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date: 26 February 2020

List of contributors

List of contributors

(p. xv)

Stephen R. Anderson is the Dorothy R. Diebold Professor of Linguistics, Psychology and Cognitive Science at Yale University. His interests in Linguistics cover all of the major subfields, although his work in recent years has focused on the theory of morphology. Among his publications, the 2004 book Doctor Dolittle's delusion (Yale University Press) discusses the gulf between human language and the communication systems of other species.

Michael A. Arbib was born in England, grew up in Australia, and is now University Professor, Fletcher Jones Professor of Computer Science, and Professor of Neuroscience (etc.), at the University of Southern California. His first book was Brains, machines and mathematics. His 39th book, co‐edited with Derek Bickerton, is The emergence of protolanguage: Holophrasis vs. compositionality (Benjamins, 2010).

Amy L. Bauernfeind is a doctoral student in Hominid Paleobiology at the George Washington University, where she studies comparative primate neurobiology. Her research interests include variation in neural structure, neurodevelopment, and metabolism in the primate brain.

Derek Bickerton (PhD Cambridge) is Professor Emeritus of Linguistics at the University of Hawaii. He is best known for his work on creole languages, including the controversial Bioprogram Hypothesis, and on the evolution of language. His publications in the latter field include Language and species (University of Chicago Press, 1990), Adam's tongue (Hill & Wang, 2009), and Biological foundations and origins of syntax (MIT Press, 2009, edited with Eörs Szathmáry).

Cedric Boeckx is Research Professor at the Catalan Institute for Advanced Studies (ICREA), and a member of the Center for Theoretical Linguistics at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. His publications include Islands and chains (Benjamins, 2003), Linguistic Minimalism (OUP, 2006), Bare syntax (OUP, 2008), and Language in cognition (Wiley‐Blackwell, 2009). He is founding co‐editor of the Open Access journal Biolinguistics, and the founding editor of OUP's Oxford Studies in Biolinguistics monograph series.

Rudolf Botha is Emeritus Professor of General Linguistics at the University of Stellenbosch and Honorary Professor of Linguistics at Utrecht University. His research includes work on the evolution of language, morphological theory and (p. xvi) word formation, and the conceptual foundations of linguistic theories. He is the author of twelve books, including Unravelling the evolution of language (Elsevier, 2003). He was the organizer of the Cradle of Language Conference held in 2006 in Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Robbins Burling has been concerned for a half‐century with the linguistics and ethnology of north‐eastern India and Bangladesh. He became interested in the evolution of the capacity for language when colleagues in archaeology asked ‘When did language begin?’ and he could only reply ‘I dunno’. He is the author of The talking ape: How language evolved (OUP, 2005).

Joan Bybee was at the University at Buffalo from 1973–1989 and is now Distinguished Professor Emerita at the University of New Mexico. Her book The evolution of grammar (University of Chicago Press, 1994, with Perkins and Pagliuca) documents how unrelated languages create grammar using similar mechanisms. Works arguing that domain‐general principles give rise to linguistic structure are Phonology and language use (CUP, 2001), Frequency of use and the organization of language (OUP, 2007), and Language, usage and cognition (CUP, 2010).

Angelo Cangelosi is Director of the Centre for Robotics and Neural Systems at the University of Plymouth. His PhD is from the University of Genoa, and he has been visiting scholar at the University of California, San Diego and the University of Southampton. He edited Simulating the evolution of language (Springer, 2002), and is currently co‐editor‐in‐chief of the journal Interaction Studies. His primary work is on language learning and evolution in robots and embodied agents.

Rebecca L. Cann is a Professor of Genetics at the University of Hawaii, Manoa. Her interests include human evolutionary genetics and the molecular conservation genetics of endangered species. She is interested in the shared properties of modern endangered species and the early stages of human evolution. These include small population sizes, gender differences in behaviour, infectious disease risks, and geographical isolation.

Andrew Carstairs‐McCarthy is a former Professor of Linguistics at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. His main research interests have been morphology (Allomorphy in inflexion, Croom Helm, 1987) and the evolution of language (The origins of complex language, OUP, 1999). These two interests converge in his most recent book, The evolution of morphology (OUP, 2010).

Nick Chater is Professor of Behavioural Science at Warwick Business School. His research focuses on fundamental principles of cognition, and especially on reasoning, decision making, and language. His has co‐edited or co‐written six books, and has written over 200 papers. He is a Fellow of the Cognitive Science Society and Associate Editor of the journal Psychological Science.

Dorothy L. Cheney graduated from Wellesley College and received her PhD from the University of Cambridge, where her advisor was Robert A. Hinde. She was a post‐doctoral fellow at Rockefeller University, working with Peter Marler. Together with Robert Seyfarth, she is the author of How monkeys see the world (University of Chicago Press, 1990) and Baboon metaphysics (Chicago, 2007). She is currently Professor of Biology at the University of Pennsylvania.

Morten H. Christiansen is Professor in the Department of Psychology and Co‐Director of the Cognitive Science Program at Cornell University, as well as External Professor at the Santa Fe Institute. His research focuses on the interaction of biological and environmental constraints in the processing, acquisition, and evolution of language. He is the author of more than 125 scientific papers and has edited volumes on connectionist psycholinguistics, language evolution, and language universals.

Frederick L. Coolidge is a Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. He has a PhD in psychology and completed a postdoctoral fellowship in clinical neuropsychology. His research interests include behavioural genetics, cognitive archaeology, and psychological assessment. He has received three Fulbright Fellowships to India and has published five books. He has published articles in the Journal of Human Evolution, Cambridge Archaeological Journal, PaleoAnthropology, Journal of Anthropological Research, and elsewhere.

Michael C. Corballis, a New Zealander, completed his PhD from McGill University, and taught in the Department of Psychology there before being appointed to the University of Auckland in 1978, where he is currently Emeritus Professor of Psychology. He has published widely on various aspects of cognitive neuroscience, including laterality, imagery, and language. He is the author of From hand to mouth (Princeton University Press, 2002), and his new book The recursive mind (Princeton) will appear in 2012.

Terrence W. Deacon is Professor and Departmental Chair in Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. His research combines human evolutionary biology and neuroscience, with the aim of investigating the evolution of human cognition. It extends from laboratory-based cellular-molecular neurobiology to the study of semiotic processes underlying animal and human communication, especially language. Many of these interests are explored in his 1997 book, The symbolic species: The coevolution of language and the brain (W. W. Norton).

Bart de Boer did his PhD with Luc Steels at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel on the topic of self‐organization in vowel systems. An adaptation of this thesis was published as The origins of vowel systems (OUP, 2001). He has also worked with Patricia Kuhl at the University of Washington on the evolutionary implications of (p. xviii) infant‐directed speech. Currently he works at the Universiteit van Amsterdam on the biological evolution of the vocal tract and on cultural evolution of speech.

Francesco d'Errico is a CNRS Director of Research attached to the University of Bordeaux, France. Focusing on the origin and evolution of symbolic behaviours and complex bone technologies, his research has questioned the dominant paradigm of a sudden European origin of modern cultures and identified the presence of older symbolic traditions in Africa, Europe, and the Near East. He has published several books and more than 200 papers, mostly in international journals.

Frans B. M. de Waal is a biologist with a PhD from the University of Utrecht, in the Netherlands. He is C. H. Candler Professor of Psychology at Emory University, and Director of the Living Links Center at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center, both in Atlanta, GA. He is the author of numerous books, including The age of empathy (Random House, 2009).

Karl C. Diller is researching the evolutionary genetics of language in the Cann laboratory (genetics) at the John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii. His PhD in linguistics is from Harvard University. He was formerly Professor of Linguistics at the University of New Hampshire, where a special interest of his was the neurolinguistic foundations of second language acquisition.

Merlin Donald is Professor Emeritus, Queens University, Ontario; Honorary Professor, University of Aarhus, Denmark; and former Chair of Cognitive Science, Case Western Reserve University, Ohio. He is a Fellow of the Canadian Psychological Association and the Royal Society of Canada, and the author of Origins of the modern mind: Three stages in the evolution of culture and cognition (Harvard, 1991), and A mind so rare: The evolution of human consciousness (Norton, 2001).

Robin I. M. Dunbar is Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology at the University of Oxford, a Fellow of the British Academy, and co‐director of the British Academy's Centenary Research Project. His principal research interests focus on the evolution of sociality in mammals, with particular reference to ungulates, primates, and humans.

Dean Falk is a palaeoanthropologist who specializes in brain evolution. She is a Senior Scholar at the School for Advanced Research in Santa Fe, New Mexico and at the Department of Anthropology, Florida State University. Her books include Finding our tongues: Mothers, infants and the origins of language (Basic Books, 2009), and Bones to pick: How two controversial discoveries changed perceptions of human evolution (University of California Press, 2011).

W. Tecumseh Fitch is Professor of Cognitive Biology at the University of Vienna. His main interests are in bio‐acoustics and the evolution of cognition, particularly the evolution of human speech, language, and music, all studied from a broad (p. xix) comparative perspective. He is author of The evolution of language (CUP, 2010). He conducts experimental research on vocalization and cognition in humans and a variety of vertebrates, including chimpanzees, seals, deer, dogs, alligators, and parrots.

Kathleen R. Gibson is Professor Emerita of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Medical School, Houston and Professor Emerita in the Department of Orthodontics, U.T. School of Dentistry. She has co‐edited six books on the development and evolution of brains and cognition including ‘Language’ and intelligence in monkeys and apes (CUP, 1990), Tools, language and cognition in human evolution (CUP, 1993), Modelling the early human mind (McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 1996), and Evolutionary anatomy of the primate cerebral cortex (CUP, 2001). She is currently co‐editor with Jim Hurford of the Oxford Series, Studies in the Evolution of Language.

Susan Goldin‐Meadow is the Beardsley Ruml Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago, where she has taught for over 30 years. Her research interests focus on gesture—the home‐made gestures children create when not exposed to language, and the gestures we all produce when we talk. She is the founding editor of the journal Language Learning and Development, and is the current president of the International Society for Gesture Studies.

Katharine Graf Estes’ research investigates the processes underlying early language acquisition and the connection between early phonological and lexical representations. She received her PhD in developmental psychology from the University of Wisconsin‐Madison in 2007. She is currently an Assistant Professor at the University of California, Davis. She has received funding from the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation.

Stevan Harnad, External Member of the Hungarian Academy of Science, is author of or contributor to over 300 publications, including Origins and evolution of language and speech, Lateralization in the nervous system, Peer commentary on peer review: A case study in scientific quality control, Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition, The selection of behavior: The operant behaviorism of B. F. Skinner, Scholarly journals at the crossroads: A subversive proposal for electronic publishing, and Cognition distributed: How cognitive technology extends our minds.

Bernd Heine is Emeritus Professor at the Institute of African Studies (Institut für Afrikanistik), University of Cologne. His 33 books include Possession: Cognitive sources, forces, and grammaticalization (CUP, 1997); Auxiliaries: Cognitive forces and grammaticalization (OUP, 1993); Cognitive foundations of grammar (OUP, 1997); with Derek Nurse, African languages: An introduction (CUP, 2000); A linguistic geography of Africa (CUP, 2008); with Tania Kuteva, World lexicon of grammaticalization (CUP, 2002); Language contact and grammatical change (CUP, 2005); The (p. xx) changing languages of Europe (OUP, 2006); and The genesis of grammar (OUP, 2007).

William D. Hopkins is Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at Agnes Scott College. He also holds the appointment of Research Scientist within the Division of Developmental and Cognitive Neuroscience at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University. His research focuses on the evolution of language and speech, and on the evolution of manual skills, such as grasping, bimanual coordination and tool use, as they relate to the emergence of population‐level behavioural and brain asymmetries in non-human primates.

Jim Hurford is Emeritus Professor of Linguistics at the University of Edinburgh. He has an interest in reconciling traditions within and outwith linguistics which have tended to conflict. He works in a framework in which representation of grammars in individual minds interacts with properties of language used in communities, emphasizing the interaction of evolution, learning, and communication. He constructed early computer simulations of language evolution, and his books include The origins of meaning (OUP, 2007) and The origins of grammar (OUP, 2011).

Vincent M. Janik is a Reader in Biology in the School of Biology, University of St Andrews, UK. Previously, he was a postdoctoral research fellow at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA and a Royal Society University Research Fellow at the University of St Andrews. His research concentrates on vocal communication in marine mammals and the evolution of complexity in animal communication and cognition.

Simon Kirby is Professor of Language Evolution at the University of Edinburgh and co‐founder of the Language Evolution and Computation Research Unit. He has pioneered the application of computational and mathematical modelling techniques to traditional issues in language acquisition, change, and evolution. In particular, he has developed an experimental and computational approach to cultural evolution called Iterated Learning, which treats language as a complex adaptive system operating on multiple interacting time‐scales.

Chris Knight was for many years Professor of Anthropology at the University of East London. He is best known for his 1991 book, Blood relations: Menstruation and the origins of culture. He helped initiate the Evolution of Language (EVOLANG) series of international conferences and has published widely on the evolutionary emergence of language and symbolic culture.

Tania Kuteva is Professor of English Linguistics at the Heinrich‐Heine‐University of Düsseldorf, Germany. Apart from a number of articles in international journals, she has also published two books with Cambridge University Press and three with Oxford University Press, on grammaticalization, language contact, grammatical (p. xxi) typology, and language evolution, four of which are co‐authored with Bernd Heine. She is on the editorial board of the journal Studies in Language.

David Lightfoot writes on syntactic theory, language acquisition, and historical change. He argues that internal language change is contingent, taking place in bursts, and that this entails construing language acquisition as ‘cue‐based’. He has published eleven books, most recently How new languages emerge (CUP, 2006). He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the Linguistic Society of America. His main appointments have been at McGill, Utrecht, Maryland, and Georgetown. He served as Assistant Director of the National Science Foundation, returning to Georgetown to direct programmes in Communication, Culture & Technology and Interdisciplinary Cognitive Science.

John L. Locke is Professor of Linguistics, Lehman College, City University of New York. He completed his PhD at Ohio University and took postdoctoral training at Yale University and at Oxford. His most recent books are Eavesdropping: An intimate history (OUP, 2010) and Duels and duets: Why men and women talk so differently (CUP, 2011).

Ann MacLarnon is Director of the Centre for Research in Evolutionary Anthropology at Roehampton University. She has worked on a wide variety of areas in primatology and palaeoanthropology, with an emphasis on comparative approaches. Research topics include reproductive life histories and physiology, stress endocrinology and behaviour, and aspects of comparative morphology including the brain and spinal cord. Work on this last area led to the unexpected discovery that humans evolved increased breathing control for speech.

Peter F. MacNeilage has written over 120 papers and one monograph (The origin of speech, OUP, 2008) on the nature and evolution of complex action systems. His conceptual contributions include the Frame/Content theory of the evolution of speech and the Postural Origins theory of the evolution of primate handedness. He is a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Alan Mann (PhD University of California, Berkeley) is Professor of Anthropology at Princeton University and at the University of Pennsylvania (Emeritus). His primary interest is the fossil evidence for human evolution and in particular the origins of humanness. His current research focuses on the evolution of the Neanderthals and their relationships to modern peoples. He is also co‐director of the excavation of a Middle Palaeolithic Neanderthal site in the Charente Department of southwest France.

Steven Mithen is a Pro‐Vice‐Chancellor at the University of Reading. His research interests concern early prehistoric communities and the evolution of human intelligence, language, and music. His authored and edited books include After (p. xxii) the ice (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2003), The singing Neanderthals (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2005), The early prehistory of Wadi Faynan (Oxbow Books, 2007), To the islands (Two Ravens Press, 2010), and Water, life and civilisation (CUP, 2011). He was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 2003.

Johanna Nichols is Professor Emerita in the Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures and Affiliate Professor Emerita in the Department of Linguistics, University of California, Berkeley. She works on Slavic and other languages of the western steppe periphery, languages of the Caucasus, typology, and language spreads. She is the author of Linguistic diversity in space and time (University of Chicago Press, 1992), Ingush‐English dictionary (RoutledgeCurzon, 2004), and Ingush grammar (University of California Press, 2011).

Brigitte Pakendorf obtained a PhD degree in molecular anthropology in 2001 and a PhD degree in linguistics in 2007. She is currently leader of a Max Planck Research Group at the MPI for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. Her research focus is on the interdisciplinary investigation of prehistoric population and language contact.

Irene M. Pepperberg (S.B, MIT, 1969; PhD, Harvard, 1976) is a Research Associate and Lecturer (Harvard) and an Adjunct Associate Professor (Brandeis). She was a visiting Assistant Professor (Northwestern), tenured Associate Professor (University of Arizona), and visiting Associate Professor (MIT's Media Lab, Ecole Normale Superieure). She has received John Simon Guggenheim, Selby, and Radcliffe Fellowships, is a Fellow of AAAS and other professional societies, has published over 50 peer‐reviewed papers, 60 reviews, and two books.

Amy S. Pollick received her PhD in neuroscience and animal behaviour from Emory University, where she conducted research on a variety of communicative behaviours in non-human primates. She was Director of Government Relations at the Association for Psychological Science in Washington, DC, and is now an adjunct professor at Gallaudet University.

Camilla Power completed her PhD under Leslie Aiello at the University of London. She is currently Senior Lecturer in Anthropology at the University of East London, specializing in Darwinian models for the origins of ritual and religion, and African hunter‐gatherer gender ritual, having worked in the field with women of the Hadzabe in Tanzania.

Paul T. Roberge is Professor of Germanic Languages and Joint Professor of Linguistics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is also Extraordinary Professor of General Linguistics at the University of Stellenbosch. His research interests are historical Germanic linguistics, sociohistorical linguistics, pidgins and creoles, and Afrikaans. He teaches language evolution at UNC‐CH (p. xxiii) in collaboration with his colleague, Elliott Moreton, and has written on the window potential of pidgins.

Robert M. Seyfarth graduated from Harvard University and received his PhD from the University of Cambridge, where his advisor was Robert A. Hinde. He was a post‐doctoral fellow at Rockefeller University, working with Peter Marler. Together with Dorothy Cheney, he is the author of How monkeys see the world (University of Chicago Press, 1990) and Baboon metaphysics (Chicago, 2007). He is currently Professor of Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania.

Peter Slater is Emeritus Professor of Natural History at the University of St Andrews. Much of his work over the past 30 years has been on sound communication in birds and mammals and he is co‐author, with Clive Catchpole, of the book Bird song: Biological themes and variations (CUP, 2nd edition 2008).

Katie Slocombe obtained a BSc in psychology from the University of Nottingham, and completed her PhD in chimpanzee communication at the University of St Andrews under the supervision of Klaus Zuberbühler. As a BBSRC post‐doctoral research fellow she continued to investigate vocal behaviour in wild and captive chimpanzees. She became a lecturer in the department of Psychology, University of York, in 2007, where her research into chimpanzee communication and cognition continues.

Kenny Smith is a lecturer in the School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh, with interests in the evolution of communication, human language, and the human capacity for language. He uses a mix of modelling and experimental techniques to address these questions.

Michael Studdert‐Kennedy holds a BA in classics from the University of Cambridge and a PhD in experimental psychology from Columbia University. He is a former President of Haskins Laboratories in New Haven. His research interests include speech perception, hemispheric specialization for speech, and the development/evolution of speech. He is the author of many papers and the editor or co‐editor of six books.

Szabolcs Számadó received his PhD in ecology and theoretical biology at the Eötvös Loránd University (Hungary) in 2004. His main research topic is the cost of honesty in animal communication, which he investigates by means of game theoretical modelling. He works with Eörs Szathmáry on questions surrounding the evolution of human language.

Eörs Szathmáry is the co‐author with the late John Maynard Smith of The major transitions in evolution (Freeman, 1995) and The origins of life (OUP, 1999). His main interests include evolution in the origin of life and Darwinian approaches to (p. xxiv) brain dynamics. He is at Collegium Budapest and the Parmenides Foundation (Munich).

Maggie Tallerman has spent her professional life in northeast England, at Durham then Newcastle University, where she is currently Professor of Linguistics. Her edited and authored books include Language origins: Perspectives on evolution (OUP, 2005), Understanding syntax (Hodder/OUP, third edition 2011), and The syntax of Welsh (co‐authored with Borsley and Willis; CUP, 2007). She started working on evolutionary linguistics in case a guy on a train asked her where language came from, though some think her real work is on Welsh.

Marian Vanhaeren is a Researcher at the French CNRS, specializing in the study of ancient personal ornaments which she investigates using technological and taphonomical analyses, reference collections, microscopy, GIS, and statistics. Her research focuses on the oldest traces of symbolic thinking in the European and African Palaeolithic as well as on ethnocultural diversity, exchange networks, and social inequalities among Upper Palaeolithic populations. She has co‐authored more than 30 articles.

Jacques Vauclair is a Professor of Developmental and Comparative Psychology at the University of Provence (Aix‐en‐Provence, France) and a senior member of the Institut Universitaire de France. He is director of the Research Center in the Psychology of Cognition, Language and Emotion in Aix‐en‐Provence. His field of interest concerns the comparative study of the lateralization processes in object manipulations and communicative gestures in human infants and in non-human primates.

Wendy K. Wilkins is currently the Executive Vice President and Provost at New Mexico State University. Her PhD in linguistics is from UCLA. She has taught linguistics at UMass Amherst, the University of Washington, Arizona State University, Michigan State University, and at several institutions in Mexico City. With a primary research background in syntactic theory, most recently she has worked on the evolutionary neurobiology of language and comparative linguistic and musical cognition.

Bernard A. Wood is the University Professor of Human Origins at the George Washington University and Adjunct Senior Scientist at the National Museum of Natural History, the Smithsonian Institution. His research centres on increasing our understanding of human evolutionary history by developing and improving the ways we analyse the hominin fossil record.

Thomas Wynn is Professor of Anthropology at the University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, where he has taught since 1977. He has published extensively in palaeolithic archaeology, with a particular emphasis on cognitive evolution. His books include The evolution of spatial competence (University of Illinois Press, 1989) (p. xxv) and The rise of Homo sapiens: The evolution of modern thinking (with F. Coolidge, Wiley‐Blackwell, 2009).

Klaus Zuberbühler is a Professor of Psychology at the University of St Andrews. He holds an undergraduate degree in zoology and anthropology from the University of Zurich and a doctoral degree in psychology from the University of Pennsylvania. He conducts research on the primate roots of human language, focusing on the cognitive underpinnings of primate communication. His research has been published in major journals, including Nature, PNAS, and Current Biology.