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date: 23 January 2021

Abstract and Keywords

The complexities of culture and its effects on cooperation and competition are revealed through more recent discoveries, which confront previous stereotypical perceptions of the Chinese. This article explains that many of these findings help enrich the understanding of whether and how Chinese cooperate or compete relative to Westerners. It provides findings on how various intra-individual and inter-individual variables underlie cultural differences in cooperative and competitive behaviours. This article first looks at intra-individual variables, such as beliefs and values, risk preferences, regulatory focus, and conflict-management styles, and explains how these variables impact on competition and cooperation in different cultural contexts. It then explores the inter-individual variables related to cooperative conflicts, conversational style, power, fairness, interactional justice, and trust, and assesses how these factors affect the two concepts from one nation to another. It also discusses multiple views on competition.

Keywords: Chinese cooperation, Chinese competition, intra-individual variables, inter-individual variables, conflict-management styles

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