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date: 21 May 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The purpose of this article is to show how empirical research has revealed that effective policing often integrates and depends upon an amalgam of art, craft, and science. It focuses explicitly on the findings of the study of policing concerned with actions, practice, and the conduct of formal social control by both public and private actors. It provides a framework for understanding the reasons for policing being empirically studied. It represents the continuities and changes in the ideas that animate policing policy and practice and charts the key trajectories of development. This article proceeds further by establishing a broad framework for mapping the key orientations of research on the policing function. It also explores three key dimensions of policing: order management, crime management, and security management. Finally, it concludes by identifying some emerging trends in the organization and conduct of police work as policing organizations seek to reconfigure their capacities and capabilities to meet new challenges.

Keywords: art, craft, science, policing, order management, empirical research

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