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date: 23 May 2019

(p. 993) Subject Index

(p. 993) Subject Index

Aboriginals (Australia) 97
abortion 846–7
and genetic testing 935
and Judaism 52 see also embryology
accountability, and religion and science 277–8
activism, and religious naturalism 120
aesthetics:
and God 340, 341
and science 134, 761 see also beauty
afterlife 356, 357
and science 128–9
agency:
and culturally conditioned priming 412–13
and direct and indirect acts 581
and evolution of 411–12
and supernatural 411–13
AIDS 114, 678
alienation 329
Allee effect 216
altruism:
and evolutionary psychology 875
and evolutionary rise of 761
and Hinduism 17–18
and human uniqueness 195
and sacrifice 409 n2
and sociobiology 884 see also ethics; morality
American Association for the Advancement of Science 737
American Society of Agronomy 737
Americans United for Separation of Church and State 715
Amerindians, and perspectivism 279
analytic philosophy 473
angels:
and Judaism 47
and religious experience 512, 517–18
Anglo‐American philosophy, see philosophy
animals, and human relationship with 565–6, 945–6
and animal testing/experimentation 948
and anthropomorphism 946–8
animal‐centric anthropomorphism 947–8
anthropo‐denial 947
appropriate 946
biocentric 946–7
difficulty avoiding 947
qualified forms of 946
resistance to 946
and Christian anthropocentrism 949–52
Aquinas's approach to 901–2, 950–1
Augustine's approach to 949–50
exceptions to 951
and similarities and differences 948
intra‐species variation 954–5
scientific basis for continuity 952–3
species context of behaviour 953–4
unique behaviour 955–6
and theology:
attention epistemology 956–7
justice and compassion 959–60
panentheistic world‐view 958–9
particularity and value 959–60
personhood of non‐human animals 957–8
animism, and indigenous knowledge 90
Anthropic Principle 63–4, 570, 909
and atheist's view of 133
and cosmology 148–9, 165–6
and divine design 199–200, 627–8
anthropocentrism:
and Christianity 949–52
and ecological science 893
anthropology, and religion/science relationship:
and accountability 277–8
and alternating orientations to reality 279
and Aristotelian framework 271–2
and centrality of 272–3
and changing perception of religion 275
and changing perception of science 275–6
and characteristics of 286
and closed systems 278–9
and development of thought about 273–5
and diversity of 286
and ethics 287
and evaluation of religion 285
and functional attributions/limitations 280
and growing interest in religion 283–5
and illocutionary/perlocutionary speech acts 282–3
and incommensurability 276, 285–6
and magic 280–1
and micro‐comparisons 283
(p. 994)
and pathologies of 285
and philosophy of language 282
and polytheism 280
as polythetic sets 276
and respective scope of 280
and role of power and discourse 276–7
and Seventh‐Day Adventists 284
and structural analysis 281–2
and type/token relations 276
and Weber's fact/value distinction 276
anthropomorphism 365, 613, 615, 946–8
and animal‐centric anthropomorphism 947–8
and anthropo‐denial 947
and appropriate 946
and biocentric 946–7
and difficulty avoiding 947
and qualified forms of 946
and resistance to 946
anti‐realism, and scientific laws 158
antitheories 722
apologetics, and religion and science 571–2
apophasis, and ultimate reality 618–19
apophatic humility 498–9
artificial intelligence 33
arts, and ethics 447
astronomy, and development of cosmology 141–3
atemporal theism 778–9
atheism:
as alternative world‐view 485
and arguments against God 147
implications of big bang 146
insignificance of humans 145–6
universe as machine 146
and Darwinism 689
and desacralization of nature 329
and emergence of 346–7
and mathematical knowledge 460
and moral truths 462
and naturalism 108
and Newton on 674
and science 124, 127
afterlife 128–9
belief 135
consciousness 134
creation 128, 130–3
ethics 130
miracles 130
morality 134–5
nature of God 129–30
purpose 128
scope of 127–30
spirituality 133–5
atomic theory 143
atomism 475, 509
and rejection of 474
attention deficit disorder 932
attention epistemology 956–7
attitudes 971
autism 17 n8
autocatalytic cycles 857, 858
autocells 858, 859
autopoesis theory:
and emergence theory 775, 781
and Integral Theory 530
ayahuasca 102
Azande 278, 279
bad faith 317
balance, and ecological science 893–4
beauty:
and Christianity 66
and cosmology 147–8
and science 134, 295, 340, 341, 342
and theism 339–40, 341
behaviourism:
and collapse of 963
and mental events 505
and misconstrual of social science 314
being, and ultimate reality 617
belief:
and experience 492, 493
and knowledge 460
and motivation for religious belief 421–6
and reason 494
and science 135
and supernatural 503–4 see also counterintuitive beliefs
Bell's theorem 331
big bang 142
and Anthropic Principle 149
and general relativity 165
and ‘history of nature’ 363
and implications for God 146
binary oppositions 271
biodiversity 895–6
and Christianity 219
and indigenous knowledge 89 see also ecology
bioethics 843
and biotechnology 934–8
cloning 937–8
embryonic stem cell research 938
freedom 936
gene therapy 935, 937
genetic enhancement 935, 937
genetic testing 934–5
germ line modification 935–7
pre‐implantation genetic diagnosis 937
recombitant DNA technology 934
selective breeding 934
and narrative approach to 843–4, 847–8 see also ethics; morality
biological sciences, and revolution in 32
biotechnology:
and control of 930, 942
and environmental impact 897
and genetic engineering 179
(p. 995)
and loss of control of 929
and moral concerns 934–8
cloning 937–8
embryonic stem cell research 938
freedom 936
gene therapy 935, 937
genetic enhancement 935, 937
genetic testing 934–5
germ line modification 935–7
pre‐implantation genetic diagnosis 937
recombitant DNA technology 934
selective breeding 934
and religion:
conditional approval by 930
deficiencies in engagement with 929–30
role of 930
and sham prudence 900
and theology:
co‐creation 942–3
human embryo issues 938–40
human role in creation 942–3
human self‐transformation 940–2 see also genetic engineering; genetics
borderlands epistemology 822, 824–5, 834
brain:
and complexity of 913
and shaped by mind 914
Buddhism:
and cognitive sciences 36–7
and consciousness 38
primordial consciousness 35–7
psyche 33
substrate consciousness 33–5
and contemplative mental training 229–31
and dharma 26–7
and ecology 221
and Four Noble Truths 25
and happiness, three‐tiered model of 27–8
and introspection 32
and knowledge 26
and mediating role 24, 38
and mind 25–6, 36, 228
and naturalistic features of 25
and nature 216, 217, 218
and nature of 24–6
and phenomenology 227
as a philosophy 25
and rational/empirical inquiry 25
as religion 25
and scepticism 37
and science 233
and suffering 27
and training 35
and ultimate realities 614 n2
and well‐being 26–7, 28
ethics 28–9
mental balance 29–30
primordial consciousness 36
and Western conceptions 24
Burgess Shale 303
Carajá Indians 412
causal joint 348–50
and afterlife 356, 357
and chaos theory 348–9
and divine love 642
and locating 350–4
field‐oriented approach to reality 351–6
and panentheism 350
and quantum level 349
and top‐down approach 349–50
and trinitarianism 354–5, 356
causation:
and Aristotle 671
and bottom‐up action 752, 774
computational complexity 771–2
and Buddhism 25
and causal incompleteness of physics 756–9
and causal theory of properties 804–5
and common sense, hard‐core 459
and divine action 66–8
and feedback systems 754
and goal determination 754–6
and Hinduism 13–15
and joint causes 769–70
emergents 770
resultants 770
and Judaism 48
and mind‐body relation 464–5
and non‐interventionist objective divine action 582
and postulated entities 507–8
and primary/secondary 116
and religion and science 277–8
and secondary causality 690
and social constructions 755–6
and theism 116
and top‐down approach 349–50, 475–6, 753–4, 767–8, 774 see also explanation; interpretation
Center for Theology and the Natural Science (CTNS) 585
chance:
and divine action 599, 603
and evolution 60–1, 64
and non‐interventionist objective divine action 590–1
and ontological indeterminism 580–1
chaos theory 112, 167
and causal joint 348–9
and contingency 361–2
and divine action 605–6
and non‐interventionist objective divine action 587, 588
child development 881–2
childhood 881
chimeras, and genetic engineering 933
China 300
Chipewyan people 101–2
Chipko movement 218
(p. 996) Christianity:
and animals 949–52
and Athens‐Jerusalem conflict 621, 622
and beauty 66
and consciousness 65
and cosmology 60
and creation 58, 60–1
Anthropic Principle 63–4
resurrection 69–70
self‐limiting of divine power 61
and Darwinism 699–700
biblical interpretation 691, 694
implications of 689–91
reaction to 59
responses to 692–4
and death 69
and divine action 66–8
and divine love 886–7
and doctrinal formation 621–2
and earth‐despising bias 972–3
and ecology 212, 219, 220, 221, 924
approaches to 897–8
Aquinas's animal ethics 901–2
citizenship 898
fortitude 902
future directions 904–5
justice 901–2
Orthodox theology 898
prudence 899–901
servanthood 898–9
stewardship 898
temperance 902–3
virtue ethic approach 899, 903–4
and eschatology 68–70
and ethics 65–6
and evil 61
and evolution 59, 697–8
biblical views on creation 192–4
chance 60–1
contingency 707–9, 711
evil 202–4
evolutionary anthropology 194–6
evolutionary theology 200–2
exclusion of God 701–2
the Fall 195–6
fine‐tuning 199–200
God's self‐limiting restraint 703–4
intelligent design 197–9
necessity 61
purpose 196–7, 201–2
revelatory image of God 699–700, 707–9
suffering 709–11
theology of 704–7
and Gaia concept 220
and Judaism 41
and knowledge 57, 58
and miracles 68
and natural theology 61–4
Anthropic Principle 63–4
physico‐theology 59, 213
possibility of science 62–3
and nature 58–9, 213–14, 216, 217
and reality:
beauty 66
ethics 65–6
trinitarian thinking 65
and resurrection 69–70
and science:
creation 60–1
divine action 67–8
historical development of 57–60
natural theology 61–4
rise of modern 304–7
and soul 69, 505
and structures of reality 64–6
and theodicy 61
citizenship, and ecology 898
climate change 895
climax concept, and ecology 215–16
cloning 937–8
closed systems, and religion and science 278–9
co‐creation, and biotechnology 942–3
coexistence, and Hinduism 19
cognitive science:
and agency 411–12
and Buddhism 36–7
and consciousness 34, 36
and contemplative mental training 229–32
and counterintuitive beliefs:
memorability of 414–19
meta‐representation 419–21
and diverse theoretical perspectives 226
and embodied approach 226–7
and folk psychology 411
and folk religion 513
and introspection 229
and lack of progress in 32
and motivation for religious belief 421–6
and objectives of 513
and observation of mental phenomena 30–2
and religious experience 513
and supernatural, awareness of 408
and theory of mind 411, 419–21 see also neurophenomenology
cold fusion 125
commitment:
and counterintuitive beliefs 408
and faith 317
commodification:
and indigenous knowledge 100–1
and life 934
common good, and religion and science 575
common sense, hard‐core:
and inadequacy of naturalism:
knowledge of external world 458–9
knowledge of ideal entities 459–62
mind‐body relation 462–6
and scientific naturalism:
knowledge of actual world 466–7
knowledge of ideal entities 467
(p. 997)
mind‐body relation 468
and self‐contradiction 456–7
Communism 53
communitarianism 474
community:
and individual 492, 493
and religion and science 574–5
companion species 838, 840
Comparative Religious Ideas Project 613 n1
compatibilism:
and non‐interventionist objective divine action 582–3
and social science 320–2
Completeness of Physics 815–16
complexity, and simplicity 390 see also emergent complexity
complexity theory, and network biology 182–3
compositional reductionism (CR) 329–30
and chemical compositional reductionism 332
and discoverability 340
and quantum mechanics, quantum holism 330–1
and why physicists use 332 see also reductionism
compositional relations, and scientific explanation 803–4
computational complexity (CC):
and emergence theory 771–2, 775–6
and real‐world complexity 772
conceptual systems:
and James's conception of empiricism 970
and pluralism of 967–9
conduct 975
conflict, and religion and science 347
conflict resolution, and Hinduism 18–20
guidelines for discourse/dialogue 20–1
Confucianism, and ecology 221
conscience, and environmental ethics 925
consciousness:
and Buddhism 38
primordial consciousness 35–7
psyche 33
substrate consciousness 33–5
and causal efficacy of 764
and Christianity 65
and cognitive science 34, 36
and emergence theory 867
as epiphenomenon 763–4
and existence of universe 149
and Hinduism 15–16
mind/consciousness distinction 16
and investigating origins of 30–2
and moral sense 883–4
and problem of 963, 964
and realism 964
and reality of 463
and reductionism 757
and science 134
lack of knowledge of 65, 764 see also mind
consumerism 915, 922
consumption:
and environmental impact 919
and growth of 915–16
contemplative experience:
and contemplative mental training 229–32
and religion 227 see also introspection
Continental philosophy, see philosophy
contingency:
and centrality to theology 361
and chaos theory 361–2
and creation 362, 364–5
and divine freedom 362
and emergence theory 866
and evolutionary theory 364
as feature of physical reality 361
and God's ‘middle knowledge’ 604 n4
and history 363
and natural law 361, 362
and quantum theory 361
and recognition of 450
and scientific unease with 361
as source of novelty 363
and theology of evolution 705–9, 711
and theology/science dialogue 360–1, 363
and time 365
and values 450
continuous creation 364, 370
and non‐interventionist objective divine action 590
and theistic evolution 379
cooperation:
and ecology 216
and psychology of religion 238
correspondence, and Transcendentalism 214–15
cosmogenesis 130–3
cosmology:
and aims and methods 139
and arguments against God 145–7
implications of big bang 146
insignificance of humans 145–6
universe as machine 146
and arguments for God:
centrality of humans 150
mind 150
unity, comprehensibility and beauty 150
and big bang 139, 142, 165
and Christianity 60
and creation 139, 145, 153–4, 165
and development of 140–1
diminishing of God 141
macro‐micro connections 144–5
macro‐scale 141–3
micro‐scale 143
Uroborus 144–5
and Hinduism 14
and Islamic critique of 75
and Judaism 47
and multiverses 63–4, 143, 149, 152–3
(p. 998)
and perception 455
and recent developments 150
creation 153–4
extraterrestrial life 151–2
multiverses 152–3
quantum theory 153–4
and reinstatement of God 147
Anthropic Principle 148–9, 165–6
beauty 147–8
unity of creation 147
and religion 140, 154–5
and scientific materialism 455
and theology/science dialogue 365–6
and time‐dependence 140
counselling, and parish pastor/priest 372
genetic issues 384–6
counterintuitive beliefs:
and memory 414–19
and meta‐representation 419–21
and motivation for religious belief 421–6
and religion 408
and supernatural 413–14
creation:
and biblical views of 191
evolutionary anthropology 194–6
historiographic approaches 192–4
and biological diversity 911–12
and biotechnology 942–3
and causal joint 348–50
afterlife 356, 357
chaos theory 348–9
field‐oriented approach to reality 351–6
locating causal joint 350–4
panentheism 350
quantum level 349
top‐down approach 349–50
trinitarianism 354–5, 356
and Christianity 58, 60–1
Anthropic Principle 63–4
resurrection 69–70
self‐limiting of divine power 61
and contingency 362, 364–5
and cosmology 139, 145, 153–4, 165
and development of modern science 58
and differences in Biblical/scientific accounts 359–60
and divine action 193
God's fundamental act 602–3, 609, 693
God's self‐limiting restraint 703–4, 707, 780
and divine design:
fine‐tuning 199–200
intelligent design 197–9
purpose 196–7
and emergence theory 865–6
and evolutionary theory 189–90
continuous creation 364
and Hinduism 13–15
and independence of creatures 370
and indigenous knowledge 91
and Judaism 45–8, 49–50
and myths of 140, 208–9
and providence 599
and purpose 365
and science 50, 128, 130–3, 145
and scientific explanation 50
and special creation 689
and theism 116 see also origin‐of‐life
creationism:
and Darwinism 692
and Edwards v Aquillard (US Supreme Court, 1987) 734, 735
and evolutionary materialism 193–4
and intelligent design 734–5
refuting charge of 718–20
and scientific creationism 378
and young earth creationism 238, 378–9
creativity:
and creative process 392–3
and order and disorder 393–6
Cree people 100
critical realism, and scientific laws 157–8
cultural coherence 279
culture:
and emergence of personhood 880–1
and role of 54–5
cybernetic social systems, and the sacred 257
Daoism:
and ecology 221
and nature 218
Darwinism:
and biblical interpretation 691
and Christian responses to 59, 691, 699–700
evolutionary theism 693
intelligent design 692–3
old earth creationism 692
young earth creationism 692
and definition of 681
and exclusion of God 701–2
and explanatory claims for 701–2
and future of 694
and historical background 682–7
Darwin on the Beagle 682–3
development of natural selection 684–5
difficulties with theory 685
features of natural world 684
geology 682
legend of controversy over 685–6
Linnaeus's system 682
Paley's Natural Theology 683
post‐Darwin development of 686
religious implications 685
static world‐view 683, 686
and intelligent design 692–3, 738–9
and nature of humanity 688–9
and religious implications 681, 686–7
atheism 689
(p. 999)
biblical interpretation 691, 694
Darwin's beliefs 690
God's involvement in evolution 689–90
goodness of God 690–1
secondary causality 690
as scientific theory 694
and social Darwinism 760–1
and teleology 738
as universal theory 687–8 see also evolution
death:
and Christianity 69
resurrection 69–70
and dealing with 400–1
and determination of 52
and motivation for religious belief 421–6
and science 91
and Terror Management Theory 422
decision making 390–1
and emotion 762
and partial information 398
and values 762–3
deconstruction:
and pastoral hermeneutics 373–5
and theories of religion 325
deicide 973–4
deism 346
Dene people 98–9, 101–2
Department of Energy (USA), and Human Genome Project 179
design, divine:
and anthropomorphic danger 365
and argument from 627–9, 668–9
and determinate entity theism 628–9
and evolutionary theology 200–2
and evolutionary theory 363, 368, 627
fine‐tuning 199–200
purpose 196–7, 201–2
and ground‐of‐being theologies 627–9 see also Anthropic Principle; divine action; intelligent design
design theorists 717 see also intelligent design
determinate entity theism 612–13, 615
and design argument 628–9
and ground‐of‐being critiques 619–23
and problems with 616
and scientific discovery 630
determinism:
and chaos theory 606
and diversity of approaches 161–2
and divine action 602–3
and Newtonian physics 160
and ontological indeterminism 580–1
and spirituality 402–4
as unsettled question 601
developmental biology 873
and top‐down action 753–4 see also genetics
discernment:
as constructive activity 572
and establishment of meaning 564–6
and scientific knowledge 565–6
disciplinary matrices 482–3
discoverability, and science 339, 340
Discovery Institute 734
disease 678
disorder, and creativity 393–6
disputational friendship, and feminist epistemologies 831–2, 833–4
divine action 110
and active interference 367
and arguments against 598–9
miracles 600
scientific explanation/causal completeness 600–1
and atemporal theism 778–9
and causal joint 348–50
afterlife 356, 357
chaos theory 348–9
field‐oriented approach to reality 351–6
locating causal joint 350–4
panentheism 350
quantum level 349
top‐down approach 349–50
trinitarianism 354–5, 356
and chance 599, 603
and Christianity 66–8
and contemporary ways of thinking about 609–10
and contingency 362
and creation 193
God's fundamental act 602–3, 609, 693
God's self‐limiting restraint 703–4, 707, 780
and emergence theory 778–81
and evolutionary theory 191, 193
and field concept 368–70
and ‘God of the gaps' 608
and ground‐of‐being theologies 622–3, 629
and indeterminism 601
and intelligent design 733, 741–2
biblical justification 736
and interpretive challenges 597
and movement 367–8
changed conceptions of 368
and naturalistic theism 454–5
and Newtonian physics 161–2
and non‐interventionist strategies 162–3, 601–2, 605, 609
chaos theory 605–6
quantum theory 606–7, 608
and panentheism 66–7, 641–3, 659–60
as religious symbolism 622–3
and responses to human actions 604–5
and scientific criticism 596–7, 642–3
and senses of:
materially/functionally special acts 603
objectively/causally special acts 603–4
subjectively special acts 603
and temporal theism 779–80
(p. 1000)
and theophysical incompatibilism 162, 163
Dogon people 96–7
Drake equation 151
dualism 353–4, 462–3
and freedom 465–6
and mental causation 464–5
and nihilistic message of 962–3
and reaction to Newtonian physics 161
and reality of conscious experience 463
and scientific naturalism 468
Duna people 96
Earth:
and characteristics of 908–12
and human's impact on 915–18
and human's place on 912–15
ecclesiastical authoritarianism, and warfare model of science and religion 376–7
ecofeminism 825, 898
and classical thinking 892
Ecological Society of America 921
ecology 891
and 19thcentury philosophy/theology 215
and biodiversity 895–6
and Christianity 212, 219, 220, 221, 924
approaches of 897–8
Aquinas's animal ethics 901–2
citizenship 898
fortitude 902
justice 901–2
Orthodox theology 898
prudence 899–901
servanthood 898–9
stewardship 898
temperance 902–3
virtue ethic approach 899, 903–4
and classical thinking 892
and climate change 895
and climax concept 215–16
and definition of 207
and direct influence of 216
and ecological science 891
challenges of 895–7
questions raised by 892
values in 893–4
and ecosystems 923–4
and ecotheology 892
and environmental justice 895, 922
and future directions 904–5
and Gaia concept 219–20, 893, 965–7
and genetic biotechnology 897
and impact on religion 219–20
and instruction in sacred texts 211–12
and origins of ecology 207
and personification of ecological processes 210–11
and politics 892–3
and racism 221
and regulation of environmental management 209–10
and religion/science dialogue 216–18
globalization of 221–2
rationales for environmental care 217–18
recovering ecological heritage 217
and religious critique of 220–1
and Romanticism 214–15
and scientists playing God 382
as source of ecological knowledge 208–9
and species loss 895–6
and sub‐fields of ecology 207–8
and Transcendentalism 214–15
and values:
anthropocentrism 893
balance 893–4
ecological wisdom 894
wonder 894
and western religious values 213–14 see also environmental ethics
economics:
and institutionalization of the sacred 262
and supernatural 434–5
ecotheologies 219
Ecumenical Councils 621
Edwards v Aquillard (US Supreme Court, 1987) 734, 735
embryology, and biotechnology:
and definition problems 939
and embryonic stem cell research 938
and moral status problems 939–40 see also biotechnology; genetics
emergence/emergence theory 862–4
and argument from composition 806, 808–9, 810, 811, 814, 816
and autocatalytic cycles 857, 858
and autocells 858, 859
and autopoiesis 775
and bottom‐up action 774
and causal closure 785, 789, 790, 791, 792, 797, 798
and characteristics of 854
and computational complexity 771–2
and consciousness 867
and crystal growth 856–7
and development of 767–8
philosophical precursors 769
and emergent dualism 776
and emergent properties 855–6
and emergentist pluralism 776–7
and epistemological emergence 775, 786–7, 797, 808–9
and existence of God 797–9
ontological emergence argument for 789–97
and general concept of 855–7
and genomes 859–60
and hierarchical structures 767, 789, 805
nested hierarchy 769
(p. 1001)
and Higher Ontology 805–6, 808–9, 810, 813–14, 815–16
and historical context 768
and holism 767, 769
and interpretive responses to:
contingency 866
creation 865–6
emergent human 867
purpose 865–6
and joint causes:
emergents 770
resultants 770
sorts of 769–70
and mereological/causal emergence 787
and metaphysics of science 802, 804–6, 807, 814–17
and mind 864
and moral responses to:
ecomorality 870
emergent morality 868–9
self‐interest 869–70
and morphodynamic emergence 856
and nomological emergence 788, 789, 797–8
and novelty 767, 769
new capacities 775
strong emergence 776
and ontological emergence 775, 786, 787–8, 809–10
existence of God 789–97
and organicism 770–1
and origin‐of‐life 857–60
emergence of human mentalities 862–4
trait generation 860–2
and physicalism 789, 805–6, 807, 815–16
and predictive/explanatory emergence 786–7
and radical mereological/causal emergence 788, 789, 797, 798
and real‐world complexity 772
and reductionism 801
metaphysical argument for 806–7, 814–16
and religion 768
and representational/cognitive emergence 787
and scientific naturalism 769
and self‐organization 771, 773–4, 781
and self‐productivity 774, 781
and semiotic systems 858
and snowflake formation 856
and spiritual responses to:
enchantment 867
gratitude 868
reverence 868
transcendence 867–8
and strong emergence 775, 776, 788, 810–14, 816
nature and possibility of 812–14
and supervenience 773, 781, 788
and teleodynamics 858
and theology:
atemporal theism 778–9
divine action 778–81
emerging God 777–8
manifest image 785, 798
relevance for 785
temporal theism 779–81
theism 785
uniformitarianism 778–9
and top‐down action 767–8, 774, 788, 798
and typology of emergence 773–6, 786–8, 807–10
implications of 788–9
and weak emergence 775–6, 808–9 see also emergent complexity
emergent complexity 329, 475, 751–2
and bottom‐up action 752
and causal incompleteness of physics 756–9
and explanatory holism 767
and feedback systems 754
and goal determination 754–6
and hierarchical structures 752–3
denial of higher levels 759
and non‐reductive intelligibility 337–8
and social constructions 755–6
and top‐down action 752, 753–4 see also emergence/emergence theory
emergent practices:
and education of health care workers 845–8
and science/religion discourse 839, 840, 848
emotion:
and decision making 762
and evolution 877
empathy 881–2
empiricism:
and Integral Theory 530, 534
and James's conception of 970
and religion and science 38
and scientific laws 158
and sensationist version of 458
enchantment, and emergence theory 867
Enlightenment, the:
and dualisms 838
and feminism 837
and medicine 843
environmental ethics:
and biblical metaphors 924–5, 926
and caring for nature 922–6
and caring for people 921–2
and challenge to science and religion 919
and conscience 925
and conservation biology 911, 924
and creation 911–12
and Earth 908–12
evolution of life 909–10
origin‐of‐life 910
and ecosystems 923–4
and global perspective 922
and human self‐interest 918–19
and human's environmental impact 915–19
and inclusivity of 922–3
and Judaeo‐Christian views of nature 911–12
and religion 921–2, 925
and value issues 910–12, 919–21 see also ecology
(p. 1002) epiphenomenalism 464
epistemology:
and attention epistemology 956–7
and changed conceptions of knowledge 481–2
and disciplinary matrices 482–3
and feminism 839
and foundationalism 474, 481
and integrative dynamics 493–6
and naturalized epistemology 439–40
and post‐modern philosophy 474, 481–3, 484
and pragmatic evaluation 440 n11
and relationality 494–6 see also feminist epistemologies
eschatological panentheism 637, 658
eschatology, and Christianity 68–70
eternity, and God 366–7
ethics:
and Buddhism 28–9
and Christianity 65–6
and decision making 762–3
and development of moral awareness 882–5
and ecology 899, 903–4
fortitude 902
justice 901–2
prudence 899–901
temperance 902–3
and evolutionary theory 761
and feminism 839
and genetic engineering 178
and genetic issues 385–6
and goal determination 756
and Islam:
critique of modern science 74
rejoining science with 83
and limits of science 760–1
and meaning 763
and moderate relativism 449–51
moral judgement 450
and naturalized ethics 440–4
arts 447
evaluation of norms 447
human ecology 448–9
is‐ought problem 446
locating rationale for moral claims 444–6
motivating reasons 445
nihilism 448
non‐transcendental character of 444–5
open‐question arguments 446
philosophical psychology 441 n13
relativism 447–8
sacred texts 447
and panentheism 644–6
and post‐modern philosophy 474
and precautionary principle 386
and realism 964
and religion and science 287
ethnic minorities, and ecology 221
ethnomethodology, and Integral Theory 530
eugenics:
and biotechnology 934
and evolutionary theory 761
and genetic engineering 52 see also biotechnology
evidence:
and anecdotal 512–13
and experimental/experiential 512
and metaphysical rule of 457
and semi‐experimental 512
evil:
and Christianity 61
and determinism 602 n2
and evolutionary theory 202–4
and intelligent design 733, 742, 744
and panentheism 639, 646, 658
and realist ethics 761
and theology of evolution 709–11 see also theodicy
evolution:
and absence of progress 677–8
and agency detection 411–13
and Christianity 59, 697–8
biblical views on creation 192–4
chance 60–1, 64
evil 202–4
evolutionary anthropology 194–6
evolutionary theology 200–2
the Fall 195–6
fine‐tuning 199–200
intelligent design 197–9
necessity 61, 63
purpose 196–7, 201–2
and contingency 364
and creation 189–90
continuous creation 364
and creationism 193–4
and Darwin on 187–8
and diversity/complexity requirements 702–3
and divine design 363, 368, 627
as engine of atheism 679
and ethics 761
and evolutionary algorithms 771–2
and evolution‐creation debate 188–9
dialogue 193–4
and extinction of species 675–7
and freedom 876–9
and God:
approach to 697–8
contingency 707–9, 711
exclusion of 701–2
revelatory image of 699–700, 707–9
self‐limiting restraint 703–4
suffering 709–11
theology of evolution 704–7
as historical view of nature 363
and human origins 194–5
(p. 1003)
and human uniqueness 195
and insignificance of humans 146
and intelligent design's critique of theory 721–3
and life 50
and narrative structure of 705–6
and natural selection 676
and naturalism 111
and neo‐Darwinian synthesis 174–5, 378
and religion 175–6
and progress 200–1
and punctuated equilibrium 681, 721
and religion as by‐product 408–10
and religion/science divide 703
and salvation history 364
and scientific naturalism 469
and significant propositions of:
common descent 189
creation 189–90
evolutionary scientism 190–1
observational data 189
organismic reality 190
and theodicy 203
and theological response to 191
integration of 364
and theology of 704–7
and unnecessary controversy over 363
and warfare model of science and religion 378–9 see also Darwinism
evolutionary psychology 689, 873–6
and altruism 875
and assumptions of 874
and contradiction of Christian beliefs 875
and criticisms of 875–6
and ethics 760
and morality 49, 885–6
and pessimism of 876, 886
and philosophical viewpoint of 875–6
and promise of 873–4
and psychology of religion 244
as secular ideology 876
and utility of morality 874
and utility of religious belief 874
evolutionary theism, and Darwinism 693
existence:
and consciousness 149
and meaning 764–5
existential anxiety, and motivation for religious belief 421–6
existentialism 329, 962–3, 965
experience:
and belief 492, 493
and contemplative mental training 229–32
and Hinduism 11, 16–17
and mind 227
and mind‐body relation 463
and panexperientialism 466
and phenomenology 227
and science 572–3
and scientific naturalism 466 see also introspection
experimentation, and science 125
explanation:
and conceptual parsimony 967
and conceptual pluralism 967–9
and interpretation 318–19, 321
and methodological materialism/ naturalism 723–5
and religion and science compared 125–6, 277–8
and science 116, 337
compositional relations 803–4
and structural analysis 281–2
and understanding 492, 493, 494
extinction, and evolutionary adaptation 675–7
extraterrestrial life 151–2, 299
and criticism of search for 716
faith:
and commitment 317
and decision making 762
and faith seeking understanding 488, 489
Anselm 496, 498
apophatic humility 498–9
Augustine 496, 498
biblical warrant for 496–7
foundational rendering of 500–1
non‐interventionist objective divine action 584
reason 498
refiguring tradition of 496–500
soteriological passion 499
and reason:
integral relation between 492, 494, 495–6
separation from 490, 491, 497, 500
and transformative understanding 499–500
Fall, and evolutionary theory 195–6
Fascism 53
feedback systems, and emergent complexity 754
feeling, and religion 161
feminism:
and bioethics 843
narrative approach to 843–4
and common human story 844–5
and dominant voice/discourse 838, 842
and ecology 220
and emergent practices:
education of health care workers 845–8
science/religion discourse 839, 840, 848
and the Enlightenment 837
as creator of separations 838
and epistemology 839
and ethics 839
and Gaia concept 220
and liberation movements 842
and medicine 842–3
Enlightenment myths 843
as moral discipline 843, 844, 845
and otherness 840
(p. 1004)
and science/religion discourse 841–2
challenges of 839
collaboration 840–2
dominant voices 838
expansion of 838–9
as moral discipline 848
and typological thinking 840–1
and the undocumented 838
and the well‐pedigreed 838 see also feminist epistemologies
feminist epistemologies 821
and beyond agreement 828–30
agreement as obstacle 829–30
truth claims 829
and beyond objectivity 826–8
contextuality 826–7
embedded knowledge 827
facts and opinions 827
rejection of objectivism 826
storytelling 827–8
and borderlands epistemology 822, 824–5, 834
and central tenet of 821–2
and masculinist conceptions of objectivity 822–3
and multiple standpoints 824–5
and narratives 823, 828
and praxis 825, 834
and public discourse:
disputational friendship 831–2, 833–4
plurality 830–1
thinking in stories 832–3
the world 830–1
and relational epistemology 822, 823, 826
and science/religion discourse 821–2
alternative to objective knowledge 827
contribution to 826
hindered by quest for agreement 829–30
as public discourse 822, 830–4
relationship to the world 830–1
truth claims 829, 831
and the situated knower 822–3
and women's standpoint 824
Fermi‐Hart paradox 151
field concept:
and divine action 369–70
and origins of 368–9
and spirit 369
‘fine‐tuning’, see Anthropic Principle
folk psychology:
and cognitive science 411
and emergence theory 790
and human behaviour 510
and mental states 420, 505, 506
folk religion:
and cognitive science 513
and evil spirit 512
and partial elimination of 511
and religious experience 510, 518
and spirit/psychological claims 511–12
fortitude, and ecological ethics 902
foundationalism 474, 481
and faith seeking understanding 500–1
and ideas 492
and separation of faith and reason 491
freedom:
and evolution of 876–9
and genetics 932–3
and germ line modification 936
and mind‐body relation 465–6
and moral awareness 883
and Newtonian physics 161
and non‐interventionist objective divine action 592–3
and panexperientialism 468
French Revolution 53
fruitfulness, and religion and science proposals 573–4
functionalism, and religion 409–10
fundamental physics, see physics
fundamentalism:
and Islam 78 n4
and religion 762
and science 277, 762–4
Gaia concept 219–20, 893, 965–7
gap arguments:
and divine action 608
and existence of God 790
and intelligent design 743, 744
and non‐interventionist objective divine action 584, 586–7
gene therapy 385, 935, 937
general relativity, theory of, see relativity theory
Genesis, Book of 45–6, 49–50
genetic engineering:
and biotechnology 179
and chimeras 933
and environmental impact 897
and ethics 178
and genetically modified crops 897
and historical development of 177–8
and hopes for 53
and Judaism 45, 51–2
and practical theology 384–6
and scientists playing God 382, 942–3
interpreting gene myth 383–4 see also biotechnology; genetics
genetic enhancement 385, 935, 937
genetics:
and determinism 402–3
and emergence theory 859–60
and historical development of 173–4
and Human Genome Project 179–81, 914, 931
limitations of 180–1
and human self‐understanding 931–3
freedom and responsibility 932–3
human uniqueness 933
organic commonality 933
(p. 1005)
religious responsiveness 932
trait diversity 931–2
and ‘junk’ DNA 721–2
and neo‐Darwinian synthesis 174–5
and network biology 182–3
and regulation of gene expression 860
and top‐down action 753–4
and traits:
generation of 860–2
germ line intervention 385, 935–7
Gitksan and Wets'uwetén 94–5, 96
global warming 834, 895
globalism 56
God:
and Anthropic Principle 63–4, 133, 148–9, 165–6
as anti‐simplicity 126
and arguments for:
centrality of humans 150
mind 150
unity, comprehensibility and beauty 150
and biblical God 972
and Christianity:
concept of 61
divine action 66–8
and death of 973–4
and emergence theory 797–9
ontological emergence argument for 789–97
and emerging God 777–8
and eternity of 366
and evolution:
approach to 697–8
contingency 707–9, 711
excluded by 701–2
God's self‐limiting restraint 703–4, 780
revelatory image of God 699–700, 707–9
suffering 709–11
theology of 704–7
and God‐world relationship:
afterlife 356, 357
causal joint 348–50
field‐oriented approach to reality 351–6
locating causal joint 350–4
trinitarianism 354–5, 356
as Ground of Being 117, 640
and humility 699
and imagery of 972
and Islam, God's role in science 75–6
and Judaism 43
and justifications for belief in 790, 797
and nature 342, 781–2
and nature of 374
and omnipresence 366–7
and personal/impersonal conceptions of 971
and portrayals of 621
as root principle 971
and science 129–30
and the social 975–6
and value of concept of 396–7 see also atheism; divine action
Grand Unified Theory (GUT) 143
gratitude, and emergence theory 868
Great Chain of Being 626
ground‐of‐being theologies:
and common features:
alternatives to determinate entity theism 619–23
appreciation of symbolic life 622–5
embrace of all reality 625–7
and contrast with determinate entity views 612–13
and denials of:
ultimate reality as determinate entity 612–13
universe as ontologically selfexplanatory 612, 613
and determinate characteristics of God 618
and divine action 622–3, 629
and importance of 612–13
and moral ambiguity of reality 618
and natural sciences 627–31
design argument 627–9
and natural theology 630–1
and naturalism 626–7
and positive formulations of 612
and revelation 625–6
and theistic evolution 629
and ultimate realities 613–14
modelling strategies 616–18
happiness, and Buddhism's three‐tiered model 27–8
Harvard School Center for the Study of World Religion 221
Hawaii:
and Kamapua'a 210–11
and Kumulipo creation chant 208–9
hermeneutics 112, 318–19
and Integral Theory 530, 533–4
and pastoral hermeneutics 373–6
demythologizing 374
world‐view construction 375–6
world‐view deconstruction 373–5
Hinduism 7
and altruism 17–18
and Bhagavad gītā 7, 11
and causation 13–15
and coexistence 19
and consciousness 15–16
mind/consciousness distinction 16
and creation 13–15
and Darsana 7
and Dharmasastra 7
and diversity of 7
and ecology 219, 221
and experience 11,16–17
and foundational issues 21
and foundational texts 7
(p. 1006)
and influence of teachers 21
and knowledge 10, 11, 12–13
as living religion 8
and maya concept 19
and meditation 17
and nature 217
and nature of thinking 19
and neo‐Hinduism 21
and origins 8
and pluralism 8, 11
and principles of 8
non‐violence (ahimsa) 9
one in the many 10–11
truth (satya) 9–10
and Puranas 7
and reality, dual nature of 11
and religion and science:
conflict resolution 18–20
guidelines for discourse/dialogue 20–1
meeting points of 21–2
and science 10
and self‐knowledge 20–1
and spiritual laws 20
and synaesthesia 17
and Upanishads 7, 11
creation 13–14
and Vedas 7
history:
and biblical view of reality 365
and big bang 363
and contingency 363
and evolution 363
and naturalism 111
and time 365
history of science and religion:
and apologetic history 300
and assumption of two possibilities 303
and changed meaning of terms 298
and Christianity and rise of modern science 304–7
and common elements of 294–5
and cultural traditions 300
and disciplinary boundaries 298
and diversity of faith traditions 299–300
and impact of local events/ circumstances 302–3, 306–7
and implications of scientific discovery 301
and Islamic science 300
and middle positions:
evolutionary processes 297
Galileo affair 296–7
and plurality of sciences 298–9
and political power 300–1
and proliferation of specialized sciences 298
and science as religious activity 295–6
and scientific method 299
and simplistic models of 293–4
hope, and decision making 762
Hubble's law 142
Hudson River School 215
human ecology, and environmental ethics 920
Human Genome Project 914, 931
and limitations of 180–1
and molecular biology 179–81 see also genetics
human nature:
and child development 881–2
and development of moral awareness 882–5
and emergence of personhood 879–82
and emergence theory:
emergent human 862–4, 867
moral responses to 868–70
purpose 865–6
religiousness 864–5
spiritual responses to 867–8
and empathy 881–2
and environmental ethics 920
and evolution of freedom 876–9
and evolutionary psychology 873–6
altruism 875, 884
assumptions of 874
contradiction of Christian beliefs 875
criticisms of 875–6
philosophical viewpoint of 875–6
promise of 873–4
as secular ideology 876
utility of morality 874
utility of religious belief 874
and genetics 931–3
freedom and responsibility 932–3
human uniqueness 933
organic commonality 933
religious responsiveness 932
trait diversity 931–2
and love 884–5
and moral motivation 885–6
and religion 921
and science's shortcomings in explaining 872–3
and self‐interest 870, 918–19
and virtue 883
humanocentrism 960
humility:
and apophatic humility 498–9
and God as creator 703–4, 707
and revelatory image of God 699
hypothetical consonance, and religion and science 381
ideal entities:
and logical truths 461
and mathematical objects 459–61
and normative principles 461–2
and scientific naturalism 467
ideas:
and hard‐core common sense 457
and mnemonic power of counterintuitive 414–19
(p. 1007) idolatry:
and Judaism 42, 43
and religion 285
illocutionary speech acts 282
imagination, and evolution 878
immanence, divine:
and panentheism 655–6
and theism 656
incompatibilism:
and divine action 162–3
and non‐interventionist objective divine action 582–3
independence, and religion and science 347
two languages model 380
indeterminism, ontological 580–1
and divine action 601, 603
indigenous knowledge 88
and acquisition of 99–103
empirical knowledge 100–2
revealed knowledge 102–3
traditional knowledge 99–100
and Amerindians 279
and animism 90
and approaches to understanding 93
and Australian Aboriginals 97
and authority 96
and Azande 278, 279
and biodiversity 89
and Carajá Indians 412
and Chipewyan people 101–2
and commodification of 100–1
and creation 91
and Cree people 100
and death 91
and decolonizing methodologies 90
and decontextualization of 92
and definition of indigenous 87–8
and Dene people 98–9, 101–2
and denigration of 90
and Dogon people 96–7
and Duna people 96
and ecological knowledge 208–9
and environmental management 209–10, 218
and ethical injunctions of 92
and Gitksan and Wets'uwetén 94–5, 96
and Hawaii 208–9, 210–11
and indigenous peoples:
marginalization of 90
population size 89–90
and Koyukon people 98
and lifeways 88, 91, 93–5
and local/specific nature of 89, 91–2
and Mayan people 103
and Nahua people 103
and Navaho 218
and North American Indians 209–10
and personification of natural processes 210–11
and presentation of 92
and relationship with land 90
and relevance of 89–92
and resurgence of 103–4
and science 88
and song cycles 94–5
and space 96, 98–9
and spiritual presences 96
and time 95–6, 98–9
and traditional environmental knowledge 100–2
and transmission of 94–5, 96–9
traditional knowledge 99–100
and usage of term 87
and Warao people 101
and Yekuana people 101
individual:
and atomistic view of 976
and community 492, 493
individualism, and rejection of 474
induction 459
Industrial Revolution 53
inequality 836
and growth of 915–17
infinite 619 n10
inheritance, and genetics 173
initiation 258
inner life:
and conduct 975
and consequences of death of God 973–4
and non‐atheistic transcendentalism 975–6
and otherness 976
and religious experience 970
and righteousness 975
and the social 974–6
and spirituality 969–70
and type of God 971–2
innocence, and comedy of 258
Institute for Creation Research 378
instrumentalism:
and no‐miracles argument 338–9
and scientific laws 158
Integral Theory:
and all‐quadrant all‐level framework 524, 525
all‐levels 526
all‐quadrants 525
all‐states 526
all‐types 526
and elements of 525
and inclusiveness of 524
and Integral Methodological Pluralism 524, 527, 529–31
fundamental methodologies 530
fundamental perspectives 529–30
partial truth of all perspectives 529
and integral religion 537–40
epistemology 538–9
Integral post‐metaphysics 538–9
integration with science 540
multiple meanings 537
understandings of 539
understandings of God 537–8
and integral science 531–6 (p. 1008)
definition of science 535–6
empirical evidence 534
levels of science 535
multiple meanings 531–4
world‐views 535
and integrating science with religion 540–4
levels of 541
methodological domains 541–4
multiple levels of understanding 544
world‐views 540–1
and post disciplinary nature of 524–5, 544
and post‐metaphysical approach 527–8
and religion and science 524
and wide application of 525
integration, and religion and science 347–8
afterlife 356, 357
causal joint 348–50
field‐oriented approach to reality 351–6
locating causal joint 350–4
trinitarianism 354–5, 356
Whitehead's philosophy 347–8
intelligent design 570–1
as argument from ignorance 743, 744
and chess analogy 725
criticism of 740–1
and claim to be a science 198, 715–16
controversy over 715
criticism of 737, 738
and controversy surrounding 725–6
and creationism 734–5
refuting charge of 718–20
and Darwinism 692–3, 738–9
and design theorists 717
and divine action 733, 741–2
biblical justification 736
and evil 733, 742, 744
and evolutionary theory 197–9, 379, 678–9
absence of progress 677–8
extinction of species 675–7
problems with 720–3
and evolutionists' rejection of 678
and faulty reasoning of 743
and feeling of 667–8
antiquity of 669–75
Aristotle 671–2
distinction from argument from design 668–9
evolution's challenge to 675
Galileo 672–3
Harvey 674
hope 674–5
nature of 669
Newton 673–4
Plato 670–1
in wisdom traditions 669–70
and flawed detection of design 198
as gap argument 743, 744
and God 735–6
and irreducible complexity 198–9, 740
and Kitzmiller v Dover case 732–3, 735, 746
and legitimacy of design question 197–8
and meaning of 716–18
and methodological materialism/ naturalism 723–7, 739, 741
and Mount Rushmore analogy 716–17
criticism of 740
and nature of nature 724–7, 739, 740
and programme of 197
and reigniting science/religion animosity 745
and religious nature of 734, 746
and science/scientists, attitude towards 736
and specified complexity 717–18, 740, 742
erroneous inferences 742–3
and strategy of 734, 735
Vise Strategy 745
Wedge document 738
and theistic evolution 744
and theistic non‐reductive intelligibility 342 n12
and theological criticism of 744–5
and violent language of proponents 745
and Zeus hypothesis 717–18
criticism of 742–3
interdisciplinarity 525 n1
International Labour Organization 87
interpretation:
and explanation 318–19, 321
and social science 321
interventionism, and divine action 161–2
introspection:
and Buddhism 32
and contemplative mental training 229–32
and observation of mental phenomena 31, 32, 34, 228–9
and religion 227
irreducible complexity, and intelligent design 198–9, 740
Islam:
and central role of 238
and creation of an Islamic science 78, 85
attitude towards nature 81–2
rejection of scientism 78–9
rejoining science and ethics 83
revival of traditional sciences 82
study of pure science 80–2
study of traditional sources 79–80
and ecology 212, 220, 221
and fundamentalism 78 n4
and Judaism 41–2
and nature 217
and science 71–2
absorption of modern 76–7
cosmology 75
critique of modern 72–6
ethical implications 74
‘golden age’ of 300
motives for interest in 71–2
need for positive critique of 74–5
(p. 1009)
need to rediscover Islamic world‐view 77–8, 85
role of God 75–6
value system of 73–4
and technology 83–5
and truth 72
isolated systems, and physics 751
Jainism, and ecology 221
Japan, and absorption of modern science 77
John Templeton Foundation 524
Judaism:
and abortion 52
and causation 48
and Christianity 41
and commandments, purpose of 42–3
and constructive theology 54
and cosmology 47
and creation 45–8, 49–50
purpose 48, 50
and ecology 212, 221
and Gaia concept 220
and God 43
and historical development of 41–2, 54
and idolatry 42, 43
and Islam 41–2
and knowledge 43
and liberal Judaism 56
and messianic age 53–4
and nature 217
and rabbis:
biblical literalism 45, 48
changed role of 44
creation 47
relationship with science 45, 48, 55–6
and rationality 50
and religion and science, historical development of terms 42
and revelation 48
and science 43–4, 55
challenge of scientific theory 55
complementary model of 42–4, 55
confrontational model of 44, 55
genetic engineering 45
medicine 51
relationship with 45, 48, 55–6
reproduction 51–2
separationist model 44–5, 49
and threats to survival of 51–2
and wisdom 43
and Zionism 56
justice, and ecological ethics 901–2
kenosis 571, 699
kerygma, and preaching 374, 375
Kitzmiller v Dover case 732–3, 735, 746
knowledge:
and belief 460
and Buddhism 26
and changed conceptions of 481–2
and Christianity 57, 58
and Hinduism 10, 11, 12–13
and indigenous knowledge 88
and Judaism 43
and power 236–7
and truth 492, 493
and western universalist claims 103 see also epistemology; indigenous knowledge
Koyukon people 98
Kura Kaupapa Maori 104
Ladakh 218
language:
and mental states 505–6
and origin of 862–3
and philosophical origins of terms 360
and post‐modern philosophy 474, 476–81
philosophical concepts 480
religious language 479–80
theology/science dialogue 480–1
Wittgenstein 477–9
and preaching 375
and the sacred 256–7
and speech acts 282–3
Lembas people 52
liberation theology 892
life:
and commodification of 934
and emergence theory 857–60
and evolutionary science 50
and origin of:
diverse opinions on 910
emergence of human mentalities 862–4
emergence theory 857–60
trait generation 860–2
life sciences, and dominance of molecular paradigm 176–7
lifeways, and indigenous knowledge 88, 91, 93–5
light, and behaviour of 126–7
literalism, biblical:
and creation 193
and evolution 363
and Judaism 45, 48
logical atomism 473
logical positivism 473, 509
Logos 490, 500
love:
and divine love:
causal joint 642
panentheism 640
revelation of 886–7
and human nature 884–5
magic, and religion and science 280–1
maize, and revealed knowledge 102–3
malaria 678
manifest image, and emergence theory 785, 798
many worlds theory 968
(p. 1010) Maoris:
and knowing (whakapapa) 88
and Kura Kaupapa Maori 104
masculinism, and objectivist epistemologies 822–3
materialism:
and consciousness 463
and freedom 465
and mathematical knowledge 459
and mental causation 464
and moral truths 462
mathematics 459–61
Mayan people 103
meaning:
and Anthropic Principle 570
and definition 563
and establishment of 563–4
broad concept of religion 566–7
discernment 564–6, 572
as primal human quest 567–8
religion and science 576
and ethics 763
and existence 764–5
and intelligent design 570–1
and kenosis theory 571
and loss of 962
and philosophy of language 476
and science 761
and search for 836, 848
and status of religion and science proposals 572–3
fruitfulness 573–4
meaning system, and religion 246–7, 316
medicine:
and bioethics 843
narrative approach to 843–4, 847–8
and education of health care workers 845–8
and Enlightenment world‐view 843
and Islam 82
and Judaism 51
as moral discipline 843, 844, 845
meditation:
and Hinduism 17
and science 388–9
memory, and counterintuitive beliefs 414–19
mental causation 464–5
and scientific naturalism 468
mental states 505
and behaviourism 505
and contextual definition of 506
and language 505–6
and postulated entities 507–8
and religious experience 511
and supernatural agents 507
as theoretical entities 505–7
messianism:
and Judaism 53–4
and science 53
metaphysics:
and mediating role 303
and metaphysics of science 802, 804–6, 814–17
and post‐modern philosophy 475–7
and reductionism, metaphysical argument for 806–7
and science 761
meta‐representation, and counterintuitive beliefs 419–21
methodological behaviourism, and mental events 505
methodological materialism/naturalism, and intelligent design 723–7, 739, 741
mind:
and Buddhism 25–6, 36, 228
mental balance 29–30
and cognitive science 30–2
and emergence theory 864
and experience 227
and observation of mental phenomena 31–2, 228–9
and purpose of 191
and realism 964
and reductionism 329
and shaping of brain 914
mind‐body relation 462–3
and emergence of personhood 879–80
and freedom 465–6
and mental causation 464–5
and reality of conscious experience 463
and scientific naturalism 468
miracles 110
and atheist's view of 130
and Christianity 68
and lack of evidence for 600
and natural law 362
and non‐interventionist objective divine action 585
and religious belief 512
and science 600
and theological reservations 600
molecular biology:
and biotechnology 179
and genetic engineering 177–8
and historical development of 173–4
and Human Genome Project 179–81
limitations of 180–1
and molecular paradigm 176–7
and neo‐Darwinian synthesis 174–5
and religion 175–6
and network analysis 182–3
and reductionism 175–6
and religion 172, 184–5
and role of 185
and top‐down action 753 see also genetics
Monist League 215
morality:
and consciousness 883–4
(p. 1011)
and development of moral awareness 882–5
and emergence theory 868–70
and evolutionary psychology 49, 874–5, 885–6
and freedom 883
and moral action as fullness of life 883
and moral philosophy 440–1
and non‐theistic grounds for 485
and normative principles 461–2
and religious naturalism 121
and science 134–5
and technology 929–30
morphodynamic emergence 856
Mount Rushmore, as intelligent design analogy 716–17, 740
movement:
and changed conceptions of 368
and divine action 367–8
multiverses 63–4, 143, 149, 152–3, 628
music, and naturalism 109
mutation 877
mutual coinherence, and panentheism 640, 645
myth:
and creation 140, 208–9
and environmental management 209–10
and nature of 597
and personification of natural processes 210–11
and scientists playing God 382–3
interpreting gene myth 383–4
and violence 258
Nahua people 103
narrative:
and bioethics 843–4
and feminist epistemologies 823, 828
and interpretation of 837
National Council of Churches of Singapore 384
National Council of Churches (USA) 383
National Institutes of Health 180
nationalism 56
natural law:
and centrality to science 361
and contingency 361, 362
and ecological ethics 901
and miracles 362
and theology 362
and theology/science dialogue 360–1
natural philosophy, and transformation to natural science 298
natural selection:
and Darwin's theory 684–5
and evolutionary adaptation 676
and hedonic well‐being 27 see also Darwinism; evolution
natural theology:
and Christianity 61–4
Anthropic Principle 63–4
physico‐theology 59, 213
possibility of science 62–3
and ground‐of‐being theologies 630–1
naturalism 2
and arguments for:
integration of knowledge 115
success of science 114
theism 115
use of scientific knowledge 114–15
and atheism 108
and common sense, hard‐core 456
and dictionary definition 432, 436
and epistemology naturalized 439–40
and ethics naturalized 440–4
arts 447
evaluation of norms 447
human ecology 448–9
is‐ought problem 446
locating rationale for moral claims 444–6
motivating reasons 445
nihilism 448
non‐transcendental character of 444–5
open‐question arguments 446
philosophical psychology 441 n13
relativism 447–8
sacred texts 447
and ground‐of‐being theologies 626–7
and knowledge of actual world:
causation and induction 459
external world 458
past and time 458–9
and knowledge of ideal entities:
logical truths 461
mathematical objects 459–61
normative principles 461–2
and meaning of:
definition 110
encompassing concept of 109
history 111
ontology 110–11
rejection of dualism 110
response to sciences' success 109–10
social and mental life 111
variety of 430–1
and methodological naturalism 434
and mind‐body relation 462–3
freedom 465–6
mental causation 464–5
reality of conscious experience 463
and music 109
and naturalistic theism 116–17, 454–5
and naturism 118
and non‐supernatural naturalism 432–4, 455
scope of 434–5
and objections to:
Bouwsma 432
complexity of reality 111–12
normativism 113
scientific disciplinary order 112–13
scientism 113–14
Wittgenstein 431–2
(p. 1012)
and ontological non‐naturalists 434
as ontological position 436–8
imperialistic 437
and preferability of 108
and religious naturalism 111, 115, 117–18
activism 120
appreciation of world 120
dialects of 119–20
features of 120–1
morality 121
openness 120
piety 119
stories 120
as tradition 118–20
universalism 120–1
varieties of 117–18
and scientific naturalism 466
evolutionary theory 469
knowledge of actual world 466–7
knowledge of ideal entities 467
mind‐body relation 468
panentheism 466
panexperientialism 466
perception 466
and supernatural, objectionable form of 433, 436
and theistic naturalism 117
and Whitehead's critique of 455–6
naturalistic theism:
and divine action 454–5
and naturalism 116–17, 454–5
and panentheism 661
and theism 116–17, 454–5
nature:
and beauty 341–2
and Buddhism 216, 217, 218
and caring for 922–6
and Christianity 58–9, 213–14, 216, 217
and Daoism 218
and desacralization of 329
and God 342, 781–2
and Hinduism 217
and human separation from 962–3
and intelligent design 724–7, 739, 740
and Islam 81–2, 217
and Judaeo‐Christian views of 911–12
and Judaism 217
and metaphysical principles 455
and methodological materialism/ naturalism 723–4
and New Age 217
and Paganism 217
and reductionism 328–9
and Romanticism 214–15
and Shinto 218
and status of humanity within 688–9
and Transcendentalism 214–15
and value issues 910–12, 919–21
and Zen Buddhism 217
naturism 118
Navaho people 218
near‐death experiences 129, 513
necessity, and evolution 61, 63
neo‐Darwinism 378
and molecular biology 174–5
and religion 175–6 see also Darwinism; evolution
network analysis 182–3
network biology 182–3
neurophenomenology:
and aim of 227, 232
and contemplative mental training 229–32
and embodied approach 226–7
and introspection 228–9
and religion:
mutual circulation approach 232–3
as source of expertise 227
and self‐knowledge/cultivation 227
and working hypothesis of 227, 231
New Age:
and nature 217
and religion and science 381–2
new religious movements (NRMs), and spirituality 239–40
nihilism 962–3
and naturalized ethics 448
non‐contradiction 456–7
non‐interventionism:
and divine action 162–3, 601–2, 605, 609
chaos theory 605–6
quantum theory 606–7, 608
non‐interventionist objective divine action (NIODA) 579–80
and criteria for successful proposal 583
and misconceptions about:
God's action hidden from science 585
interpretation of scientific theories 584–5
miracles 585
natural causes 585
not a gaps argument 584
not physico‐theology 583–4
and quantum mechanics 585–6
chance 590–1
continuous creation 590
episodic divine action 587–8
general providence 590
God's action hidden from science 587
God's action in quantum events 591–2
God's knowledge of outcomes 587
human freedom 592–3
natural causes 587
not a gaps argument 586–7
special providence 590, 591–2
‘tetralemma’ argument against 588–9
theistic evolution 590
theodicy 593–4
and terms and assumptions:
causality 582
direct or indirect acts 581
(p. 1013)
(in)compatibilism 582–3
laws of nature 580
mediated and immediate divine action 581–2
objective vs subjective acts of God 581
ontological indeterminism 580–1
non‐overlapping magisteria (NOMA) 184, 232, 303
non‐reductive intelligibility (NRI) 329, 336–7
and emergent complexity 337–8
and scientific realism 338–9
non‐violence, and Hinduism 9
normativity:
and naturalism 113
and naturalized epistemology 439–40
and naturalized ethics 440–4
philosophical psychology 441 n13
and normative principles 461–2
North American Indians, and environmental management 209–10
novelty, and contingency as source of 363
objectivity:
and exclusion of difference 824
and feminist epistemologies 826–8
and masculinist conceptions of 822–3
Occam's razor 967
old earth creationism, and Darwinism 692
omnipresence, and space/time 366–7
one‐and‐many problem 621
ontology:
and naturalism 110–11, 436–8
and ontological indeterminism 580–1
open‐question arguments, and naturalized ethics 446
order:
and creativity 393–6
and sociology 253, 255
organicism, and emergence theory 770–1
original sin 196
origin‐of‐life:
and diverse opinions on 910
and emergence of human mentalities 862–4
and emergence theory 857–60
and trait generation 860–2 see also creation
otherness 976
Paganism:
and ecology 219, 220
and nature 217
pain:
and dealing with 400–1
and theology of evolution 709–11
panentheism:
and analogies for God/cosmos relationship 638–9
and animals 958–9
and causal joint 350
and development of 641
and divine action 66–7, 641–3, 659–60
and divine love 640
and enthusiasm for 661–3
and eschatological panentheism 637, 658
and evil 639, 646, 658
and generic panentheism 640
and God as Ground of Being 117, 640
and God's dependence on cosmos 639
and meaning of 636–9
distinctiveness of 639–40
diversity 652–3
incoherence 652
and moral potential of 644–6
and mutual coinherence 640, 645
and naturalistic theism 661
and pantheism 636
and problems with:
coeternal world 655
divine action 659–60
divine immanence 655–6
eschatological panentheism 658
evil 658
explaining enthusiasm for 661–3
God's incomplete knowledge 655
inclusion 654
process panentheism 653–5
soteriological panentheism 658
soul‐body metaphor 657–8
theology/science relation 660–1
and process theism 639
and reasons for adopting 643, 644
and religion and science 636, 660–2
and religious experience 643–4
and Romantic movement(s) 662–3
and science 641, 647
appeal to 644
and scientific naturalism 466
knowledge of ideal entities 467
and soteriological panentheism 637, 658
and theism 636, 637–8, 640
criticism of 657
panexperientialism:
and freedom 468
and mental causation 468
and scientific naturalism 466
knowledge of ideal entities 467
mind‐body relation 468
panpsychism 354
pantheism:
and Gaia concept 220
and panentheism 636
and ultimate reality 617
paradigms, and epistemology 482–3
particle physics, and cosmology 143–5
particularity 959–60
passion:
and reason 494
and soteriological passion 499
Pentecostalism 267
(p. 1014) perception:
and cosmology 455
and scientific naturalism 466
knowledge of actual world 466–7
perceptual release theory, and religious experience 515–17
perennial philosophy 626
performative contradictions 457
perlocutionary speech acts 282
personhood:
and emergence of human 879–82
and non‐human animals 957–8
perspectivism 279
Phage Group 173–4
phenomenology:
and experience 227
and Integral Theory 530, 533–4
philosophical behaviourism, and mental events 505
philosophical psychology 441 n13
philosophy:
and Anglo‐American philosophy 472, 473
and Continental philosophy 472, 473
and cultural assumptions 473
and definition 25
and discontinuity in post‐modern 473–5
atheism 485
competing traditions 484–5
epistemology 474, 481–3, 484
ethics 474
metaphysics 475–7
philosophy of language 474, 477–81
philosophy of science 474
religion and science 483–6
systems thinking 476
and relationality 494–6 see also philosophy of science
philosophy of science:
and chemical compositional reductionism 332
and compositional reductionism 329–30
Bohm's interpretation of quantum theory 334–6
discoverability 340
quantum holism 330–1
quantum theory measurement problem 332–4
why physicists use 332
and emergent complexity 329, 337–8
and instrumentalism, no‐miracles argument 338–9
and integrative developments 488
and non‐reductive intelligibility 329, 336–7
and emergent complexity 337–8
scientific realism 338–9
and post‐modern philosophy 474
and process philosophy 337
and reductionism 328–9
and theistic non‐reductive intelligibility 336, 339–40
discoverability 339, 340
implications of 341–2
and work in 328
physical sciences, and revolutions in 32
physicalism 789, 805–6, 807, 815–16
physico‐theology 59, 213
and non‐interventionist objective divine action 583–4
physics:
and authority of 156
and causal incompleteness of 756–9
and completeness of 815–16
and development of, ancient Greeks 158
and emergent complexity 751–2
and emergent phenomena 773
and goal of 157
and instrumentalism 338–9
and isolated systems 751
and Newtonian physics:
Copernicanism 159–60
divine action 161–3
human freedom 161
mechanistic determinism 160
reductionism 160
religion 295–6
and religion 156–8
conceptual interest 157
epistemological interest 157
ontological interest 157
and scientific laws 157–8
and twentieth‐century revolution 163–4
chaos theory 167
quantum theory 166–7
relativity theory 164–6
string theory 168
piety, and religious naturalism 119
Platonic Forms, see ideal entities
pluralism:
and explanatory concepts 967–9
and Hinduism 8, 11
and James's conception of empiricism 970
and real world 970
Pneuma 490, 500
politics, and theology 892–3
polytheism 280
population, and growth of 915–16
post‐modernity:
and discontinuity in philosophy 473–5
atheism 485
competing traditions 484–5
epistemology 474, 481–3, 484
ethics 474
metaphysics 475–7
philosophy of language 474, 476–81
philosophy of science 474
religion and science 483–6
systems thinking 476
and objections to social science 322
confusion of explanation with effect 324
confusion of invention and discovery 323
confusion of students with natives 323–4
(p. 1015)
confusion of universality and essence 322–3
similarities and differences 325–6
theories of religion 325
and uses of term 472
postulated entities 518
and religion 507, 508–9
and science 507–8
power:
and history of science and religion 300–1
and knowledge 236–7
practical theology:
and concerns of 372
and genetic issues 384–6
and non‐warfare models of science and religion:
ethical overlap 381
hypothetical consonance 381
New Age spirituality 381–2
two languages model 380
and pastoral hermeneutics 373–6
demythologizing 374
world‐view construction 375–6
world‐view deconstruction 373–5
and scientists playing God 382–3
interpreting gene myth 383–4
and warfare models of science and religion:
battle over Darwinian evolution 378–9
ecclesiastical authoritarianism 376–7
scientific imperialism 376
scientism 375–6
pragmatism:
and moderate relativism 450
and religious naturalism 119
praxis, and feminist epistemologies 825, 834
prayer, and untestability of 248–9
preaching:
and genetic issues 384–6
and non‐warfare models of science and religion:
ethical overlap 381
hypothetical consonance 381
New Age spirituality 381–2
two languages model 380
and parish pastor/priest 372
and pastoral hermeneutics 373–6
demythologizing 374
world‐view construction 375–6
world‐view deconstruction 373–5
and scientists playing God 382–3
interpreting gene myth 383–4
and warfare models of science and religion:
battle over Darwinian evolution 378–9
ecclesiastical authoritarianism 376–7
scientific imperialism 376
scientism 375–6
precautionary principle, and ethics 386
predictability, and theology of evolution 705–7
pre‐implantation genetic diagnosis 937
Presbyterianism, and Darwinism 302
priest/pastor:
and genetic issues 384–6
and non‐warfare models of science and religion:
ethical overlap 381
hypothetical consonance 381
New Age spirituality 381–2
two languages model 380
and pastoral hermeneutics 373–6
demythologizing 374
world‐view construction 375–6
world‐view deconstruction 373–5
and role of 372
and science/theology rapprochement 373
and scientists playing God 382–3
interpreting gene myth 383–4
and warfare models of science and religion:
battle over Darwinian evolution 378–9
ecclesiastical authoritarianism 376–7
scientific imperialism 376
scientism 375–6
primordial consciousness, and Buddhism 35–7
process panentheism 653–5
and coeternal world 655
and God's incomplete knowledge 655
and inclusion 654
process philosophy 112
and common sense, hard‐core 456–7
and harmonization of religion and science 453–4
and non‐reductive intelligibility 337 see also scientific naturalism
process theism 639
process theology 67
and temporal theism 779
progress, and evolutionary theory 200–1
Protestantism, and science 305
prudence, and ecological ethics 899–901
psyche, and Buddhism 33
psychology:
and introspection 31, 228–9, 230
and naturalized epistemology 439–40
and philosophical psychology 441 n13 see also evolutionary psychology; psychology of religion
psychology of religion 237, 249
and evolutionary psychology 244
and integrating science‐religion research 242–3
and method and theory 243–4
methodological pluralism 245–6
methodology 244–5
theory 244
and multilevel interdisciplinary paradigm 237, 243
and need for cooperation 238
and need for open minds 238
and path of 247
and religion:
changed meaning of 239
diverse meanings of 238–9
as meaning system 237, 246–7
as unique/non‐unique 241–2
and role of 247
and science‐religion dialogue: (p. 1016)
psychological focus of 241
self‐descriptive terminology 240–1
and spirituality 239–40
compared with religion 240
meaning of 240
search for 239–40
and untestability of prayer 248–9
public discourse, and feminist epistemologies:
disputational friendship 831–2, 833–4
plurality 830–1
thinking in stories 832–3
the world 830–1
punctuated equilibrium 721
and Darwinism 681
Puritanism 299
purpose:
and anthropomorphic danger 365
and creation 365
and emergence/emergence theory 865–6
and evolutionary theory 196–7, 201–2
and science 128
and search for 836, 848
and spirituality 391–2
quantum theory 143, 166–7
and Bell's theorem 331
and Bohm's interpretation of 334–6
and compositional reductionism:
measurement problem 332–4
quantum holism 330–1
and contingency 361
and divine action 606–7, 608
and instrumentalism 338–9
and many worlds theory 968
and quantization 332, 340
and quantum entanglement (EPR effect) 64, 331
and reductionism 329
and religion 167
raccoons, and roundworms 677–8
racism, and ecology 221
rationality:
and Judaism 50
and mental causation 464–5
and post‐foundational model of 493
and science 50
and theological reasoning 482
realism 963–4
reality:
and alternating orientations to 279
and Christianity 64–5
beauty 66
ethics 65–6
and Hinduism 11
and naturalism 111–12
realization relations 804–5
reason:
and belief 494
and Christian anthropocentrism 949–50
and faith:
integral relation between 492, 494, 495–6
separation from 490, 491, 497, 500
and passion 494
Recombitant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) 178
recombitant DNA technology 934
reductionism 126
and alternatives to 337–8
and argument from composition 806, 808–9, 810, 811, 816
invalidity of 814
and artificiality of 854
and claims of 801
and compositional reductionism 329–30
Bohm's interpretation of quantum theory 334–6
discoverability 340
quantum holism 330–1
quantum theory measurement problem 332–4
why physicists use 332
and consciousness 757
and emergence theory 801
strong emergence 810–14
weak emergence 808–9
and Higher Ontology 805–6, 808–9, 810, 813–14, 815–16
and Human Genome Project 180
and metaphysical argument for 801–2, 806–7, 814–16
and metaphysics of science 802, 804–6, 814–17
and mind 329
and modern thought 475
and molecular biology 175–6
and nature 328–9
and Newtonian physics 160
and philosophy of science 328–9
and quantum theory 329
and success of 853
mixed reaction to 853–4
and theology/science dialogue 476
dangers of reductionism 558–60
reincarnation 35
relational epistemology, and feminist epistemologies 822, 823, 826
relationality:
and centrality of 489
and hermeneutical significance of 488–9, 494
and philosophical turn to 494–6
and re‐turn to 500
(p. 1017) relativism:
and moderate relativism 449–51
moral judgement 450
and naturalized ethics 447–8
relativity theory:
and cosmology 140
and creation 131
and general theory of 165–6
and religious implications 164–6
and space 367
and special theory of 164–5
religion:
as antithesis of science 376
and changed meaning of 298
and comparison with science 124–7
and costliness of 408–9
and definition 864
and diversity of faith traditions 299–300
and domain of 124, 407, 509
and earth‐despising bias 972–3
and environmental ethics 921–2, 925
as evolutionary by‐product 408–10
as fact of life 510
and functions of 409–10, 426
and fundamentalism 762
and goal of 236
and human nature 920
and Integral Theory 537–40
epistemology 538–9
Integral post‐metaphysics 538–9
integration with science 540
multiple meanings 537
understandings of 539
understandings of God 537–8
and masculine bias 824
and meaning of religious 864–5
and moral behaviour 575
and nature of the term 568–9
and origin and function of 312
and postulated entities 507–9, 518
as practice 569
as quest for the ‘most important' 566–7
and questions addressed by 24–5
and requirements of religious utterances 555
and social life:
de‐differentiation of 265–6
differentiation of 264–5
and soul 69, 504, 505
and theoretical thinking 569
religion and science:
and apologetics 571–2
and central questions of 2–3
as cliché 562
and common goal 501
and common good 575
and community 574–5
and conflict between 347
fundamentalism 762–4
and contrasting techniques of 124–7
and dialogue between 347, 360, 523–4, 636
dangers of reductionism 558–60
hypothetical consonance 381
impossibility of 552
interaction problems 554–7
maximalist level 554–5
minimalist level 555–6
minimum requirements for 552
phases of 553–4
primal quest for meaning 567–8
purpose of 486, 552, 558
as spiritual‐religious undertaking 562, 566
in truth‐seeking communities 557–8
and differences between 389, 407–8
as distinct field of study 1
doubts over 574
and diversity of approaches 3
and diversity of faith traditions 299–300
and fusions between 556
and goals of 236
and independence of 347
and integration of 347–8
afterlife 356, 357
causal joint 348–50
field‐oriented approach to reality 351–6
locating causal joint 350–4
trinitarianism 354–5, 356
Whitehead's philosophy 347–8
and integrative dynamics in epistemology 493–6
and models for interrelation of 347
and mutual circulation approach 232–3
and nature of the term ‘religion' 568–9
and non‐overlapping magisteria 184, 232, 303
and non‐warfare models of relationship:
ethical overlap 381
hypothetical consonance 381
New Age spirituality 381–2
two languages model 380
and post‐modern philosophy 483–6
as practical undertaking 569
as problematic concepts 233
and separationist model 44–5, 49
and status of proposals for meaning 572–4
and synthesis between 345, 346
and tensions between 453–4
development of 346–7
non‐supernatural naturalism 455
science's one‐sided cosmology 455–6
supernatural theism 454–5
and theoretical thinking 569–71
and truth claims 552
and types of interaction 184
and warfare models of relationship:
battle over Darwinian evolution 378–9
ecclesiastical authoritarianism 376–7
scientific imperialism 376
scientism 375–6
(p. 1018) religious, and meaning of 864–5
religious experience 504
and affective experiences 514
and categories of 510, 511
and characterization of 510–11
and cognitive science 513
and collection of accounts of 512
and collective experiences 517–18
and cultural relativity of 514
and encounters with angels 512, 517–18
and evidence, types of 512–13
and folk religion 510, 518
and hallucination 515
and interpretive experiences 514
and invisible world 510
and mental states 511
and near‐death experiences 129, 513
and panentheism 643–4
and perceptual release theory 515–17
and revelatory experiences 514
and sensory experiences 514
and soul 505
and variety of 969–70
and visionary experiences 514–15
and visions of Jesus Christ 514–17
religious naturalism:
and emergence theory 854
and emergentist understandings of nature 864–5
and interpretive responses to:
contingency 866
creation 865–6
emergent human 867
purpose 865–6
and moral responses to:
ecomorality 870
emergent morality 868–9
self‐interest 869–70
and spiritual responses to:
enchantment 867
gratitude 868
reverence 868
transcendence 867–8 see also naturalism
religious studies, and social science:
and misconstrual of 312–15
behaviourism 314
believer's point of view 312
contemporary social science 315–17
materialism 313–14
nature of inquiry 313
religious nature of religion 312
truth of religion 314–15
and tensions between 311
responsibility, and genetics 932–3
resurrection, and Christianity 69–70
revelation:
and atheist's view of 129
and divine love 886–7
and ground‐of‐being theologies 625–6
and Judaism 48
and meaning of 699–700
and theology of evolution 707–9
reverence 868
and suspicion of 965
Rheims Cathedral 213
righteousness 975
ritual:
and initiation 258
and role of 263–4
and the sacred 258, 260–1
and violence 260
Roman Catholicism:
and Darwinism 694
and evolutionary theory 678–9
and heliocentrism 159
and nature 218
and science 159
Romanticism:
and ecology 214–15
and panentheism 662–3
roundworms 677–8
routinization, and biblical literalism 193
sacred:
as code for possibility 259–60
as code for violence 257–8
and cybernetic social systems 257
and deinstitutionalization of 262–3, 267–8
and effects of 253–4, 255
and function of 255
and the individual 263–4
and institutionalization of 260, 261–2
and language 256–7
and predictions for 268–9
and reactionary return to 266–7
and rituals 258, 260–1
role of 263–4
as subversive 254–6
in tension with religion 256–7
and time 253–4, 268
sacred texts:
and ecology 211–12
and ethics 447
sacrifice, and religion 408–9
scepticism 37
science:
and antitheories 722
and atheism 124, 127
afterlife 128–9
belief 135
consciousness 134
creation 128, 130–3
ethics 130
miracles 130
morality 134–5
nature of God 129–30
purpose 128
scope of science 127–30
spirituality 133–5
(p. 1019)
and challenge to Eurocentric view of 7
and changed meaning of 298
and Christianity:
Anthropic Principle 63–4
creation 60–1
divine action 67–8
historical development of 57–60
natural theology 61–4
possibility of science 62–3
role in rise of 304–7
structures of reality 64–6
and comparison with religion 124–7
and conceptual parsimony 967
and conceptual pluralism 967–9
and consciousness 134
and creation 50, 128, 130–3, 145
and definition 25
and development of modern 58–9
and discernment 565–6
and disciplinary order 112–13, 476, 504
and discoverability 339, 340
and divine action 596–8, 642–3
and domain of 124, 407–8, 476–7
and ethics 761
and experience 572–3
and explanation 116, 337
and forms of 554
maximalist 554
minimalist 555
mixed form 557
and fundamentalism 762–4
and goal of 236
and ground‐of‐being theologies 627–31
design argument 627–9
and Hinduism:
approach of 10
knowledge and method 12–13
and human‐centredness 89
and impact of faith traditions 299–300
and inadequacy of naturalism:
knowledge of external world 458–9
knowledge of ideal entities 459–62
mind‐body relation 462–6
and indigenous knowledge 88
and Integral Theory 531–6
definition of science 535–6
empirical evidence 534
levels of science 535
multiple meanings 531–4
world‐views 535
and Islam 71–2
absorption of modern science 76–7
attitude towards nature 81–2
cosmology 75
creation of Islamic science 78–83, 85
critique of modern science 72–6
ethics of modern science 74
motives for interest in 71–2
need for positive critique of science 74–5
need to rediscover Islamic world‐view 77–8, 85
need to reject scientism 78–9
rejoining science and ethics 83
revival of traditional sciences 82
role of God 75–6
study of pure science 80–2
study of traditional sources 79–80
values of modern science 73–4
and Judaism 55
challenge of scientific theory 55
complementary model of 42–4, 55
confrontational model of 44, 55
medicine 51
relationship with science 45, 48, 55–6
reproduction 51–2
separationist model 44–5
and limitations of 759, 760–1
and masculine bias 824
and messianic hopes for 53
and metaphysics 761
and metaphysics of science 802, 804–6, 814–17
and nature of 88–9, 320
and panentheism 647
and personal qualities 399–400
and philosophical origins of language of 360
and physicalism 805–6, 807, 815–16
and postulated entities 507–8
and rationality 50
and reality, relational nature of 64–5
as religious activity 295–6
and scientific method 124–7, 299
pluralism of 337
and scope of 127–30
meaningless questions 127, 190
and simplicity 125–6
and success of 109–10, 114, 803
specialization 892
and technology 931
and theism 116
and theoretical thinking 569–70
and theory 720–1
scientific imperialism, and warfare model of science and religion 376
scientific materialism 455
scientific naturalism 466
and emergence theory 769
and evolutionary theory 469
and explanatory claims of 701–2
and knowledge of actual world 466–7
and knowledge of ideal entities 467
and mind‐body relation 468
and panentheism 466
and panexperientialism 466
and perception 466
scientism:
and evolutionary theory 190–1
(p. 1020)
and Islam 78–9
and naturalism 113–14
and sociobiology 378
and warfare model of science and religion 375–6
Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SET) 716
self, and biotechnology 940–2
self‐interest:
and emergence theory 870
and environmental impact 918–19
self‐knowledge:
and Hinduism 20–1
and neurophenomenology 227
self‐modification, and biotechnology 940–2
self‐organization, and emergence theory 771
semantics, and Judaism 47
semiotic systems 858
sensationism:
and knowledge of actual world:
causation and induction 459
external world 458
past and time 458–9
and mathematical knowledge 460
and moral truths 462
sentiment, and religion 125
separation, and Enlightenment world‐view 838
serpent handling 245
servanthood, and ecology 898–9
Seventh‐Day Adventists 284
Shinto, and nature 218
Sierra Club 215
simplicity:
and complexity 390
and religion and science compared 125–6
and science 341
snowflake formation 856
social autopoesis theory, and Integral Theory 530
social Darwinism 760–1
social life 264–6, 975–6
social science:
and objections to:
scientific study of humans 320–2
status as science 319–20
and post‐modern objections to 322
confusion of explanation with effect 324
confusion of invention and discovery 323
confusion of students with natives 323–4
confusion of universality and essence 322–3
similarities and differences 325–6
theories of religion 325
and religionists misconstrual of 312–15
behaviourism 314
believer's point of view 312
contemporary social science 315–17
materialism 313–14
nature of inquiry 313
religious nature of religion 312
truth of religion 314–15
and tension with religionists 311
and trends in study of religion 317
hermeneutical approach 318–19
propriety of religion 317–18
truth of religion 318
Socialism 53
Society for Conservation Biology 911
sociobiology 378
and altruism 884
and anthropomorphism, resistance to 946
and ethics 760
sociology:
and order 253, 255
and religion and social life:
de‐differentiation of 265–6
differentiation of 264–5
and the sacred:
as code for possibility 259–60
as code for violence 257–8
cybernetic social systems 257
deinstitutionalization of 262–3, 267–8
effects of 253–4, 255
function of 255
the individual 263–4
institutionalization of 260, 261–2
language 256–7
predictions for 268–9
reactionary return to 266–7
ritual 258, 263–4
rituals 258, 260–1
as subversive 254–6
tension with religion 256–7
time 268
and secularization 263
and social systems 253
soteriological panentheism 637, 658
soteriological passion 499
soul:
and animals 950–1
and Christianity 69, 505
and emergence theory 864
and evolutionary theory 195
and possible argument for 798
and post‐Cartesian conception of 505
and pre‐Socratic conception of 504–5
and religion 504, 505
and religious experience 505
and Socratic conception of 505
and soul‐body metaphor 657–8
space:
and divine omnipresence 366–7
and relativity theory 367
and theology/science dialogue 366
and time 366
speciesism 688, 954
specified complexity:
and intelligent design 717–18, 740
erroneous inferences 742–3
spirit:
and divine action 369–70
(p. 1021)
and emergence of 914–15
and field concept 369
spirituality:
and comparison with religion 240
and creativity:
creative process 392–3
order and disorder 393–6
and dealing with pain and death 400–1
and decision making 390–1
partial information 398
and determinism 402–4
and growth in 388
and human nature 873
and meaning of 240
and meditation 388–9
and partnership with God and nature 397–8
and personal qualities 399–400
and purpose 391–2
and questioning and faith 399
and science 133–5, 388–9
and search for 239–40
and simplicity and complexity 390
and spirit of truth 401–2
and usage of ‘spiritual' term 971–2
and value of concept of God 396–7
steady state theory 142
stem cell research 938
stewardship, and ecology 898
stories:
and bioethics 843–4
and expression of values 837
and feminist epistemologies 827–8
public discourse 832–3
and religious naturalism 120
string theory 168, 330, 628
structuralism:
and Integral Theory 530
and religion and science 281–2
subjectivity:
and feminist epistemologies 823
and objective vs subjective acts of God 581
and subjectively specia acts 603 see also introspection
substrate consciousness, and Buddhism 33–5
suffering:
and Buddhism 27
and theology of evolution 709–11
suicide terrorism 409 n2
supermen, and Nietzsche 974
supernatural:
and agency 411–13
and awareness of 408
and counterintuitive beliefs 413–14
memory 414–19
meta‐representation 419–21
and mental states 507
and motivation for religious belief 421–6
and non‐supernatural naturalism 432–5, 455
and objectionable form of 433, 436
and religion 410–11
and religious belief 503–4
and supernatural theism 454–5
symbolism, and ground‐of‐being theologies 622–5
symmetries, and laws of nature 147–8
synaesthesia 17
synchronic holism 279
systems theory, and Integral Theory 530
systems thinking, and post‐modern philosophy 476
teaching, and parish pastor/priest 372
technology:
and control of 930, 942
and Islam 83–5
and morality 929–30
and science 931 see also biotechnology
teleodynamics 858
teleology, and Darwinism 738
temperance, and ecological ethics 902–3
temporal theism 779–81
Terror Management Theory 422
theism:
and beauty 339–40, 341
and changed conceptions of knowledge 482
and cosmology 342
and definition 336 n8, 490
and divine immanence 656
and emergence theory 785
and miracles 600
and naturalism 115
and naturalistic theism 116–17, 454–5
and panentheism 636, 637–8, 640
criticism by 657
and science 116
and separation of God 644–5
and supernatural theism 454–5
and theistic naturalism 117
and theistic non‐reductive intelligibility 336, 339–40, 341–2
theistic evolution 379