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date: 23 August 2019

(p. 1059) Index

(p. 1059) Index

abduction 23
Abel, Richard 301
Abolafia, M. 169
Abraham, Henry 527
Abrahamse, A.F. 115, 275
academic disciplinary boundaries 1015–17
access to justice 263, 493–5, 516–18, 743–4
barriers to access as factors of exclusion 510
cost, delays and complexity 511
immigrants and indigenous peoples 512–13
implications for demand-side empirical research 515
physical, temporal and material barriers 510–11
physical or mental health 513–14
poverty barriers and the middle class 514–15
system design 511–12
consumer protection and 194
data collection for research 495–7
evaluation of international and national projects 501–3
international projects 497–8
national surveys 498–501
waves in access to justice thinking 503–4
accessing official system 504–5
alternatives to state institutions 506–7
constraints on supply-side empirical research 508–9
holistic access to justice 508
improving official system 505–6
proactive access to justice 507 see also litigation, explaining variations in claiming behavior
Acharya V., 323
action see litigation
Addario, S. 646
Adler, M. 401, 406, 410, 411, 419, 475–6
administrative justice 403, 405–6, 469–72, 488–9
administrative review 415–17, 476
decisions about using 476–7
dynamics and operations of mechanisms 478–9
impact of review on decision-making 479–83
users' experience and perceptions 477–8
decision-making and 470, 472
applying rules and discretion 474–6
decisions about using administrative justice mechanisms 476–7
impact of review on decision-making 479–83
rule-making 472–4
future directions for research 483–4
civil and criminal justice 485
development of administrative justice institutions 486–8
legal consciousness 484
public and private agencies 485–6
policy-making impact of empirical research 1009 see also tribunals
Administrative Justice and Tribunals Council (UK) 1009
agency theory 131, 139
agent-based modeling (ABM) 391–4
Albonetti, C.A. 554, 555
alcohol consumption
crime trends and 54
Alencar, A. 638
Alexander, Janet 604
Alford, J.R. 427
Allee, T. 757
Al-Qaeda 28
(p. 1060) alternative dispute resolution (ADR) 183, 184, 189–90, 192, 549, 694
arbitration 184, 189–90, 193, 325, 602, 603
private adjudicationarbitration 612–14
comparisons of processes 616–19
definitional prerequisites for empirical salience 600–3
delivering family justice and 300–2
future empirical study 619–20
hybrid forms 614–16
labor courts and 323–6
legal education in 858
mediation 71, 72, 300, 603, 608–12, 696, 1008
negotiation and settlement processes 604–8
normative and methodological issues 597–600
online dispute resolution (ODR) 183, 620
policy-making impact of empirical research 1008–9
alternative health care 223
Amable, B. 321
American Bar Association 81, 524–5, 856
American Bar Foundation 2
American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology 885
American Journal of Sociology 882
American Judicature Association 524
American Political Science Association Law and Courts section 2, 5
American Political Science Review 882
Andean Tribunal of Justice 757
antidumping measures 758
anti-trust law 6
appeals
appeal courts 572–4, 576–7, 591–2
early empirical research 891–2
fundamental questions 578–9
policy, precedent and strategy 579–88
problems of restriction on coverage 574–6
reasons for existence 589–91
typical problem 577–8
social security and social welfare 409–14, 647
administrative review as alternative 415–17
impact of appeals on first-instance decision-making 414–15
applied research 1017
appointment of judges 523, 525, 527–8, 529–32, 742, 894, 895
civil law countries 536–8
competitiveness 738
international courts 540, 764–5
research on reforms of appointment systems 533–5
appropriate dispute resolutionsee alternative dispute resolution (ADR)
arbitration 184, 189–90, 193, 325, 602, 603
private adjudication-arbitration 612–14
Arbour, Louise 767
Argentina
constitution 741
judges and judiciary in 742–3
land rights in 343
political system 737, 738
Aristotle 377
Armytage, Livingston 523
Arthurs Report (Canada) 868
Arts and Humanities Research Council (UK) 1014
Ashby, S. 441
Asher, Martin 606
asset-backed securities markets 165
association studies on general deterrence 100–2
asylum seekers 367, 368, 369
Atiyah, P.S. 275
Atkins, Burton 529, 530, 531, 532, 578
Atkinson, R. 340
attitudinal studies of judges and judiciary 580–8
audits 170
Australia
access to justice in 499
administrative justice in 489
alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in 611
bankruptcy and insolvency in 200
child support after marriage breakdown and divorce 290, 292
(p. 1061) civil procedure in 697, 1008
claiming behavior in 267–8, 271, 272
cohabitation in 296
collective actions (class actions) 705, 707, 708, 709, 710, 712, 714
consumer protection 185
corporate governance 145–6
courts 551, 559, 561–2
criminal justice system 72, 84
directors of companies in 142–4
empirical research in 2
government research 1004
in legal education curriculum 1032
family law issues 1010
financial markets
investor protection 156, 157
housing and property law 341–2
home ownership 334, 336
land rights and indigenous peoples 342
zoning and planning policies 347–8
institutional investors 144–5
judges and judiciary in 565
appointment 530–1, 535
labor law in
collective labor relations 316
theory, methods and data for study 311
law reform agencies 1011
lay decision-makers in legal process 647
juries 627, 628, 633
legal education in 858, 860, 862–3, 869–70
empirical legal training in 1047
empirical research in curriculum 1032
legal pluralism in 812, 819
legal profession 798
occupational safety and health (OSH) 432, 440, 442
personal injury litigation 253
police and policing in 30
professional regulation in 225
research on general deterrence in 102, 104
shared parenting in 297
Australian Institute of Family Studies 1010
Australian Law Reform Commission 1008, 1011
Australian Research Council 1004
Austria
constitutional court 574
lay decision-makers in legal process 643
authoritarian regimes 378
constitutions and 380, 383
human rights and 356, 361, 368, 383
judges and judiciary in 538–9
law and courts in 737
authority of law 986–7
auto accident litigation and compensation 887–8
Avdeyeva, O. 366, 372
avoidance strategies 164–5
Axelrod, R. 392
Ayres, I. 435, 605
Baar, Carl 529
Babcock, Linda 606
Bacon, Francis 675
Badawi, A. 126
Baird, V.A. 847–8
Baldock, R. 438
Baldwin, J. 401, 404, 478, 1026
Baldwin, L.M. 253
Bangladesh 741
bankruptcy and insolvency 198–202
corporate 207–8, 209, 210–11
early empirical research 889–90
future 208–13
individual 198–9, 202–7, 209, 210, 211
Baranek, P. 646
Baril-Gingras, G. 438
Bartel, A.P. 437, 441
Bartrip, P.W.J. 427, 428
Bassanini, A. 321
Bauer, M. W. 928
Bayley, D. 27, 28, 29
Becker, H. 937
Beddington, John 1005
Beers, Daniel 539
behavioralism
financial markets and 154–5, 156–7
Belcher, Alice 146
Belgium 2
Bell, Kathleen 1009
benchmark problem 671–2
Benjamin, J. 168
Benson Commission (UK) 1
Bentham, Jeremy 97, 98, 107, 113, 121
Beny, L. 157
Berle, A. 139
Bermingham V., 1034
Bernstein, L. 126
best-fitapproach 1046–7, 1050
Beyleveld, D. 101
beyond-compliance behavior
environmental regulation 457–60
Bhattachayra, U. 157
Bibas, S. 89
Biebel, E. 19
bilateral investment treaties (BITs) 778–9
bills of rights 370–1
Bingham, Lisa 613
Bittner, Egon 11
Black, F. 154, 169
Blackstone, A. 267, 273, 274
Bland, N. 68
Blandy, S. 340
Blankenburg, E. 323
Blasi, G.J. 383
Blokland, A.A.J. 116
Blom-Cooper, Louis 573, 574
Blomley, N. 343, 348
Blumberg, A.S. 793
Blumstein, A. 117
Boix, C. 732
Bolivia
judges and judiciary in 564
police and policing in 17
Borgida, E. 658
Bornstein, B.H. 637
Borstal Training 108
Botero, J. 313
Botswana 812
Bottomley, Stephen 143
bounded rationality 99, 110, 131–2
Bovbjerg, R.R. 254
Bown, C. 758
Braga, A. 25–6
Braithwaite, J. 226, 432, 435, 761, 767, 768, 769
Braman, D. 640
branding of empirical research on law 1017–18
Bratton, William 18
Braverman I., 342
Brazil
constitution 741
economic growth and development 732
law and courts in 737
legal pluralism in 814
Brazil, Wayne 687, 692
Breau, D. 638
Brennan, T.A. 254
Bridges, L. 77
Brinks D.M. 736, 740
British Journal of Criminology 882
British Journal of Law and Society 1
British Journal of Political Science 882
British Journal of Sociology 882
Brodeur, J. 26
‘broken windows’ model of policing 17, 18–19
Brook, B. 638
Brookings Institute 204
Brown, M.S. 438
Brown, W. 315, 316, 317
Brunell, T. 764
Buck, J. 660
Buck, Trevor 416
Bulgaria
access to justice in 501
courts 839, 840
Bumiller, Kristin 957, 958–9
bureaucratic justice 404–5
Burger, Warren 691
Busch, M. 758, 777
Bushway, S. 116
businesses see corporations
Buss, E. 293
Büthe, T. 762, 778
Cadbury, Adrian 146
Caldeira, G.A. 833, 837, 840, 842, 843, 844, 848
California, University of 2
Cambodia 501
(p. 1063) Cambridge Center for Business Research (CBR) 321–2
Cambridge Law Journal 882
Canada
access to justice in 499–500, 514
alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in 611
civil procedure in 697
claiming behavior in 271, 272
collective actions (class actions) 705, 707, 708, 709, 712, 714, 716
constitution 383
courts 559
appeal courts 584–5, 591
empirical research in 2
government research 1004
in legal education curriculum 1027, 1032
financial markets
investor protection 156, 157
short selling 158
gardens 344
judges and judiciary in
appointment 530, 531, 533–4
career ladders 535
lay judiciary 528, 626, 646–7
lay decision-makers in legal process 648
juries 627, 628
lay judiciary 528, 626, 646–7
legal education in 865, 868
empirical research in curriculum 1027, 1032
legal pluralism in 812
occupational safety and health (OSH) 432, 441, 442
personal injury litigation 253
police and policing in 17, 22, 31
professional regulation in 225
shared parenting in 297
Canadian Bar Association 529
Canadian Law and Society Association 494
Canadian Securities Association 157
capital adequacy rules 165
capital punishment 85, 97–8, 636
Card, D. 318
Carlen, P. 558, 559
Carpenter, Dunbar 889
Carr, H. 348
Carr, P. 21
Carroll, S.J. 275
Carruba, C. 764
Carruthers, B. 779, 780
Carson, W.G. 427, 428, 435
Cartmill, R. 54
case management 693–4
case studies 939–40
lawyer-client interactions in divorce context 945–7
policy-making impact of empirical research 1006–13 see also qualitative methods
casework model 109
Casper, G. 642, 643, 644
cassation courts 574–5, 576
Castagnola, A. 738
causality
causal inference 913, 917
fundamental problem of 903
complexity of 387–8
direction of 100–1, 388
Centre de Recherches Sociologiques sur le Droit et les Institutions Pénales (CESDIP
France) 66
certainty of punishment 98, 104
Chambliss, E. 1037
character evidence 79
Charman, E.A. 635–6
Chavez, Bill 738
Cheng, E. 663
Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS) 20
Chicago Bar Association 219, 224–5
children 55
bankruptcy and 210
child protection 292–4
cohabiting couples and 295
divorce and 289
child support 290–2
evidence in statements from 658–61
impact of imprisoned parents on 119–20
lead pollution and 53
same-sex unions and 299
shared parenting 296–8
(p. 1064) Chile
judges and judiciary in 742
law and courts in 737
Chilvers, M. 72
China
economic growth and development 732
international regulatory law and 779
law and courts in 737
access to justice 499–500
judges and judiciary 526, 539–40
occupational safety and health (OSH) 444
Cingranelli, D.L. 383
citizenship
corporate 143
Civil Justice Forum 494
civil liberties
counter-terrorism measures and 74
civil partnerships for same-sex partners 298–9
civil procedure 679–82
access to civil justice see access to justice
alternative dispute resolution (ADR) and 694
case management 693–4
case type variation in rules 693
costs and delays 690–1
discovery and disclosure 692
history of empirical research 682–90
increasingly adversarial procedure and practice 691–2
juries and 697, 888–9
litigation see litigation
reforms 694–5, 1007–8
towards a socio-legal jurisprudence 695–701
Civil Works Administration (CWA U.S.) 881
claims see litigation
claims management companies 276
Clark, Charles 680, 684, 685, 691, 878, 879, 880, 882, 886, 890, 896
class actions see collective actions
classical content analysis 941–2
Clear, Todd 120
Clinton, Bill 85
club markets 167
Coase Theorem 127
Coben, James 610
codes of practice
corporate governance and 146–7
coding variables
qualitative methodologies 941–5
quantitative methodologies 911–12
Coffee, J. 164, 723
Coglianese, Cary 474, 618
cognitive-behavioral approaches
‘new rehabilitation’ and 109–12
cohabitation 289, 294–6
Coker, D. 88
Colares, J.F. 766
Cole I., 335
Cole, S. 23, 665–6
Cole, W.M. 359, 363
collective actions 280, 705–6
evaluation 717–18
costs 718–20
outcomes 720–3
wider comparisons 723–4
fundamental questions 707
future 724–5
goals 711–12
levels of need 712–15
technical modes of operation 715–17
techniques and limitations on availability of information 709–10
terminology and typology 707–8
collective labor relations 310, 314–17, 328
collective redress 280
Collins, H. 167
Colombia 734, 735, 741
colonialism 342–3, 746
legal pluralism and 805–6, 811–12, 819
Comer, J. 477
common pool problem 201
communication problems 1019
community policing (CP) 17–19, 20, 21, 32
companies see corporations
compensation
auto accident compensation 887–8
compensation culture 276
(p. 1065) personal injury litigation 7, 242–3
alternative means 253–4
competition
competition law 6
competitive tendering 136
political competitiveness 738–9
regulatory competition 166–7
complaints 177, 178–81
complaint handling 177–8, 182–5
ideas for further empirical study 187–90
professional regulation and 218, 221 see also litigation, explaining variations in claiming behavior
computer simulation of constitutions 390–5
computer-assisted analysis 942
Computerized Statistics (COMPSTAT) management process 19, 47
conditional fee arrangements (CFAs) 248–50, 276
conduct of empirical research 902–5
Confait, Maxwell 65
confidence levels 919–20
consequentialism 97
constitutions
computer simulation 390–5
constitutional courts 574, 576
design 379
importance 380–4
judicialization and constitutionalization 384–7
methodological challenges to study of 387–90
rights and 380, 381, 382–3, 388–9, 740–1
types of 376–9
constructivism 754
Consumer Bankruptcy Project (CBP) 206, 207, 209
consumer protection 177–8, 186–7, 406
complaints 177, 178–81
complaint handling 177–8, 182–5
ideas for further empirical study 187–90
enforcement 177, 185–6, 192–3
ideas for further empirical study 187
access to justice 194
arbitration 193
combining prior work on behavior, procedural fairness and complaint mechanisms 187–9
cross-border transactions 192
developing countries 193–4
diverse groups of disputes and consumers 190–1
effectiveness of dispute resolution systems 189–90
electronic transactions 191–2
regulatory enforcement 192–3
content analysis 941–2
contextual research on general deterrence 103
contingency fees 250–2
contracts 125–6, 147
corporations and 129–32
first order studies 126–8, 132–4
law and economics approach and 128–9
second order studies 126–8, 134–7
supply-chain contracts 141
third order studies 126–8, 137–8
Cook, D. 418
Cooper, D. 344
copyright infringement 280–1
Corbin, J. 944
Cordner, G. 19
Corneliussen, F. 438
coroners' juries 626
corporations 126, 129–32, 138–40, 147
bankruptcy and 207–8, 209, 210–11
claiming behavior 280–1
corporate citizenship 143
corporate social responsibility 142
directors 139, 142–4
environmental regulation and 451–2, 458–9
environmental standards and 141
ethical principles 142, 143–4
governance 130–1, 145–7
human rights issues and 141–2
institutional investors 143, 144–5
international law and 761–2
supply-chain contracts 141
Corstvet, Emma 890
Costa Rica 741
(p. 1066) cost-benefit analysis
occupational safety and health (OSH) 430–1
state commitment to human rights and 359–61
costs
legal see legal costs
multi-method approaches 970–1
transaction costs 127, 159
Cotterell, Roger 816, 857
Council for Science and Technology (UK) 1005
counseling 109
counter-terrorism 26–8, 65, 73–4, 75
courts 5, 546–8, 566–7
appeal courts 572–4, 576–7, 591–2
early empirical research 891–2
fundamental questions 578–9
policy, precedent and strategy 579–88
problems of restriction on coverage 574–6
reasons for existence 589–91
typical problem 577–8
constitutional courts 574, 576
economic development and democratization and 729–30, 747–9
effects and their measurement 733–6
interactions and contingent outcomes 736–46
from macro variables to micro foundations 731–3
socio-economic and organizational endowments of actors 744–6
structure and competitiveness of political systems 737–41
structure and performance of judiciary 741–4
institutional/macro level studies 548–9, 555–6
conceptually/theoretically driven research 552–3
data issues 549–50
interpreting trial court trends 551–2
official crime statistics 554
sentencing 554–5
legitimacy 829, 837, 843–4
public images and understandings 828–30, 849–50
consequences in case of US Supreme Court 836–45
impact of court decisions on public opinion 845–6
responsiveness 829
trial courts as organizations 556–63 see also access to justice; judges and judiciary
Cowan, D. 346, 348, 477, 479, 484
Cowley, J. 1032
Cownie, F. 864, 1029, 1040
Cox, J. D. 717
Craig, Paul 172
Cranston, R. 166, 168
Crawford, T. 807
credit 180
credit cards 211
debt 204–5, 210, 889–90
bankruptcy and see bankruptcy and insolvency
housing market and 336–7
Credit Research Center (CRC) 205
crime 885
concerns about 878–9
crime management role of police 15, 16, 22–6, 31, 33
prevention 97, 120–1
deterrent effects see deterrence
incapacitation methods see incapacitation
rehabilitation strategies see rehabilitation
trends 37, 38–40, 58–61, 100, 554, 954–5
community and environmental factors 51–3, 60–1
crime reporting and recording 56–8
demographic and economic conditions and 41–3, 59, 60
drugs, guns and gangs 48–50
impact of prison policies and policing 43–7, 59
lifestyle/culture and 53–6 see also criminal justice system
criminal justice system 64–6, 91–2, 485
crime control model 71
(p. 1067) decision-making environment 66–70
efficiency in 70–3
international criminal law 774–6
major findings of early empirical research on law 885–7
prosecution
decision-making processes 66–70
plea bargaining 89–91, 559–61
prosecutorial autonomy 86–8
prosecutorial independence 82–5
role of prosecutor 80–2
security concerns and 73–5
surveys 878–9 see also police and policing
critical legal theory 816, 823, 1038
Croatia 643
Croco, S. 776
Cross, Frank B. 381–2, 573, 580, 588
cross-border transactions
consumer protection and 192
Crown Prosecution Service (CPS; UK) 65, 80, 82, 83, 84, 88
culture
administrative justice and 480–1
compensation culture 276
crime trends and 53–6
cultural differences and explaining variations in claiming behavior 277–8
environmental regulation and 452
legal 6
police 15
Cummins, J.D. 253
Curran, B.A. 268, 269
Czech Republic 539
Damaška, M. 657, 989
Danelski, D.J. 573
Danner, R. 1034
Danzon, P.M. 239, 240, 242, 243, 251, 252
Daouk, H. 157
Darbyshire, P. 645
Darfur genocide 961–3, 1049–50
data analysis 4
qualitative methods 932, 940–5
quantitative methodologies 905, 912–17
data collection 4
access to justice studies 495–7
early empirical research on law 884–5
qualitative methods 928, 932, 935, 936–40
quantitative methods 905, 909–11
study of courts 549–50 see also sampling methods
Davenport, C. 371, 381
Davis, G. 401, 1026
Dawson, John 526
Dawson, S. 439
de Figuiredo, M. 765
de Mesquita, Bruno 582
de Soto, H. 343
de Tocqueville, Alexis 640
Deakin, S. 322
Dean, H. 417
death penalty 85, 97–8, 636
debt 204–5, 210, 889–90
bankruptcy and see bankruptcy and insolvency
housing market and 336–7
decentralization 383
decision-making
administrative justice and 470, 472
applying rules and discretion 474–6
decisions about using administrative justice mechanisms 476–7
impact of review on decision-making 479–83
rule-making 472–4
criminal justice system 66–70
investors 154
judges and judiciary 564–5, 583
compared to juries 631–2
social security and social welfare
administrative review as alternative to appeals 415–17
appellate 409–14, 647
first-instance 403–8, 647
impact of appeals on first-instance decision-making 414–15
Deess, E.P. 640
defense in criminal justice system 71–2, 75–9, 793–4, 886–7
Delaney, D. 348
Delaware effect 166–7
(p. 1068) delays
access to justice and 511
civil procedure 690–1
Delgado, Richard 610, 618
Delmas-Marty, Mireille 65
Demmou, L. 321
democracy 378
human rights and 356, 359–60, 361, 368
juries as democratic institution 639–41
law and courts and democratization 729–30, 747–9
effects and their measurement 733–6
interactions and contingent outcomes 736–46
from macro variables to micro foundations 731–3
socio-economic and organizational endowments of actors 744–6
structure and competitiveness of political systems 737–41
structure and performance of judiciary 741–4
demographic conditions
crime trends and 41–3, 59, 60
demutualization 167
Denmark
social security and social welfare 407–8
Denzin, N. 944
deontological viewpoint 97
Department for International Development (DFID; UK) 29
Department of Homeland Security (U.S.) 28
Department of Justice (U.S.) 1
derivatives 165
design issues
constitutions 379
empirical research
qualitative methodologies 932–6
quantitative methodologies 904, 905–8
environmental regulation 451–5
quasi-experimental research designs 102–3
desistance-focused rehabilitation 112
deterrence
general see general deterrence
personal injury litigation and 252–3
special 44, 97, 98, 107, 113
developing countries
consumer protection in 193–4
minimum wages 319–20
Devine, D.J. 637
Dezalay, Y. 231, 552, 767
Diamond, S. 334, 645
Dickens, L. 308–9, 313
Dickson, Brice 574
Dingwall, R. 223, 937
Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP; UK) 84
directors of companies 139, 142–4
disabled people
access to justice and 513–14
disciplinary boundaries 1015–17
disciplinary procedures
police and 69–70
professional regulation and 218, 219, 221
discourse analysis 942–3
discretion
administrative justice and 474–6
judicial 743
policing and 14–15, 18, 65
prosecution of crime and 65
discrimination 271
ongoing multi-method research 963–70
policy-making impact of empirical research 1010–11
dismissal 277, 320–3
Disneyland 30
dispute resolution 126, 261–2, 281, 483
complaints 177, 178–81
complaint handling 177–8, 182–5
ideas for further empirical study 187–90
dispute pyramid 262–5
informal 244–5
legal action see litigation
dissolution of civil partnerships 299
diversity
judges and judiciary 532–3
legal profession 790–2
divorce 287–90, 300, 887
(p. 1069) case study of lawyer-client interactions in divorce context 945–7
child support after 290–2
dissolution of civil partnerships 299
Dixon, L. 662
DNA evidence 634, 663
DNA profiling 23–4, 25, 671
documentary analysis 938–9, 953–4
domestic violence 54, 87–8
bankruptcy and 210
Donohue, J.J. 55, 275
Doob, A.N. 105, 646
double blind techniques 107
Douglas, William O. 198, 202, 203–4, 209, 685, 882, 889, 896
Downs, G. 770
Drahos, P. 761, 767, 768, 769
Drewry, Gavin 573, 574
Droit et société 494
drugs 15, 48–50, 87
due process model of criminal justice system 71
Durkheim, Emile 930
DuVal, B.S. 721
Dworkin, R. 979, 988–9
early empirical research on law 876
decline in late 1930s 895–6
funding 879–81
impetus behind 877–9
major findings 885–95
methodologies 883–5
reasons for U.S. -centricity 881–3
reemergence 1950–1975 896–8
early neutral evaluation 615
earnings
crime and 42
Easton, D. 837
economic aid
human rights agreements and 360
Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC; UK) 1014
economic growth and development 730
crime trends and 41–3, 59
law and courts and 729–30, 747–9
effects and their measurement 733–6
interactions and contingent outcomes 736–46
from macro variables to micro foundations 731–3
socio-economic and organizational endowments of actors 744–6
structure and performance of judiciary 741–4
law and courts and democratization structure and competitiveness of political systems 737–41
Ecuador 743
Edelman, P.H. 583
education
crime and 42
legal see legal education
professional regulation and 222
Edwards, S. 88
Eekelaar, John 286, 302, 945–7
efficiency
criminal justice system and 70–3
efficient breach 138
efficient markets hypothesis 153–6
Egypt 737
Ehrhard, S. 90
Ehrlich, Eugen 809–10
Eisenberg, Theodore 617, 688, 713, 719, 720
Eisenstein, J. 81, 556–8
election of judges 523, 524, 525–6, 829, 830, 831, 894
electronic transactions 191–2
Elkins, Z. 383, 388, 769
Ellickson, Robert 338, 344–5, 979, 983
Ellman, Ira 285
Elwork, A. 637
Emmelman, D.S. 559
Empirical Legal Studies Conferences 2, 1026
Empirical Legal Studies (ELS) movement 1, 3–4
empirical research
meaning of ‘empirical’ 3–4
overview 1–7 see also individual topics
employment
dismissal 277, 320–3
(p. 1070) multi-method research into employment discrimination 963–70
at will 277
enforcement of law
consumer protection 177, 185–6, 192–3
environmental regulation 455–7
financial markets and 153, 157–8, 161, 162–4
initiation of enforcement proceedings 744
occupational safety and health (OSH) 428–9, 431–6 see also police and policing
Engel, David 278
Enron Corporation 713
environmental issues
corporations and environmental standards 141
crime trends and 53
environmental regulation 449–50, 464–5
compliance and beyond-compliance behavior 457–60
enforcement 455–7
impact 460–4
making and design of environmental law 451–5
Epp, C. 745
Epstein, L. 923, 1026, 1037
equal treatment
policy-making impact of empirical research 1010–11
Ericson, R. 22, 23, 31
Esser, J. 133
Estonia 553
ethical principles
corporations and 142, 143–4
legal profession 795–6, 801
prosecution and 81
qualitative methods and 932
ethnic minorities 734, 1011
access to justice and 512–13
administrative justice and 478
crime and 42–3, 48, 49, 57–8
as judges 533
land rights and indigenous peoples 342
legal education and 868
in legal profession 791, 792
negotiation and 605–6
police stop and search powers and 67–8
prosecution of offenses and 85
sub-prime lending and 336–7
zoning and planning policies and 347
ethnographic field research 1055
Eurobond market 165
European Commission for the Effciency of Justice 499
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 765
European Court of Justice (ECJ) 574, 587, 764, 833
European Journal of Legal Education 855
European Union (EU) 98
collective actions (class actions) and 717
constitution 385
consumer protection
complaint handling 183, 184
cross-border transactions 192
investor protection 156, 157
market power 769
occupational safety and health (OSH) and 444
police and judicial cooperation 77
professional regulation and 222–3, 225, 229
research by 1004
evidence 652–3, 656
abstraction from trial environment 669–70
character evidence 79
from children 658–61
competing goals and values 672
discovery and disclosure 692
DNA evidence 634, 663
DNA profiling 23–4, 25, 671
exclusion and admission of hearsay 656–61, 669–70
expert evidence 632–4, 661–6
factual uncertainty and benchmark problem 671–2
rationalist and empiricist legacies 674–5
scope of evidence law 653–4
(p. 1071) specificity of conditions and generalizability of conclusions 670–1
subjective probability and human inference 666–9
wider picture 673–4
Ewick, Patricia 484, 1051
Ewing, K. 401
expectations of judges and judiciary 846–9
experiments 903–4, 953
expert evidence 661–6
juries and 632–4
Fagan, J. 56
fairness
procedural 188–9
family law 285–7, 302–4
child protection 292–4
cohabitation 289, 294–6
delivering family justice 299–302
divorce 287–90, 300, 887
case study of lawyer-client interactions in divorce context 945–7
child support after 290–2
policy-making impact of empirical research 1010
same-sex unions 298–9
shared parenting 296–8
Farber, H. 242, 244
Farnsworth, W. 838
Farrington, David 104, 105, 120
Federal Trade Commission (U.S.) 181
federalism 737
legal pluralism and 818
Feeley, Malcolm 886
Fehlberg, B. 337
Feinsinger, Nathan 896
Felstiner, W. 957, 961
Fenn, P. 241, 242, 243, 244, 248, 249, 250, 427, 428, 441
Field, S. 41, 53
Fiji 170
financial markets 151–3, 171–2
avoidance strategies 164–5
behavioralism and 153–5, 156–7
crises 336
dynamics of regulatory schemes 165–70
efficient markets hypothesis and mandatory disclosure 153–6
law and market development 159–64
“law matters” thesis (LLSV thesis) 140, 160–4, 170, 171, 172
market misconduct 157–9
securitization 336
sub-prime lending 190–1, 336
unintended consequences of regulation 164–5
Financial Services Authority (FSAUK) 157
fines 113
fingerprints 23, 665–6
Finland
lay decision-makers in legal process 643
social security and social welfare 407–8
Fischel, W. 347
FitzGerald, J. M. 271
Fitzpatrick, B.T. 710, 713, 719
Flemming, R. B. 556–8
Flood, J. 168
focus groups 936–7
Food and Drug Administration (U.S.) 186
food safety standards 186
Ford, C. 170
Ford Foundation 745
Fordham, J. 633
forensic science 23–5, 663–4
Fornango, R. 42
Forrest, R. 333
Fortas, Abe 889
Fosher, K. 28
Foster, J. 68
Fournier, G.M. 239, 240, 241, 242
Fournier, V., 223
framework agreements 134
France
access to justice in 500
child protection 293
consumer protection 184
crime in 38, 40
criminal justice system 65–6
decision-making processes 69, 70
defense 76, 77
efficiency in 71
(p. 1072) prosecution 76, 81, 83, 84–5, 86, 87
security management and 73, 74–5
divorce in 289
judges and judiciary in 526, 527, 536
labor law in
employment protection legislation 321–2
minimum wages 317, 319
mixed tribunals 642
police stop and search powers 67–8
franchise agreements 126
Frankfurter, Felix 878, 879, 882, 891, 896
fraud
jury trials and 635–6
social security and social welfare 417–20
Frazer, A. 309
Freeman, J. 618
Freeman, R. 314, 315
Freidson, E. 225, 230
fringe banking 190–1
Fukurai, H. 641, 644
functions of law 983–4
funding of empirical research 879–81, 1013–15
futures markets 168
Galanter, Marc 550, 590, 591, 687, 691, 734, 735, 957
Galligan, D. 66
Gamble, J.K. 758
gang crime 48, 50, 56, 59, 60
gardens 343–4
Garfinkel, Irv 291
Garrison, Lloyd 893
Garth, B.G. 231, 552, 722, 723, 767
Gastil, J. 640
gated communities 340
Gatowski, S. 664, 673
Gatti, D. 321
Gauri, V., 736, 740
Geer, B. 937
Geertz, Clifford 286
Gely, Rafael 587
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 777
general deterrence 44, 97, 98–9, 121
decay of 104–5
existence of 104
marginal 104, 105
research on 100
association studies 100–2
perceptual and contextual research 103
quasi-experimental designs 102–3
results of 103–6
social context 106
general incapacitation 117–19
Genn, Hazel 2, 268, 269, 273, 345, 410, 414, 438, 439, 478, 689, 933, 1021, 1040
Genn, Yvette 410, 1021
genocide in Darfur 961–3, 1049–50
George, T. 1036, 1037
Germany
access to justice in 500
administrative justice in 476
civil procedure in 689
collective actions (class actions) 715
consumer protection 183
contracting in 135, 136
courts 833, 843, 847–8
crime in 60
criminal justice system 71, 76
empirical research in 2
employment protection legislation 321–2
environmental regulation 461–2
judges and judiciary in 523, 526, 537
labor courts 323–4, 326
lay decision-makers in legal process 642, 644
professional regulation in 229–30, 231
social security and social welfare 407
Ghana
financial markets 170
legal pluralism in 807
Gibbs, G.R. 940–1
Gibson, J.L. 833, 837, 840, 842, 843, 844, 848
Gigerenzer, Gerd 666–7
Gilad, S. 169, 479
Gilboy, J.A. 474
Gill, B. 662
Gill, P. 26
Gill, R. 942, 943
Gilman, H. 586
(p. 1073) Gilson, R.J. 797
Ginsburg, T. 379
Girth, Marjorie 204, 209
Giuliani, Rudy 18
Glaser, B. 944
globalization 754, 798, 811
legal pluralism and 811, 814–15
Golding, J. 659
Goldstein, H. 19
Goldstein, J. 777
“good lives” model of rehabilitation 112
Goode, William J. 288
Goodliffe, J. 360, 362, 363, 365
Goodman, G. 660–1
Goodman, R. 768
Gould, J.P. 236
Graber, M.A. 385–6
Grabosky, P. 432
Gray, A. 248, 249
Gray, J. 69, 72
Gray, W.B. 434, 437
Greenwood, P. 22, 115
Griffith, J.A.G. 529
Griffiths, Anne 812, 822
Griffiths, John 806, 809, 811–12, 818–19
Grillo, Trina 610
Grogger, J. 42
Groscup, J. 663
Grossman, Joel 524–5
grounded theory 931, 943–5
Guinier, L. 865–7
gun crime 48–50
Gunningham, N. 435, 458
Gurney, C. 334, 335
Hafner-Burton, E. 367, 369, 772
Hagan, John 767, 961–3, 1049
Haggerty, K. 31
Haines, T. 441
Hale, Brenda 532
Hall, A. 442
Hall, M. 308–9, 313
Halliday, Simon 477, 480, 484, 1047
Halliday, T. 219, 224–5, 754, 767, 779, 780
Hamad, Mahmoud 539
Hamalainen, M. 643, 644
Hammergren, Lynn 735, 739
Hans, V.P, 630, 631, 633
Harris, J.W. 995
Harris, Silas 888
Hart, H.L.A. 977, 978, 979, 981, 982, 984, 989, 991, 993, 994–5, 997, 998, 999, 1030
Hastie, R. 629, 637, 667
Hathaway, O. 359, 363, 364, 367, 368, 771
Hawes, Colin 539–40
Hawkins, D. G. 360, 362, 363, 365
Hawkins, G. 49
Hawkins, K. 66, 86, 87, 429, 433, 435
Hawthorne effect 937
health and safety see occupational safety and health
health care 734–5
alternative 223
bankruptcy and 206–7, 212
complaint handling 184
medical malpractice litigation 238, 239, 240, 275, 632
medical negligence 266
regulation 223, 229–31
hearsay evidence 656–61, 669–70
Heimer, C. 230
Heinz, John 787, 788, 1048
Helfer, L. 757
Helland, E. 251–2, 724
Helmke, Gretchen 742
Hempel, Carl 673
Henkin, Laura 770
Henman, P. 406
Hensler, D.R. 273, 718, 719, 720, 722
Henstridge, J. 104
Herbert, S. 21
Hermann, Michelle 610, 618
Hess, D. 170
Heydebrand, W. 552
Heyns, C. 366
Higgs Report (UK) 143
Hilblink, Lisa 742
Hirschl, R. 380–1
historical studies 4–5
Ho, D.E. 275
Hobbs, Dick 22
(p. 1074) Hodges, Christopher 280
Hodgson, J. 69, 76, 77, 78, 1034
Hoerger, T.J. 239, 240, 242, 244
Hoffman, D.A. 640
Hollander-Blumoff, R. 188
Home, R. 342
Home Office (UK) 1, 500, 1013–14
penal welfarism and 108
policing and 19, 21, 24
homicide 23, 24, 38, 40, 48–50, 59, 954
homosexual people
same-sex unions 298–9
zoning and planning policies and 347–8
Honess, T.M. 635–6
Hong Kong 501
Hooker, M.B. 811, 812
HOPE VI program (U.S.) 52
housing and property law 52–3, 331–2, 349–50, 739–40
boundary crossing 348–9
consumption-production relation 347–8
defense and exclusion 339–41
home and tenure 332–3
home ownership 333–8
insecure home ownership 336–8
tenancy 333, 338–9, 346, 348
mapping home 341–3
ordering home 343–6
zoning and planning policies 347–8
Howard Journal of Criminal Justice 882
Huang, K.-C. 245
Hudec, R. 777
Hughes, J.W. 246, 247
human rights issues 353–5, 358, 365–6, 734, 758–9
bills of rights 370–1
constitutions and 380, 381, 382–3, 388–9, 740–1
corporations and 141–2
criminal trials for abuses 775–6
domestic politics and institutions and 361–2, 367–9
future research 371–3
importance of international human rights law 771–3
norm diffusion and state linkage to global society 357–8, 362–4, 369
rational actor theories and 355–7
realist and rationalist assumptions 366–7
reservations to human rights treaties 365
state interests (costs-benefits) 359–61
Hunt, J. 297
Hutchins R. 657
Huth, P. 757, 776
Hutter, B.M. 431, 434, 438
Hvinden, B. 407
Hylton, K.N. 246
hypothesis testing 916
immigration
crime and 42–3, 57–8
incapacitation 44, 97, 113–14
general 117–19
selective 114–17
social consequences 44–5, 119–20
income
crime and 42
independence
judges and judiciary 383–4, 831
prosecutorial independence 82
from police and other legal actors 82–4
political independence 84–5
Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC; UK) 70
India
access to justice in 499–500, 501
compensatory discrimination programs 740–1
constitution 740–1
employment protection legislation 321–2
public interest litigation (PIL) 738, 745
indigenous peoples
access to justice and 512–13
land rights and 342
as lay judiciary 528, 626
native title 819
Indonesia
access to justice in 497, 501
international regulatory law and 779
legal pluralism in 807
informal dispute resolution (IDR) 244–5
informal professional regulation 230–1
(p. 1075) Innes, M. 13, 15, 23, 27, 33
innovation in financial markets 164–5
insider dealing 157–8
institutional investors 143, 144–5
insurance 6–7, 184
auto accidents and 887–8
legal costs and 248–50, 276
Intensive Matched Probation and After-Care Treatment (IMPACT) study 109
interdisciplinary research 1016
interest groups 1049
environmental regulation and 451–2, 453, 454
international law and 757, 761
International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)613
International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) 602, 762–3
international community
human rights and 358, 362–4
International Court of Justice (ICJ) 754, 757, 759, 765
judges and judiciary in 523
International Criminal Court (ICC) 774
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 774
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 766, 767, 774
international investment law 778–9
international law 385, 754–6, 780–1
creation 760
processes and mechanisms 767–70
role of international tribunals 763–7
role of private actors 761–3
role of states and state bureaucracies 760–1
human rights and see human rights issues
importance of 770–1
criminal law and law of war 774–6
human rights law 771–3
investment law 778–9
regulatory law 779–80
trade law 776–8
reasons for use of 756–9
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 613
International Political Science Association (IPSA)
Research Committee on Comparative Legal Studies 527
international relations (IR) theory 754
International Society for Family Law (ISFL) 289
International Sociological Association (ISA)
Research Committee of the Sociology of Law (RCSL) 289
international trade law 776–8
Internet
consumers and 191–2
online dispute resolution (ODR) 183, 620
interpretivism 930, 931
interrogations by police 76–7
Interstate Commerce Commission (U.S.) 472
interviews 936–7, 953
investors and investment
decision-making 154
institutional investors 143, 144–5
international investment law 778–9
protection of 156–7
Ireland 879
Israel
access to justice in 501
empirical research in 2
judges and judiciary in 534
land rights in 342
Italy
access to justice in 500
contracting in 135
criminal justice system 71
judges and judiciary in 537, 538
labor courts 326
Jackson, H. 163, 164
Jackson, J.D. 641–2
Jackson, Robert 888
Jackson, Rupert 689
Jacob, H. 549
Jamaica 534
Japan
access to justice in 499–500
(p. 1076) civil procedure in 697
claiming behavior in 271, 278
crime in 38, 40
community factors 51–2
crime reporting and recording 57
demographic and economic conditions and 41
lifestyle/culture and 54–5
policing policies and 45
empirical research in 2
financial markets short selling 158
judges and judiciary in 538
lay decision-makers in legal process 641, 644
Jasanoff, S. 430
Jewell, C. 476
Jinks, D. 768
Johansson, H. 407
Johns Hopkins University 880–1, 895, 896
Johnson, J.T. 668–9, 670
Johnson, P. 23
Johnston, L. 30
Johnstone, R. 1032
joinder 635
Jones, T. 30
Joskow, P. 138
Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction &Complaining Behavior180
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 882, 885
Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 2, 402, 494, 501, 1026, 1037
Journal of Law and Society 1, 402, 494
Journal of Legal Education 855
Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 807
Journal of Social Security Law 402
Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law 402
judges and judiciary 523, 540–1, 563–4
American school of judicial studies 524–6
appointment 523, 525, 527–8, 529–32, 742, 894, 895
civil law countries 536–8
competitiveness 738
international courts 540, 764–5
research on reforms of appointment systems 533–5
attitudinal studies 580–8
career ladders 535
comparative global studies 526–8
consumer complaint handling and 185
decision-making 564–5, 583
compared to juries 631–2
development of judicial statistics 877–8
discretion 743
diversity 532–3
education 523–4
election 523, 524, 525–6, 829, 830, 831, 894
expectations of 846–9
independence 383–4, 831
international courts and tribunals 523, 540, 764–7
judicial review 385–6, 470, 476, 479, 481, 482, 487, 489
social security cases 415
judicial understanding of science 664
judicialization and constitutionalization 384–7
jury trials and 628–9
lay judiciary (magistrates/justices of the peace) 528, 626, 642, 644–7
legitimacy 846, 847
public images and understandings 831–6, 846–9
sentencing 554–5, 565–6
structure and performance 741–4
transitional regimes 538–40
Judicature 524
juries 626, 627–8, 642
civil procedure and 697, 888–9
complex trials 634–6
creating narratives from conflicting stories 629–31
decisions compared to judges' 631–2
as democratic institution 639–41
ecology of jury trial 628–9
experts and 632–4
(p. 1077) methodological issues in jury research 636–9
jurisprudence 977
towards a socio-legal jurisprudence 695–701
Justice for the Poor (J4P) Program 497
justices of the peace (JPs/ magistrates) 528, 626, 642, 644–7
Kagan, R.A. 435
Kahan, D.M. 640
Kahneman, Daniel 155, 666
Kahn-Freund, O. 310
Kalven, Harry 1, 631, 686, 889, 896
Kami, H. 643, 644
Kansas City Preventative Patrol Experiment 22
Kaye, D.H. 634, 637
Keeney, J. 660
Keiser, L.R. 408
Keith, L.C. 366, 371, 382, 388
Kelley, J. 360, 367, 368, 369
Kelling, George 18
Kelman, S. 430, 432
Kelsen, Hans 809, 810–11, 817, 978, 995
Kemeny, J. 334, 335
Kennedy, Duncan 858
Kent, P. 864
Kenya
access to justice in 497, 501
land rights in 343
Keohane, R.O. 930, 931
Kessler, D. 241, 242, 246, 253
Kilduff, M. 169
Kim, H. 772, 774, 776
King, G. 923, 930, 931, 1026, 1037
King, K.L. 766
Kingsford-Smith, D. 156
Kirk, J. 927
Kiser, Ranell 606
Klein, B. 245
Klein, D.E. 583
Klepper, S. 103
Klick, J. 46, 724
Koh, H.H. 357
Kollman, K. 393
Korea
access to justice in 499–500
international regulatory law and 779
Koremenos, B. 758
Kornhauser, Lewis 301, 589
Kovalev, N. P. 641–2
Kovera, M. 658
KraG a, C. 662
Krasner, S. 757
Kritzer, H.M. 179, 250–1, 413, 551, 607, 716, 933, 957, 960, 1049
Krueger, B. 318
Ku, J. 774
Kucik, J. 777
Kuhlmann, E. 231
Kurkchiyan, M. 141–2
Kutnjak Ivkovich, S.K. 633, 641, 643
La Porta, R. 160
labor and employment law 308–10, 326–8
collective labor relations 310, 314–17, 328
employment protection legislation 320–3
labor courts and alternative dispute resolution 323–6
minimum wages 317–20, 327
theory, methods and data 310–14
LaFree, Gary 41, 45, 55, 610
Landis, J.M. 891
Landman, T. 361, 364, 365
Landsman, S. 657
Langbein, L. 474
Langer, M. 90
Langevoort, D. 155
Larson, E. 170, 221, 224
Larson, M. 218
Laski, Harold 529, 895
Laumann, E. 787, 788
Law, Marc T. 186
law and economics approach 1
contracts and 128–9, 131–2, 138
law and society approach 1
Law and Social Inquiry 494
Law and Social Issues 402
Law and Society Association (LSA) 2, 289, 402, 494, 897
Law and Society Review 2, 402, 494, 897
(p. 1078) Law Commission for England and Wales 1011
law reform agencies 1011
Law Society (UK) 78, 865
Law Teacher 855
Lawless, Robert M. 3
Lawrence, Steven 68
lawyers see legal profession
lay decision-makers in legal process 626–7, 648
juries and see juries
lay judiciary (magistrates/justices of the peace) 528, 626, 642, 644–7
mixed tribunals 641–4
other legal settings 647–8
lead pollution 53
Lefon, Jacqueline 526
legal action see litigation
legalaid 1007
legal consciousness 6, 484
legal costs 275, 690–1, 797–8
as barriers to access to justice 511
collective actions (class actions) 718–20
insurance and 248–50, 276
personal injury litigation cases 236, 237, 238, 239–41, 246–8
fee arrangements 248–52, 276
legal culture 6
legal education 854–6, 870
early empirical research on 893–4
empirical legal training in 1044–5
developing methods for doing empirical legal research 1050–6
disciplinary and multidisciplinary 1046–50
empirical research in law school curriculum 1026–8, 1040–1
incorporation of empirical legal research into curriculum 1036–40
place empirical legal studies should have 1033–6
present situation 1028–33
law school and 867–70
people in the law school 860–7
legal pedagogy 856–9, 1052–6
Legal Education Review 855
legal mobilization 261–2, 281
dispute pyramid 262–5
explaining variations in claiming behavior
cultural differences 277–8
incidence of grievances 267–9
individual characteristics 273–4
institutional factors 274–7
reasons for not taking action 269–70
type of problem 270–3
future research 279–81
political competitiveness and 738–9
research methodologies 265–7
legal needs 263, 890–1
collective actions (class actions) 712–15
legal pluralism 805–6, 809–11, 824–5, 987
colonial and post-colonial contexts 805–6, 811–12, 819
facts 806–9
globalization and 811, 814–15
legal theory and 815–16
national context 812–14
pluralist pluralism 822–4
theory-dependence of 816–22
legal profession 785–7, 799–802, 892–3
comparing lawyers with non-lawyers 798–9, 960
defense in criminal justice system 71–2, 75–9, 793–4, 886–7
diversity 790–2
doing too much for rich clients 795–7
education see legal
education ethical principles 795–6, 801
lawyer-client interactions 945–7, 960–1
lawyers in government 1018–19
network analysis 1048–9
quality, cost and indeterminacy problem 797–8
selling poor clients short 792–5
structures and splits 787–90
legal realism movement 879, 1036
Legal Services Commission (LSC; UK) 78
Legal Services Research Center (LSRC; UK) 500, 1007
legal theory 976–81
assumptions of legal theory and empirical challenge 991–3
(p. 1079) conditions for empirical research being of use to legal theory 993–9
critical legal theory 816, 823, 1038
empirical research of potential relevance to legal theory 984–8
limitations on use in empirical research 990–1
potential use of legal theory in empirical research 988–9
subjects of empirical research 982–4
legal theory as source of subjects for empirical research 981–2
legal-origins hypothesis 311–12
Léger, Pierre 65
Leggatt Review (UK) 410
legitimacy
courts 829, 837, 843–4
judges and judiciary 846, 847
Lehman Brothers 158
Lempert, Richard 346, 478, 634
Lens, Vicki 413–14, 477, 479, 484
Lenta, P. 1032
Levi, M. 635–6
Levit, J. 762
Levitt, S. 41, 43, 55
Lewis, Philip 301
Lewis-Beck, M.S. 427
Li, X. 146
lifestyle
crime trends and 53–6
Lillard, L. A. 239, 240, 242, 243, 251, 252
Lin, H. 246
Lindquist, S.A. 583
Lindsay, R. 659
Lipsey, M. 111
Lipsky, Michael 406
Lipton, D. 108
liquidated damages 138
Lister, D. 340
litigation 261–2, 263, 281
auto accident litigation 887–8
costs see legal costs
dispute pyramid 262–5
eviction of tenants 346
explaining variations in claiming behavior
cultural differences 277–8
incidence of grievances 267–9
individual characteristics 273–4
institutional factors 274–7
reasons for not taking action 269–70
type of problem 270–3
future research 279–81
litigation explosion 691
multi-method research into employment discrimination and litigation 963–70
personal injuries and see personal injury litigation
procedure see civil procedure
public interest litigation (PIL) 738, 739, 745
research methodologies 265–7
Lloyd-Bostock, S. 262, 433, 477, 636, 645–6
LLSV thesis (‘law matters’ thesis) 140, 160–4, 170, 171, 172
local authorities
competitive tendering and 136
Lofland, J. 931
Loftus, Elizabeth 656
London, University of
Thomas Coram Research Unit 293
London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA) 602
Lopez-de-Silanes, F. 160
LoPucki, Lynn 207, 208
Ludwig, J. 117, 119
Luxembourg 833
Lynch, B. 857
Lynch, G.E. 91
Lynch, M. 559, 665
McAdoo, Bobbie 610
Macaulay, Stewart 125–6, 127, 132–3, 134, 137, 280, 984, 1052
McBarnett, Doreen 139, 141–2, 558, 645
McCann, Michael 1051
McClellan, M. 253
McConville, M. 67, 68, 69, 77, 78, 793–4
MacCoun, R.J. 639
McCoy, C. 559–60
(p. 1080) McDonald, R. 808, 1032
McGlynn, C. 861
Macguire, J.W. 733
Machura, S. 643–4
McIntosh, W. 738
Mack, K. 559
Mackenzie, Doris Layton 109
McKenzie, E. 340
Mackenzie, Ruth 540
McKillop, B. 641
Maclean, M. 302
Macneil, Ian 127, 128, 129, 134, 135, 136, 137, 146, 147
Macpherson Report (UK) 68
McShane, Blakely 606
magistrates 528, 626, 642, 644–7
Maguire, M. 26
Malinowski, B. 806–7, 813
Malleson, Kate 527, 529, 531
Malpezzi, S. 338, 339
mandatory disclosure rules 153–6, 159, 161
Manderson, Desmond 823, 824
Mann, K. 795
Mann, Ronald 211
Manning, P. 15, 26, 31
maquiladoras 1052–3
marginal deterrence 104
markets 406
entry controls 222
financial see financial markets
market closure and professional regulation 220, 223
market power 768–9
Marks, M. 29
Marotta-Wurgler, F. 133
marriage
divorce and breakdown of 287–90, 300, 887
case study of lawyer-client interactions in divorce context 945–7
child support a9 er 290–2
same-sex unions 298–9
Marsil, D. 659
Martinson, Robert 108
Mashaw, Jerry 403–4, 405, 475
Massey, D. 347
matching methods 916
Mather, Lynn 91, 231, 559, 1048
Maton, J. and Maton, C. 766
Mattli, W. 762
Mawani, R. 342
Max Planck Institute 66
May, T. 938
Mayhew, L.H. 271, 442
Maynard, D.W. 558
Mazerolle, L. 30
Means, G. 139
mediation 71, 72, 300, 603, 608–12, 696, 1008
medical care see health care
Medoff, J. 314, 315
Meernik, J. 766
Megarry, Robert 529
Meidinger, Errol 762
Meili, S. 723
Melilli, K. J. 91
Melrose, M. 417
Merlino, M. 1029
Merry, Sally Engle 345, 372, 772, 811, 812, 814, 820, 1053–4
Mertz, Elizabeth 858–9
meta-analyses
‘new rehabilitation’ and 109–12
Metcalf, D. 319
methodological issues 3–4, 7
alternative dispute resolution (ADR) 597–600
developing methods for doing empirical legal research 1050–6
early empirical research on law 883–5
jury research 636–9
labor and employment law 310–14
legal mobilization studies 265–7
litigation studies 265–7
multi-method approaches see multimethod approaches
qualitative approaches see qualitative methodologies
quantitative approaches see quantitative methodologies
study of constitutions and 387–90
Mexico 734
maquiladoras 1052–3
Miene, P. 658
(p. 1081) Miewald, R. 477
migration
crime and 42–3, 57–8
Miles, M. 940
Miles, T. 117, 119, 759
Mileski, M. 564–5
Miller, G.P. 719, 720
Miller, L.L. 81
Miller, M.L. 82, 90, 927
Miller, R.E. 269, 271, 273
Miller, R.I. 713
Milner, H.V. 778
minimum wages 317–20, 327
mini-trials 615
minorities see ethnic minorities
miscarriages of justice 24–5
Mitchell, R. 758
Mitchell, S. 759
mixed tribunals 641–4
Mnookin, Robert 301
Modern Law Review 882
Moley, Raymond 886
monitorship 170
Monsma, K. 478
Moody, S. 87
Moore, Mark 18
Moore, Sally Falk 813–14
Moorhead, R. 799
Moravcsik, A. 356
Morawetz, Thomas 978
Morgan, R. 528
Morrow, J.D. 776
Morse, Wayne 882, 896
Mott, Rodney 891–2
Mulcahy, L. 477
Mulheron, R. 714
multi-method approaches 952–3, 971–2
costs and risks 970–1
examples 956
genocide in Darfur 961–3
ongoing multi-method research 963–70
studying civil litigation in US 956–61
meaning 953–6
Munsterberg, Hugo 657
Murie, A, 333
Murray, J. 119–20
Musembi, C. 343
Nadler, J. 334
Nagin, D. 103
Namibia 534
Nardulli, P.F. 556–8
nation states see states
National Academy of Sciences (US) 108, 115
National Center for State Courts (U.S.) 1014
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVSU.S.)
National DNA Database (NDNADUK)
National Institute of Justice (U.S.) 116
National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIAUK)
National Reassurance Policing Program (NRPPUK)
National Research Council of Canada 1004
National Science Foundation (U.S.) 1004
native peoples see indigenous peoples
native title 819
naturalistic research 927
negligence
medical 266
negotiation
alternative dispute resolution (ADR) and 604–8
neighbor disputes 345
Neighborhood Policing (NPUK)
Nelkin, D. 338, 438
Nelson, R.L. 231, 796
Netherlands
access to justice in 500
alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in 611
collective actions (class actions) 708
criminal justice system 65
defense 76
efficiency in 71
prosecution 83, 86
empirical research in 2
judges and judiciary in 537
(p. 1082) occupational safety and health (OSH) 432
selective incapacitation in 116
network analysis 1048–9
Neumayer, E. 365, 368, 369
New Institutionalism 585–6
New Public Management 136, 405, 421, 475, 485
New York University Law and Society Program (LSP) 1045, 1050–6
New Zealand
access to justice in 501
alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in 611
child protection 294
consumer protection 184
courts 561
government research in 1004
judges and judiciary in 530, 531, 535
juries 628
legal education in 1032
legal pluralism in 812
personal injury compensation 254
prosecution of crime 82–3
shared parenting in 297
Newburn, T. 30
Newman, J 1035
Neyroud, P. 72
Niedermeyer, K.E. 668–9
Nieuwbeerta, P. 116
Nigeria 534
Nixon, Richard 834
‘no fault’ schemes for personal injury compensation 253–4, 275
Noakes, J. 17
non-governmental organizations 1055
human rights and 358, 363–4, 366, 369, 372, 772
international law and 761, 762
non-legal decision-makerssee lay decision-makers in legal process
Northern Ireland
counter-terrorism in 27–8
housing 348–9
Northwestern University (U.S.) 20
Norway
occupational safety and health (OSH) 440
social security and social welfare 407–8
Nuffield Foundation 401, 1015
Nuffield Inquiry (UK) 2, 3
Nunez, N. 660
Nuremberg trials 774
Nzelibe, J. 774
observational research 937–8
occupational safety and health (OSH) 424–5
empirical studies 425–6
future research agenda 443–5
laws on 427–8
enforcement 431–6
impact 436–40
implementation 428–9
policy-making 429–31
workplace representation 440–3
Offending Group Reconviction Scale (OGRS) 114
ƠLeary, Brendan 172
ombudsman schemes 183, 470, 475, 477, 479, 481, 482, 485–6, 487, 488, 489, 616
online dispute resolution (ODR) 183, 620
online transactions 191–2
order management
police and 14–15, 16–21, 33
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 311
Osinsky, P. 754, 767
Oxford Centre for Socio-Legal Studies 1, 494, 983, 1021
Pace, N.M. 719
Packer, H. 71
Page, E.C. 473
Paglia, A. 658
Paik, Anthony 1048, 1049
Palestine 342
Panel on Takeovers and Mergers (UK) 167–8
paralegals 626, 799
Park, R. 658
Parker, C. 185, 796
(p. 1083) Parker, R. 54
parsimony 921–2
Parsons, T. 217
Partington, Martin 2, 1040
Party Capability Theory 578, 579, 591
Paternoster, R. 85
Paterson, A. 268, 573
Paterson I., 222
Pathak, M. 659
Pavlovic, A. 77
Pearce Report (Australia) 869
Pearson Commission (UK) 1
Pelletier, J. 315
penal sanctions 97–8, 120–1
crime trends and 43–5
death penalty 85, 97–8, 636
sentencing 554–5, 565–6
penal welfarism 108–9
Pennington, N. 629, 637, 667
Penrod, S. 658
pensions 130–2
perceptual research on general deterrence 103
Perez Liñan, A. 738
Perrodet, A. 84
personal injury litigation 235–7, 255–6, 794
case outcomes 238–9
probability of dropping case 239
probability of settlement 239–40
settlement amounts 242–3
settlement timing and case duration 240–2
tort reform and ‘freeway principle’ 243
compensation 7, 242–3
alternative means 253–4
deterrence and 252–3
fee arrangements 248–52, 276
litigation process 237–8
‘no fault’ schemes 253–4, 275
role of legal system 243
costs rules 246–8
information transfer and informal dispute resolution 244–5
selection of cases for trial 245–6
variations in claiming behavior 271, 275–6
Pick, K. 417, 476, 480–1
Piquero, A.R. 117
plea bargaining 89–91, 559–61
Pleasance, P. 269
pluralism 817–18
legal see legal pluralism
Poland
divorce in 288
lay decision-makers in legal process 643
police and policing 11–12, 31–3
crime management 15, 16, 22–6, 31, 33
crime reporting and recording 56–8
crime trends and 45–7, 59
disciplinary procedures 69–70
domestic violence and 88
independence of prosecution from 82–4
interrogations 76–7
mapping research landscape 13–16
order management 14–15, 16–21, 33
performance review 72–3
security management 16, 26–31, 33, 65, 73
stop and search powers 67–8, 73
policy-making 1003, 1020–2
case studies of impact of empirical research 1006–13
integrating empirical research on law and policy-making 1013–20
need for evidence base 1004–6
occupational safety and health (OSH) 429–31
Political Quarterly 882
Political Science Quarterly 882
Political Studies 882
politics
commitments to human rights and 361–2, 367–9
courts as political institutions 829
political independence of prosecution 84–5
politics approach to empirical research 1
structure and competitiveness of political systems 737–41
pollution
crime and 53
Popkin, W.D. 412
(p. 1084) Popper, Karl 673
Portugal 537
positivism 807–8, 930
Posner, Elliott 759, 769
Posner, Eric 765
Posner, R.S. 236, 581, 588
Pospisil, L. 807
Postema, Gerald 998
Potter, J. 943
Pound, Roscoe 683, 878, 879
Powell, E. 361, 363, 365, 368, 369, 372, 759
power
international law and 757–8, 768–9
Pratt, T.C. 106
precedents 742
preventative law 507
prevention of crime 97, 120–1
deterrent effects see deterrence
incapacitation methods see incapacitation
rehabilitation strategies see rehabilitation
Priest, G.L. 245, 690
prison see penal sanctions
Pritchard, A.C. 716
Pritchett, C. Hermann 1
private security 30
problem-oriented policing (POP) 19–20
procedural fairness 188–9
professional regulation 216–17, 232
cross-border comparisons 222–3, 225, 231
entry controls 222
informal 230–1
interests of profession and public 217–18
market closure 220, 223
multiple regulators 227–30
professional boundaries 223–5
quality 220–1
relative public protection 222–3
self-regulation 217, 218–20, 221, 231
study of regulated groups 227
techniques 226
Project on International Courts and Tribunals (PICT) 763
property law see housing and property law
prosecution of crime 65
decision-making processes 66–70
plea bargaining 89–91, 559–61
prosecutorial autonomy 86–8
prosecutorial independence 82
from police and other legal actors 82–4
political independence 84–5
role of prosecutor 80–2
Prospect Theory 155
protests 16–17, 74
Provine, D. M. 626, 647
Provost, C. 186
Przeworski, A. 732
Public Defender Service (UK) 78
public images and understandings
courts 828–30, 849–50
consequences in case of US Supreme Court 836–45
impact of court decisions on public opinion 845–6
judges and judiciary 831–6, 846–9
public interest litigation (PIL) 738, 739, 745
public order
police and 16–17
public sector
agencies 485–6, 488
contracting in 136–7
housing 333, 346, 348
regulation 482–3
Pue, Wesley 219, 865, 1027, 1032
punishment see sanctions
pure research 1017
qualitative methodologies 3–4, 927–9, 947–8
assumptions and theoretical underpinning 929–32
case study of lawyer-client interactions in divorce context 945–7
data analysis 932, 940–5
data collection 928, 932, 935, 936–40
research design 932–6
validity, reliability and dependability 935–6
quality
legal profession 797–8
professional regulation and 220–1
quantitative methodologies 3–4, 923–4, 929–30
(p. 1085) coding variables 911–12
data analysis 4, 905, 912–17
data collection 905, 909–11
design of research 904, 905–8
overview of conduct of empirical research 902–5
presenting results of research 917–23
Quarterly Review 882
quasi-experimental research designs
on general deterrence 102–3
Quinlan, M. 442
Quinton, P. 67
Rachlinkski, Jeffrey J. 903
Rack, Christine 610
Rackley, Erika 532–3
Radin, M. 339
Rakos, R. 657
Ramirez, F.O. 360, 364, 365
ranching 344–5
RAND Institute for Civil Justice 494, 1014
Ransley, J. 30
rape 954–5
rationality
bounded 99, 110, 131–2
human rights and 366–7
rational actor theories 355–7
rational choice 754
Raynor, P. 111–12
realism 683, 754
human rights and 366–7
legal realism movement 879, 1036
reductivism 107 see also rehabilitation; special deterrence
regulation 139, 482–3, 486–7
consumer protection 192–3
environmental 449–50, 464–5
compliance and beyond-compliance behavior 457–60
enforcement 455–7
impact 460–4
making and design of environmental law 451–5
nancial markets 155–6, 164, 165–70
investor protection 156–7
regulatory competition 166–7
responses to regulation 169–70
self-regulation 167–9
short selling 159
unintended consequences 164–5
international law and 768, 779–80
legal-origins hypothesis and 312
occupational safety and health (OSH)
impact 436–40
policy-making 429–31
workplace representation 440–3
occupational safety and health (OSH) laws 427–8
enforcement 431–6
implementation 428–9
professions 216–17, 232
cross-border comparisons 222–3, 225, 231
entry controls 222
informal 230–1
interests of profession and public 217–18
market closure 220, 223
multiple regulators 227–30
professional boundaries 223–5
quality 220–1
relative public protection 222–3
self-regulation 217, 218–20, 221, 231
study of regulated groups 227
techniques 226
rent control 338–9
rehabilitation 97, 98, 107, 108, 121
desistance-focused rehabilitation 112
meta-analyses and cognitive-behavioral approaches 109–12
penal welfarism and its decline 108–9
Reiner, R. 14
Reinhardt, E. 777
Reiss, A.J. 271
religion 303
claiming behavior and 278
cohabitation and 296
rented housing 333, 346, 348
rent control 338–9
Reppetto, T. 12
Research Committee for the Sociology of Law 494
reservations to human rights treaties 365
Resnick, Judith 525
(p. 1086) restorative justice 71, 72, 561–2, 611, 612
Reyes, J.A.W. 53
Rhode, D. L. 222
Richards, M. J. 1049
Richman, D. 84
Rickman, N. 241, 242, 248, 249
Risse, T. 357
Roach Anleu, S. 559
Robbenolt, Jennifer K. 3, 631–2
robbery 38, 40
Roberts, A. 41, 45, 55
Roberts, C. 33
Robertson, David 985
Robinson, A. 441, 442
Robinson, D. 335
Robinson, G. 111–12
Robson, P. 415
Rochette, A. 865, 1027, 1032
Rockefeller Foundation 880
Roe, M. 163, 164
Rogowski, R. 323
Romania 539
Rose, Nikolas 341–2
Rosenberg, G.N. 734
Rosenberg, Maurice 685, 693
Rosenblum, M.R. 368
Rosenfeld, R. 42
Ross, D. 659
Rothwell, J. 347
Royal Commission on Criminal Justice (UK; 1993) 65, 78, 79
Royal Commission on Criminal Procedure (UK; 1981) 65
Royal Commission on Legal Services (UK; 1979) [Benson Commission] 1
Royal Commission on Civil Liability and Compensation for Personal Injury (UK; 1978) [Pearson Commission] 1
Rubinstein, J. 14
rule of law 493, 730, 829
Rundell, Oliver 885
Russell, D. 528
Russell, Peter 527, 529
Russia
access to justice in 501
constitution 381
economic growth and development 732
empirical research in 2
judges and judiciary in 539
occupational safety and health (OSH) 444
Rymond-Richmond, Wynona 961–3, 1049
Sainsbury, Roy 404, 417, 476, 485
Salehyan I., 368
same-sex unions 298–9
sampling methods
qualitative methodologies 933–5
quantitative methodologies 910, 914
Sampson, R.J. 43
Sanchez, R. 659
sanctions
penal sanctions 97–8, 120–1
crime trends and 43–5
death penalty 85, 97–8, 636
sentencing 554–5, 565–6
social security and social welfare fraud 418–20
Sander, R. H. 789
Sandomierski, David 808
Sands, Phillipe 540
Santos, Boaventura de Sousa 810, 814, 821
SARA model 19
Sarat, A. 269, 271, 273, 413, 957, 961
Sarkar, P. 322
Sarra, J.P. 716
Saunders, P. 333, 334
Scared Straight programs 113
Scheb, J.M. 85
Scheppele, Kim 954
Schlegel, John 684, 879, 880, 1029
Schmidhauser, John R. 525
Schmidt, Patrick 1047
Scholz, J.T. 434, 437
Schram, Sanford 420
Schubert, G.A. 573
Schulhofer, S.J. 91
Schuller, R. 274, 658
science 930
forensic science 23–5, 663–4
(p. 1087) judicial understanding of 664
police and policing and 23–5, 32
Scott, C. 480
Scruggs, L. 453
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC; U.S.) 153, 158
securitization 336
security management
criminal justice system and 73–5
police and 16, 26–31, 33, 65, 73
Segal, Jeffrey 583, 585, 587, 588
Sego, S. 659
selection bias 910
selective incapacitation 114–17
self-regulation
financial markets 167–9
professions 217, 218–20, 221, 231
Sen, Amartya 730
sentencing 554–5, 565–6
Seron, C. 552
Serrano, Santiago Basabe 742, 743
severity of punishment 98, 105
weakness of severity effect 105–6
sex industry
zoning and planning policies and 347–8
sexual harassment 267, 272–3, 274
Shanahan, T. 1032
Shapiro, Martin 526, 575, 577
shared parenting 296–8
shareholders 139
Shavell, S. 252, 589
Shearing, C. 30
Shephard, G.B. 245
Sheptycki, J. 17
Sherman, L. 25
Sherr, A. 865
Shestowsky, D. 188–9
Shiller, Robert 154
Shiner, M. 790–2
Shleifer, A. 160
shock treatments 113
short selling 158–9
Shover, N. 432
Shulman, H. 691
Sierra Leone
access to justice in 501
legal pluralism in 807
Sigler, J. A. 91
Sikkink, K. 744, 774, 776
Silbey, Susan 484, 1051
silence
right to 78–9
Simmons, B. 759, 772, 774
Skogan, W. 13, 20
Skolnick, J. 14
Skordaki, E. 168
Slesinger, D. 657
Sloan, F. A. 239, 240, 242, 244
Slovakia
access to justice in 501
courts 839
Slucks, J. 27
small claims courts 562–3
Smallman, C. 441, 442
Smart, Carol 302
Smart, J. 807
Smith, B. 660
Smith, D. 69, 72
Smith, J. 116
Smith, R.S. 437
Snyder, E.A. 246, 247
Snyder, J. 774
Social Science Research Network 1019
social security and social welfare 399–400, 401–2, 420–1
crisis in 740
decision-making
administrative review as alternative to appeals 415–17
appellate 409–14, 647
first-instance 403–8, 647
impact of appeals on first-instance decision-making 414–15
definitions 400–1
fraud and sanctions 417–20
Society for Empirical Legal Studies 494, 1026, 1037
Society of Legal Scholars (UK) 867
socio-legal studies 1018
Socio-Legal Studies Association 402, 494
sociological movement in law 1047
software licensing 133
Solomon, David 530
Soss, Joe 408
(p. 1088) South Africa
constitution 384, 534, 741
courts, 840, 843
appeal courts 591
housing in 739–40
judges and judiciary in 534
legal education in 1032
legal pluralism in 808
police and policing in 29
Southworth, Ann 1048
Spaeth, H.J. 585, 587, 588
Spain
child protection 293
empirical research in 2
judges and judiciary in 537
Spamann, H. 162
special deterrence 44, 97, 98, 107, 113
Spelman, W. 43, 118, 119
Spence, L.K. 842
Spencer, M. 864
Sperlich, P. 641
Spiller, Pablo 587
Stanley, David T. 204, 209
Stapledon, Geoff 143, 144–5
states
constitutions see constitutions
human rights and 358, 365–6
bills of rights 370–1
domestic politics and institutions 361–2, 367–9
future research 371–3
norm diffusion and state linkage to global society 357–8, 362–4, 369
rational actor theories 355–7
realist and rationalist assumptions 366–7
reservations to human rights treaties 365
state interests (costs-benefits) 359–61
implementation capacities 739–40
international law and 757, 758, 760–1, 767
lawyers in government 1018–19
origins of 807–8
policy-making bysee policy-making
regulation by see regulation
research by 1004–6 see also public sector
statistics 1049
development of judicial statistics 877–8
statistical inference 913–19
training in 883–4
Staton, J.K. 361, 363, 365, 368, 369, 372
Stein, A.A. 756
Stenning, P. 30
Stevens, Robert 531, 574
Stone Sweet, A. 385, 764
stop and search powers 67–8, 73
Strauss, A. 944
Studdert, D.M. 254
subjectivity
deterrence and 99, 101–2, 106
subjects of empirical research 982–4
sub-prime lending 190–1, 336
Sudan
genocide in Darfur 961–3, 1049–50
Sullivan, Teresa 206, 212
Sundby, S. 630
Sunkin, M. 417, 476, 480–1
Sunstein, Cass 431, 637, 638
supply-chain contracts 141
surveillance 74
surveys 953
swaps 165
Sweden
administrative justice in 476
collective actions (class actions) 707, 712
home ownership 334
judges and judiciary in 537
lay decision-makers in legal process 643
occupational safety and health (OSH) 430, 432
personal injury compensation 254
social security and social welfare 407–8
Switzerland
judges and judiciary in 523
research on general deterrence in 102–3, 104
Sykes, D.L. 668–9, 670
systems theory 837
Tabarrok, A. 46, 251–2
Taiwan 384
takeovers 167–8
Tamanaha, Brian 808, 814, 821, 993
Taragin, M. 632
Tata, C. 566, 798
Tate, Neil 529
taxation
home ownership and 333, 336
technology
police and policing and 23–5, 32
telephone tapping 75
tenancy see rented housing
terrorism 26–8, 65, 73–4, 75
THacher, D. 28, 33
THailand 377
theorizing in empirical research
qualitative methodologies 929–32
quantitative methodologies 906–7
THibaut, J. 188
THiel, D. 28
THomas, Dorothy 203
THomas, L.G. 437, 441
THomason, T. 251
THompson, M. 480
THompson, Peter 610
THompson, W. 659
THornton, Margaret 860–1, 1032, 1040
Tidmarsh, J. 717
Tilburg Microjustice Initiative 494, 498
Toharia, J. J. 843
Tomasic, Roman 142–4
Tombs, J. 87
tort reform 243, 829
trade
international trade law 776–8
trade unions see unions
trait theory 218
transaction costs 127, 159
transnational advocacy networks 357
transnational legal process approach 357–8
treaties see international law
tree planting 342
trial courts see courts
Tribe, Laurence 525
tribunals 552
labor courts and alternative dispute resolution 323–6
mixed tribunals 641–4
social security and social welfare 403–8, 647
administrative review as alternative to appeals 415–17
appeals 409–14, 647
impact of appeals on first-instance decision-making 414–15 see also administrative justice
Trinder, Liz 297, 302
Trobriand Islands 806–7
Trochev, Alexei 539
Trubek, David 956
Truche, Pierre 65
trust
contracts and 135–6, 137
trustees
bankruptcy and insolvency and 200
Tsutsui, K. 367, 369, 772
Tulane Law Review 182
Turkey 320
Turner, B. 338, 339
Tversky, Amos 155, 666
Tyler, T. 188, 478, 639
Uganda 29
Ulen, Thomas S. 3, 1040
umbrella contracts 134
uncertainty 919
degree of 914
factual 671–2
unemployment 320
crime and 41–2
unintended consequences of regulation 164–5
unions
collective labor relations 310, 314–17, 328
labor courts and 324, 325
occupational safety and health (OSH) and 440–3
United Kingdom
access to justice in 500
administrative justice in 473, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480–1, 487, 1009
alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in 300, 301, 617, 1008–9
(p. 1090) civil procedure in 683, 689–90, 692, 693, 695
reforms 1007–8
claiming behavior in 268, 275, 277
collective actions (class actions) 705, 709, 712, 714
constitution 381
consumer protection 183, 184
contracting in 135
corporate governance 145–7
courts 551, 559, 560–1
appeal courts 573, 575, 576, 578, 591
crime in 38, 40, 878–9
demographic and economic conditions and 41
lifestyle/culture and 53
criminal justice system 65
decision-making processes 68–9, 70
efficiency in 71
equal treatment in 1010–11
plea bargaining 89, 560–1
prosecution 80, 81, 82, 83–4, 86, 87–8
security management and 75
development of judicial statistics 877
empirical research in 1, 2, 3, 897
communication of results 1019
early research on law 877, 878–9, 882
funding 1013–15
government research 1004, 1005
policy-making impact 1006–11
environmental regulation 463
family law issues 303, 1010
case study of lawyer-client interactions in divorce context 945–7
child protection 292–3
child support after marriage breakdown and divorce 290, 291, 292
cohabitation 295
divorce 288, 289
same-sex unions 298–9
shared parenting 297–8
financial markets 165
investor protection 156, 157
regulatory competition 167
responses to regulation 169
self-regulation 167–8
housing and property law
home ownership 333, 334, 335–6, 337
insecure home ownership 337–8
neighbor disputes 345
tenancy 338, 346, 348–9
institutional investors 144–5
judges and judiciary in 526
appointment 529, 531, 534–5, 895
career ladders 535
diversity 532
lay judiciary 528, 626, 642, 644–6
labor law in 308–9, 310
collective labor relations 315–17
employment protection legislation 321–2
labor courts 323–5
minimum wages 318–19, 327
theory, methods and data for study 310–11
law reform agencies 1011
lay decision-makers in legal process 647
magistrates 528, 626, 642, 644–6
legal aid in 1007
legal education in 855–6, 857–8, 861, 863–5, 867–8
empirical legal training in 1047
empirical research in curriculum 1027, 1029–31, 1040, 1041
legal pluralism in 813
legal profession 790–2, 798
lawyers in government 1018–19
occupational safety and health (OSH)
empirical studies 426
enforcement 431–2, 433
impact 438–40
laws on 427, 428
policy-making 429, 430
workplace representation 441–2
penal sanctions
rehabilitation programs 108, 111–12
special deterrence and 113
(p. 1091) personal injury litigation 241, 244, 247–50
police and policing in 13, 32, 65
crime management 22–3, 24, 26
disciplinary procedures 70
interrogations 77
order management 19, 21
security management 27–8, 29, 73
stop and search powers 67, 68, 73
professional regulation in 225, 229, 231
social security and social welfare 399, 400, 401–2, 420
administrative review as alternative to appeals 415–17
appellate decision-making 409–12, 647
first-instance decision-making 403, 404, 406
fraud and sanctions 418–19
impact of appeals on first-instance decision-making 414–15
United Nations 613
Guidelines for Consumer Protection 190
policing and 28–9
UNDP Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor 498
United States of America
access to justice in 500–1
administrative justice in 470
administrative review 477
applying rules and discretion 475, 476
rule-making 472–4
alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in 300–1, 601, 605
arbitration 612, 613–14
comparisons of processes 616–19
hybrid forms 615, 616
mediation 610
negotiation 606, 607–8
auto accident litigation and compensation 887–8
bankruptcy and insolvency in 198–9, 200, 202, 889–90
corporate 207–8, 209, 210–11
future 208–13
individual 209, 210, 211
individual bankruptcy 202–7
Civil Litigation Research Project (CLRP) 686–7, 956–61, 1048
civil procedure in 683–9, 691, 692, 693, 695, 697, 699, 888–9
claiming behavior in 267–8, 271, 272, 275, 276, 277, 278
collective actions (class actions) 280, 705, 707, 708, 718
costs 718–19
goals 712
levels of need 712, 713–14
outcomes 720–3
technical modes of operation 716
techniques and limitations on availability of information 709, 710
wider comparisons 723–4
constitution 381, 383, 386, 524
consumer protection 177
complaints 178–9, 181
complaints handling 182, 184
enforcement of law 186
contracting in 132–3, 138
courts 548, 550, 552, 554, 555, 557, 558, 559–60
appeal courts 573, 575, 576, 578, 584, 587, 891–2
public images and understandings 828, 836–45
Supreme Court 832–3, 834, 836–45, 891, 909
crime in 38, 40, 58, 554, 878, 954
community factors 51, 52–3
crime reporting and recording 57, 58
demographic and economic conditions and 41, 42, 43, 59
drugs, guns and gangs 48–50, 56, 59, 60
environmental factors 53
lifestyle/culture and 54, 55, 56
policing policies and 45–7
prison policies and 43–5
criminal justice system 65, 885–7
efficiency in 71, 72, 73
plea bargaining 89–91, 559–60
prosecution 81–2, 84, 85, 86
security management and 73–4
debt in 204–5, 889–90
(p. 1092) development of judicial statistics 877
economic aid and 360
empirical research in 1, 2, 3, 5
decline in late 1930s 895–6
early research on law 877, 878, 879, 880–3
funding 1014
government research 1004
policy-making impact 1012–13
reemergence 1950–1975 896–8
employment discrimination 963–70
environmental regulation 452, 453, 461–3, 464
enforcement 455, 456
evidence 674
expert evidence 661–3
family law issues
child protection 293
child support a9 er marriage breakdown and divorce 290, 291
divorce 288, 289, 887
same-sex unions 298
financial markets 153
efficient markets hypothesis 155–6
regulatory competition 166–7
short selling 158
housing and property law
gated communities 340
home ownership 336
neighbor disputes 345
ranching 344–5
sub-prime lending 336–7
tenancy 338, 346, 348
zoning and planning policies 347
human rights and 367, 369, 773
immigration in 42, 57–8
judges and judiciary 523, 524–6, 527, 563–4, 829
appointment 533, 894
decision-making 564–5
diversity 532
election 523, 524, 525–6, 829, 830, 831, 894
lay judiciary 528, 626
public images and understandings 830–6, 848–9
labor law in 310
collective labor relations 314–15, 316
employment protection legislation 321–3
labor courts 325–6
minimum wages 317–18, 320
law and economics approach and 128–9
lay decision-makers in legal process 648
lay judiciary 528, 626
legal education in 855, 856, 858–9, 860, 865–7, 868–9, 893–4
empirical legal training in 1044–56
empirical research in curriculum 1027, 1028–9, 1041
legal pluralism in 813
legal profession 792, 892–3
legal realism movement 879
market power 769
occupational safety and health (OSH)
enforcement 432–3, 434
impact 436–7, 440
laws on 427
policy-making 430
workplace representation 441
penal sanctions
crime trends and 43–5
general incapacitation and 117, 118–19
selective incapacitation and 116
social impact of incarceration 44–5, 120
special deterrence and 113
personal injury litigation 238, 239, 240, 241, 244, 246–7, 250–2, 253, 254
police and policing in 13, 32
crime management 22, 25, 26
order management 17, 19–20, 21
security management 28, 29, 73
professional regulation in 219, 222, 224–5, 229
social security and social welfare 399, 400, 420
appellate decision-making 412–14
(p. 1093) first-instance decision-making 403–4, 407, 408
fraud and sanctions 418, 420
unemployment in 320
Utz, P. J. 84, 607
Valentino, B. 776
Valverde, M. 347
Van Gelder, J.-L. 343
Vandenbergh, M. 140–1, 142
Venn, D. 321
Verba, S. 930, 931
vertical integration 137
Vick, D. W. 863
Vickers I., 438
Vidmar, N. 270, 274, 630, 631, 632
Vietnam 501
Vignaedra, S. 1032
Viljoen, F. 366
Vincent-Jones, Peter 136–7
Vinjamuri, L. 774
Viscusi, W. K. 437
Vishny, R. 160
Vitale, A. 17
Vlachonikolis I., 242, 243, 244
Voeten, E. 765
Volcansek, Mary 526
Von Stein, J. 770
Vreeland, J. R. 356, 361, 363
Waddington, P. A. J. 16–17
wages
crime and 42
minimum 317–20, 327
Wakefield, A. 31
Walker, J. 432
Walker, L. 188
Walling, C. 774
Walters V., 441
war
international law of 774–6
Warner, Sam Bass 896
warranties 179
Warren, A. R. 659–60
Warren, Elizabeth 205, 206, 212
Washington Consensus 328
Weait, M. 169
Weatherburn, D. 72
Webb, J. 865
Weber, Max 931, 979, 986, 988, 989
Webster, C. 105
Weenink, D. 86
Weisburd, D. 27, 73
Weiser, P. 640
Weitzman, Lenore 288
Wells, C. 861–2
Wells, Gary 656, 667–8, 669
Welsh, Nancy 610
Westbrook, Jay 206, 212
Wheeler, Sally 2, 1040
White, M. 242, 244
Whitford, William 207, 208
Whytock, C. A. 763
Wickersham Commission (USA) 878, 886
Wikeley, N. 402, 404
Wildavsky, A. 480
Wilkins, D. 228, 229
Wilkinson-Ryan, T. 138
Willging, T. E. 721
Williams, E. D. 789
Williams, R. 23
Williamson, K. 156
Williamson, Oliver 127–8, 137
Wilson, G. K. 430
Wilson, James Q. 18
Wilson, Richard 808
Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice 494
Wisconsin, University of, 2 881, 895
Wissler, Roselle 611
women
access to justice and 497
crime and 41
employment of 288, 290
as judges 532–3
legal education and 860–2, 865–7
in legal profession 791–2
negotiation and 605–6
Wood, Walton 890
Woodall, C. E. 659–60
Woodliffe, J. C. 857
Woolf, Harry 680, 689
Woolf Report (UK) 1008
(p. 1094) World Bank 2, 311, 327, 328
Justice for the Poor (J4P) Program 497
world society approach 358
World Trade Organization (WTO) 613, 758, 762, 766, 776, 777
WorldCom 713
Wotipka, C.M. 360, 364,