- The Art, Craft, and Science of Policing
- Crime and Criminals
- Criminal Process and Prosecution
- The Crime-preventive Impact of Penal Sanctions
- Contracts and Corporations
- Financial Markets
- Consumer Protection
- Bankruptcy and Insolvency
- Regulating the Professions
- Personal Injury Litigation
- Claiming Behavior as Legal Mobilization
- Labor and Employment Laws
- Housing and Property
- Human Rights Instruments
- Social Security and Social Welfare
- Occupational Safety and Health
- Environmental Regulation
- Administrative Justice
- Access to Civil Justice
- Judicial Recruitment, Training and Careers
- Trial Courts and Adjudication
- Appellate Courts
- Dispute Resolution
- Lay Decision-Makers in the Legal Process
- Evidence Law
- Civil Procedure and Courts
- Collective Actions
- Law and Courts'Impact on Development and Democratization
- How Does Inter National Law Work?
- <b>Lawyers and Other Legal Service Providers</b>
- Legal Pluralism
- Public Images and Understandings of Courts
- Legal Education and the Legal Academy
Abstract and Keywords
The purpose of this article is to show how empirical research has revealed that effective policing often integrates and depends upon an amalgam of art, craft, and science. It focuses explicitly on the findings of the study of policing concerned with actions, practice, and the conduct of formal social control by both public and private actors. It provides a framework for understanding the reasons for policing being empirically studied. It represents the continuities and changes in the ideas that animate policing policy and practice and charts the key trajectories of development. This article proceeds further by establishing a broad framework for mapping the key orientations of research on the policing function. It also explores three key dimensions of policing: order management, crime management, and security management. Finally, it concludes by identifying some emerging trends in the organization and conduct of police work as policing organizations seek to reconfigure their capacities and capabilities to meet new challenges.
Martin Innes is Professor in the School of Social Sciences and Director of the Universities' Police Science Institute at the University of Cardiff.
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