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date: 04 December 2020

(p. ix) List of Figures

(p. ix) List of Figures

  1. Fig. 4.1 A contextual model concerning socio-emotional functioning (inner circle) and parenting styles (outer circle) in relation to social initiative and self-control and their value in Western, self-oriented vs. Chinese, group-oriented cultures 39

  2. Fig. 6.1 Snapshots of DevLex across different developmental stages: Stage 1 (50 words—upper left), Stage 3 (150 words—upper right), Stage 5 (250 words—lower left) and Stage 10 (all 500 words—lower right). The sequence of images illustrates the nature of changes underlying the developmental process, as a result of the expanding vocabulary and the changing/enriched word representations. DevLex clearly separates the four major lexical categories (and the semantic subcategories within each category) toward the final stage. Because of the large number of words involved in each map, the individual words are not legible in this figure. (Reprinted from Hernandez, Li, & MacWhinney, 2005, with permission from Elsevier.) 72

  3. Fig. 6.2 A sketch of the DevLex bilingual model. Each of the two self-organizing maps (SOMs) receives the lexical input and organizes the phonological and semantic information of the lexicon, respectively, for both language inputs. The associative connections between maps are trained by Hebbian learning. (Based on Li & Farkas, 2002.) 73

  4. Fig. 6.3 Noun-verb ratio (in types) as a function of age for English, Mandarin, and Cantonese: (a) children, (b) adults 75

  5. Fig. 6.4 Mean number of nouns, verbs, and adjectives learned by DevLex-II at different developmental stages for (a) Chinese and (b) English. Results are averaged across ten simulation trials (see Zhao & Li, 2008) 76

  6. Fig. 6.5 Examples of bilingual lexical representations on the semantic map and the phonological map. Dark areas correspond to L2 (Chinese) words; (a, b): simultaneous learning; (c, d): early L2 learning; (e, f) late L2 learning (see Zhao & Li, 2007) 78

  7. Fig. 6.6 Interaction between regularity, frequency, and consistency in the model's character naming (R-C = regular consistent, R-I = regular inconsistent, I-I = irregular inconsistent). Both regularity effects and consistency effects are stronger for low-frequency and new items than for high-frequency items (see Xing, Shu, & Li, 2004) 80

  8. Fig. 6.7 Averaged brain activations for nouns versus fixations, verbs versus fixations, and class-ambiguous words versus fixations. No significant differences were found between nouns, verbs, and ambiguous words. Reprinted from Li et al., 2004, with permission from Elsevier 82

  9. (p. x) Fig. 6.8 Selected brain regions showing significant activation differences between familiar (Chinese/English) and unfamiliar (Italian/Japanese) stimulus conditions in the language discrimination task. Activation maps and time-course results indicate that (a) unfamiliar languages elicited stronger activations than familiar languages in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), while (b) familiar languages elicited stronger activations than unfamiliar languages in the left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG). Error bars indicate standard errors of the mean. (Reprinted from Zhao et al., 2008, with permission from Elsevier) 84

  10. Fig. 6.9 The sum percentage change of signal intensity in three brain regions for the three types of stimuli. LIFG-tri: left inferior frontal gyrus (p. triangularis); RIFG-tri: right inferior frontal gyrus (p. triangularis); LMTG: left middle temporal gyrus. FI: figurative idiom; LI: literal idiom; PH: regular phrases 86

  11. Fig. 7.1 Examples of Chinese characters in traditional and simplified script 94

  12. Fig. 7.2 Examples of Pinyin and Zhuyin Fuhao 95

  13. Fig. 10.1 Constituents of Chinese students' mathematics achievement 151

  14. Fig. 12.1 Contrasting conceptions of good teaching 176

  15. Fig. 14.1 The Chinese Circumplex Model of Affect (CCMA). This figure shows a schematic diagram of the hypothetical locations of the 12 segments 208

  16. Fig. 28.1 The Confucian ethical system of benevolence-righteousness-propriety for ordinary people (adapted from Hwang, 1995, p. 233) 482

  17. Fig. 28.2 Extent of having face caused by two types of incident for retirees and for college students 491

  18. Fig. 28.3 Extent of losing face caused by two types of incident for retirees and for college students 491

  19. Fig. 28.4 The interaction of relation type and distinctiveness type on a related other's feeling of having face due to an actor's success 493

  20. Fig. 28.5 The interaction of relation type and distinctiveness type on a related other's feeling of losing face due to an actor's failure 494

  21. Fig. 33.1 Historical affordances for authority, adapted from Liu & Liu, 2003, p. 47 570

  22. Fig. 35.1 Overall conceptual framework 601

  23. Fig. 35.2 Farh and Cheng's (2000) model of paternalistic leadership 603

  24. Fig. 39.1 Basic cross-cultural interaction sequence 680

  25. Fig. 39.2 Four interaction contexts 681