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date: 17 August 2019

(p. ix) List of Figures

(p. ix) List of Figures

  1. 3.1 Key airline performance metrics 47

  2. 3.2 Revenue metric calculations 48

  3. 3.3 Airline pricing process 57

  4. 3.4 Hybrid fare structure—hypothetical market example 61

  5. 3.5 Legacy carrier fares in non-LCC market 62

  6. 3.6 Selected airline fees 70

  7. 3.7 Air Canada “à la carte” fare structure 71

  8. 3.8 Airline ticket distribution process 75

  9. 3.9 Overbooking performance metrics 83

  10. 6.1 Determining the range of acceptable prices from a price-sensitivity estimation survey 111

  11. 6.2 Contribution margin for menu items plotted as a function of number sold 112

  12. 7.1 The marketing funnel 122

  13. 7.2 Relative sizes of brand and DR ad markets 136

  14. 8.1 Four pricing methodologies 141

  15. 8.2 Two-stage process for unsecured personal loans in the UK 144

  16. 8.3 Profit and probability of conversion versus APR 146

  17. 10.1 Typical IT invoice to business 176

  18. 10.2 Example of a clear product definition 178

  19. 11.1 Timing of major events in the market for television advertising 186

  20. 13.1 Primary operational components between shipper and consignee utilizing breakbulk 219

  21. 13.2 Commodity Classification Standards Board value and density guidelines 221

  22. 13.3 The carrier’s strategy cycle 223

  23. 13.4 Pricing decision support 225

  24. 14.1 Historical key whole animal price indices 232

  25. 15.1 Table wine share by retail price segment, 2007 251

  26. 15.2 Leading wine suppliers, 2007 252

  27. 15.3 Wine sales: share of cases by on and off premise 257

  28. 15.4 Wine sales: share of dollars by on and off premise 257

  29. (p. x) 16.1 Handmade ceramics sold at the Grand Bazaar 262

  30. 16.2 Textiles section of the Grand Bazaar 266

  31. 16.3 Comparison of the Classical Period with the Modern Period of the Grand Bazaar 267

  32. 16.4 Product categories sold in the Grand Bazaar in the Modern Period 269

  33. 16.5 Categories of Bazaar merchants during the Classical Period 271

  34. 16.6 View of the Gold market in the Grand Bazaar 272

  35. 17.1 Price effect as a result of a price increase for the first good 289

  36. 17.2 Offer curves (OC1 and OC2), Walrasian equilibrium, and Pareto efficient allocations 293

  37. 17.3 Nonconvex exchange economy without a Walrasian equilibrium 294

  38. 17.4 Market for contingent claims 296

  39. 17.5 Walrasian price adjustment process with asymptotic convergence of prices 301

  40. 17.6 Allocations under the optimal selling mechanism 324

  41. 19.1 Best response functions in the UltraPhone pricing game with product differentiation 388

  42. 19.2 Analysis of the UltraPhone game with loyal customers and A as a first mover 391

  43. 19.3 Equilibrium prices over time 401

  44. 19.4 High–Low equilibrium pricing policy and share of gain seeking segment 402

  45. 19.5 Equilibrium wholesale and retail prices 405

  46. 19.6 Pricing algorithm 409

  47. 20.1 Typical value function and probability weighting function in prospect theory 419

  48. 20.2 Examples of the hyperbolic discount function 423

  49. 20.3 Demonstration of attraction effect and compromise effect 431

  50. 20.4 Example of compromise effect 433

  51. 21.1 A stylized view of the customized pricing sales process 468

  52. 21.2 Steps in the customized pricing process 471

  53. 21.3 An example bid–response curve 473

  54. 21.4 Calculating expected profitability as a function of price 480

  55. 21.5 An efficient frontier 484

  56. 21.6 Setting bounds for guide price negotiation 488

  57. 22.1 Increased monopoly profits and social welfare gain through bifurcated pricing 493

  58. 22.2 Illustration of customer choices under mixed bundling 497

  59. (p. xi) 22.3 A block declining tariff structure 499

  60. 22.4 A block increasing tariff structure 499

  61. 22.5 Implementing a volume discount policy through a menu of optional two-part tariffs 500

  62. 22.6 Demand functions for incremental purchase units 501

  63. 22.7 Optimal unit price function versus purchase quantity 502

  64. 22.8 Illustration of social value resulting from consumption at unit price p* 504

  65. 22.9 Illustration of inverse demand function (utility) for different quality levels 507

  66. 22.10 Customers’ maximum surplus for different quality levels 508

  67. 22.11 Demand and revenue functions for tickets 511

  68. 22.12 Improving profits by introducing a product with uncertain delivery 512

  69. 22.13 Allocation of the social surplus v · r(v) due to serving a unit with valuation v 514

  70. 22.14 Priority service pricing with discrete priority levels 517

  71. 24.1 How trade promotions affect sales 587

  72. 24.2 Consumer perceptions of sales promotion types 588

  73. 24.3 Post-promotion dip with stockpiling/acceleration effects 595

  74. 25.1 Markdown price paths 622

  75. 25.2 The effect of price reduction on sales 627

  76. 25.3 Examples of seasonal curves 628

  77. 25.4 The inventory curve effect 629

  78. 25.5 Product lifecycle curve 630

  79. 25.6 The piecewise linear inventory effect 632

  80. 25.7 Product lifecycle curves 633

  81. 25.8 Exhaustive search 647

  82. 26.1 How much two customers, a and b, are willing to pay for two products, X and Y 661

  83. 26.2 Examples of network RM: (i) hotel length-of-stay network and (ii) airline hub-and-spoke network 668

  84. 27.1 Illustration of composite bidding 703

  85. 29.1 Expected profits as a function of wholesale price 745

  86. 29.2 Expected profits as a function of the retailer’s stocking quantity 746

  87. 29.3 Payoffs as a function of demand realization with a wholesale price contract 747

  88. 29.4 Payoffs as a function of demand realization with a buy-back contract 750

  89. 29.5 Payoffs as a function of demand realization 753

  90. (p. xii) 29.6 Payoffs as a function of demand realization with a quantity flexibility contract 757

  91. 29.7 The retailer’s payoff with a wholesale price contract 763

  92. 29.8 Wholesale price contract 764

  93. 29.9 Wholesale price contract 764

  94. 29.10 Buy-back contract with w = 0.5 765

  95. 29.11 Buy-back contract with w = 0.5 765

  96. 29.12 Buy-back contract with b = 0.6 765

  97. 29.13 Buy-back contract with b = 0.6 766

  98. 31.1 Two dimensions to consider in developing a pricing organization 829

  99. 31.2 Nine major pricing process areas 836

  100. 31.3 A role is a focused series of tasks that can be logically grouped as part of a process 837

  101. 31.4 Roles map to specific job positions 838

  102. 31.5 Backgrounds relevant to pricing 846

  103. 31.6 Pricing professionals’ views of their pricing roles 852

  104. 31.7 Pricing professionals’ planned future careers 852

  105. 32.1 Unlocking the value of price strategy transformation 858

  106. 32.2 Business/industry/market lifecycle 860

  107. 32.3 Customer-driven pricing strategy 862

  108. 34.1 Pricing and its effect on margins 894

  109. 34.2 A framework for picking a negotiation strategy 900

  110. 34.3 Finding the flat spot on the pricing curve 904

  111. 34.4 Pricing spheres of influence 906