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date: 19 January 2020

(p. 717) Index

(p. 717) Index

ABCDE model 355
ability 198, 226, 643
abstract strategies 150
acceptance and commitment therapy 469–70
acculturation and adaptation by overseas Chinese 657–72
adaptation of elderly immigrants 671–2
adaptation over time 668
bi-dimensional models of acculturation 658–9
categorical models of acculturation 659–61
conceptualization and measurement of acculturation 659
cultural competence 667–8
family harmony and filial piety 669
family relations and cross-cultural transition 670
identity 661, 662–3
individuals and families 668
intergenerational conflicts 670–1
personal situational factors 666–7
preferences and practices of acculturation 659–61
social support 665–6
stress and coping 663–8
uni-dimensional models of acculturation 658
Acculturation Index 658, 659
Action Learning Project 180
activated effect (excitement) 209
adaptation 691
psychological 662, 663, 667–8 see also acculturation and adaptation
adjectives 74, 76
adjustment, psychological 226–7
Adolescent Values Project 254
adopted children from Chinese-speaking to English-speaking 132
Adult Sources of Self-esteem Inventory 282
advanced style of leadership 609
adversity framework 649–50
affective disturbance 44–5
Affective Picture System, Chinese 212
affective ties 587
Affect Scale, Chinese 207
Affect Valuation Index scales 209
age differences 314, 319–20
age of language acquisition 77
aggression-disruption 37, 39, 42–3
aging 309–23
cross-cultural differences 313–20
different directions of development across cultures 318–20
same processes, different manifestations 313–16
same processes, different outcomes 316–18
future directions 320–2
processes showing few differences across cultures 310–13
All-China Federation of Trade Unions 568, 573
All-China Women's Federation 573
Alzheimer's disease 33, 391–2
Alzheimer's Disease Behavioral Pathology Rating Scale (Hong Kong version) 387
analogy 110
analytic thinking 155–8, 682, 684, 705
anorexia nervosa (yan shi zheng) 372
Anti-rightist (Criticism) Movement 11
aphasia 125
Asian Barometer project 564
ASPM (abnormal spindle microcephaly associated) gene 34
assessment:
batteries 115–16
instrumentation for clinical neuropsychology 386–9
and reading disability 117
assimilation 659–60, 662
astrology 460
‘astronaut families’ 670
asymmetry model 127
attachment styles 281
attention 316–17
deficit/hyperactivity disorder 113
attribute causality 684
attributes, individual 705–6
attribution:
differential 683–5
effort 196, 198, 226
and motivation and achievement 193–4
styles 157–8
theory of motivation (Weiner) 193
(p. 718) Attributional Style Questionnaire 225
auditory processing and language 633–5
authoritarianism:
categorical and defensive reactions under threat 591–3
Confucian 609
physical-material academic 59, 61
right-wing 575, 591 see also parental
authoritarian leadership 602, 609, 613–14, 707
authoritative leadership 609, 613–14, 707
authority 570–1
Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised 390
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule 390
autism spectrum disorders in children 389–90
autobiographical memory 214–15
autonomic nervous system 40, 213
autonomy 58, 62–3
encouragement 46
granting 55
inclusive 198
individual 684
individual relative 198
perceived 192
support 60–1
backchannel response 689
Back Pain Locus of Control Scale 227
bad habits 488
Bai Hua movement 9
bamboo stick interpretation (chien wen) 460
baseball 647
Beck Depression Inventory 422
Beck Hopelessness Scale 352
behavior/behavioral:
against morality 488
checklists 115
control 56, 60, 62
flexibility 25–6
inhibition 40, 41
norms 685
Behaviorism 6, 9
beliefs 197, 221–35
about morality and social influence 235
about uncertain events 232–3
in change 160–3
collectivist 231–2, 701
didactic/reproductive 175
environmental 222–3, 232–3
facilitative/transformative 175
health 233–4
and morality 235
and mortality 233
and power distance 232
reciprocity and retribution 234
religios ity 233
retribution 234
social 222, 231–2, 234, 235, 301
typology 221
and uncertain events 232–3 see also psychological beliefs
Beliefs about Adversity Scale, Chinese 344, 358
Bem Sex Role Inventory 302
benevolence 409–10, 482–3, 488, 495, 535
benevolent leadership 602
benevolent paternalism 583, 584
Bicultural Identity Integration 661, 662
bilingualism/bilingual 123–39
Chinese-English bilingual acquisition in childhood 71, 124, 125–7, 128–32
early studies 129
in Hong Kong 130–2
immigrant and adopted children 132
in Singapore 129–30
and cognition 124–5
language acquisition 76–9
lexical development 72
lexical representation 87
memory research 77
processing 77
Blessed Dementia Scale 392
Blessed-Roth Dementia Scale, Chinese 392
Body-Mind-Spirit Well-Being Inventory 354, 359
BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent signals) 80, 85
borderline intelligence 113
borderline personality disorder 368
Buddhist philosophy 164–5, 700
environmental beliefs 232
face and morality 487
illness behaviors 428
inter-cultural interactions 685
psychiatric disorders 375
psychological beliefs 222, 223, 233
psychotherapy 458–9, 469
social beliefs 234
spirituality 348, 351, 355, 357
Tao of coping 400
well-being 330–1, 333–4
California Verbal Learning Test 389
candidate gene approach 34
Cantonese 74–5, 95–6, 101, 633
and bilingualism 123, 133, 134–5, 136, 137, 138
reading disability 112
‘Career Interest Inventory’ 259
categorization 156–7, 632–3, 634
Category Fluency Test (Chinese version) 388
Cattell's 16 PF Personality Theory/Inventory 642, 644
celebrity endorsement 627–8, 632
Central Nervous System Activity Test 642, 644
change:
functioning and adjustment in context of 41–7
optimism and belief in 160–3
chaos, fear of (luan) 572
character (of a person) 606
(p. 719) characters 79–80, 101–3, 110, 124
compound 101, 126
charismatic leadership 606–7
Child Behavior Checklist 369
Child Development Fund 450–1
Childhood Autism Rating Scale 390
Child Language Data Exchange System (CHILDES)
database 73–4, 75, 131
Children's Depression Inventory 422
Children's Hope Scale 352
Chinese American Epidemiological Study (CAPES) 423, 424, 427
Chinese Board of Neuropsychology 386
Chinese Citizen's Human Qualities Questionnaire 254
Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders 367–8, 369, 371, 424, 701
Chinese Communist Party 573–4, 576, 590, 594
Chinese Communist Youth League 573–4
Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure 251
Chineseness 20–1, 22
Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory 295–306, 701, 705
applications 302–4
clinical validity 303–4
development of indigenous personality measures 297–8
indigenous to cross-cultural personality 304–5
test translation and adaptation 295–7
Chinese Psychology Society 11
Chinese state 20–1
Chinese Taoist cognitive therapy (CTCP) 459, 464, 466
Chinese Values Survey 249, 258, 305, 701
Chinese World Mental Health Survey 369, 428
Christianity 490
Circumplex Model of Affect, Chinese 208, 209
civic associations 573–4
class-ambiguous (dual membership) words 81–2
classifiers 633
classroom instruction, coherent 150–1
classroom size 188
clauses, full 135
Clinical Memory Test 389
clinical neuropsychology 383–94
assessment instrumentation 386–9
autism spectrum disorders in children 389–90
Chinese medical approach 392–4
clinical training and certification 386
dementia in the elderly 391–2
historical background for mainland China 384–5
Hong Kong 385
Pan-Chinese integration 385–6
Taiwan 385
temporal lobe damage in adults 390–1
Clock Drawing Test 392
code mixing 134–5
code switching 133–4, 136–8
coercion 60
cognitive-behavioral therapy 375–6, 378, 463–4, 466, 467–9, 470, 471
cognitive constructivism 179–80
cognitive and neuro-cognitive processing 123–8
bilingual verbal memory 126–7
Chinese bilingualism and cognition 124–5
cross-language transfer 127–8
morphology 124
separate-system view 126
syllables 123
tones 123–4
unitary view 125–6
writing 124
cognitive processsing resources, narrowing of 648
cognitive psychology 15
cognitive qualities 644
collaborative/guided learning 38
Collective-Oriented (group-references and values-based factors) components 664
collectivism/collectivist 500–1
beliefs 231–2, 701
and contemporary cultural theories 410–11
cultural value 682
horizontal 627
inter-cultural interactions 689–90
motivation and achievement 196–7, 198
psychotherapy 462–3
as relational orientation not category based difference 581
seller 691
in traditional societies 409–10
colonialism 7
communal approach 495
communication:
corporate 250
cross-cultural 688–91
normative principles 635–6
Communist ideology 63–4 see also Chinese Communist Party
Community Investment and Inclusion Fund 448–9
community psychology 441–54
central values and principles 443
Chinese mainland 447–8
in Chinese societies 446
collaboration 444–5
definition 441–3
diversity and participation 444
Hong Kong 446–7, 448–51
justice 445
large-scale government-designated funds 448–50
power and empowerment 443–4
re-aligning development of in Chinese societies 451–2
Sichuan earthquake (2008) 445–6
synergy between government funds: Child Development Fund 450–1
competence:
beliefs and motivation and achievement 192–3
trust 509
compliance 604
Components of Individualism and Collectivism 248
Components of Social Organization 248
Composite International Diagnostic Interview 423
computational studies see language and the brain
Computerized Neurobehavioral Test System, Chinese 388
concept mediation 126
Concepts of Forgiveness Scale, Chinese 351
Conceptual Forgiveness Questions 351
concrete representations 147–8
conflation 245
conflict:
cooperative 504–5
management 301, 504
orientation towards 571–2
psychological 482
resolution 158–9, 501–2, 509, 687, 689–90
versus harmony 661
Conflict Avoidance Index 572
conformity 289
Confucian authoritarianism 609
Confucian authoritative leadership 613
Confucian philosophy 21, 164, 700–1, 703
cultural psychology and contemporary communication 556, 557, 558, 570, 571
and education 151, 177
environmental beliefs 232
illness behaviors 427, 428
inter-cultural interactions 679, 685, 687
leadership 606–7, 608, 609, 615
morality and social influence beliefs 235
motivation and achievement 189–90, 191, 196–7, 198
parenting and child socialization 63
psychiatric disorders 377
psychological beliefs 222, 223, 224, 226
and psychotherapy 458–9
social beliefs 234
social identity and inter-group relations 579, 581, 582, 583, 584, 588–9
social relationships and behavior 535, 540, 544
socio-emotional development in children 41
spirituality 348, 351, 355
Tao of coping 400, 405, 409–10
values 249, 250–1, 253, 257, 259
connectionist model of character acquisition 79
connotative meaning 633
consciousness 10–11
constructive controversy 611
Constructivism 179–80
consumer behavior: effects of content, process and language 494–5, 623–36
content effects: dimensions of cultural variation 623–30
collectivism-individualism and interdependence-independence 625–7
power distance and verticality 627–8
prevention and promotion orientation 628–30
language effects 632–6
auditory versus visual processing 633–5
categorization and perception 632–3
normative principles of communication 635–6
processing differences 630–2
context-free grammar model 136
context, influence of upon learning approaches 173–4
contextual features of information 630–1
control 193–4, 196, 226–8, 232
psychological 60–1 see also perceived control
conventional strategies 150
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) 536
conversational style 505–6
cooperation and competition 37, 499–511
conventional strategies 150
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) 536
conversational style 505–6
cooperation and competition 37, 499–511
competition, multiple views of 509–10
conversational style 505–6
cooperative conflict 504–5
fairness 507
interactional justice 507–8
power 506–7
trust 508–9
intra-individual level 500–4
collectivism 500–1
conflict-management style 504
regulatory focus 503
risk preferences 502–3
social axioms 501–2
Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory 282
coordination 703
COPE 664
core reading curriculum 117
corporate communication 250
cortical competition during language discrimination 83–5
cortisol reactivity 40
country-of-origin information 632
CPIL scores 345
critical constructivist learning 180
Cross-cultural (Chinese) Personality Assessment
Inventory 299–300, 301–2, 303, 304, 305
Interpersonal Relatedness 299
cross-cultural communication and negotiation 688–91
Cross-cultural Coping Scale with Individual-Oriented (problem focused and avoidance factors) components 664
cross-cultural psychology 32, 580
cross-language picture-word interference task 125
cross-language transfer 127–8
cross-linguistic differences in lexical development 74–6
Cultivating (teaching strategy) 177
cultural competence 667–8
cultural contamination and erosion, fear of 25–6
cultural context 37
cultural contexts of students' achievements in mathematics 148–52
(p. 721) cultural differences and Tao of coping 402, 403, 406
cultural dimensions 690
cultural distance, real and perceived 666
cultural diversity 692
cultural fit hypothesis 263–4
cultural fusion 594
culturalist claim and political psychology 570–2
cultural lay beliefs and help seeking 428–30
cultural learning 322
cultural norms and values 39, 319–20, 624, 625, 629, 636
and distress 425–7
inter-cultural interactions 689, 691–2
psychotherapy 462–3
cultural psychology 32
cultural psychology and contemporary
communication 555–61
bianzheng (dialectic way of thinking) 558
dao (the Way) 556–7
jindaishi 560–1
quanwei (authority-minded way of thinking) 559–60
tianren heyi (interrelationship and harmony) 557
zhijue (experience-based form of thinking) 559
zhongyong (middle way) 558–9
Cultural Revolution 11
cultural values see cultural norms and values
culture:
high-context 702
positioning effect 63
priming effect 25
cutaneous stimulation 392–3
Dan Tian breathing 393
Daoism 700
leadership 608–9, 615–16
dao (the Way) 556–7
deactivated effect (calmness) 209
death:
beliefs about 233
and dying, attitudes and responses to 346–8
reminders of 26
Death Anxiety Scale 347
Death Attitudes Profile, Revised 346
Death Fantasy Scale, Revised 346
deep approach to learning 169–70, 171, 172–3
defensiveness 302
definition of Chinese psychology 6–7
Dejian mind-body intervention 393
delegation 610–11, 617
dementia in the elderly 391–2
Dementia Rating Scale 392
democracy in Taiwan 574–5
Democratic Progressive Party 575
depression 39, 45, 370–2, 664, 665
developmental coordination disorder 113
developmental dyslexia see reading disability
developmental psychology 11
DevLex model 71–3, 74, 76, 87
Diagnostic Interview Schedule 422
dialectical balance 335, 340
dialectical behavior therapy 469–70
dialectical materialism 10
dialectic way of thinking (bianzheng) 405, 406–9, 558
dialogic reading technique 99–100
didactic/reproductive beliefs 175
differential attributions 683–5
Diffuse profile 660
direct derivation 110
directive teaching 151
direct teaching 146
disclosure of private matters 488
discounting 318
discourses, extended 146–7
disposition effect 161
disruption see aggression-disruption
distance:
relationships 587
versus blendedness 661 see also power distance
distinctiveness of Chinese psychology 699–707
attributes, individual 705–6
goals, achievement of 703–5
harmony 702–3
indigenous Chinese phenomena 700–1
preliminary issues 699–700
values and beliefs in collectivist cultures 701
distinctiveness of culture 246
distinctiveness goals 493–4
distress see illness behaviors
divination 460
divorce 522–3
DSM 424
DSM-III 422, 423
DSM-III-R 423
DSM-IV 367, 368, 371, 372, 390, 423, 425, 428
Structured Clinical Interview 369
dual identities, management of 22–5
dual loyalty 20
dual-process model of attribution 684
duties 485–6, 487
dynamic constructivist approach 690
early learning (language) 77–8
eating disorders 372
ecological theory 38
economic changes 536
economic development 64, 567, 568, 569–70, 576
economic explanations and academic performance 188–9
economic-negative factor 509
economic-positive factor 509
educational administrative agencies 149
educational psychology 11
educational reforms 9
education (schooltalk) 133
efficacy:
external 569 see also self-efficacy
effort attribution 196, 198, 226
egocentrism 287
elaboration 600
electroencephalography 385, 390, 393
embedded language (donor/guest language) 134, 135–6, 138
Embedded Line Figure Test 643
(p. 722) embeddedness 264, 700
emotion 205–17, 635
emotional responding 211–14
indigenous facial stimulus materials, development of 212
physiological and behavioral responses 213
recognition of emotion 212–13
somatization 214
expressivity and communication 40, 702
regulation and zhong yong (midway) thinking 159–60
self-conscious 209–11
socialization 214–16
structure of 205–9
circumplex model and ideal affect 209
combined approach 207–8
imported approach 206
indigenous approach 206–7
Emotional Support Index 346
Employee Survey (1997) 568
empowering leadership 610–11, 617–18
empowerment 443–4
enacted support 413
Enright Forgiveness Inventory 351
entativity 244
entertainment (celebritytalk) 133
environmental beliefs 222–3, 232–3
equity rule 483
equivalence constraint 136–7
essentialist approach 24, 244, 533–4
ethnicity/ethnic minorities 590–1
Ethnic profile 660
ethnocentrizing 244
event-related potential 126
excluded middle, law of the 164
Existential Well-Being Scale 344, 345, 346
expansionist theory 540
experimental psychology 15
explicit pursuit 334, 339
expressive ties 483, 484, 686
externality and performance outcome 224–6
eye contact 636
Eysenck's Personality Theory/Questionnaire 295–6, 642, 666
face and morality in Confucian society 250, 302, 303, 304, 479–96, 665–6, 686–7, 702
big face 703
big self and small self 490–2
competing for face (zheng mianzi) 489
Confucian ethics for ordinary people 482–3
cultural origin of concept of face 480–2
face dynamics in organizations 495–6
face-loving (ai mianzi) 480, 489
gift giving and consumer behaviors 494–5
having face 490, 491, 492
illness behaviors 425–7
inter-cultural interactions 689
keeping up face (zheng mianzi) 479, 489–90
losing face 491
losing face in Taiwan 487–8
maintaining face (chern mianzi) 484, 489
making face (zuo mianzi) 479, 489–90
morality 485–6
mystery of face 479–80
negative face 480
positive face 480
protective and acquisitive face orientation 488–9
psychosociogram 483–5
role obligation and achievement type 492–4
sense of having no face (mei mianzi) 480, 490
small face 703
social incidents of losing face 492
Tao of coping 410–11
thin-face (po lianpi) 489
virtual face(hsu mianzi) 489
wishing for face (yao mianzi) 489
face-to-face negotiation 689
facial expressions 635
facial stimulus materials, indigenous, development of 212
facilitative/transformative beliefs 175
fairness 507, 587
false-belief tasks 125
familism 321–2
family:
communication dynamics 250
expectations and education 149
harmony 669
orientation 300, 304
processes and hope and hopelessness 353–4
processes and purpose in life 345–6
relations and cross-cultural transition 670
relationships 523–6
intergenerational support 523–4
living arrangements 524
parental roles and parent-child interactions 524–6
therapy 463, 464, 468
fate control 228
favor granting (shi-en) 602
feelings 635
feminist constructionist perspective 534, 543
fencing 647–8
feng shui 222–3, 350, 460
fertilty rate decline 309
field:
approach 259
dependence/independence 682
figurative idioms 85–6
filial discrepancy 315
filial nationalism 592
filial piety 321, 486, 669
five cardinal relationships of Confucianism (wu lun) 409, 582, 604
Five-D model (Hofstede) 244
Five Factor Model (Personality Factors) 296, 299, 305, 318, 658, 661, 663, 666, 700
folk psychology 330–3, 429
folk psychotherapy, supernaturally oriented 460–1
follower perspective 618
Fore (Papua New Guinea) 33
forgiveness 301, 351–2
fortune telling 461
framing 245
(p. 723) free morpheme constraint 136–7
frequency hierarchy 135–6
friendship 516–18
friendship (peertalk) 133
F-scale 591
Functionalism 9
functional magnetic resonance imaging 80–1, 83, 84, 125, 126, 385, 391, 392, 393
functional-means values 254
future for Chinese psychology 14–16
gaze 689
gender differentiation and parenting 61–2
gender identity 301–2
gender perspective on social relationships and behavior 533–48
basic approaches to understanding social behavior 533–4
conflict 539–40, 543–4
contemporary economic, political and social changes 536
gender roles and stereotypes 535, 537–40
marital relationship and marriage dissolution 542–3
mate selection and preference 541–2
multiple role involvement 539–40
sexual harassment 547
sexuality and sexual behavior 540–1
social roles, changes in 536–7
traditional influences 535
violence 543–6
General Health Questionnaire 227
generativity 315–16, 321
genetics 31–5
candidate gene approach 34
Gestalt school 13
gift exchange/giving 494–5, 626–7
globalization 25
goal orientation and motivation and achievement 194–5
goal-oriented values 253–4
goals, achievement of 703–5
goodwill trust 509
government and binding theory (Chomsky) 137, 138
government (officialtalk) 133
graciousness 300, 302
grammatical items 134
gratitude 604
group:
autonomy 684
honor 703
teaching preparation 149
guan (training) 57–8, 704
guanxi (interpersonal connections) 526, 527, 686, 689, 704–5
cooperation and competition 507–8
face and morality 482–3, 495–6
and having/losing face 492
leader-member 605–6, 611, 612, 616–17
social beliefs 231
social identity 579–80, 585, 587, 592
values 249–50
guilt 210, 211, 375
Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery 384, 387
Hancha (Chinese characters) 111
Han Chinese 32, 590
Hangul (alphabetic syllabary) 111
happiness 330, 705–6
paradox 338 see also well-being
Happiness Inventory Database, Chinese 328
hardiness 666
harmony 250, 300–1, 302, 303, 557, 686–7, 702–3
family 669
relationship 707
within hierarchy 687, 688
Hayashi method 263
health beliefs 233–4
Health Care and Promotion Fund 448, 450
Health and Health Service Research Fund 448
health-related behaviors 284
health restoration/promotion 354–6
heart-mind 8
Hebbian learning rules 71–2
hedonism 264
height psychology 587–9
help seeking 427–30
herbal supplements 394
Herth Hope Index 352
hierarchy/hierarchical 700
favouring lexical items over grammatical items 136
model 137
orientation index 571
social relationships 196
Hinduism 700
Hiragana (Japanese syllabary) 111
holistic cognitive orientation 683
holistic cognitive processing 688
holistic thinking 155–8, 682, 684, 689, 705
home (familytalk) 133
homogeneity effect 231
homophones 110
Hong Kong:
Bilingual Child Language Corpus 131
Chinese-English bilingual acquisition in childhood 130–2
clinical neuropsychology 385
community psychology 446–7, 448–51
Federation of Youth Groups 345, 349
Health and Welfare Bureau 427
Learning Behavior Checklist for Preschool Children (Parent Version) 115
List Learning 389
Medical Journal Supplement 448
Neuropsychological Association 383, 384, 386
political psychology: political participation 566
Reading and Writing Behavior Checklist for Adults 115
Specific Learning Difficulties Behavior Checklist for Primary School Pupils 115
Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing for Junior Secondary School Students 115
Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing for Primary School Students, 2nd edition 115
University Grants Council 173
(p. 724) hope and hopelessness 352–4
Hopelessness Scale 352
Chinese 353
Huaren 19–20
human relations rule 587
ICD-10 367, 368, 371, 390, 424
ideal affect 211
idealization 245
identification 604
identity 662–3
conflict and identity integration 661
dual 22–5
gender 301–2
law of 165
ideographs 634
idiom processing 85–6
illness behaviors 421–33
cultural values and distress 425–7
distress, cultural expression of 423–5
help seeking, cultural influences on 427–8
help seeking and cultural lay beliefs 428–30
psychological distress, levels of 421–3
stigma 430–1
structural issues 431–2
immigrant children from Chinese-speaking to English-speaking 132
impartial approach 495
impermanence (wu chang) 164–5
impetus, initial 9
Implicit Association Test 283
impulse buying 630
impulsivity 40
Inclusion of Other in the Self scale 516
-collectivism 249, 256, 495, 501, 516, 625–7, 700
cultural value 682
horizontal 504, 627
inter-cultural interactions 690
psychotherapy 462–3
vertical 504, 627
inferior frontal gyrus 85–6
inferring attributes 633
influence relationships 704–5
in-groups 496, 682–3, 688
inhibition 37, 39
inspire awe or fear (li-wei) 602
institutional developments 9–10, 12–13
institutional setting 569–70
instructional coherence 147
instrumental ties 483, 484, 587, 686
integrated analysis 195–7
Integrated profile 660–1
integration 600, 659–60, 662
Intellectual Achievement Responsibility questionnaire 225
intelligence 643
quotient 115, 124, 146
and sport psychology 645–6
Intensive Community Mentoring program 450
interactional justice 507–8
intercultural competition 26
intercultural interactions 679–93
behavioral norms 685
cross-cultural communication and negotiation 688–91
differential attributions 683–5
harmony and face-work 686–7
in-group/out-group categorization 682–3
multi-cultural work groups 691–3
relational personalism 686
selective perception 682
self-identity 687–8
sequence 680–1
situational context 688
interdependence-independence 625–7
interdependent self 196, 580
interdependent self-construal 313–14, 317
interests, orientation towards 571–2
intergenerational conflicts 670–1
intergenerational support 523–4
intermediate approaches to learning 170–1
Internal-External Control of Reinforcement Scale (I-E scale) 223–4, 227
International Affective Picture System 212
International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology 13
International Comparative Study of Ethno-cultural Youth 660, 667
international competition 26
International Union of Psychological Science 12
interpersonal adjustment 281–2
interpersonal distance 636
interpersonal relatedness 305, 701, 705, 707
interpersonal relationships 250, 515–28
areas for improvement 527
encouraging trends 526–7
family relationships 523–6
friendship 516–18
marital relationships 521–3
romantic relationships 518–21
spanning domains of relationship 527–8 see also guanxi
interruptions (in conversation) 506, 689
inter-sentential switching 134, 135
intrapsychic adjustment 281
intra-sentential switching see code mixing
investment in research 13–14
invisible style of leadership 609
Japanese language and reading disability 111–12
jindaishi 560–1
(p. 725) job performance 303
justice 445, 507–8, 535, 609–10
Kanji (Chinese characters) 111
Katankana (Japanese syllabary) 111–12
Keju civil service exam system 148
Korean language and reading disability 111–12
Koro (suo yang) 368–9
Ko's Mental Health Questionnaire 297
Kun reading (Japanese native reading) 111
Kuomingtang 575, 594
L1-L2 asymmetry 127
language:
and consumer behavior 632–6 see also bilingualism
language and the brain 69–89
computational studies 70–80
bilingual language acquisition 76–9
character acquisition 79–80
lexical development,
crosslinguistic differences in 74–6
lexical organization in development 71–4
neuroimaging studies 80–6
cortical competition during language discrimination 83–5
discrimination, cortical competition during 83–5
idiom processing 85–6
nouns and verbs, processing of 81–3
language and literacy development 93–105
basics of literacy 93–6
character features 101–3
cognitive linguistic development 96–9
importance of parents fostering language and literacy skills 99–101
reading comprehension 103–4
late learning (language) 77–8
leader-member guanxi 605–6, 611, 612, 616–17
leadership 599–619
advanced style 609
authoritarian 602, 609, 613–14, 707
authoritative 609, 613–14, 707
benevolent 602
charismatic 606–7
and Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory 302–3
diversity of leadership philosophies and practices 608–9
empowering 610–11, 617–18
holistic approach 616
indigenous research on future directions 612–16
integration of Chinese and non-Chinese perspectives and theories 616–18
invisible style 609
justice perspective on leadership styles 609–10
leader-member exchange theory 612
moral 602
participative 610
progressive style 609
styles, antecedents of 618
transformational 606–8, 617
visionary 607
wei quan/quan wei 614 see also paternalistic leadership
learning:
collaborative/guided 38
motivation 468
simultaneous 77–9
-task value 190
teacher-directed 196 see also learning and teaching, approaches to
learning and teaching, approaches to 169–83
beliefs and approaches of students 180–2
Constructivism 179–80
context, influence of 173–4
deep approach 169–70, 171, 172–3
directive teaching 151
direct teaching 146
good teaching 176
intermediate approaches 170–1
students' beliefs about teaching, learning and knowledge 174–5
surface approach 169–70, 171, 172–3, 174
synthesis of Chinese and Western research 172–3
teacher-directed learning 196
teacher training 117
teaching paradox 176–9
Legalism 608
lesson activities, complex 149
lesson plans 149
lexical cues 83–5
lexical decision task 24
lexical development, crosslinguistic differences in 74–6
lexical items 134–5
lexical organization in development 71–4
lexical representation 77
lexical semantic processing 84
lexical tone 95, 96
lexicon 136
lian (perceived moral rectitude) 480, 481–2, 702
acculturation and adaptation 665–6
face and morality 495
inter-cultural interactions 686
Tao of coping 410
life change units 663
life satisfaction 300–1, 322, 706
limited convergence hypothesis 249
linealization 245
linear order equivalence constraint 137
linkage strength differences 713–14 literacy see language and literacy development
literal idioms 85–6
locus of control 223–4, 227, 666
longevity, increase in 309
look-and-say method 95, 112–13, 117
love styles, preferences for 518–19
MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) 74
magnetic resonance imaging 385 see also functional
Manchu Qing dynasty 583–4
Mandarin Chinese 74–5, 95, 101, 102–3, 123, 125, 633 see also Putonghua
(p. 726) Mandate of Heaven 583, 584
marginalization 659–61, 662
marital relationships 521–3, 542–3
Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale 285
marriage dissolution 542–3
marriage, increase in age of 522–3
Marriage Law (1950) (545
mass organizations 573–4
mastery goals 194–5, 196, 197, 198
material warmth 59
maternal warmth and indulgence 60, 62
mate selection and preference 541–2
mathematics 143–52
cultural contexts of students' achievements 148–52
instruction in classrooms 146–8
numerical development, early 143–5
operational mathematics curriculum 145
matrix approach 259
matrix language (dominant/host/base language) 134, 135–6, 138
Mattis Dementia Rating scale (Chinese version) 388–9
May 4th student movement 9
mean difference studies 713
meaning of life 344–6
media (newstalk) 133
memorization 171, 172, 174
memory 316–17
mental construction framework 649
mental health services 432
mental illness 430–1
mental representations 692
mental training 648–50
metacognition 103–4
mianzi (social reputation in a given setting) 702, 480, 481–2
acculturation and adaptation 665–6
face and morality 495
inter-cultural interactions 686, 687, 693
Tao of coping 410
values 250
migrant-worker population 64
mind-body practices 393
mindfulness cognitive-behavioral therapy 469–70
mind orientation 190
minimal group paradigm 586
Mini Mental State Examination 389, 392
Chinese version 389, 392
Ministry of Education 149
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 203, 295–7
Chinese version 298, 299, 643–4
mixed ties 483, 484, 587, 686
modernization theories 567, 568–70, 576
modesty 703
monitoring (of education) 55
monolingual lexical development 72
Moral Education Survey 252
morality:
moral leadership 602
morphemes 111, 126, 136–7, 138
morphological awareness 97–9, 103, 111–12, 116, 117, 118
morphological deficit 112, 113
morphology 124
mortality see death
mother-child interactions 214–15
motivation and achievement 149, 187–201
academic performance 187–9
broader perspectives 199
constructs with greater specificity 198–9
integrated analysis 195–7
sociocultural and motivational explanations 189–95
academic achievement, value of 189–91
achievement goal orientation 194–5
attributions and control beliefs 193–4
intrinsic or extrinsic motivation 191–2
self-efficacy and competence beliefs 192–3
Moulding (teaching strategy) 177
MS-CIM 249
MS-CIT 249
Mullet Forgiveness Questionnaire, Chinese 351, 359
Mullet Forgiveness Scale 351
Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale (Chinese version) 346
multi-cultural dimensionalizing 714
multi-culturality, psychological benefits of 25–6
multi-cultural work groups 691–3
multiple meanings of Chinese psychology 19–20
Multi-Trait Personality Inventory 298
naming-speed deficit 110
narcissism 287
narrative psychology 585
nasopharyngeal carcinoma 390–1
National Comorbidity Survey 423
nationalism 584–5, 592
National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) 427–8
National profile 660
need rule 483, 587
Negative Affect scale 206–7
negative duties 485, 487
negative outcomes 628–30
negativity dominance 316
negativity reduction effect 317–18, 321
negotiation, cross-cultural 688–91
neo-Confucianism 594
NEO-FFI 299, 303, 705
NEO PI-R 193, 296, 298, 299, 666
Openness to Experience 299
network support 413
neurasthenia (shenjing shuaiuo) 368, 371–2, 424–5
neuro-cognitive processing see cognitive and neuro-cognitive processing
neuroimaging studies see language and the brain
nonce-borrowing hypothesis 136–7
non-contradiction law 164–5
nonverbal communication 635–6, 689
no-prompt condition 144
normative principles of communication 635–6
normative promotion 244
North-South genetic gradient 32
nouns 73, 74–6, 81–3, 87, 633
Nowick-Strickland Locus of Control Scale 227
numerical development, early 143–5
(p. 727) obedience 535
objectification 245
Objective Scale of Forgiveness 351
obligation fulfillment 196
Olfactory Identification Test (Hong Kong version) 388
Olympic Games 645, 648, 649, 650, 651
one-child policy 64, 309–10
One Hundred Flowers Movement 11
on-field support 651–2
On reading (Chinese reading) 111
operational thinking 646
oral language 118
orthographic deficit 110, 113
orthographic differences 126
orthographic knowledge 102, 111
orthographic level 70
orthographic processing 116
orthographic-related difficulties 112
orthographic skills 117, 118
orthography 79
-phonology correspondence rule 110
outcomes, positive 628–9
out-groups 496, 682–3, 688
Outlook on Life Scale 344
over-differentiation 245
oversimplification 245
palm reading 460
‘parachute kids’ 670
paradigmatic prioritization 245
parental acceptance 55
-rejection theory 54
parental authoritarianism and authoritativeness 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60–1, 704, 707
parental autonomy granting 62–3
parental involvement in language and literacy development 99–101, 149
parental love withdrawal 57
parental physical-material academic authoritarianism 61
parental psychological control 55–6, 62
parental punitiveness 55
parental roles and parent-child interactions 524–6
parental socioeconomic status 189
parental support 55, 148–9
parental warmth 46, 55, 60, 62
parent-child relationships 45
parent-child writing 100
parenting beliefs and practices in context of change 45–6
parenting and child socialization 53–64
authoritarianism 60–1
convergent evidence for applicability of Western frameworks 54–6
differentiating levels of analysis 62–3
divergent evidence for applicability of Western frameworks 56–7
dynamic and multidimensional approach to culture 63–4
gender differentiation 61–2
indigenous notions 57–9
parenting styles 281
participative leadership 610
paternalism, benevolent 583, 584
paternalistic leadership 601–8, 704
configuration approach 615
empirical research 604–5
influence tactics 608
leader-member exchange 605–6
multi-level approach 614–15
original model 601–2
three-dimensional model 602–3
and transformational leadership 606–8
Paternalistic Leadership Scale 614
paternal warmth and indulgence 62
Pavlovian reductionism 11
People's Action Party 594
Perceived Competence Scale for Children 229
perceived control 399–404
and contemporary cultural theories 401–2
and Tao of ‘passive’ coping 402–4
and traditional beliefs 399–401
perceived interactional justice 609–10
perceived support 413
perception 156
and language 632–3
perfectionism, maladaptive 666
performance:
academic 187–9
goals 194–5, 196, 197, 198
and maintenance orientation 606
outcome 224–6
personal accountability 334, 339
Personal Efficacy Scale 227
personalism, relational 686
personality 281, 705
characteristics 643–4
Personality Scale, Chinese 298
personal motives (individual objectives) 253
personal negativity 509, 666
personal-positive factor 509
personal situational factors 666–7
personal values 319–20
Person-Social Development Self-Efficacy Inventory 344
perspective-taking test 125
persuasion, gentle 505
phonemes 83, 96
phonetic awareness 103
phonetic knowledge 102–3
phonetic principle 110
phonetic radicals 101–3, 110–11, 124, 126
phonological awareness 96–8, 111–13, 116, 117
phonological coding systems 94–5
phonological map 78
phonological memory 116
phonological processing 84–5, 112–13
phonological regularity 111
phonotactics 83
phylogenies 32
physical coercion 60
physical warmth 59, 61
(p. 728) physiological responses 213
Pinyin system (Singapore) 94–5, 96, 112–13
polarization 245
political changes 536
political culture theory 567, 576
political psychology: political participation 563–77
antecedents 567–72
culturalist claim 570–2
modernization claim 568–70
China 564–6
consequences 573–5
Hong Kong and Taiwan 566
Singapore 566–7
Portrait Values Questionnaire 260
Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs 360
Positive and Negative Affect Scale 206–7
Positive Youth Development Scale, Chinese 344, 352–3
positivity effect 316–17
postmodern turn 14
power 443–4, 506–7, 571
assertion 46
distance 232, 495, 508–9, 627–8, 700
relations 593–4
prelexical cues 83–5
prestige 627
prevention orientation 503, 628–30
pride 211
process and consumer behavior 623–4, 630–2
productivity 282
professional model of effective teaching 178
Programme for International Student Assessment 143, 188, 189, 191, 199–200
progress monitoring and reading disability 117
promotion orientation 503, 628–30
prompt condition 144
property, sins against 487
propriety (li) 409–10, 482, 488
pro-social behaviors 39, 41–2
prosodic processing 83, 84–5
Protective Acquisitive Face Orientation Scale 489
proximity 636
psychiatric disorders 367–79
depression 370–2
diagnostic frameworks 367–9
eating disorders 372
prevalence 369–70
stigma: acceptability of disorder and help-seeking 376–8
suicide 372–4
treatment and outcomes 374–6
psychoanalysis 464
psychological adaptation 662, 663, 667–8
psychological adjustment 226–7
psychological beliefs 222, 223–31
about death 233
control constructs 227–8
control, psychological adjustment and social behavior 226–7
effort and ability attributions in academic settings 226
externality and performance outcome 224–6
locus of control 223–4
self-concept 228–30
self-esteem 230–1
psychological conflict 482
psychological control 60–1
psychological-emotional warmth 61
psychological resources 569
psychosociogram 483–5
psychotherapy 457–71
future directions 470–1
indigenous 458–61
Confucian, Buddhist and Taoist philosophy 458–9
folk, supernaturally oriented 460–1
traditional Chinese medicine 459–60
paradigm shift: East meets West 469–70
psychopathological processes 467–9
Western with the Chinese 461–6
applicability 461–3
outcome studies 463–5
process studies 465–6
yield from empirical studies 466
Pureraria lobata 394
purpose in life 344–6
Purpose in Life Questionnaire (Chinese version) 344, 345
Putonghua (Standard Mandarin) 95–6, 112, 133
Qingnian Zhongguo Personality Scale see Chinese Personality Scale
Q-methodologies 263
Quality Education Fund 449
quality of life 348, 354
Quality of Life Instrument, Chinese 354
Quality Thematic Networks 449, 450
quantitative electroencephalography 385, 390
quanwei (authority-minded way of thinking) 559–60
radicals 110 see also phonetic; semantic
rapid naming see speeded naming
Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices 643
reading comprehension 103–4
reading disability 109–19
in alphabetic languages 109–10
assessment batteries 115–16
behavior checklists 115
characteristics of Chinese writing system 110–11
cognitive profile of reading disability and other developmental disorders 113
cognitive profiles for different Chinese populations 112–13
early identification and intervention, necessity for 114
Japanese and Korean, comparisons with 111–12
preschool children at risk 113–14
reading-related cognitive deficits 112
response-to-intervention model 116–18
reading and writing tests 101
RE-AIM 451
reciprocity 686–7
beliefs 234
norms in gift exchange 626–7
redefining psychology 10–11
(p. 729) reductionism 11
refined lectures (mathematics) 146, 148
regression toward the mean and belief in change 161
regular phrases 85–6
regulated breathing and movement (qi gong) 355, 368
regulatory focus 503
regulatory values (evaluative) 254
rehabilitation 11–12
reification 245
reinforcing connections (la quanxi) 483
relational personalism 686
relationship harmony 707
relationsips see family relationships; renqing
relative cultural distance 692
religion, sins against 487
religiosity, religious beliefs and religious practice 233, 349–51, 501
renqing (relationship orientation) 300–1, 302, 303, 321, 483
aging 320, 321
cooperation and competition 507–8
inter-cultural interactions 686, 693
social identity and inter-group relations 587
ren shi (recognition) 11
repeated practice (mathematics) 146, 148
reputation 686–7
respect 686–7
response and face-work 686–7
response-to-intervention model 116–18
retribution (Bao) 234
Revised Control, Agency and Means-End Interview 223
reward for application 226
Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test 389
righteousness (yi) 482, 488, 535
right hemisphere theory 85
risk preferences 502–3
Rod and Frame Test 156, 643
Rokeach Values Survey 254–5
role-based social relations, identity as 585–7
role obligations 335, 340, 492–4
romantic relationships 518–21
cultural beliefs in Yuan and malleability of personality 520–1
experiences and attachment with romantic partners 519
interpersonal and sexual behaviors 520
love styles, preferences for 518–19
Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale 282–3
rule of law 570–1
rural areas 64
Russian psychology 10, 642
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis 87
schizophrenia 378, 460–1
Schwartz Value Questionnaire 319
Schwartz Value Survey 252, 258, 260, 264, 701
scientific psychology 7
scientific trends 22
SCL-90R somatization score 424
second language learning 77, 173–4 see also bilingualism
Seed Fund 450
selective perception 682
self 279–89, 338–9
-actualization 195
big self and small self 490–2
-categorization 580–1, 592
-concept 228–30, 288, 687–8
-construal 210–11, 313–14, 317, 321, 401
-control 38–9, 40
-determination 195
-effacement 225
-efficacy 192–3, 195–6, 197, 283–5, 467, 666
-enhancement 195, 285–7, 703, 707
-identity 687–8
independent 195, 580
interdependent 196, 580
-liking 280
-organizing maps 71–3
-regard 287
-related constructs 199
-worth 195
Self Description Questionnaire 229
seller collectivism 691
semantic content of words 83
semantic map 78
semantic radicals 101–3, 110–11, 124, 126
semantic regularity 111
sensitivity 43–4, 46–7
sensory development 33
separation and acculturation/adaptation 659–60, 662
sequential acquisition 77
serotonin transporter genetic polymorphisms 40
sexual behaviors 520, 540–1
sexual harassment 547
sexuality 540–1
sexual sins 487
sexual violence 545–6
shamanism 460–1
shame/shaming 42, 58, 209–10, 375, 468
Shanghai Psychiatric Epidemiological Study 422
Shaolin Chan Wu Yi culture 393
Shatin Community Mental Health Survey 423
shyness 37, 39, 43–4, 46–7
Sichuan earthquake (2008) 445–6
similarity projection 245
simplified script 94
simultaneous learning (language) 77–9
Singapore:
Chinese-English bilingual acquisition in childhood 129–30
Pinyin system 94–5
political psychology: political participation 566–7
situational context 688
situational cues 26
situational influence 681
situationalist error 684
SLC6A4 gene 33
sociability 37, 40
social anxiety 468
social attitudes and responses 41
social axioms 501–2
Social Axiom Survey 301
(p. 730) social behavior 39, 41–2, 226–7
social beliefs 222, 231–2, 234, 301
social changes 536
social complexity 501–2
social constructivism 179–80, 534, 536
social contextualist perspective 37, 38–9
social cynicism 501
Social Development Project Indicators 344
social dominance orientation 575, 591
social exchange rule 482
social identity 683
social identity and inter-group relations: benevolent
authority 579–95
authoritarianism: categorical and defensive reactions under threat 591–3
benevolent authority under conditions of low threat 587–91
collectivism as relational orientation not category based difference 581
cross-cultural psychology, revolution in 580
historical practices of statecraft and identity 582–3
identity as role-based social relations 585–7
indigenous psychology of identity 581–2
modernity, transitions to 583–5
narrative psychology 585
self, self-categorization perspective on 580–1
Social Identity Theory 283
social influence beliefs 235
social initiative 38–9, 40
socialization 322, 503
of emotions 214–16
socially oriented goals 194–5, 197
social motives (relational objectives) 254
social networking 250, 313–14
social orientation of achievement motivation 174
social partners, peripheral 314
social pluralism 572
social process model 39
social psychology 15
social psychology of identity politics in multicultural Chinese communities 22–7
dual identities, management of 22–5
psychological benefits of multiculturality 25–6
social psychology of globalization and reactions to foreign cultures 26–7
Social Readjustment Rating Scale 663–4
social reputation see mianzi
social role theory 534, 536
social sensitivity 300, 302
social sins 487
social support 412–13, 665–6
societal tightness 685
socio-cultural adaptation 662, 663, 666, 667–8
socio-cultural factors 287, 288
socio-economic status 289
socio-emotional development in children 37–48
early characteristics 40–1
functioning and adjustment 41–8
parenting beliefs and practices in context of change 45–6
social contextualist perspective 38–9
urban-rural differences in functioning and adjustment 47–8
socio-instrumental control 224
sociolinguistic aspect 133–8
code mixing 134–5
code switching 133–4, 136–8
frequency hierarchy 135–6
sociological resources 568
somatic complaints 44
Somatic Symptom Index 424
somatization 214, 233–4, 424–5
South African Personality Inventory 305
Soviet psychology 10
speeded naming 97, 98–9, 112–13, 116
Spheres of Control Scale 227
spirituality 332, 343–61
conceptual problems and issues 356–7
convergence and non-convergence with Western and Chinese concepts 357
death and dying, attitudes and responses to 346–8
forgiveness 351–2
generalizability of research finding 359
health restoration/health promotion 354–6
hope and hopelessness 352–4
imported measures, predominance of 358
longitudinal studies, lack of 359
meaning of life and purpose in life 344–6
methodological limitations and related issues 357–60
methodological shortcomings 359–60
paucity of scientific models 357
practical limitations and issues 360
predominance of quantitative studies 357–8
qualitative studies, poor quality of 358
religiosity, religious beliefs and religious practice 349–51
validation studies, problems with 358–9
Spiritual Well-Being Scale 344
sport psychology 641–53
abilities 643
baseball 647
cognitive processsing resources, narrowing of 648
cognitive qualities 644
fencing 647–8
inability to process images 648
inability to think logically during competition 648
intelligence 643, 645–6
mental training 648–50
on-field support 651–2
personality characteristics 643–4
speedy decision making, necessity for 648
sport-related thinking, conditions and characteristics of 646–8
table tennis 647
talent identification 642–5
Springfield Religiosity Schedule 346
SSI 5/5 criterion 425
statecraft 582–3
statism 572
status 627
-achievement approach 495
stereotyping 535, 537–9, 683
stigma and illness behaviors 376–8, 430–1
stock market decisions and belief in change 160–1
strategies, generalized 150
stress 539, 663–8
strokes (in characters) 102, 110
structural integrity constraint 137
structured representation 73
Student Approaches to Learning 200
Study Process Questionnaire 170, 172, 173
subgroup favoritism 692
subjective well-being 160, 333–6
individual-oriented 333–6, 338–9
social-oriented 333–6, 338–9, 340
subordinate dependence on leader for resources 604–5
subordinate traditionality 604
suicide 44, 372–4
Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale 658
supervision, abusive 609–10
support networks 665–6
suppression 11
surface-structure constraint 137
survival strategies (in learning) 173–4
SV2B gene 33–4
syllables 96, 123, 126
syntactic awareness 118
syntax 136
table tennis 647
tag switching 134
tai-chi 393
Taiwan:
Association of Clinical Psychology 385, 386
clinical neuropsychology 385
losing face 487–8
Neurological Society 385, 386
political psychology 566
practising democracy 574–5
Psychiatric Epidemiological Project 423
Zhuyin Fuhao system 94–5
talent identification 642–5
Taoist philosophy 165
environmental beliefs 232
face and morality 480
illness behaviors 428
psychological beliefs 223, 233
psychotherapy 458–9
social beliefs 222
spirituality 348, 351, 354–5, 357
well-being 330–1, 333–4
Tao (way) of coping 399–415
active-inflexible 407–8
differences in type and function of social support 412–13
emotion-focused 402–4
flexible coping 404–9
future issues 413–14
‘passive’ coping 399–404
perceived control 399–404
perceived control and contemporary cultural theories 401–2
perceived control and traditional beliefs 399–401
passive-inflexible 408
problem-focused 404
situational differences in coping flexibility 408–9
social-support seeking 409–13
collectivism and contemporary cultural theories 410–11
collectivism in traditional societies 409–10
relational concerns and reluctance to seek support 411–12
situational differences 412
task and people orientation 606
Teachers' Report Form 369
Templer's Death Anxiety Scale (Chinese version) 346
temporal lobe epilepsy 126, 390–1
Tendency to Forgive Scale 351
text characteristics 104
theory-of-mind performance 124–5
theory of planned behavior 429
thinking styles 155–65
analytic 155–8, 682, 684, 705
authority-minded 559–60
Buddhist philosophy 164–5
change, belief in 160–3
Confucian philosophy 164
experience-based 559
holistic 155–8, 682, 684, 689, 705
sport-related 646–8
Taoist philosophy 165
zhong yong (midway) thinking 158–60, 164, 558–9
Third International Mathematics and Science Study 143, 188, 191, 192
‘Three chips’ study 646
tianren heyi (interrelationship and harmony) 557
ti-yong principle (self-strengthening) 8
tones 123–4
touching behavior 636
traditional Chinese medicine 355, 429, 459–60
traditionality/modernity 249
traditional script 94
transcendent motives (super-ordinate objectives) 254
transformational leadership 606–8, 617
translation problems 7–8, 15
traveling psychosis (lutu jingshenbing) 369
Triarchic Body Pathway Relaxation Technique 393
trust 508–9, 586, 704
truth 165
Twenty Statement Test 687
two-basics (mathematics) curriculum 146, 148, 150
tzuchueh neng tungli (active consciousness) 10
ultimate attribution error 158
uncertain events, beliefs about 232–3
understanding 171, 172
unity, endurance of 246
Value Orientations for Chinese Questionnaire 253–4
values 197, 241–65
areas for extending future research 262–5
-behaviors issue 263
challenges facing researchers 244–5
in collectivist cultures 701
comparative approaches 256
context of cultural comparisons 241–2
as cornerstone for international comparisons 242–3
(p. 732) definitions 243–4
differences 666
domain-specific ‘emic’ values studies in mainland China 257–8
empirical values studies in mainland China 252
enriching abstract meaning of universal values 255–6
etic and emic perspectives, integration of 245–6, 260–1
functional-means 254
goal-oriented 253–4
indigenous theory building 258–9
indigenous work from within Chinese societies 246–9
key indigenous themes 249–51
limitations of approach and scope 261–2
new empirical surveys 252–3
orientation 574–5
perspectives on enduring unity and distinctiveness of culture 246
research expanded through complex modernization 256–7
research revived through ‘societies in change’ 257
scales construction with Chinese characteristics 253–5
social science and studies on values, re-launching of 251
studies by members of Chinese diaspora 249
Vengeance Scale 351
verbs 74–6, 81–3, 87
verticality 627–8
violence 543–6
virtue approach to learning 190, 196
virtues 535
visionary leadership 607
visual processing and language 633–5
visual skills 98
vitality (qi) 459
voluntary associations 573–4
Wade Forgiveness Scale 351
warmth:
physical-material 59, 61
psychological-emotional 61
Ways of Coping questionnaire 664
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales 384, 387, 643
Chinese version - WAIS-R 387
Hong Kong version - WAIS-R-HK 387
Taiwan version - WAIS-III 387
Wechsler Memory Tests 384
wei quan/quan wei leadership 614
well-being 327–40
coexistence and integration of contrasting cultural underpinnings 337–9
cultural conceptions of happiness 329–33
cultural correlates of happiness 336–7 see also subjective well-being
Western Aphasia Battery (Hong Kong Cantonese version) 387
Western parenting practices in China 54, 55–6, 63
word association 126
word length and frequency 75
work groups, multi-cultural 691–3
working memory 103
Work Locus of Control Scale 223
work units (danwei) 565–6
World Health Organization:
Composite International Diagnostic Interview 369
Quality of Life Scale - Hong Kong Chinese Version 354
World Mental Health Survey 369, 423
World Values Survey 310, 329, 333, 401
writing 124
system, characteristics of 110–11
wushu 393
wu-wei (non-intervention) 400
xin ling xue (pneumatology) 8
yin-yang 165
cultural psychology and contemporary communication 558
illness behaviors 429
leadership 615
psychiatric disorders 368–9
psychotherapy 459–60, 471
social identity and inter-group relations 582, 589
spirituality 354, 355
values 259
well-being 331–3, 335
Youth Self-Report Form 369
yuan 230, 520–1, 685
Zen Buddhist philosophy 469
zhijue (experience-based form of thinking) 559
Zhongguoren 19–20, 23–4
zhong yong (midway) thinking 158–60, 164, 558–9
Zhuyin Fuhao system (Taiwan) 94–5