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date: 19 January 2020

(p. 682) Subject Index

(p. 682) Subject Index

Note: Law cases cited are indexed under ‘legal cases’.

527 organizations 218, 554, 560, 566, 572–3
activists 10–11
and centrality of 286
and conditional party government 327
and explaining participation 287–8
campaign mobilization effects 289–90
Civic Volunteerism Model 288–9
collective action problem 288
political context 290
recruitment 289
as fragmenting force 286–7
and future research on 301, 302
in general elections 291–4
alienation of nomination losers 292–3
mobilization of nomination losers 293–4
and House elections 2006 294–8
electoral outcomes 298–301
impact on incumbent position‐taking 298–9
impact on incumbent vote share 299–300
influence of 300–1
and ideology 411–12
and influence of 286, 294
and nomination process 290–1
and party change 291–2, 293–4
and political party theory 30–1
and purist‐amateur conception of 292
and representational distortion 287, 289, 294
impact on incumbent position‐taking 299
impact on incumbent vote share 300–1
and sophistication of 291, 302
and third parties 230–1
advertising:
and election campaigns 309–10
and political consultants 314, 315
advocacy coalitions 43, 52
agenda setting, and party effects:
House of Representatives 330, 331, 352–3
centrality of 332–4
conference committee process 336–7
discharge petitions 336
House Rules Committee control 334–6
mechanisms of 336
motion to recommit 336
Senate 340
cartel theory 348–9, 352
constraints of inherited rules 344, 346
evolution of 341–2
majority leader 342–3
minority party strategy 351–2
negative control 348–9, 350–1
positive control 352, 353
preferences for limits to 344–6
steering committees 341–2
tough votes 351–2
agenda setting and interest groups 16–17, 519, 522
and biased representativeness 519, 520–1, 528–9, 530
class 529
federalism 531–2
occupational nature of group system 529–30
policy agenda 530–1
presence in Washington 531
and cascade effects 526–7
and conflict 519–20
and framing 522–3
stability of frames 523–4
and future research on 532–3
and heresthetics 523
and individual vs collective behaviors 525–6
and influence of 542–4
and issue salience 519
and non‐decisions 521–2
and power laws 527
and public salience of dispute 525
and subsystems 521, 528
and venue shopping 524–5
alienation, and third party voting 238
(p. 683) ambition theory, and candidate selection 169, 170–1
America Ballet Theatre 427
America Coming Together (ACT) 218, 311, 566, 572, 573
American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) 43, 52, 427, 579–80
American Beekeeping Association 427
American Farm Bureau Federation 571
American Federation of Labor‐Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL‐CIO):
and brokerage role 579
Committee on Political Education 374, 579
and elections 562, 563, 564
American Independent Party 224, 237
American Medical Association 574
American National Election Studies (ANES) 78, 214
American Political Science Association, and Committee on Political Parties 367, 406, 521
American Republican party 107
Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) 363
America Votes 566
Anti‐Federalists 380
Antimason party 107
Archer Medical Savings Account Coalition 578–9
Australian ballot 226
ballot access 406
and third parties 226–30
ballot initiatives, and political consultants 305
Bank of the United States 382
bias, and interest groups 14, 425, 519, 520–1, 528–9, 530
class 529
federalism 531–2
occupational nature of group system 529–30
policy agenda 530–1
presence in Washington 531
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) (2002) 218, 251, 307, 572
Blue Dog Democrats 368, 371, 373
Boston:
and citizen participation 510–11, 512–13
and the ‘Vault’ (Boston Coordinating Committee) 508
Bull‐Moose Party, see Progressive Party
bureaucracy, and interest group influence 539, 543–4
business:
and assessing influence of 460–2
context of policy determinants 462
diversity of business interests 462
Social Security 460–1
taxes 461–2
and conceptions of:
class unity 454–5
interlocking directorates 454
levels of analysis 455
pluralism 454
power elite theory 454
and conditional nature of influence 463–6
environmental policy 466
fluctuation of 463–4
public image of issues 464–5
public opinion 465–6
state of economy 463
and elections 559–60
and influence of 14–15, 466–7
approaches to studying 467
public suspicion of 451–2
and neglect by political science 452–3
and participation in politics 454–9
collective action problems 455–6
competitors' activities 456–7
conceptions of business 454–5
economic characteristics of firms 456
focus on large corporations 458–9
foreign‐owned firms 456
future research on 459
government initiative 457
inside/outside lobbying 454
internal policy capacity 458
levels of participation 455
location of ownership 456
organizational features of firms 458
profit maximization 456
single corporations 455, 456
size of corporation 456
small business 459
social welfare policy 458
strategies 457–8
and Washington Representatives directory 434–5
Business Roundtable 43
California:
and political consultants 304–5
and Proposition 187, 472
and Proposition 209, 472
and Proposition 8, 472
campaign finance:
and Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (2002) 218, 251, 307, 572
and Federal Election Campaign Act 248, 306, 453, 571–2
(p. 684)
and federal matching funds 194
and impact on candidate selection 171
and independent expenditure by national parties 308
and interest groups 48, 554–5
corporations and trade associations 559–60
impact on outcomes 563–4
impact on policy 564–5
labor unions 560
and Internet 251
and national party organizations 250–2
Congressional elections 257–60
presidential elections 256–7
and party‐interest group co‐evolution 571–3
and presidential nomination campaign 197
and reform of 193–4, 305–6
and Republican advantage 250–1
and soft money 251–2, 306–7, 308
and targeted appeals 251
and voter cynicism 211
cartel theory 330–1, 340, 347–9, 352
cascade effects, and agenda setting 526–7
Catalist 312
Center for Law and Social Policy 469
Central Intelligence Agency 391
Central Valley Project 305
Chamber of Commerce 43, 312, 457, 560, 562
Chicago School of Economics, and interest group theory 45–6
choices, and social consequences of 83
Christian Coalition 557, 561, 564, 566, 567, 584
Citizens for Better Medicare 560
civic engagement 50–1
Civil Rights Act (1964) 482
civil rights movement:
and Johnson's presidency 392–3
and party coalitions 126
Civil War, and party warfare 108–9
class:
and interest groups 442
bias 529
and New Deal coalition 125
and party identification 116
Club for Growth 561, 575
coalitions, and interest group theory 51–2 see also Congress (US), and party coalitions; party coalitions
coalition theory, and niche theory 54
collective action:
and logic of 40–1, 42, 45, 426, 430, 450, 455
and problem of 288
Colonial Penn Life Insurance Company 43
Committee on Public Information (CPI) 386
Common Cause 42, 43
Comparative Manifestoes Project 71–2
concept stretching 495
conditional party government (CPG) model 60, 61, 331, 337, 340, 347
and Congress 327–8
conflict, and interest groups 519–20
Congress (US), and party coalitions 12–13, 358
in age of partisanship:
Bush (George H W) presidency 372, 373
Bush (George W) presidency 373
Clinton presidency 372, 373
Obama presidency 373–4
polarization of parties 373
Reagan presidency 371–2
sorting of parties 372–3
and Conservative Coalition 358, 366–7, 371
and durability of 370
and electoral factors 375
and historical persistence of 360–1
and inter‐party coalitions 367
and intraparty coalitions 367–70
and left‐right ideological space 359, 360
and minimum winning coalitions 358, 367
and new forms of bipartisanship 374–5
and origins of 375
and party polarization 361–8, 373
degree of partisan overlap 360, 363–6
differences in party medians 362
divisive roll calls 374
post‐Second World War bipartisanship 362–3
reemergence of 366, 368, 375
similar patterns in House and Senate 366
Whigs and Democrats 361
and party preferences, partisan overlap 359–60
and policy area and location 371
and preference distribution 368–9
and preference perspective 369–71, 375
Congress (US), and party organization 11–12
and strengthening of 323–4
and textbook Congress 324
incumbency advantage 325
ombudsman role of members 325
reelection as priority 324–5
seniority system 325
Congressional caucus, and presidential nomination 188–9
(p. 685) Conservative Opportunity Society (COS) 277
consociationism, and interest group theory 46
Constitutional Convention:
and presidential election 186–7
and presidential nomination 187–8
constitutional structures, as exogenous institution 22–3 see also electoral rules
consultants, see political consultants
Contract with America 240–1, 372
conventions (national party) 10
and activities at 256
and adaptability of 284
as arena 266, 267, 271
and bifurcated nature of 272–4
and choreography of 255
and delegates:
characteristics of 277–8
ideological representation 278–80
influence on top leadership 280
role of 280
and Democratic Party:
McGovern‐Fraser Commission 191–3
superdelegates 194–6, 249
and differences between 281–2
and educating activists 274
and evolution of American politics 282–3
and gain in public support 282
as infomercial 269–70, 271–4
and loss of nominee's acceptance speech 283
as mechanism 266–7
and mediating role 265
and message of 274–7
adjustments to contemporary conditions 276
grand programmatic party differences 275–6
new policy initiatives 276–7
and modern evolution of 268–71
conflicts 269
delegate selection 268–9
eliminating conflicts 270
into an infomercial 269–70
loss of control of nomination 268–9
role of media 270
and national party campaigning 255–6
and origins of 266
as partisan institution 264, 265
and policy development 280–1
and presidential nomination:
decline of role in 200–1
mixed system (1912–1968) 190–1
pure convention system (1832–1908) 189–90
and program of 273–4
and shortening of 283
and social change 267
and televising of 201, 255, 271–2, 273
and transitions in 283–4
corporatism, and interest group theory 46
corruption, and sectionalized party system (1850s–1890s) 110–11
countervailing power, and interest group theory 37–8, 43–4
courts, and interest group influence 539
credibility, and party promises in government 31–4
crises, and social and economic justice advocacy organizations 479–81
critical elections, see party history
Cuban missile crisis 78
cultural issues:
and faith‐based politics 151, 161
and party coalitions 127, 128, 129
democracy, and political parties 286
Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC) 212
and formation of 246
and fundraising 250
and staffing levels 252
and state and local party building 253
Democratic Forum 371, 372
Democratic National Committee (DNC) 212, 218, 219
and 2008 election campaign 249–50
and election expenditure 256–7
and ensuring compliance with national rules 249
and formation of 246
and increased influence of 249
and state and local party building 253
and structure of 252
Democratic Party:
and Congressional elections:
campaigning services 260–1
financial assistance 257–60
and electoral coalition:
1960s 127
1960s‐1980s 128–30
faith‐based party coalition in 1952152–5
faith‐based party coalition in 2008 156–9
group components of (1952–2004) 133–5
lower‐ and working‐class 125
multivariate analysis of group components 139
New Deal coalition 124–5
South 124
(p. 686)
and fundraising 250–1, 252, 309
as liberal party 130–1
and New Deal party system 115–18
and party organization:
2008 election campaign 216–17, 218–19
institutionalization of 249–50
and party system 1890s–1930s 113
and political consultants 313
and post‐1968 party system 118–19
and presidential nomination:
McGovern‐Fraser Commission 191–3, 247–8
superdelegates 194–6, 249
and sectionalized party system (1850s–1890s) 107–9, 110
and voter databases 311–12
Democratic‐Republicans 104, 105
Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee (DSCC):
and formation of 246
and fundraising 250
and staffing levels 252
and state and local party building 253
Democratic Study Group 367
Demzilla 311
direct democracy, and Progressive reforms 384, 385, 405
disjointed pluralism 332
distributive politics, and interest group theory 41
Duverger's Law 24–5, 226
and party positioning in spatial model 25–6
and voters' evaluation of parties 26–7
economics, and interest group theory 45–6
election campaigns:
and activists 30–1
and credibility of party promises in government 31–4
and issue advocacy advertisements 251–2
and median voter theorem 28–9
and microtargeting 311
and national party organizations 246–7, 263
advertising 309–10
campaigning services 260–1
candidate recruitment 254–5
Congressional elections 257–61
national conventions 255–6
presidential elections 256–7
state and local elections 262
and nomination procedures 29–30
and political consultants 315–16
advertising‐driven campaigns 309–10
capital‐intensive campaigns 307–9
and political party theory 28–9
and transition to candidate‐centered 247, 248
and voter databases 311–12
elections, interest groups in 17, 552–3
and cooperation between 566
and decision to be active 556–8
corporate PAC formation 557–8
election‐oriented groups 557
exception rather than rule 556–7
lack of studies of 557
as rational decision 557
and diverse activities in 552
and electoral strategies:
adoption of new activities 562
assessing effectiveness 562
changing 562–3
corporations and trade associations 559–60
ideological groups 561
innovation in 562
labor unions 560–1
leadership change 563
membership associations 561
networks 562
use of resources 558–9
and future research on 567
and impact on election outcomes 563–4
and impact on policy 564–5
and interest group theory 47–50
and partisan networks 566
and problems in studying 553
conceptual issues 553–4
data issues 554–5
endogeneity issues 556
and scholarly disagreements 553
electoral coalitions, see party coalitions
electoral college 186–7
electoral rules:
and first‐past‐the‐post system 406
and number of parties 23–5
Duverger's Law 24–5
party positioning in spatial model 25–6
proportional systems 27–8
voters' evaluation of parties 26–7
Electronics Industry Alliance 577
elite democracy 219–20
EMILY's List 557, 575
Empirical Implications of Theoretical Models (EITM) 59
Espionage Act (1917) 387
European Court of Justice 525
European Union 525
event history analysis 85–6
Executive Reorganization Act (1939) 390–1
(p. 687) factionalism 285
Farm Bureau 43
Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) 247, 248, 306, 453, 497, 498, 571–2
Federal Election Commission (FEC) 555
federalism, and agenda setting 531–2
Federalist Papers 84, 570
and influence of 37–8
Federalists 101, 102, 103, 380
Federal Reserve Act (1913) 386
Federal Trade Commission (FTC) 386
feedback effects, and social and economic justice advocacy organizations 481–3
Ford Foundation 43, 427
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act 352
framing:
and agenda setting 522–3
and interest group theory 47
and stability of 523–4
free‐rider problem, and interest groups 429, 449
Free Soil party 107
Friends of the Earth 43
game theory, and interest groups 89–90
General Motors 427
grassroots activism, and renewed interest in 220
Grassroots Targeting LLC 311
Great Society 393
Greenback Party 233
Greenpeace 540–1
group membership:
and social capital 82–3
and social consequences of 83–4
group theory, and interest group theory, 38–9, 79–80
Hamiltonian nationalism 219–20
Handgun Control 562, 563
Hepburn Act (1906) 385
heresthetics 523
HIV/AIDS 474
House of Representatives (US), and party effects 11–12
and agenda setting 330, 331, 352–3
centrality of 332–4
conference committee process 336–7
discharge petitions 336
House Rules Committee control 334–6
mechanisms of 336
motion to recommit 336
and cartel theory 330–1
and committee system 324
reform of 326
and conditional party government 327–8, 331, 337
and debate over 326–30
and incumbency advantage 325
and institutional reforms 326
and legislative change 337
and members' motives 324, 326, 328, 338
and ombudsman role of members 325
and reelection as priority 324–5
and relevance of earlier research 338
and seniority system 325
end of 326
and strengthening of 323–4, 327
and textbook Congress 324
identity:
and party identification 67
and party‐interest group linkages 582–5
identity groups, and interest group representation 439
ideological groups, and elections 561
ideology:
and activists 411–12
and candidate selection 176
primary elections 176–7
and party identification 131
issue positions 131–2
and state parties 411–13
and state partisanship 409
and voting patterns 61, 62
immigration, and religious diversity 145–6
impossibility theorem 21
incumbency advantage 32
influence of interest groups:
as allies to politicians and government officials 544–5
acting as service bureaus 546
information provision 545–6
and bureaucracy 539, 543–4
and Congressional committees 542–3
and contingent nature of 548–9
and contradictory findings about 536–7
on bureaucracy 539
in courts 539
number of lobbyists 538–9
PAC influence 537–9
trade policy 536–7
and countervailing pressure 549
and definition of terms:
influence 536
lobbying 535
and difficulties in assessing 534–5
and explaining contradictory findings about 540 (p. 688)
focusing on outcomes 541–2
ignoring policy formation stages 542
selecting on dependent variable 540–1
wrong assumptions about how policy works 547–9
wrong assumptions about interest groups 544–7
and gaining access 542
and heterogeneity of opposing policy sides 547–8
and obtaining news coverage 546–7
and policy formation 542–3
and power of status quo 548
and sources of:
acting as service bureaus 550–1
assistance in re‐election 550
bribery or bought votes 550
and Supreme Court 539, 543
information:
and biases in 92–3
and interest groups 92–3
interest group liberalism 41
interest groups:
and associations of institutions 427
and barriers to emergence of 426, 429
free‐rider problem 429, 449
resource constraints 429–30, 449
and biased representativeness 14, 425, 519, 520–1, 528–9, 530
class 529
federalism 531–2
occupational nature of group system 529–30
policy agenda 530–1
presence in Washington 531
and campaign finance 48
and citizen groups 442
and class 442
and comparative work 492–3
avoiding comparisons 492–4
cross‐national comparisons 494–6
cross‐sector analyses 499–500
time‐series analyses 496–9
and conflict 519–20
and decline in individual associational involvement 441–2
and definition of 553
and distribution of 433
changes in 444–6
and entry into politics 430, 446, 447, 450
and growth of 87, 441, 443–4
and non‐individual member based 427, 430
and political parties 17–18
and pressure system 425, 427
and range of scholarship domain 77–8
and representation 49–50, 426, 449
problems with 427–8
and significance of 426, 449
and third parties 223
and types of organizations 427
and Washington Representatives directory 430–1
agricultural sector 435
births and deaths of organizations 446–7
business dominance 433, 434–5
changes in distribution of organizations 444–6
changes in political status of organizations 446–7
distribution of organizations 433
diversity of organizations 433
economic organizations 434–5
educational sector 435, 443
foreign organizations 440–1
growth of organizations 441, 443–4
health sector 435, 443
identity groups 439
labor unions 435–6, 443, 445–6
less privileged representation 438–9
occupational associations 436–8
organizational categories 432
professional associations 436
public interest groups 434, 440
scope of 431–2
interest group theory 5–6, 55–6
and Chicago School of Economics 45–6
and civic engagement 50–1
and coalitions 51–2
and complex political system theory 47
and consociationism 46
and corporatism 46
and countervailing power 37–8, 43–4
and developments in 46–7
and distributive politics 41
(p. 689)
and economics 45–6
and elections 47–50
and four‐step theoretical framework 37–44
and free‐rider problem 429, 449
and game theory 89–90
and group theory 38–9, 79–80
and interest group liberalism 41
and internal democracy 54–5
and limits on numbers 81–2
and lobbying power 52–3
and logic of collective action 40–1, 42, 45, 426, 430, 450, 455
and multiple‐elitism 40–2
and neopluralism 42–3, 50
logic of collective action 45
network theory 44–5
social movements 44
and niche theory 53–4
and participation 49, 50–1
and pluralism 39–40, 79–80, 428–9, 454
criticisms of 84–6, 429
and political attention theory 47
and political consumerism 51
and power of interest groups 50
and representativeness 49–50, 426
and statism 46–7
interlocking directorates, and business 454
internal democracy, and interest group theory 54–5
Internet, and fundraising 251
intersectionality, and social and economic justice advocacy organizations 473–5
Inter‐University Consortium for Political and Social Research 417
Iowa, and presidential nomination campaign 197–9
issue advocacy advertisements 251–2, 261
issue evolution 292
issue networks 43
Jacksonian Democrats 104, 105, 106, 381–2
Jeffersonian localism 220
Jeffersonian Republicans 101, 102, 103, 380
Katrina, Hurricane 399
Keating Five scandal 565
Know Nothing party 107
K Street Project 576–8
labor unions:
and elections 560–1
and interest groups 435–6, 443, 445–6
and party identification of members 74
Leadership Conference on Civil Rights 51
League of Conservation Voters (LCV) 374, 566
legal cases:
Buckley v Valeo (1976) 306, 307, 572
California Democratic Party v Jones (2000) 176
Colorado Republican Federal Campaign Committee Party v FEC (1996) 307
Eu v San Francisco County Democratic Central Committee (1989) 176
Roe v Wade (1973) 128
Tashjian v Republican Party of Connecticut (1986) 175–6
Liberty party 107
lobbying coalitions 51–2, 80–1
Lobbying Disclosure Act (1995) 431, 487, 497, 498
Log Cabin Republicans 583, 585
logic of collective action, and interest group theory 40–1, 42, 45, 426, 430, 450, 455
McGovern‐Fraser Commission 175, 191–3
and effects of 247–8
and reviews of 194
machine politics 110, 111
and decline of 247
Main Street Partnership 575
majority tyranny 38, 84
manifestoes, see platforms
maximum likelihood evaluation (MLE) 87–8
Media Fund 566, 573
median voter theorem 28–9
Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) (2003) 578–9, 580
methodological issues, and interest groups 6, 78–9, 93–4
and comparative work 492–3
avoiding comparisons 492–4
cross‐national comparisons 494–6
cross‐sector analyses 499–500
time‐series analyses 496–9
and descriptive work 86
institutions 91–2
lists of group behaviors 88–9
maximum likelihood evaluation (MLE) 87–8
patterns in descriptive data 87–8
problems with 86
scope of analysis 91
unobserved interests and actions 89–91
and game theory 89–90
and information 92–3
biases in 92–3
opinion polls 93
(p. 690)
and pluralism and sociological models 79–86
consequences of group membership 83–4
criticism of pluralism 84–6
event history analysis 85–6
networks 80–1
partitioning games 81–2
social capital 82–3
methodological issues, and political parties 6, 75–6
and difficulties in studying 57–8
and need for creativity 75, 76
and party as organization 63
social networks analysis 63–6
and party cleavages 69–70
party platforms 70–2
polarization 75
quantitative analysis of platforms 71–2
realignment 74–5
textual analysis of platforms 72–3
voting coalitions 73–4
voting records 70
and party in government 59–63
voting patterns 59–63
and party in the electorate 66–9
party identification 66–9
and qualitative approaches 58
and quantitative approaches 58–9
Microsoft 557
microtargeting of voters 311
minimum winning coalitions 358, 367
Mobilization for Global Justice (MGJ) 480
momentum, and presidential nomination campaign 197–9
MoveOn.org 573, 575, 583
Mugwumps 110
multiple‐elitism, and interest group theory 40–2
Napoleonic wars 103
National American Woman Suffrage Association 468
National Asian Pacific American Law Center 469
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) 468, 469, 562, 566
National Association of Children's Hospitals 427
National Association of Letter Carriers 562
National Council of La Raza 469
National Education Association 312
National Farmers' Union (NFU) 374
National Federation of Independent Business 459
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) 427
National Organization for Women (NOW) 43, 469, 584
National Republican Campaign Committee 212
National Republican Congressional Committee (NRCC):
and formation of 246
and staffing levels 252
and state and local party building 253
National Republicans 104, 381, 382
National Republican Senatorial Committee (NRSC):
and formation of 246
and staffing levels 252
and state and local party building 253
National Retired Teachers' Association 43
National Rifle Association (NRA) 43, 52, 312, 454, 557, 561
National Right to Life 561
National Security Act (1947) 391
National Security Council 391
National Taxpayers' Union (NTU) 374
National Woman's Party 468
negative campaigning 211, 261
neopluralism:
and interest group theory 42–3, 47, 50
and social movements 44 see also interest group theory
netroots, and 2008 election campaign 204, 217
network theory:
and interest group theory 44–5, 80–1
and lobbying coalitions 51–2, 80–1 see also social networks analysis
New Deal coalition:
and construction of 125
and decline of 133–5
and impact on party coalitions 123–5
New Deal party system 115–17
New Hampshire, and presidential nomination campaign 197–9
new institutional economics 22
new liberalism 387–8
new media, and 2008 election campaign 204, 217
new nationalism 386–7
niche theory:
and coalition theory 54
and interest group theory 53–4
NOMINATE 60, 61
nomination process (presidential) 8
and activists 290–1
and campaign finance 197
and candidate withdrawals 199
and decline in role of national conventions 200–1
(p. 691)
and Democratic Party:
McGovern‐Fraser Commission 191–3, 247–8
superdelegates 194–6, 249
and early securing of nomination 199–200
and growth of research on 185
and history of:
Congressional caucus 188–9
Framers' system (1787–1792) 186–8
mixed system (1912–1968) 190–1
plebiscitary system (1972‐present) 191–4
pure convention system (1832–1908) 189–90
rise of deliberate coordination (1796–1828) 188–9
and invisible primary 196–7
and knowledge gaps 186
and lack of success of legislative leaders 203
and length of nomination campaign 196, 203
and messiness of 203
and momentum during campaign 197–9
and political system 202–3
and presidential power 202–3
and prominence of New Hampshire and Iowa 197–9
and Republican Party reforms 193
and significance of 185
and testing of campaign themes and issues 197
and voter behavior in primaries 201–2
nomination process (state and local) 8
and activists 290–1
and candidate‐centered approaches 168
and democratic perspectives on 166
and future research on 183–4
and impact on candidate selection 168–9
ambition theory 169, 170–1
campaign finance 171
district‐level variables 172–3
pipeline theory 171–2
political culture 172
primary elections 169–71
runoff primaries 170
sociological approaches 171–2
strategic‐actor theory 169
system‐level analysis 173
utility models 169–71
women 171–2
and impact on political parties 174–5
decline of minority party 178–9
divisive primaries 179–80
factional power 175–6
ideology 176–7
legal environment 175–6
minority party decay 178–9, 184
party competition and party system 178–80
party loyalty 176
third parties 180–1
and inclusiveness of 165
and knowledge gaps 167–8
and limitations on citizen choice 165–6
and paucity of research on 167, 183
and power 183
and representation and governing:
democratic outcomes 181–2, 183
inclusiveness 182
policy positions 182
and role of national party organization 254–5
and role of parties 166
and significance of 165, 183
and value of research on 167
and voter participation 181
non‐decision making 85, 521–2
non‐partisan elections, and Progressive reforms 405
normalcy 387
November Fund 573
occupational associations, and interest groups 436
absence of low‐skill occupations 438
narrow coverage of 436–8
Office of Management and Budget 399
oligarchy, iron law of 54, 147, 477
opinion polls:
and issue salience 93
and political consultants 314
participation:
and impact of nomination processes 181
and interest group theory 49, 50–1
and urban interest groups 509–11
partitioning games 81–2
party cartel model 60, 70
party cleavages:
and party platforms 70–2
and polarization 75
and realignments 74–5
and voting coalitions 73–4
and voting records 70
party coalitions 141–2
and changes in 122, 141–2
1940s‐1960s 126–8
1960s‐1980s 128–30
immediate post‐FDR era 126–8
uncertain nature of 122–3
and construction of 123
difficulties 122–3
risk 123
and continuity of old patterns 124
(p. 692)
and cultural issues 127, 128, 129
religion 151
and current partisan coalitions 130–41
group components of (1952–2004) 133–9
multivariate analysis of group components 139–41
partisan conflict 130–2
and dealignment of electorate 129
and Democratic Party:
faith‐based party coalition in 1952 152–5
faith‐based party coalition in 2008 156–9
group components of (1952–2004) 133–5
multivariate analysis of group components 139
and ethno‐religious groups, history of party coalitions 148–50
and ethno‐theological groups 150–1, 160–1
and group‐based electoral politics 121–2
and ideological divisions 130–1
presidential vote 131–2
and New Deal coalition 123–5
construction of 125
decline of 133–5
lower‐ and working‐class 125
South 124
and race 126, 128
and religious groups 144
ethno‐religious groups 148–50
ethno‐theological groups 150–1, 160–1
faith‐based party coalitions in 1952 152–5
faith‐based party coalitions in 2008 156–9
future of faith‐based politics 161
and Republican Party:
conservative turn 127–8, 129–30
faith‐based party coalition in 1952 152–5
faith‐based party coalition in 2008 156–9
group components of (1952–2004) 135–9
multivariate analysis of group components 139–41
and social change 122
1960s 127
party history 6–8
and 1890s–1930s:
economic breakdown 112
Populist challenge 112
sectionalization 113
and changes in 98
and continuities in 98
and critical election‐realignment approach 98–9
and early hostility towards parties 99–100
and emergence in 1790s 100–2
religious groups 148–9
and Jacksonians versus Whigs 103–7
religious groups 149
and loss of party primacy 120
and New Deal party system 115–18
religious groups 150
and party system 1890s‐1930s
Progressive movement 114
religious groups 149–50
voter pool 113
weakening of party organization 113–14
and post‐1968 party system, religious groups 118–20, 150–1
and sectionalized party system (1850s–1890s) 107–12
Civil War 108–9
corruption 110–11
reform movement 111–12
religious groups 149
party identification:
and dealignment of electorate 129
and decline in:
breakdown of party tickets 212
cynicism over campaign finance 211
discounting young 212
independent candidates 212
negative campaigning 211
party organization resurgence 210–11
reducing electorate size 212
scandal politics 211–12
weakening of local party structures 213
and growth in 204–5
and ideology 131
and methodological issues 66–9
and religious groups 144, 151
faith‐based party coalitions in 1952 152–5
faith‐based party coalitions in 2008 156–9
and stability of 67
and state parties 408–9
and voting behavior 66–7
party organization 9–10
and 2008 election campaign 204, 216–17, 400–1
impact of 218–19
local party structures 217
and creation of national organizations 246
and decline in party identification 210–11
breakdown of party tickets 212
cynicism over campaign finance 211
discounting young 212
independent candidates 212
negative campaigning 211
reducing electorate size 212
scandal politics 211–12
(p. 693)
weakening of local party structures 213
and Federal Election Campaign Act (1971) 247, 248
and fundraising 250–2
Internet 251
political consultants 309, 314
Republican advantage 250–1
soft money 251–2
targeted appeals 251
and growth in influence of national organizations 253
and Hamiltonian nationalism 219–20
and informal nature of 64
and institutionalization of 262–3
Democratic Party 249–50
meaning of 250
Republican Party 249
and Jeffersonian localism 220
and McGovern‐Fraser Commission 191–3, 247–8
and national party campaigning 263
advertising 309–10
campaigning services 260–1
candidate recruitment 254–5
Congressional elections 257–61
national conventions 255–6
presidential elections 256–7
state and local elections 262
and opportunity for citizen engagement 220–1
and organizational infrastructure 252
and party campaigning:
local party committees 247
role of national organizations 246–7
state party committees 247
transition to candidate‐centered 247, 248
and political action committees (PACs) 252–3
and resurgence of 205, 206–9, 245, 248–50
decline in party identification 210–11
effects of 208–9
financial and campaign activities 207–8, 213
growth in party finance 206–7
impact on turnout 216–17
indicators of 207
limits of 209–10
and service‐orientation 207–8
and social networks analysis 63–6
problems with 66
and state and local party building 253
and state parties 409–13
changes in 409–11
ideology 411–13
policy platforms 410–11
resurgence of 410
and two‐tier structure of national organizations 252
and voter loyalty 213 see also political consultants
party system, and definition of 26
patrons, and interest groups 43
Pendleton Act 384, 385
perceptual screen, and party identification 68–9
pivotal politics model 59
Planned Parenthood 563, 566
platforms, and party cleavages 70–2
quantitative analysis 71–2
textual analysis 72–3
pluralism:
and interest group theory 39–40, 79–80, 428–9, 454
criticisms of 84–6, 429
and prescriptive pluralism 84
and urban interest groups 509
polarization 75
Policy Agendas Project 530
policy learning 482–3
political action committees (PACs) 206
and contributions by 453
influence of 537–9
and corporate formation of 557–8
and corporations and trade associations 559
and impact on policy 564–5
and interest groups in elections 553, 554
and labor unions 560
and membership associations 561
and party‐interest group linkages 572
and proliferation of 248
and relationship with parties 252–3
political attention, theory of 47
political consultants 11
and advantages to parties of using 316
and advertising 309–10, 314, 315
and candidate and opposition research 314
and capital‐intensive campaigns 307–9
and expansion in use of 305
and fundraising 307–9, 314
and future research on 318–19
and interdependence with political parties 315–16
coordination 316
and legal and accounting services 313–14
and media production 314
and multiple employers of 303–4
and national party organizations 253
and origin of campaign consultants 304–5
and party funding of 307
and party strategies for use of 312 (p. 694)
Democratic Party 313
Republican Party 312
and persuasion 315
and polling 314
and role in electoral politics 303–5
and state party relationships 313
and voter databases 311–12, 313
and voter mobilization 315
and voting process 315
and weakening of parties debate 316–18
accommodation to candidate‐centered politics 317
sign of adaptation 318
weakening parties 317
political consumerism, and interest group theory 51
political culture, and candidate selection 172
political parties:
as bridging institutions 286
and brokerage role 581
and centrality of 403–4
as coalitions of interests 69
as conspiracy 58
and democracy 286
as electoral institutions 245–6, 262
as endogenous institutions 21
and endurance of 97
and goal of 7
and group‐based nature of 121–2
as institutions 21
and interest groups 17–18
and internal diversity of 121, 122
as locus of collective responsibility 285
and party unity 205
political parties and interest groups, linkages between 569
brokerage 578–82
interest groups as brokers between parties 579–80
interest groups as brokers within party coalitions 578–9
networks 581–2
parties as brokers between interest groups 580
co‐evolution of 570–3
527 organizations 572–3
campaign finance 571–3
competition 571
cooperation 571–3
contest between 568
discipline 574–8
difficulties in achieving 574–5
group leadership positions 576–7
K Street Project 576–8
nomination process 575–6
future research on 585–7
biographical approach 586
historical interactions 585
party and group coalitions 586
party‐group networks 586
reorientation required 586–7
identity 582–5
group identity and party conflict 583–4
group identity and party success 584
interaction of party and group identities 582
party identity and group conflict 583
party identity strengthening groups 584
perspectives on relationship 568–9
power struggle between 574
political science, and call for stronger parties 406–7
popular democracy 220
Populist Party 112, 224, 227, 233, 238
power:
and Dahl's pluralism 39–40
and interest groups 50
and nomination processes 183
power elite theory 39, 454
power laws, and agenda setting 527
POWs for Truth 572
presidency, and relationship with political parties 13, 377–8
under Bush's (George W) presidency 396–400
administrative overreach 399
closeness of president and party 396
national party machine 397–8
party building 396, 397
party reliance on president 399–400
recasting role of government 397
(p. 695)
relationship with Congressional Republicans 399
unilateralism 399
use of executive power 398–9
and dependence on 378
and erosion of collective responsibility 390, 394, 395, 399, 402
and executive‐centered party system 379, 402
under Johnson's (Lyndon B) presidency 392–3
and new party system 379, 401–2
under Obama's presidency 400–1
election campaign 400–1
integration of campaign organization 401
and post‐Civil War period 383
and Progressive era 384–5
under Reagan's presidency 393–6
administrative politics 395
centralization of power 394
party building 394–5
and rise of mass party system (1790s–1850s) 380–3
Federalists vs Republicans 380–1
government centralization 381
government decentralization 382
Jacksonian Democrats 381–2
restraint on executive power 383
Whigs 382
and rise of modern presidency 378–9
under Roosevelt's (Franklin D) presidency 387–91
administrative presidency 391
advantages and dangers of changes 392
challenge to traditional party organization 389
changed understanding of rights 388–9
communication with public 390, 391–2
Executive Reorganization Act (1939) 390–1
expansion of executive power 390–1
New Deal manifesto 388
new liberalism 387–8
transformation of executive office 391–2
under Roosevelt's (Theodore) presidency 385
under Wilson's presidency 386–7
presidential nominations, see nomination process (presidential)
primary elections:
and candidate platforms 30
and candidate selection 169–71
and decline of minority party 178–9, 184
and direct primaries 175, 179
and ideological polarization 176–7
and impact on general election 179–80
and lack of competition 179
and party competition and party system 178–80
and presidential primaries 190–1
sequential nature of 198
voter behavior 201–2
and Progressive reforms 405
and runoff primaries 170, 175, 178–9
and third parties 180–1
and voter participation 181
professional associations, and interest groups 436
Progress for America 572, 573
Progressive movement 114
and reforms 384–5, 405–6
direct democracy 405
non‐partisan elections 405
primary elections 405
Progressive Party 113, 223, 224, 385
Prohibition Party 223, 224, 227
promises, and credibility of party promises in government 31–4
proportional systems, and number of parties 27–8
public interest groups 42–3, 434, 440, 472
public opinion:
and agenda setting 525
and business influence 465–6
and interest groups 493–4
and party identification 68–9
public policy making, and influence of interest groups, see influence of interest groups
race, and party coalitions 126, 128
Rainbow Coalition 584
rational choice theory:
and Duverger's Law 24–5
and political parties 23
Reconstruction, and party system 109
religion, and party politics 7–8
and constitutional protection 146
and contemporary faith‐based party coalitions 152
in 1952 152–5
in 2008 156–9, 161
and cultural issues 151, 161
and diversity of religious groups 145
and dynamism of religious groups 146
and ethno‐religious groups 145–6
history of party coalitions 148–50
and ethno‐theological groups 146, 160–1
party coalitions 150–1
and future structure of faith‐based politics 161
as important feature of 144
(p. 696)
and interaction between 147
and marketplace in religion 146–7
and partisanship 144, 151
and party coalitions 144
ethno‐religious groups 148–50
ethno‐theological groups 150–1, 160–1
and presidential campaign (2008) 143, 144, 159–60
and religious observance 146, 148, 150–1, 158, 161
and secularization 146
as source of values and interests 145, 160
representation, and interest groups 49–50, 426, 449
problems with 427–8 see also bias, and interest groups
Republican National Committee (RNC) 206, 250
and election expenditure 257
and formation of 246
and fundraising 250–1
and state and local party building 253
and structure of 252
Republican Party:
and Congressional elections:
campaigning services 260–1
financial assistance 257–60
and electoral coalition:
1940s–1960s 126–8
1960s–1980s 128–30
conservative turn 127–8, 129–30
faith‐based party coalition in 1952 152–5
faith‐based party coalition in 2008 156–9
group components of (1952–2004) 135–9
multivariate analysis of group components 139–41
New Deal era 126
South 126
and fundraising 250–1, 252, 306, 309
and ideological position 130, 131
and K Street Project 576–8
and New Deal party system 115–16, 117–18
and party organization 217, 219
institutionalization of 249
and party system 1890s–1930s 113
and political consultants 312
and presidential nomination reforms 193
and sectionalized party system (1850s–1890s) 107–9, 110
and voter databases 311
Republicans for Clean Air 554
resource mobilization theory 44
rhetorical presidency 385, 386, 388
rights, and New Deal understanding of 388–9
Right to Life Party 223
Second Bank of the United States 381
secularization 146
Sedition Act (1918) 387
Senate (US), and party effects 12
and agenda setting 340
cartel theory 348–9, 352
constraints of inherited rules 344, 346
evolution of 341–2
majority leader 342–3
minority party strategy 351–2
negative control 348–9, 350–1
positive control 352, 353
preferences for limits to 344–6
steering committees 341–2
tough votes 351–2
and cartel theory 340, 347–9, 352
and conditional party government 340, 347
and consensus 349–50
and electoral process 341
and incentives for majority party cooperation 340
and majority leader 342
agenda setting 342–3, 353
first recognition 342, 343, 353, 354, 355
lack of powers 343
resources of 343
and multiple‐goals assumption 356–7
and origins and development of party institutions and offices 340–2
and roll rates 348–50
and Senate rules 339–40
constraints on changes to 344–6
nuclear option for changing 344, 345, 346
and unanimous consent agreements 342–3
and value of organizational control 353–6
custom‐based 354–5
political context 357
proposal power 355–6
Service Employees' International Union (SEIU) 311, 572
Shell Oil 540–1
Sierra Club 43, 454, 557, 561, 562, 563, 566, 572
Smoot‐Hawley tariff 41
Snack Food Association 427
social and economic justice advocacy organizations and movements 15, 470, 483–4
and comparison with other interest groups 471–2 (p. 697)
differences from 471–2
similarities with 471
as compensatory representatives 473–6
access for excluded 473
entrenchment in national politics 473
improving representation 476
intersectional perspective 473–5
middle‐class bias 473, 475
politics of recognition 473
state and local level 476
and disadvantages faced by 469
and effects of institutionalization 476–8
abeyance structures 477
facilitating engagement 478
participation and representation trade‐off 477–8
positive aspects 477
and effects on politics and public policy 479–83
difficulties in assessing 479
feedback effects 481–3
impact of crises 479–81
and expansion of 469
and future research on 484
and goals of 479
and interest group theory 43, 44
and ‘political opportunities’ theory of 44
and research approach to 470–1
as voice for marginalized groups 468–9
social capital 80
and crosscutting and reinforcing cleavages 82–3
and deterioration in 442
and interest groups 82–3
social change:
and electoral coalition, 1960s 127
and national conventions 267
and party coalition change 122
social networks analysis:
and interest groups 80–1
and lobbyists 80–1
and party organization 63–6
social welfare policy, and business 458
spatial model, and party positioning 25–6
special interests, see interest groups
split‐ticket voting:
and electoral volatility 211
and increase in 129
spoils system 105, 382
state interest group research 15–16
and comparative advantages of 491–2
difficulties with cross‐national comparisons 494–6
difficulties with cross‐sector analyses 499–500
difficulties with time‐series analyses 496–9
national level avoidance of comparison 492–4
and dominance of descriptive studies 485, 486
and impact on larger literature 485
enhancing 486, 501
and role of 485, 501
and theory‐data dialogue:
data availability 487
difficulties with overly abstract theory 488
logic of segmentation 488–91
middle‐range theory 488, 490, 491
perspective on influence production process 488–90
theoretical shortcomings 487–8
use of large‐n studies 488, 491
state legislative campaign committees 209, 210
state parties 13–14
and centrality of 403–4
and challenges in studying:
complexity 404
data resources 404
and divided government 419–20
and future research on 413, 420–2
and impact of party competition 415–16
and impact of party control 414
and partisanship in electorates 407–9
changes in 409
lack of survey data 407
measures of 407–8
new technologies and data collection 408
partisan coalition composition 408
party identification 408
state ideology 409
and party effects in legislatures 416–19
and political scientists 403
call for stronger parties 406–7
and Progressive reforms 403, 405–6
direct democracy 405
non‐partisan elections 405
primary elections 405
and state party organizations 409–13
changes in 409–11
ideology 411–13
policy platforms 410–11
resurgence of 410
statism, and interest group theory 46–7
strategic‐actor theory 169
strong ties, and social networks 80
subsystems:
and agenda setting 528
and public policy 521
(p. 698) superdelegates, and presidential nomination 194–6, 249
Swift Boat Veterans 572
Taft‐Hartley Act (1947) 305
Tammany Hall 110
Target‐Point 311
television, and conventions 201, 255, 271–2, 273
theory and political parties 5, 36
and activists 30–1
and constitutional structures 22–3
and credibility of party promises in government 31–4
and developments in 21–2
and elections 28–9
median voter theorem 28–9
nomination procedures 29–30
and electoral rules and number of parties 23–5
Duverger's Law 24–5
party positioning in spatial model 25–6
proportional systems 27–8
voters' evaluation of parties 26–7
and mathematical approaches 23
and parties in government 35
and rational choice theory 23
and rules of parties 23
think tanks, and emergence of 88
third parties 9, 241–2
and activists 230–1
and ballot access requirements 226–30
and ballot petitions and activist mobilizations 230–1
and barriers to success 224–5
as confusing phenomena 222
and decline of 180–1
and definition of 223
and dissatisfaction with major parties 223
and diversity of 222
and dynamic of 239
large and identifiable issue constituency 239–40
Perot supporters' response to Republican bid 241
Republican bid for Perot supporters 240–1
and electoral success 232–3
alienation 238
antislavery 233
candidate factors 237–8
competitiveness of election 236
constraints on 232
failure of major parties required 232
individual voter decision making 234–8
issue priority 237
party differentiation 236–7
proximity to major parties 234–5
push‐pull model 232–3, 234, 237
race 234
systemic factors 233–4
wasted‐vote concerns 235
and electoral system 226
and emergence of 223
and formation of 225–30
restraints on 225–6
and impact of 239, 242
and need for first‐time success 226
and number of 225
in presidential elections 223
and primary elections 180
and response of major parties 239
and types of:
candidate‐centered 223, 242
contender parties 224
interest group linked 223
promoter parties 224
threshold effects 526–7
Tillman Act (1907) 305
trade associations, and elections 559–60
transnational advocacy networks 51
trust, and social capital 82
turnout, and increase in 214
belief in influence of voting 215
competitive elections 214–15
impact of party organization 216–17
issue importance 214
mobilization of voters 216
United for Peace and Justice 583
United States Supreme Court, and interest group influence 539, 543
Urban Coalition 43
urban interest group politics 16, 503–4
and citizen participation 509–11
advantages of 510
neighborhood government 510
program specific 510
real estate development projects 510–11
requirements for 509–10
successful designs for 511
and differences from national level 503
and experiential nature of data 505
and future research on 515
and geographical basis of 507–9
declining business influence 507, 508, 509
demographic and economic changes 508–9
neighborhoods 507–8, 509
(p. 699)
and information constraints 505
and low barriers to entry 504–6, 512
access to government 504
changed nature of welfare state 505–6
comparison with national level 504
group‐agency collaboration 506
increase with expansion 504–5
real estate development projects 506
and non‐profit groups 503, 506, 508, 509, 512, 513–14
and pluralism 509
and relationship with national level research 502–3
and smaller scale of organizations 512–14
business advocacy 514
effectiveness of 513
labor unions 514
local elections 513
venue shopping 524–5
Vietnam War, and political impact of 191, 393
voluntary associations, and decline in participation 442
voter behavior:
and evaluation of parties 26–7
and median voter theorem 28–9
and party identification, methodological issues 66–9
and third party voting 234–8
alienation 238
candidate factors 237–8
competitiveness of election 236
issue priority 237
party differentiation 236–7
proximity to major parties 234–5
wasted‐vote concerns 235
voter mobilization 315
Voter Vault 311
Voting Rights Act (1965) 393, 469
War on Poverty 509
Washington Representatives directory 430–1
and agricultural sector 435
and births and deaths of organizations 446–7
and business dominance 433, 434–5
and changes in political status of organizations 446–7
and distribution of organizations 433
changes in 444–6
and diversity of organizations 433
and economic organizations 434–5
and educational sector 435, 443
and foreign organizations 440–1
and growth in organizations 441, 443–4
and health sector 435, 443
and identity groups 439
and labor unions 435–6, 443, 445–6
and less‐privileged representation 438–9
and occupational associations 436
absence of low‐skill occupations 438
narrow coverage of 436–8
and organizational categories 432
and professional associations 436
and public interest groups 434, 440
and scope of 431–2
and state and local governments 440
Watergate scandal 249, 306, 309
weak ties, and social networks 80
welfare state, and changed nature of 505–6
Whigs 105, 106, 108, 382
Whitaker and Baxter Campaigns 305
Wisconsin Advertising Project 555
women:
and advocacy organizations 468
and candidate selection 172
pipeline theory 171–2
and Democratic Party 135, 139, 584
and enfranchisement of 113
and intersectionality 473
and social change 127
Women's Campaign Fund 562
Women's Christian Temperance Union 571
Wordfish (computer program) 72, 73
Wordscores (computer program) 72–3
working class, and New Deal coalition 125
World Can't Wait 583