- The Art, Craft, and Science of Policing
- Crime and Criminals
- Criminal Process and Prosecution
- The Crime-preventive Impact of Penal Sanctions
- Contracts and Corporations
- Financial Markets
- Consumer Protection
- Bankruptcy and Insolvency
- Regulating the Professions
- Personal Injury Litigation
- Claiming Behavior as Legal Mobilization
- Labor and Employment Laws
- Housing and Property
- Human Rights Instruments
- Social Security and Social Welfare
- Occupational Safety and Health
- Environmental Regulation
- Administrative Justice
- Access to Civil Justice
- Judicial Recruitment, Training and Careers
- Trial Courts and Adjudication
- Appellate Courts
- Dispute Resolution
- Lay Decision-Makers in the Legal Process
- Evidence Law
- Civil Procedure and Courts
- Collective Actions
- Law and Courts'Impact on Development and Democratization
- How Does Inter National Law Work?
- <b>Lawyers and Other Legal Service Providers</b>
- Legal Pluralism
- Public Images and Understandings of Courts
- Legal Education and the Legal Academy
Abstract and Keywords
This article introduces the concept of alternate dispute resolution (ADR), and discusses its baseline measure and comparison process. Empirical research on ADR falls into two categories, empirically descriptive work and empirically comparative work. Litigation varies across legal systems and changes through time, just as does ADR. Many studies have documented and described patterns of uses of particular forms of dispute resolution. These studies are designed to explore variations of behavior or outcomes within a particular process. Several commentators have observed that formal litigation and various forms of ADR, such as, mediation, private adjudication-arbitration, and other hybrid forms compete with and affect each other. Recent extensions of ADR suggest that the domain of dispute-resolution research is far more capacious than assessing how disputes are managed in lawsuits or courts.
Carrie J. Menkel-Meadow is AB Chettle, Jr. Professor of Dispute Resolution and Civil Procedure at Georgetown University Law Center, and Chancellor's Professor of Law at the University of California, Irvine.
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