC) 72–7
Basic Linguistic Theory 360–3
basic valency 243
belief, context-dependent 203
Berkeley FrameNet Project see FrameNet
best-fit 134–5
bidirectional semantic shift 215
bilingualism and Word Grammar 884
binary branching 602
binary trees and Unsupervised Data-Oriented Parsing 651–3
binding 444, 598, 603
Binding Conditions 297, 628–31
Binding Theory 263
binyan system 511
biology and minimalism 495–6, 499–501
birthday party frame 316
blocking, lexical 618–21
"bottleneck of communication" 206
brain and language 45
British National Corpus (BNC) 648, 843–4
broadening of concepts 691–3
bundles see lexical bundles
c-commanding antecedents 261, 263
c-structure 427, 429–30, 646–7
constraints 436–8
correspondence to f-structure 447–9
mappings with f-structure 449–51
c/a-delimitation 238–9
calculability test on conversational implicature 610
cancellability test on conversational implicature 610
Candidate Chains in Optimality Theory 537
Cartesian linguistics 496
Cartesian product types 81
Cartesian program 504
cartographic approach 59–65
Cartographic Project 491–2
cartography of syntactic structures 51–2, 54–65
case assignment 733
case functions 19
case inflections 296
case marking 513–14
loss of 524
case transfer (valency relation) 240
cases and Natural Semantic Metalanguage 476–8
categorial boundary 416
categorial dependency 266
categorial filling of slots in valency theory 236
categorical calculus 70
categories of grammar 16–17
categorization 91, 93
and usage-based theory 831–2
category learning 659
causation 714–15
causative 728–30
‘causative of’ relations 330
Cause Effect Action schemas 124–30, 133–4
CCM (Constituent-Context Model) 651
centrifugal languages 225
centripetal languages 225
chains and Simpler Syntax 789–94
characterizations 103–8
cheremes 740
(p. 997) child language acquisition see language acquisition
choice and language variation 161
Chomskyan paradigm 667
chunking 829–30
Church-Turing Thesis 80–1
circumfixation 510
circumstances 729–30
class 57–8
classical categories 408–9
classification in Word Grammar 872
classification tasks 831–2
clausal bundles 171–2
clausal coordination 728
clausal cosubordination 728
clausal junctures 723
clausal operators 709–12
clausal subordination 728
CLAUSE COMPLEX system 812
Clause layer of Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 381
clause structure, theory of in RRG 707–12
clause-types 31
Clitic Left Dislocation 65
closed classes 57–8
cluster concepts 596
code model of communication 685
coding 93
devices of grammar 34
and relevance theory 685–6
coercion 383, 601
cognition 729–30
as a domain 14
and language 665–7, 669–70
and relevance theory 679–81
and Word Grammar 860–1
cognitive defaults (CD) 200
cognitive domains 98
and usage-based theory 829
cognitive environment 687
cognitive frames 314–16
Cognitive Grammar (CG) 89–90, 143
and usage events 90–4
cognitive iconicity in signed language 743–4
Cognitive Linguistics (CL) 116–17
and Neural Theory of Language 111
influence on Word Grammar 858–9
cognitive principle of relevance 680–1
cognitive representation 29
cognitive topic options 475–6
coherence
of f-structures 435–6
in multi-propositional discourse 32–3
coherence links 336
cohering affixes 515
color terminology 669
and linguistic relativity 673–4
combinatorial system 594
combinatoric constructions 151
comitative options 475
Communicated Content 389, 393
at Interpersonal Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 376
communication 28
communicative intention 684–5
communicative principle of relevance 681–3, 688
comparative linguists 363–4
comparative syntax 59
Complementizer category in Lexical-Functional Grammar 430
complementizers 353
complements
vs. arguments 241
formal marking 238
vs. modifiers 108
Completeness Constraint 732, 737
completeness of f-structures 435–6
complex categories 94
and Natural Semantic Metalanguage 476–9
complex clauses 31
complex prepositions, decategorialization 416–17
complex sentences and Role and Reference Grammar 723–31
complex words 507–8, 512, 518–19, 522–3
processing 525–7
complexity 85–6
ComplexProcess schemas 119
component symbolic structures 106–8
composite symbolic structures 106–8
compositional constructional analysis 116–18
compositionality 97, 516–18
and Default Semantics 204
of meaning 202–5
compounding 510
in English 302
computation and storage of complex words 525–6
computational level and Neural Theory of Language 112
computational linguists and Lexical-Functional Grammar 455
computational system
and agreement 269–72
in emergentist theory 259–60, 261–4
(p. 998) of language 488
and language acquisition 279–81
and wh dependencies 272–4
computational tools in corpus-based research 163
Con, component of Optimality Theory 538–48
concatenation 69–74
concatenative morphology 510
conceptual adjustment 691–2
Conceptual Component
in Functional Discourse Grammar 368–71
and Grammatical Component 386–7
conceptual-intentional interface 594
conceptual meaning vs. procedural meaning 695
conceptual/procedural distinction and relevance theory 694–5
Conceptual Semantics 203
and Parallel Architecture 593–9
Conceptual Structure (CS) 595–6, 603–4
conceptualization 95–102
Conceptualizer see Conceptual Component
concessive 729–30
conditional 729–30
conditionals in relevance theory 695–6
Conditions framework 774
configurational languages 431
Configurational Property 394
layer of Representational Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 379–80
connections 253–4
in dependency grammar 224–5
and usage-based theory 834–6
conscious pragmatic inference (CPI) 200
vs. social, cultural and world knowledge defaults 201
conserving effect 840
Consistency 431
conspiracies in Optimality Theory 532
constancy (valency relation) 240
constituency 108
and dependency 253–5
Constituent-Context Model (CCM) 651
constituent structure see c-structure
constrained description, examples 351–4
constraining equation 440–1
constraint-based generation 588
constraint re-ranking 547
constraints
on attested languages 355–6
on c-structures in Lexical-Functional Grammar 436–8
on f-structures in Lexical-Functional Grammar 438–46
interface 540–1
local markedness 569–71
morpheme structure 533
and phonology 539–40
syntactic 158
construction-based composition 153
construction-based model 152, 156–7
Construction Grammar 8, 139–42, 154, 587, 591, 703–4
and c-structure 430
and cognitive grammar 90
Embodied Construction Grammar as 114
Radical 143, 660
Sign-Based 142–7
constructional analysis 116–18, 134–5
constructional blocks 124
constructional idioms 517
constructional meaning 601
constructional null instantiation 328–9
constructional schemas 102, 106
constructions 121–35
combinatoric 151
and Data-Oriented Parsing 648
in Embodied Construction Grammar 119
grammaticalization 848–50
lexical-class 151
phrasal 116
in usage-based theory 842–5, 846–7
Container schemas 117
content requirement 91
content selection 99–101
context in discourse 92
Contextual Component 394
in Functional Discourse Grammar 368–71
and Grammatical Component 387
contextual inflection 513–14, 521
contextual information 682–3
contextual restrictions 589
contextual variables and metafunctions 808
contextualism 194, 196
contextualization of utterances 691
Contrast 392
in word categories 872
contrast sets 319
control 603
functional 433
in Minimal Distance Principle 490
and Simpler Syntax 770–3
(p. 999) control relations in Embodied Construction Grammar 133–4
control structures 266
control theory 266–8
controllers in privileged syntactic argument 722–3
conventional implicature 38
conventional linguistic units 88, 90–1, 94
conversation vs. academic prose, corpus-driven research 172–4
conversational implicature
and anaphora 629
Horn's principles 612–14
Levinson's principles 614–16
neo-Gricean maxims 611–12
and pragmatic intrusion 625–7
theory of 608–10
conversion 511
Cooperative Principle 194n, 608–9
criticism 683–4
coordinate structures and agreement 271–2
coordinating compounds 510
core 707–8
and periphery 154
core coordination 725–8
core cosubordination 728
core Frame Elements 325–6
core junctures 724
core operators 709–12
core subordination 725–8
corpus
and probability 639–45
and trees 639
corpus-based approach 163–8
vs. corpus-driven research 162, 169
corpus-driven research 168–90
and lexical bundles 170–4
and lexis-grammar interface 178
corpus linguistics 159–60
vs. quantitative sociolinguistics 160–1
studies in 161–2
Correspondence Architecture 451–3
of Lexical-Functional Grammar 426–7, 455
correspondence function, c-structure to f-structure 447–9
Correspondence Theory 536
cost-benefit procedure in interpretation 688–90
“cranberry” morphs 837
cross-linguistic variation 669
and language acquisition 672–3
cross-modal priming task 275–6
cultural differences 670–1
cultural scripts 480–3
culture and relevance theory 699–700
cumulative exponence 509
cumulative metaphtonymy 748
current speech situation 29–30, 37
current text 29–30
Curry-Howard semantics 82–3
Cut rule 70–1
Danos-Regnier acyclicity 75
data sources and Formal Generative Typology 310
dative movement 156
Data-Oriented Parsing (DOP) see DOP model
Daughter-Dependency Grammar 857
deblocking, lexical 619
decategorialization 405, 407, 416–17, 419
Declarative Acts 393
Declarative Illocution in Functional Discourse Grammar 370
declarative speech acts 38, 42–3
deep structure 30–1
default inheritance 865–7, 871
default interpretations, cost of 206–7
Default Macrorole Assignment Principles 717–18
default reasoning 209
Default Semantics (DS) 194–5
and compositionality 204
and default interpretations 207–8
and intended meanings 196–7
and merger representations 197–202
overview 211
processing model 200
and properties of defaults 210
defaults, various definitions 209–10
defeasibility test on conversational implicature 610
defective words 589
defining equation 439–40
definite articles 562–3, 577
vs. indefinite articles 572–4
in relevance theory 697–8
typology 420
and uniqueness 561
definite descriptions 211–12
definite null instantiation (DNI) 329
degemination 388
degrammaticalization 403
Degrees of Intentions (DI) 212
deictic expressions 596–7
deontic modals 755
(p. 1000) deontic states 38–9
dependency and constituency 253–5
dependency distance 884–5
dependency grammar (DG) 224–9, 232–4, 857
fundamentals 248–9
relation types 250–1
dependency relations 251
dependency structure 876–7, 878–9
dependency trees 225
dependent clause types in corpus-based research 167–8
derivation 511
derivation-based generation 587
derivational affixes 352
derivational approach 156
derivational morphemes 521
Derivational Uniformity (DU) 763
description
definition of 344
of languages 345
and theory 47–9
descriptive framework 343
restricting 350–1
descriptive grammars 360
desemanticization 405, 406, 416–17, 419
Determiner category in Lexical-Functional Grammar 430
diachronicity of grammaticalization 422
diachrony
parallel with biology 40–1
in morphology 522–5
vs. synchrony 21–2
dialect studies, corpus-based 160–1
dimension scores 182–3, 185
dimensions in Multi-Dimensional analysis 180, 186–9
direct discourse 729–30
direct perception 729–30
disambiguation 691
and Data-Oriented Parsing 649
discontiguity 655–6
discontinuous Lambek calculus 71–7
Discourse Acts 386
at Interpersonal Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 374–5
discourse context 33, 92
discourse functions 433–4
discourse-organizing bundles 173–4
discourse-pragmatics in Role and Reference Grammar 706
discourse reference 564–5, 576
Discourse Representation Theory (DRT) 203, 564, 625, 720
Discourse Segment schemas 127
disjoint probability 642
dislocated objects 304
dislocation structure 308
displaced referents 41–2
dispositional necessity present (dnn) 218
division, rule of 69
doctrine of syntactically transparent composition 152
DomainPath 445–6
domains
cognitive 98
of language structure 12–16
linguistic 306–8
of relativisation 479
DOP model 636–7, 643–5, 646–7
applications 648–50
and other models 660–2
DOP-LAST 649
“dot-objects” 597
drama metaphor in valency theory 229–30
“Dream Breakfast” passage 315–16, 327
DU (Derivational Uniformity) 763
duplication problem 533
dynamic and Functional Discourse Grammar 399
E-language 859–60
edge effects 541–2
EffectorTranslationalMotion schemas 120–1, 130
Efficiency Requirement 259–63, 267, 270–2
and language acquisition 281
EJ1 grammar 119, 122, 126, 129
ellipsis 600, 602
and Simpler Syntax 764–70
Elsewhere Condition 618, 865
elusiveness 695
Embodied Construction Grammar (ECG) 112–13, 119, 143
Control relations in 133–4
and Neural Theory of Language 113–14
and schemas 117–35
emergence in usage-based theory 852–3
Emergence of the Unmarked 533
emergentism, overview 257–60
emission-verbs 151
Emonds–Pollock approach 53
emotion and linguistic relativity 676–7
(p. 1001) Emphatic operator in Functional Discourse Grammar 370
empiricism 44–5, 504
empty categories 878
empty nodes 602
enactment phase 112
encyclopedic contextual information 693
endocentric c-structures 437
endocentric compounding 510
endocentricity
in dependency grammar 250
of lexical verbs 224–5
English bias in language description 345
enrichments, inferential vs. associative 202
Episode 394
layer of Representational Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 378
episodic (declarative) memory 29–30
and displaced referents 41–2
epistemic modal forms in signed language 755
epistemic necessity 215, 218
epistemic possibility 215, 217, 218
epistemic states 36–9
ergative constructions and privileged syntactic argument 721
ergative languages 309n ergative model of participation 818–21
erosion 405, 407–8, 524
ERP study 276–7
ethnopragmatics 482
ethnosyntax 480
Eval, component of Optimality Theory 535–6
EventDescriptor schemas 122–3, 124, 127–9, 133–4
event frames 30–1
event structure relations 330
evidential modal forms in signed language 755
exclamatory constructions 155
executing networks (x-nets) 112, 120–1
executive attention 30
exemplar model and usage-based theory 833–4
Exemplar Theory 661
exemplars 843–5
existential constraint 441
exocentric category (S) 437
in Lexical-Functional Grammar 430
exocentric compounds 510
Expectation-Maximization algorithm 645
explanations 23–4
in Formal Generative Typology 308–10
explanatory adequacy 488, 592, 594
expletive arguments 268
expletive infixation 590
expletives 271
in Lexical-Functional Grammar 434
explications, Natural Semantic Metalanguage 464–73
explicatures 690–1
explicit vs. implicit meanings 194, 196
expression minimization 614
Extended Coherence Condition 444
Extended Projection Principle 306
extension 405–6
external explanations 23–4
extrathematic Frame Elements 326
extrinsic functionality 800
f-structure 427–9, 431–6, 437, 646–7
constraints 438–46
correspondence to c-structure 447–9
mappings with c-structure 449–51
facial articulations 758–9
faithfulness constraints 354, 539–40, 548, 559–61, 568, 572
familiarity, high 577
family size effect 526
felicity conditions 38
FG (Functional Grammar) 358–9
Active motion 101
Field 806–8
field typology 347–9
final voiced obstruents 537
finite verb agreement 732
“First Order Projection Condition” 302
fixed expressions 589–90
FL (language faculty) 486, 502
and minimalism 493
Fluid Construction Grammar 143
focal attention 37
Focus, function 389–90
focus structure 718–20
Foot layer of Phonological Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 385
ForceApplication schemas 120–1, 130
ForcefulMotionAction schemas 122, 129
form determination (valency relation) 240
form-function mappings 155
form-government relations 251–2
form-meaning correspondence in usage-based theory 842–5
(p. 1002) Formal Generative Typology (FGT)
and data sources 310
and domains 306–8
explanations in 308–10
vs. functionalist typology 292–3, 299
and Minimalist Program 287–8
origins 285–6
formal marking of complements 238
formal pragmatics 203
formal properties of nouns 320
formal universale 346
formalist approach 6
see also generativism
Formulator see Grammatical Component
fractional types 67–8
fragment trees 637
frame elements (FEs) 321–2
and adjectives 327–8
and nouns 328
and null instantiation 328–9
types 324–6
and verbs 328
frame relations 331–3
Frame Semantics 317–20, 878
FrameNet (FN) 320–1, 337
frame elements 324–6
and frame-to-frame relations 329–31
and grammatical constructions 338–9
“mother” frames 324
process 321–2
sample frame 322–3
frames
and antonymy 335
grammatical 176
and polysemy 333–4
and synonymy 335–6
framework-free approach, disadvantages 349–50
framework-free comparative linguistics 363
framework-free grammatical research, overview 342
frameworks
and Basic Linguistic Theory 360
definition 5
framing of verbs 147–9
free enrichment 691
free phrase order 603
free variation vs. variable rules 160
Freedom of Analysis 537
frequency
in corpus-driven analysis 177–8
and grammaticalization 406
and language acquisition 850–1
and new constructions 849
and probability theory 634
and subtrees 639, 641
and usage-based theory 830–1, 839–42
frequency effect in lexical storage 525–6
full compositionality 97
functional approaches 89
functional control 433
Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG) 15
architecture 370–1
background 371–3
and dynamic 399
and Interpersonal Level 370, 374–7
and Morphosyntactic Level 370, 381–2
outline 368–9
and Phonological Level 370–1, 384–5
and Representational Level 370, 377–80
functional elements vs. lexical elements 57–8
functional explanations 355
functional frameworks, problems 358–9
Functional Generative Description 877
Functional Grammar (FG) 358–9
functional heads 53–4
functional language variation 161
functional sentence perspective 800
functional structure see f-structure
functional uncertainty 444
functionalism 800–1
functionalist approach 6
functionalist typology vs. Formal Generative Typology 292–3, 299
functions in Conceptual Semantics 598–9
fusion 520
futurative progressive (fp) 216–17
future, referring to 214–18
future markers in signed language 752–3
GAPP (Golden Age of Pure Pragmatics) 623
GB (Government-Binding) theory 147, 600, 774
Geach rule 69
geminate simplification 532–3
gemination 551
Gen, component of Optimality Theory 536–8
gender and linguistic relativity 675
general markedness 571
generalization relations 330
Generalized Alignment 540, 541–3
Generalized Conversational Implicature (GCI) 205, 609, 625
GCI/PCI dichotomy 609–10, 624
Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG) 143, 436, 703
(p. 1003) generative capacity of language 584–5
generative grammar 298, 358
and cognitive grammar 89
and Lexical-Functional Grammar 426
generative linguistics 295–6, 362
Generative Semantics 600
generativism 6–7
generic plurals 575–8
Geschwind model 45
gesture and signed language interface 750–60
glossing 509, 528
Glue Semantics 452–3
Golden Age of Pure Pragmatics (GAPP) 623
governable grammatical functions 431
Government-Binding theory 147, 600, 774
government in dependency grammar 250
governor, internal 252–3
GPSG (Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar) 143, 436, 703
gradience and usage-based theory 837–8
gradient evaluation of edge alignment 542–3
gradient linguistic phenomena 635–6
grammar 33
adaptive function 35
vs. emergentism 282–3
evolution 46–7
and lexicon/semantics 102
preconceptions about writing 358–62
and relevance theory 694–9
structure 34
Grammatical Component 373
and Conceptual Component 386–7
and Contextual Component 387
in Functional Discourse Grammar 368–71
and Output Component 388
grammatical constructions 139–42
and FrameNet 338–9
grammatical description and Natural Semantic Metalanguage 461
grammatical function tier (GF-tier) 603–4
grammatical functions (GFs) 434, 774–7, 782
GF/syntax correspondence rules 778
in Lexical-Functional Grammar 431–3
grammatical models, projectionist vs. constructionist 234
grammatical patterns 175–7, 291
grammatical polysemy 480
grammatical relations and Role and Reference Grammar 720–3
grammatical units vs. lexical units 106
grammaticality judgments and Data-Oriented Parsing 648–9
grammaticalization 401–3, 414–15, 421–3, 523
and adpositions 416
of constructions 848–50
and gradience 838
and language change 403–4
and lexicalization 403
parameters 405
and signed language 749–50
and usage-based theory 841, 853–4
Grice's circle 627
habitual present 218
hanging topicalization 794
hapax 527
Harmonic Alignment 543–6
head
in compound words 510
functional 53–4
Head-Driven Phrase-Structure Grammar (HPSG) 114, 141, 762, 877
and Lexical-Functional Grammar 427, 454
head-marking 514
languages 710–11
Head Movement 61, 437
Constraint 64
hierarchy in cartographic approach 64–5
high-token frequency 839–41
history of languages 311
homonyms 862–3
Horn-scales 611–13
hypersequent calculus 73
hyponymic taxonomy 617
Hypotactic Apposition 150
I-implicature 611
and lexical narrowing 617
I-language 859–60, 882–4
I-principle 615, 620
i-structure see information structure
iconicity and signed language 743–5
ideational metafunction 806, 811–14
identity of reference binding 598
identity of sense binding 598
idiomatic constructions 153–4, 591–2
idiomaticity 589–90, 834–6
vs. lexical bundles 170–1
and valency theory 241–2
idiosyncrasies 156–7
ill-formedness 584
illocutionary force of wh-questions 153
(p. 1004) Illocutions layer at Interpersonal Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 375
image schemas 119
immediate scope 99–100
immediate speech situations 41, 42
imperative mood 697
imperatives 328–9
implicated conclusions 690
implicated premises 690
implicature 195–6, 600
Generalized Conversational Implicature (GCI) 205, 609–10, 624–5
locality of 205–7
post-propositional 205
Q-implicatures 623–4
and secondary meaning 199
implicit vs. explicit meanings 194, 196
impossible languages and Unsupervised Data-Oriented Parsing 660
‘inchoative of’ relations 330
incorporated nouns 308
Incredulity Response construction 154
indefinite articles
vs. definite articles 572–4
typology 418–20
indefinite null instantiation (INI) 329
indetermination test on conversational implicature 610
index of morphological complexity 520
indirect discourse 729–30
Indirect Licensing 602, 767
indirect perception 729–30
individual language 860
Individuals 394
layer of Representational Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 380
inferential model 686
infinitives, English 848
infixation 510
inflection 508, 512–14, 521
category in Lexical-Functional Grammar 430
outside derivation 352
inflectional classes 514
inflectional morphology 521, 873–4
Inflectional Phrase (IP), splitting 52
information structure (i-structure) 452–3, 586
representation and RRG 718–20
tier 599
informative intention 684–5
informative strengthening 615
inherent inflection 512–14, 521
inheritance 865–7
hierarchies 141, 146
networks 154–5
relations 330
INI (indefinite null instantiation) 329
initial ranking in language acquistion 549–50
innate assumptions and Universal Grammar 290n
innateness 44–5
and usage-based theory 829
input and output
constraints 559
in Optimality Theory 548–9
input structure, ungrammatical 156–7
inside-out functional application 445
inside-out functional uncertainty 445
instantiation and Systemic Functional Linguistics 802–5
intention in communication 684–5
intentionality 212–14, 683
inter-organism perspective 800
interclausal relations hierarchy 728–31
interface constraints 540–1
Interface Uniformity (IU) 763
interlinear morphemic glossing see glossing
internal categories 831–2
internal explanations 23–4
internal governors 252–3
internal merge 491
Interpersonal Level 393–4, 397–9
in Functional Discourse Grammar 370, 374–7
of linguistic organization 374–7
and Morphosyntactic Level 389–90
and Phonological Level 390
and Representational Level 389, 399–400
interpersonal metafunction 806, 811–14
Interpersonal Subacts 394–5
Interpersonal Themes 822
interpretation
and Data-Oriented Parsing 649
selecting 688–90
interrogative speech acts 39
interrogatives in signed language 759
intonation in signed language 758
Intonational Phrase layer of Phonological Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 384–5
intra-organism perspective 799–800
intrinsic functionality 800
Involved vs. Informational Production Dimension 180–4, 187–8
IP (Inflectional Phrase), splitting 52
irregular verbs 527, 865–6
“isa” relations 864
Island Conditions 297–9
(p. 1005) isolating languages 520
Item-Based Learning 661
IU (Interface Uniformity) 763
junction in dependency grammar 227
junctures, levels of in Role and Reference Grammar 723–4
jussive 729–30
Just Because construction 150
Kleene operators 436, 443
knowledge of language 287, 830–1
and Lexical-Functional Grammar 426
label substitution 637
lambda calculus 80–85
Lambek calculus 70–1, 74–85
discontinuous 71–7
landmark (lm) 100–1
landmarks 104–7, n9> 877–8
language
change and grammaticalization 403–4
and cognition 663–4, 665–7, 669–70
contact 523–4
correlations 294
description 345
preconceptions 358–62
evolution 24–5, 40–1, 46–7
individual 860
and non-linguistic cognition 671
processing and neurology 667–8
as resource vs. language as rule 798–9
structure, three-level analysis 868–70, 882
units and usage-based theory 836–7
universale 43–4
variation
and choice 161
and culture 670–1
language acquisition 33, 44–5, 296–7, 828–9
and auxiliary fronting 656–9
and Conceptual Semantics 593
concrete to abstract development 656
and constructions/exemplars 845
and emergentism 279–81
and Functional Discourse Grammar 400
and Frame Semantics 317
initial ranking 549–50
and linguistic relativity 672–3
and probabilistic linguistics 650–1
and Unsupervised Data-Oriented Parsing 651–5
and Universal Grammar 291–2, 486
and usage-based theory 850–2
and Word Grammar 880–1
see also ontogenesis
language faculty (FL) 486, 502
and minimalism 493
“language of thought” 594–5
Last Resort principle 490, 492
layered structure in Role and Reference Grammar 710–12
Least Effort principle 490, 493
Left Branch Condition 444
Leipzig glossing rules 528
lemma and corpus-driven research 168
levels of linguistic organization in Functional Discourse Grammar 373–85
levels of meaning 624–5
lexemes 509
lexical blocking 618–21
lexical bundles
and corpus-driven research 170–4
and frequency 177
lexical-class constructions 151
lexical deblocking 619
lexical elements vs. functional elements 57–8
Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) 15, 148, 587, 703
applications 454–5
background 425–7
categories 430
grammatical functions in 431–3
LFG-DOP model 647
representations 646–7
Lexical Integrity 429–30, 591
Lexical Mapping Theory (LMT) 429, 431
lexical meaning 96–7
lexical morphology 873–4
lexical narrowing 617–18
Lexical Properties layer of Representational Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 380
lexical sharing 452
lexical units (LUs) 317–18, 321–2, 335–6
for Compliance frame 322–3
and core / perpipheral Frame Elements 325–6
vs. grammatical units 106
meaning distinctions 324
polysemy 333–4
lexical universals and semantic primes 463
lexicalism 518
lexicalization 525
and grammaticalization 403
lexicogrammar 809
in Systemic Functional Linguistics 806
(p. 1006) lexicon 526
definition 512
in emergentist theory 259
role in grammar 13
and Parallel Architecture 588–92
in Word Grammar 867–8
lexocentric c-structures 437
Linear Correspondence Axiom 60, 491
linear order 19–20, 383, 602
linguistic domains 306–8
Linguistic Expression layer of Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 381
linguistic relativity
and emotion 676–7
and gender 675
history 664–5
and language acquisition 672–3
and linguistic description 666–7
and motion events 675
and neurology 667–8
and number 675–6
opposition to 668
overview 663–4
and personality 676–7
questions about 669–70
and spatial reference 674
and temporal expression 674–5
linguistic research, questions 286–8
linking rules 516
literal-nonliteral distinction 220–1
LMT (Lexical Mapping theory) 429, 431
LOB (Lancaster-Oslo-Bergen) Corpus 179
local markedness 569–71
locality of implicatures 205–7
logical structure (LS) 713
and macroroles 715–18
logistic regression models 635–6
logogenesis and Systemic Functional Linguistics 805–6
London-Lund Corpus 179
long-distance anaphora 264–6
long-distance reflexives 630–1
m-literality 220–1
M-principle 615–16, 620, 630
m-structure (morphological structure) 453
M-transitivity in Role and Reference Grammar 717–18
macrorole arguments and privileged syntactic argument 721–2
macrorole tier 599
macroroles, semantic 715–18
mainstream generative grammar (MGG) 761–3, 770–1
manipulative speech acts 39, 42
manner maxim 609
manner of movement, Italian Sign Language 759
mapping procedures 157, 447
mappings between c-structure and f-structure 449–51
markedness constraints 354, 539–40, 548, 557–61, 565
markedness patterns 569–70
maximal scope 99–100
maximalist grammar 660
maximality, high 577
maxims of conversation 608–9
MD (Multi-Dimensional Analysis) 179–90
MDP (Minimal Distance Principle) 490, 770–1
meaning
conceptual vs. procedural 695
constructional 601
theory of 194, 608
utterance-type 624–5
meaning blocks 121–2
Meaning-Text Model 877
memory
decay 833
episodic 29–30, 41–2
of linguistic material 836–7
semantic 29, 37
working 30, 37, 259, 273–4
memory stack 273–4
mental lexicon 29
mental models 36–9
mental representation 27, 29–30, 830
mentalistic formulation 593
Merge 60, 490–1, 592
merger representations () 197–202, 208
and compositionality 203–5
for future 216–18
and referential intention 212–14
metafunctional analysis, French 812–25
metafunctional dimension and Systemic Functional Linguistics 806–8
metafunctional diversification 806, 810–11
metalanguage in language description 345
metaphors
analyzing 692–3
(p. 1007) and conceptualization 95, 97, 101
as explicit content 195
and literality 220
modes of expression 818
and signed language 744–7, 749
transfer 406
metaphtonymy, cumulative 748
metavariables 447–9
metonymy and signed language 744, 747–9
metrical structure 537–8
in music 586
MGG (mainstream generative grammar) 761–3, 770–1
micro valency 244–5
“Middle Way” 300, 302
and Verb-Object Constraint 304–5
Minimal Distance Principle (MDP) 490, 770–1
Minimalist Program (MP) 59–60, 488–94, 587, 600, 790
applications 502–3
and biolinguistics 501
and biology 499–501
and Formal Generative Typology 287–8
and Galileo 498
origin 494–7
minimality constraint 440
mirror-neurons 46
Mirror Principle 53, 56, 491
modality
deontic 755
epistemic 215
MODALITY system 812
in past and present 217–18
in relevance theory 696
in signed language 750
Mode 806–8
modification 597–8
modifiers vs. complements 108
modifying subevents 728–30
modularity 586
pragmatic 688
molecule, semantic 467–9
monosystemic approach 804
Montague rule 69
mood in relevance theory 697
MOOD system 812
French 814–18
morpheme, definition 508
morpheme realization constraints 540
Morpheme Structure Constraints 533
morphological structure (m-structure) 453
morphology
classification 519–20
definition 507–8
and diachrony 522–5
as a domain 12–13
and gradience 837–8
idioms 590
and phonology interface 515–16
process of analysis 509
productivity 527–8
research 528–9
and semantics interface 516–18
and syntax interface 306–7, 450–1, 518–19
and Word Grammar 869, 873–6
morphosyntactic construction types 474
Morphosyntactic Encoder 396
Morphosyntactic Level 395–7
in Functional Discourse Grammar 370, 381–2
and Interpersonal Level 389–90
of linguistic organization 380–3
and Phonological Level 391–2
and Representational Level 390–1
morpho-syntax vs. morpho-phonology 874–5
“mother” frame 324
motion, Active 101
motion events and linguistic relativity 675
motion schemas 119
motor control actions 118
MotorControl schemas 120–1
motor systems 46
Move layer at Interpersonal Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 374
movement 157
head 61, 64, 437
and Simpler Syntax 777–94
movement-hold model 740–1
Multi-Dimensional (MD) analysis 179–90
multi-propositional discourse 32–3, 43
multiple inheritance 146, 865–6
multitude factor 571
music and parallel architecture 586
mutual parallel adjustment 690, 693
mutuality and relevance theory 687
Narrative Discourse
features 188
vs. Non-narrative Discourse Dimension 180, 184–5
narrow focus 719
narrowing of concepts 692–3
native strata in affixation 522
natural communication 48–9
natural deduction rules 77–85
(p. 1008) Natural Language Theory and Technology group 426
natural languages 62
compositionality 204
Natural Phonology 550
natural selection 499–500
Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM)
explications 464–73
overview 459–61
prototype-theoretic point of view 476–9
nature and minimalism 498
negation and Lexical Units 335
negative equation 441
negative existential constraint 441–2
negative polar questions 152
neo-Darwinians 497
neo-Gricean pragmatics 483
and anaphora 629
maxims 611–12
and semantics 623–7
and syntax 627–31
networks
language as 861–4
and usage-based theory 834–6
Neural Theory of Language (NTL) 111–14
Neurocognitive Linguistics 862
neurology and language processing 45, 667–8
“nexus” relations in Role and Reference Grammar 724–7
node-creation 880–1
nodes 862
empty 602
type and token 881
Nominal Extraposition 149–50
Nominal Mapping Parameter 579
nominals, bare 574–5
and markedness constraints 558–67
non-concatenative morphology 510–11
nonconfigurational languages 431
non-conventionality test on conversational implicature 610
non-detachability test on conversational implicature 610
non-linguistic cognition and language 671
non-relational concepts 864
nonverbal stimuli 685
nouns
characterizations of 103–6
and Frame Elements 328
formal and telic properties 320
incorporated 308
as open classes 58
NTL (Neural Theory of Language) 111–14
nuclear coordination 728
nuclear cosubordination 728
nuclear junctures 723–4
nuclear operators 709–12
nuclear subordination 728
Nuclear Syllables 385
nucleus 707–8
in dependency grammar 227
null elements, treatment of 16
null instantiation 151, 328–9, 336
null pronouns 303
number and linguistic relativity 675–6
numerals and indefinite articles 418–20, 573
object correspondence rule 779
object dislocation 304
object functions 395–6, 433
obligation 771
obligation verbs and signed language 755
obligatorification 404n
obligatoriness (valency relation) 240
obligatory control verbs 772
ontogenesis 40
and Systemic Functional Linguistics 806
ontological minimalism 494
ontology 596–7
open classes 57–8
operator-trace relations 603
operators in Role and Reference Grammar 708–12
Optimality Theory (OT) 353–4
components 534
and Con 538–48
conspiracies in 532
and Eval 535–6
and Gen 536–8
OT-LFG 453
rationale 556
typology 547–8
and variation 550–2
ostensive communication 685
other-directed idea justification 188
output and input
constraints 559
in Optimality Theory 548–9
Output Component 383, 385
in Functional Discourse Grammar 368–71
and Grammatical Component 388
overlap model 409–11, 419
(p. 1009) Overt Expression of Argumentation Dimension 180
p-literality 220–1
p-structure (phonological structure) 452–3, 603
panchrony 22
Parallel Architecture (PA) 604–5, 762
And Conceptual Semantics 593–9
overview 584–8
and structure of lexicon 588–92
Parallel Grammar project (ParGram) 453–4
Parallel Projection Architecture see Correspondence Architecture
Parallel Semantics project (ParSem) 454
parametric syntax 493
paraphrase
and Lexical Units 335–6
in Natural Semantic Metalanguage 461
parse trees and probability 641–5
Parsimony of Levels (POL) Principle 211
partial blocking 620
partial compositionality 97
Partially Ordered Grammars 550–2
participant profiling 130–1
particularized conversational implicatures (PCIs) 609
passives 19
constructions 132–3
English, in Role and Reference Grammar 735
and Lexical-Functional Grammar 429
in Simpler Syntax 780–5
past of narration (pn) 218
past tense
constructions 121
English 847–8
and epistemic modality 218
patient options 475
pattern grammar
reference books 175–7
studies and frequency 177–8
patterns in languages 291
PCFG (Probabilistic Context-Free Grammar) 635, 637
peripheral Frame Elements 325–6
periphery 707–8
personality and linguistic relativity 676–7
perspective (valency relation) 240
‘perspective on’ relations 330
perspective-shifting 43
phase 728–30
phonetic erosion 407–8
phonetic exemplars 833
phonological connections 834–5
Phonological Formation Rules 585
Phonological Level 397–9
in Functional Discourse Grammar 370–1, 384–5
and Interpersonal Levels 390
of linguistic organization 383–5
and Morphosyntactic Levels 391–2
and Representational Levels 391
Phonological Phrase layer of Phonological Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 385
phonological structure (p-structure) 452–3, 603
phonological variables in quantitative sociolinguistics 161
Phonological Word layer of Phonological Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 385
phonology
equivalent in signed language 740–1
and morphology interface 515–16
Natural Semantic 550, 741
in Word Grammar 868
phrasal bundles 172
phrasal constructions 116
Phrase layer of Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 382
phrase structure rules 31, 437
phrase-structure trees 639–45
and probabilistic model 637–9
phrases in Formal Generative Typology 309
phylogenesis and Systemic Functional Linguistics 805–6
physics and minimalism 495
pidgin communication 35
pivots in privileged syntactic argument 722–3
plain pronouns and emergentism 263–4
Plato's Problem 494
plural marking
English 579
languages with 569–70
plural morphology 559–61, 562–7
strong vs. weak 566–7
typology 567–8
“point of view” 630
polar types 74–7
POLARITY system 812
polysemy
grammatical 480
patterns of 462–3
polysynthesis 520
polysynthetic languages 391
polysystemic approach 804
portmanteau morphemes 509
position (valency relation) 240
(p. 1010) post-propositional implicature 205
Poverty of the Stimulus 486, 656–7
pragmatic compositionality 202–3
pragmatic intrusion 625–7
pragmatic minimalism 494
pragmatic module 688
pragmatic presupposition 687
pragmatic system 264
pragmatically-influenced privileged syntactic arguments 722
pragmatics
as a domain 13–14
and semantics interface 687–8
and syntax interface 307–8
Prague School 800–2
precedes relations 330
predicate-argument relations 431
predicate focus 718–19
predicate functions 434
predicate primes 474–6
prefabs 835–6
and Data-Oriented Parsing 648
preference rule of word meanings 595–6
prefixation 510
pre-grammatical pidgin 35
prejudice, grammatical framework as 342
preposition assignment 733
prepositions
as complex words 523
decategorialization 416–17
in valency theory 231
present tense and epistemic modality 218
presumptive meaning 205–6, 624–5
presupposition accommodation 565–6
primary grammar-coding devices 34
Primary Intention (PI) 212
primary meaning (pm) 196–7, 199–200, 220
primitive logical relations 864
primitive verbs 58
Principle A 261
Principle B 263
principle of Lexical Integrity 518–19
Principle of Relevance 696
principle of viability 246
principles
cognitive 680–1
Mirror 53, 56, 491
sign 144
Principles and Parameters (P&P) model 157, 486–8
and Lexical-Functional Grammar 427, 454
privileged syntactic argument (PSA) 720–3
Probabilistic Context-Free Grammar (PCFG) 635, 637
probabilistic linguistics
and language acquisition 650–5
overview 634
probabilistic model and phrase-structure trees 637–9
probability and subtrees 641–5
probability models, applications 646
procedural approach 156
procedural knowledge 829
procedural meaning vs. conceptual meaning 695
PROCESS TYPE system 818–19
processing model of Default Semantics 200
“pro-drop” languages 435, 442
production grammar, dependency grammar as 233
productive causatives 620
productive units and Data-Oriented Parsing 649–50
productivity
morphological 527–8
and type frequency 841
profile determinants 107
profiledParticipant roles 123–4, 127. 134
profiling 99–101, 103–8, 109
progressive and relevance theory 699
projectionist theory, dependency grammar as 232
pronoun reference 261
pronouns
and language acquisition 281
plain and emergentism 263–4
proof structures 75–9, 84–6
properties of human inferential system (IS) 198
Property 394
proposition formation (valency relation) 240
propositional attitude 729–30
Propositional Content 394
layer of Representational Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 377–8
propositional information 29–30
propositional structure 586
propositional tier of Conceptual Structure 599
propositionalism 208n propositions 31–2
prosodic compounds 515
prosody
in signed language 758
in speech management 92
protolanguage 604
(p. 1011) proto-recipient in Role and Reference Grammar 717
prototype effects 865
prototypical motivation 472
prototypical scenarios and cases 477–8
PSA (privileged syntactic argument) 720–3
psych-action 729–30
psycholinguistics universale vs. ‘thinking differently’ 666
psychological reality 859
purposive 729–30
push-down storage 273, 277
Q-implicatures 623–4
Q-principle
and binding conditions 630
(Horn) 612–13
(Levinson) 614–16
and lexical narrowing 617
quality maxim 608
quantitative sociolinguistics vs. corpus linguistics 160–1
quantity maxim 608
neo-Gricean maxims 611
R-principle 612–14
Radical Construction Grammar 143, 660
radical formal and functionalist positions 371–2
radical semantic minimalism 208n
raising and Simpler Syntax 773–7
rankshift 814
rationalism 44–5
rationalist morphology 496–7
realization and Systemic Functional Linguistics 802
reanalysis and grammaticalization 403–4
reason 729–30
reception grammar, dependency grammar as 233
reciprocal vs. reflexive concepts 409–14
recursion 667
reducing effect 839–40
redundancy in lexicon 590
reduplication 510
morphological 590–1
REF-REC category 409–11
reference assignment 691, 698
reference books, pattern grammar 175–7
reference phrase in Role and Reference Grammar 710
reference situation 466
referential bundles 173–4
referential coherence 36–7
referential dependency 261–3, 264–9, 275–7
referential faithfulness constraints 580
referential intention 212–14
Referential Subact 393
layer of Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 382
referential tier 599
reflexive pronouns 261–3, 264–6, 275–6, 278, 307
and language acquisition 281
long-distance 630–1
vs. reciprocal concepts 409–14
transitivity 475
regent 9, 251–2
in dependency grammar 225
simple and complex 227
register in corpus-based research 166–8
register differences 162
register variation and corpus linguistics 179–90
regression, logistic 635–6
regular expressions 436, 443
regular future (rf) 216
reinforceability test on conversational implicature 610
relation maxim 609
relational concepts 864
Relational Grammar (RG) 762
and Lexical-Functional Grammar 454
relational networks and f-structure 428
relative clauses 479
and Natural Semantic Metalanguage 478–9
relativity see linguistic relativity
Relativized Minimality 61
Relevance Hierarchy for affix ordering 521
relevance theory (RT) 625
and coding 685–6
and cognition 679–81
and communication 681–3
and culture 699–700
and empirical evidence 700
and grammar 694–9
and mutuality 687
and social aspects 699–700
repetition 829–30
representation, mental 27, 29–30, 830
Representational Level 394–5, 396
in Functional Discourse Grammar 370, 377–80
and Interpersonal Levels 389, 399–400
of linguistic organization 377–80
and Morphosyntactic Levels 390–1
and Phonological Levels 391
(p. 1012) representational modularity 586
restrictive relative clause 37
reversed markedness of articles 573
rich memory representations 833
Richness of the Base 549
Role and Reference Grammar (RRG) 15, 358, 359. 372. 428–9n, 587
and complex sentences 723–31
and grammatical relations 720–3
and information structure representation 718–20
organization 706, 738
overview 704–5
and semantic representation 713–18
and syntactic representation 707–12
root 509
rule of referral 876
S-transitivity in Role and Reference Grammar 717
SAI (subject-auxiliary inversion) 155
SALSA Project 337
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis 664
SBCG (Sign-Based Construction Grammar) 142–7, 156
scene perspective 116
schemas
and Embodied Construction Grammar 117–35
morphological 507–8
schematicity and type frequency 842
schematization 91
scope in content selection 99–101
secondary meaning (sm) 199
segmental content 91
selection of content 99–101
selectional restrictions on semantic arguments 589
semantic connections 834–5
semantic contextual restrictions 589
semantic equivalence 95
semantic form 434
Semantic Formation Rules 585
semantic interpretation 649
semantic memory 29, 37
semantic minimalism 494
semantic minimization 614
semantic molecules 467–9
semantic opacity 153
semantic phonology in signed language 741
semantic poles 102
semantic primes 462–4, 465–6, 484
grammar 473–6
semantic prototypes and cases 477–8
semantic representation 114–15
and Role and Reference Grammar 713–18
Semantic Specification see semspec
semantic templates 469–73
semantics
Conceptual 203, 593–9
as a domain 13–14
and morphology interface 516–18
and neo-Gricean pragmatics 623–7
and pragmatics interface 687–8
and syntax interface 601–4, 731–7
truth-conditional 203–4
in Word Grammar 878–80
semelfactives 713–14
semspec (Semantic Specification) 112, 128, 129–34
sentence focus 718–19
sentence structure 585
in Tagalog 346–7
sentential coordination 728
sentential junctures 723
Sentential Subject Constraint 443–4
sentential subordination 728
sequent calculus 70–85
SFG (Systemic Functional Grammar) 15
shared cognitive environment 687
shared knowledge 199
shortcuts in interpretation 206
Sign-Based Construction Grammar (SBCG) 142–7, 156
sign principle 144
signed language
and gesture interface 750–60
and metaphor 744–7, 749
and metonymy 744, 747–9
phonology 740–1
and prosody and intonation 758
typology 741–2
simple aspect verbs 165–6
simple clauses 31
Simpler Syntax Hypothesis (SSH) 372, 601–4, 761, 795
architecture 762–3
and chains 789–94
(p. 1013) and control 770–3
and ellipsis 764–70
and movement 777–94
and raising 773–7
and uniformity 763
situation of discourse (SD) 198
Situation-dependent vs. Elaborated Reference Dimension 180
slips of the tongue 526–7
sluicing 766–9
social aspects and relevance theory 699–700
social, cultural, and world-knowledge defaults (SCWD) 200
vs. conscious pragmatic inference 201
society and culture (SC) 198
sociolinguistics 22–3
and grammaticalization 422
and Word Grammar 859, 881–2
soft universale 533
sonority in syllabification 543–6
SourcePathGoal schemas 117
spatial reference and linguistic relativity 674
Spatial Structure 594–6
spatio-temporally displaced referents 41–2
Speaker layer at Interpersonal Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 375–6
Speaker's Economy 613
specificity
in content selection 99
of linguistic principles 502
speech acts 38–9, 42–3
Square of Opposition 621–2
stance bundles 172–4
stance-focused vs. context-focused discourse 189
State-of-Affairs 393, 394–5, 400
layer of Representational Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 378–9
states 713–14
stative verbs 698–9
stem alternation 511
stem form of lexemes 509
stem selection 514
Stems layer of Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 382
stimuli, selecting 679–80
Stochastic Optimality Theory 552
storage and computation of complex words 525–6
stratification and Systemic Functional Linguistics 802–5
Stratificational Grammar 587, 858
stress
and affixation 516
and edge effects 541–2
and sentence focus 719–20
strong minimalist thesis 488, 489, 492–3, 494, 502
strong plural morphology 573
strong vs. weak hypothesis 664–5
structural description 93
structural-functional theories 358, 372
structural rules 77
structural syntax see dependency grammar (DG)
structural valency realization 244–6
Structural Uniformity (SU) 763
structuralism 28
structure-based modularity 586
Structure Preservation 854
Subact layer at Interpersonal Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 376–7
sub-categorization
in dependency grammar 250
features on syntactic arguments 589
subframe relations 330, 331–2
subject-auxiliary inversion (SAI) 155
subject correspondence rule 778
Subject functions 395–6
subjunctive mood 697
subordinating compounds 510
substantive universale 346
substitutability condition 464
subtrees 637–8, 639–45
and auxiliary fronting 658–9
and Data-Oriented Parsing 650
and Unsupervised Data-Oriented Parsing 652–5
suffixation 510
super-lexicon 868–9
syllabification 515, 543–6
Syllables layer of Phonological Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 385
symbolic structures 104–8
symbolic units 862–3
syncategorematic word class 872
synchrony vs. diachrony 21–2
syncretism 442
synonyms 862–3
and Lexical Units 335–6
synsemantic coding (valency relation) 240
syntactic ambiguity and Data-Oriented Parsing 649
syntactic computations 61
syntactic constraints 158
syntactic contextual restrictions 589
(p. 1014) Syntactic Formation Rules 585
syntactic licensing 602
syntactic priming and Data-Oriented Parsing 649
syntactic representation and Role and Reference Grammar 707–12
syntactic rules 152
Syntactic Structure 275, 603
syntactic templates 712
syntactic valency and argument structure 516
syntactically transparent composition 152
syntactocentric architecture 584, 587
syntactocentric grammar 586
syntax
as a domain 12
and morphology interface 306–7, 450–1, 518–19
and neo-Gricean pragmatics 627–31
and pragmatics 307–8
and semantics interface 601–4, 731–7
and Word Grammar 869, 876–8
synthesis 520
synthetic forms 434–5
systematic relations 330
systemic dimension and Systemic Functional Linguistics 808–10
Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) 15
Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) 372
and metafunctional dimension 806–8
overview 797–8
and stratification and instantiation 802–5
and systemic dimension 808–10
Systemic Grammar 857–8
t-nonliterality 220
TAG (Tree-Adjoining Grammar) 661
tag questions 152
taxonomic organization of constructions 141, 146
taxonomic units 408–9
taxonomy
of auxiliaries 415–16
of concepts in Conceptual Semantics 596
teleology 28
telic properties of nouns 320
template morphology 521
temporal 729–30
temporal expression and linguistic relativity 674–5
temporal function of be-going-to construction 411–15
Tenor 806–8
tense in relevance theory 698
terminal nodes 429–30
terminology in linguistic analysis 4–5, 8–9, 362–3
text interpretation algorithm 327
textual metafunction 806, 811–14
Textual Themes 822
thematic and non-thematic arguments 434
THEME system 812
French 822–5
theoretical framework 343
theoretical perspective 47–9
theories of language 799–800
theory, definition 4–5, 343–4
theory of conversational implicature 608–10
theory of meaningnn, 194, 608
theory of mind 46–7
theory of presumptive meaning 624–5
“thinking for speaking” model 671–2
three-level analysis of language structure 868–70, 882
time 674–5
time line in emergentist theory 260
TMA (tense-modality-aspect) suffixes 396
token frequency 839–41
token nodes 881
token-referential expressions 211
tonal marking 511
topic-comment structure in signed language 742
topic markers 62
Topical Themes 822–3
traditional formulation 593
trajector (tr) 100–1, 104–7, 119
transfer in dependency grammar 227–8
Transfer Semantics 454
transformational-generative revolution 801
Transformational Grammar 140–1, 858
transformed structure 31
transitive model of participation 818–21
transitivity
in Role and Reference Grammar 717–18
TRANSITIVITY system 812, 814
French 818–22
translation and Data-Oriented Parsing 649
TranslationalMotion schemas 119–20
transparent mapping 63
Tree-Adjoining Grammar (TAG) 661
Tree-Substitution Grammar (TSG) 661
trees as a metaphorical device 11
truth-conditional analysis 193–4, 196
truth-conditional semantics 203–4
type frequency 841–2
in productivity 527
type nodes 881
type-referential expressions 211
type-shift, laws of 69–74
typological databases of morphology 528
typological work on language description 363
typologists 364
typology 20–1, 292–3, 299
of definite articles 420
and Functional Discourse Grammar 372
of indefinite articles 418–20
in Optimality Theory 547–8
of plural morphology 567–8
of signed language 741–2
U-DOP (Unsupervised Data-Oriented Parsing) 655–6
concrete to abstract development 656
and impossible languages 660
and language acquisition 651–5
unbounded dependencies 444
underdeterminacy thesis 686
undergoer 715–17
unidirectionality principle 403
Unification 592
uniformity and Simpler Syntax 763
Uniformity of Theta Assignment Hypothesis (UTAH) 763–4
Uniformity Principle 54
Uniqueness 431
and articles 561, 564
units of language and usage-based theory 836–7
univerbation 522–3
‘Universal 28356
universal dependency structure 226, 231
Universal Grammar (UG) 279, 288, 486–7
and minimalist program 501–2
and Verb-Object Constraint 291–2
and word order 59
universal quantification 867
Universal Representation 662
universality test on conversational implicature 610
universals 157, 346
and Optimality Theory 548
of politeness 483
vs. ‘thinking differently’ 666
in usage-based theory 854
Unsupervised Data-Oriented Parsing see (U-DOP)
usage-based theory
and categorization 831–2
and gradience 837–8
and language acquisition 850–2
and networks 834–6
overview 828–9
and Word Grammar 881
usage events 90–4
‘using’ relations 330
UTAH (Uniformity of Theta Assignment Hypothesis) 763–4
Utterance boundary 388
utterance interpretation 690–4
Utterance layer of Phonological Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 384
utterance-type meaning, level of meaning 624–5
valency alteration 243–4
valency carriers 241–3
valency modifications 243
valency options 474–5
valency realization 244–6
valency relations 239–41
valency theory (VT) 229–32
applications 247
fundamentals 236–8
and idiomaticity 241–2
origins 235
variable rules vs. free variation 160
variants in Word Grammar 875–6
variation
across languages 669
and corpus-based research 160–1
and culture 670–1
and Optimality Theory 550–2, 534
and Word Grammar 883
venitives in signed language 753–4
verb centricity 230
in dependency grammar 224–5
verb frames 147–9, 157
verb movement 52–3
Verb-Object Constraint (VOC) 289–90, 294–5
English 302–3
and ‘Middle Way’ 304–5
in Mohawk language 301–4
and morphology 306
and Universal Grammar 291–2, 309
VerbPlusArguments construction 124
verb phrases, English 164–6
verb structure constructions 115
verbs
of action 118
auxiliation 412–15
case marking 513–14
causative 728–30
(p. 1016) characterizations of 103–6
decategorialization 407
different readings 242–3
of emission 151
and Frame Elements 328
frequency 840
German word order 348–9
hierarchy of affixes 521
infinitival 848
irregular 527, 865–6
of obligation and signed language 755
obligatory control 772
primitive 58
semantic templates 470–3
simple aspect 165–6
stative 698–9
virtual conceptual necessity 490–1
visual systems 46
visual understanding 586
vowel deletion 532–3, 539–40, 547–8, 550–1
weak minimalist thesis 494
wellformedness conditions of f-structures 435–6
wh correspondence and Simpler Syntax 792
wh dependencies 272–4, 277–8
wh island patterns 273–4
wh-phrases 356, 443
wh-questions 877
in Role and Reference Grammar 736–7
in Simpler Syntax 791
‘WXDY?’ construction 846
word formation 508, 511, 522–5
Word Grammar (WG)
and architecture of language 867–70
and language acquisition 880–1
and morphology 873–6
origins 857–9
and semantics 878–80
and sociolinguistics 881–2
and syntax 876–8
and usage-based theory 881
Word layer of Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar 382
word meaning 595–6
and sentence structure (WS) 198, 200
word order 19–20, 288–92, 294–5, 297–8, 877–8
asymmetries 352–3
and dependency grammar 225
in German 347–9
and Lexical-Functional Grammar 437
in Mohawk 301–4
and Word Grammar 884
word-strings 69–71
word structure 588–9
working (short term) memory 30, 37, 259, 273–4
World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS) 294, 297–8, 363
world knowledge (WK) 197–8
WS (word meaning and sentence structure) 198, 200
‘WXDY?’ construction 153, 846
X-bar theory 52, 254–5, 35]-2
generalizations 356
and Lexical-Functional Grammar 437–8
x-nets (executing networks) 112, 120–1
Xerox Linguistic Environment (XLE) 426, 456R
grammar development platform 455