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date: 26 February 2020

(p. 736) Subject Index

(p. 736) Subject Index

absence of evidence arguments24–5, 244–5
Acheulean29, 163, 165, 242, 286, see also mode 2 technologies
cleavers286
handaxe29, 242, 286
language evolution during29, 163, 165
tool stagnation in163, 242
acoustic distinctiveness509, 615, 617
acoustic features74, 77, 225
acoustic signals4, 75, 94, 103, 105, 108, see also calls; vocalizations
acoustic space228, 420–1
adaptation/adaptedness6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 22, 23–5, 27–9, 40, 42, 100, 129, 130, 146, 147, 150, 151–5, 158–61, 162, 164, 166, 167, 180, 181, 183, 185, 202, 206, 224–35, 241, 242, 264, 280, 288, 314, 315–6, 324–6, 327, 342, 347, 365, 403–5, 406–16, 458, 459, 468, 496, 509, 511, 587, 595, 597, 607, 614–5, 626–38
and development146, 155, 158–61
and infant directed speech322–7
and natural selection159–61
fast25, 158–60, 162, 164
genetic147, 158
adaptationist and non‐adaptationist views21, 26, 493–4, 499, 500, 628–30
adaptive responses61, 74, 145–6, 338
to environmental change338
adolescence137, 247, 248, 331, 332–3, 335–6, 338
adrenarche332
affordances371
African Grey parrot44, 69, 123, 375, 443, see also Alex; Alo; Griffin; Kyaaro
Agent First482, 541
agonistic screams85, 87, 88, 91, 92, 93
agreement (linguistic)25, 67, 400, 402, 414, 447–9, 506, 510, 519, 526, 532, 564, 609, 623, 628
air sacs32, 141, 227–8, 233, 234, 235, 241
in Australopithecus afarensis233, 234, 241
laryngeal, in non‐human primates32, 141, 227–8, 233,
Akeakamai, dolphin122
alarm calls2, 4–5, 60, 61–2, 68, 73–7, 91, 96, 125, 127, 128, 297, 355, 375, 403, 452–3, 485
acoustically distinct75
avian or bird5, 74, 96, 125, 375
blue monkey73
Campbell's monkey2, 74, 76, 453,
Diana monkey2, 74, 76, 77, 375
for eagles4, 42, 61, 62, 73, 74, 76, 127, 375, 452–3, 485
for leopards4, 5, 42, 61, 62, 74, 76, 127, 375, 452–3, 485
juvenile monkey61, 62
other species, response to2, 61, 62, 74, 375, 453
Alex, African Grey parrot44, 110–14, 123–4, 130, 375, 454
allocare78–9, 80, 334, 348, see also caretakers; cooperative breeding
allometric relationships164–5, 270
thoracic spinal cord and body size270
brain/body164–5
allomorphy358, 436, 439, 441, 477
alloparenting, see allocare; caretakers
Alo, African Grey parrot110, 113–4
alphabetical writing396, 400, 417
alternation, morphological358, 436, 439, 517
altruism326, 373
kin246, 247, 324, 326–7
American Sign Language of the Deaf (ASL)48–53, 55, 111, 112, 114, 384–5, 551–2, see also ape language studies
and ape language research48–53, 55, 111, 112, 114
fluent or native signers, human48, 49, 50, 55
non‐native signers48, 49
amodal brain functions and behaviours138, 182–3, see also phonology, as amodal adaptation
amphioxus40
amusia297
amygdala177–8, 179
anaphors25, 448, 463
anatomically modern humans58, 142, 168, 171, 200, 201, 242, 243, 250, 256–7, 259, 260, 279, 2 (p. 737) 92–5, 298, 299, 300, 302, see also Dali, China; Herto, Ethiopia; modern humans; Omo Kibish, Ethiopia; Qafzeh, Israel; Zhirendong, China
foraging strategies245, 248, 293, 321, 340–2
language capacity in9, 245, 559, 562
ancestral and pre‐linguistic conditions61, 62, 110
animal calls and language comparisons2–6, 362–3, 452–3, 485–6
animal communication systems1–6, 10–12, 15, 25, 31, 362, 378, 442, 445, 451, 452–3, 489, 596
animal song and language or speech comparisons44, 97, 126–7, 128, 362, 452, 490, see also bird song; song
anterior cingulate cortex212
anti‐uniformitarianism302
ape/human differences170, 245, 251, 342, 409, 559
ape language studies41, 44, 46–58, 86, 122, 141, 355, 356, 442, 453–4, see also animal language research; apes
aphasia171, 297, 481, 488, 635
archaeology8, 29, 30–1, 32, 33, 34, 57, 181, 182, 222, 243, 244, 275, 277, 279, 282–95, 297, 298, 299–302, 303–12, 341, 343, 479, 480, 488, 495
and evidence for language evolution8, 30, 33, 57, 244, 298, 299–302, 303–12, 479
archaic Homo sapiens29, 164, 165, 182, 240, 242, 278, 292–3, 345, 559, 563, see also Homo heidelbergensis
and social group size293, 343–5
language capacities in269–71, 345, 559, 563
vs. Homo heidelbergensis29, 242, 277–8, 345
arcuate fasciculus199
Ardi, see Ardipithecus
Ardipithecus27, 39, 241, 261, 262–3
kadabba261, 262–3
ramidus39, 241, 263
Arena of Use16
argument (of verbs)206, 376, 403, 443, 447, 466, 482, 539
art8, 30, 31, 34, 126, 170, 183, 244, 293–4, 299, 631, 632
Upper Palaeolithic8, 30, 244, 293, 299
artefacts and linguistic complexity8–9, 282–312, 495
articles, definite and indefinite436, 441, 513, 515, 519, 533, 624
articulation77, 111, 170, 212, 221, 225–32, 297, 323, 324, 365, 417–21, 429, 431, 569, 570
anticipatory co‐articulation111
ease of429, 431, 617, 636
manners of570
sequential and FOXP2170
sub‐vocal218, 221
articulators77, 80, 226–32, 418, 426, 428, 431, 637, see also epiglottis; glottis; lips; tongue
gestural225, 419–21, 431
motor control of72, 77, 80, 116, 129
articulatory capacities in animals77, 224–35
aspect (linguistic)445, 471, 483, 506, 513, 515, 516, 518–9, 523–6, 532
ASPM gene136, 161–62, 169, 172–4, 363–4
asymmetry, behavioural194, see also handedness; orofacial asymmetry
asymmetry, neural7, 40, 139, 184–97, 200, 201, 269–70
AQ (mean asymmetry index)191
Heschl's gyrus189
in amphioxus40
in inferior frontal gyrus190, 192–5
microstructural193–4
non‐human primate184–97, 201
petalial269, 270
planum temporale189–90, 201
atavistic formations and microcephaly173
audience effects (in calls/vocalizations)42, 73, 76, 93, 383, 486
Aurignacian (beads and ornaments)300, 302
Austin, chimpanzee41, 52, 53, 54, 56
australopithecines27, 142, 171, 231, 232, 233, 273, 274, 275, 340, see also Australopithecus entries; Swartkrans, South Africa
use of fire27
Australopithecus afarensis241, 259, 260, 263, 264–5, 266, 271
Australopithecus africanus259, 260, 266, 268, 271,
Australopithecus anamensis259, 260, 264,
Australopithecus bahrelghazali259, 260, 265,
Australopithecus boisei274, see also Zinjanthropus
Australopithecus garhi259, 260, 266, 267
autism175, 177, 220, 405
auxiliaries (linguistic)13, 25, 366, 439, 445, 449, 454, 455, 483, 488, 506, 515, 516, 532, 533
avian40, 110–11, 115, 116, 117, 126, 129, 177, 178–9, 334, see also beak; birds; bird song; oscine songbirds; songbird; suboscine songbird; tool‐making/tool use
alarm calls116
lateralization, neural40
mirror neurons117
neuroanatomical structures116, 179
soft calls128
vocal learning96–101, 110–11, 115–8
babbling11, 14, 27, 77, 79–80, 116, 118, 125, 128, 245, 246, 247, 320, 334, 357, 418–9, 428
and cooperative breeding79, 247
in human infants14, 77, 79
vs. ape infants77, 79, 245
in bats79
in pygmy marmosets79–80, 128
in songbirds11, 79, 116, 118, 125
motor practice and418–9
baboon41–2, 62, 63–6, 69, 73, 123, 138, 185, 186–7, 195, 254, 356, 376, 427, see also gelada
and putative precursors to syntax66–7
Baldwin effect15, 134, 142, 158, 354, 368–9, 458, 539, 604, 610
basal ganglia137, 138, 177–9, 182, 249, 342
and mimesis182
Basic Variety473–4, 478, 543
basicranial flexion229, 230, 243, 266
bats10, 33, 44, 79, 127–8, 129, 171, 178
beads/beadwork8, 31, 244, 245, 293, 299–302, 303–8, 311
and implications for language/protolanguage8, 244, 308
and symbolic behaviour299–302, 303–8, 311
beak:
avian, motor control of116, 129
finch, rapid evolution of160
bellbirds117–8
Betty, New Caledonian crow124
biolinguistics155, 198, 199, 316, 359, 492–4, 496–7, 500–1
biological system10–15, 135, 314, 354, 369
biologists3, 16, 24, 26, 34, 133, 143–9, 151, 153, 168, 171, 248, 360, 459, 637
synchronic151
bioprogram hypothesis470, 471, 539
bipedalism7, 27, 28, 29, 141, 229–30, 233, 235, 241, 242, 246, 248, 250, 261, 262, 264, 266, 298, 318, 331, 384, 499
and descent of larynx27, 141, 229–30, 235
and early birth318, 331
obligate9, 229, 230, 235
bird song4, 11, 33, 44, 96–101, 104, 116, 118, 125, 126, 147, 334, 337, 362, 365, 410, 442, 452, 490
copying in99, 101
dependencies in452
hierarchical structure in4, 44, 116, 126, 452
language or speech, similarities to and differences from4, 11, 96–7, 99, 116, 121, 126–8, 130, 365
male breeding, relationship to12, 97–100, 118
origin/evolution of101, 117, 490
reproductive success, relationship to12, 97–8, 334, 337
speech, parallels to121, 126–8, 130
‘syntax’115, 452
(p. 739) black‐boxing33, 133, 145–8, 150–2
blade tools30–1, 292
Blombos cave, South Africa244, 299, 303–11
blue monkey73
bonobo7, 14, 27, 32, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 46, 47, 52–3, 57, 60, 61, 68, 72, 76, 82, 83–8, 92, 94, 95, 120, 122, 136, 138, 168, 185–7, 191, 192, 195, 240, 255, 259, 261, 262, 263, 264, 284, 363, 374, 378, 383, 409, 411, 453, 481, 482, see also Kanzi; Matata; Pan; panins
anatomy, neuroanatomy32, 40, 186, 191, 192, 261, 262, 264
behaviour, cognition41, 43, 46, 47, 52, 53, 57, 61, 72, 76, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 92, 94, 95, 120, 122, 136, 138, 168, 185, 186, 187, 195, 284, 363, 374, 378, 383, 411, 453, 481, 482
phylogeny, genetics7, 14, 27, 32, 39, 42, 59, 60, 68, 83, 240, 255, 259, 261, 262
bottleneck67, 218, 561, 562, 583–4, 585–6, 595, 597, 599–601, 603, 609
in transmission583–4, 585–6, 595, 597, 599–601, 603, 609
population561
bows and arrows8, 31, 244
Boxgrove, England, hunting at290
brain evolution, see also brain growth and development; brain reorganization; brain size; ASPM gene; CMAH gene; CNTNAP gene; FOXP2 gene; expensive tissue hypothesis:
and exaptation140, 202, 206, 314
and foraging strategies28, 342
constraints on316, 317
energy requirements of28
genetic basis of161
brain growth and development, see also ASPM gene; brain plasticity; CMAH gene; CNTNAP gene; FOXP2 gene:
abnormal170, 334
genetic basis of136, 162, 166, 169, 172–5, 363
timing of137, 331, 332, 464
plasticity of15, 134, 135
brain hemispheres62, 105, 38–9, 184–5, 189–96, 199–200, 206, 257, 269, 270, 430, 481
brain lateralization, see asymmetry, neural
brain plasticity134–7, 142, 355, 361, 404, see also brain growth and development
brain reorganization7, 28, 135, 164–5, 169, 179, 269–70, see also lunate sulcus
brain size, see also ASPM gene; CMAH gene; microcephalin; microcephaly:
adaptive nature of137, 314
and group size249, 344
and language21, 137, 165, 269, see also microcephaly
and microcephalin gene136, 161, 169, 172–3
body size, relationships with28, 137, 164–5
genetic basis of136, 161, 169, 172, 173
in hominin evolution27–9, 57, 137, 164–5, 169, 178, 230, 242, 243, 245, 275–6, 278, 287, 291, 384
in modern humans171, 242, 276
in nonhuman primates178
non‐allometric increases in164–5
breathing, control of, see respiratory control
bridge theory207–15, 306–7, 309, 311
Broca's area83, 117, 138–9, 140, 141, 167, 171, 185, 189, 192, 193, 196, 199–200, 201–2, 204, 206, 208, 212, 213, 269, 384, see also F5
Brodmann's areas 5; 7; 44; 45193–4, 196, 200, 204, 208, see also Broca's area; Wernicke's area
brown thrasher97, 118
budgerigars101
burial, deliberate30, 274, 341
butchery and mode 2 technologies256, 284–5, 286, 287
caching124, 373
cacique101
(p. 740) calls, see also acoustic signals; vocal signals; vocalization(s):
acoustic modifications of60, 76, 93
alarm2, 4–5, 60–2, 68, 73–4, 75, 76–7, 91, 96, 125, 127, 128, 297, 355, 375, 403, 452–3, 485
barks43, 66, 92, 127, 375, 427
bat10, 44, 79, 127–8, 129
bird10, 44, 74, 96, 100, 101, 115, 118, 125, 127–8
bray (dolphin)104
cetacean104, 107
chimpanzee4, 12, 43, 68, 73, 75–6, 91–5, 127, 138, 187, 188, 195–6, 227, 297, 383, 440
chink (chaffinch)100
combinations of68, 76–7, 95, 452–3
composition/compositionality4, 43, 66, 68, 76–7, 95, 452–3, 487
comprehension of42, 62–3, 71, 74, 356
contact44, 96, 101, 118, 125, 127–8, 130, 187, 319
coos61, 128, 212, 246
copulation73, 93
deceptive93, 124, 249, 485, 486
dialects in11, 12, 42, 43, 48, 75–6, 80, 93, 99, 101, 105, 117, 410
dolphin44, 104, 107–8, 122, 128, 129
elephant44, 127, 129
food5, 43, 86, 91–2, 93, 104, 125, 127, 138, 187–8, 195–6, 212
graded62, 64, 91, 92, 95
great ape95
gruff61
grunts43, 60, 63–6, 77, 91, 93, 128, 138, 187, 188, 195, 246, 427
human infant77, 246
individually specific64, 66, 97, 101, 104, 128
innate115, 212, 375, 563
intentional383
learning/learned99, 127, 443
monkey2, 4, 42, 61, 62, 74–7, 115, 127, 297, 375, 403, 452–3, 485
pant grunts93
pant‐hoot43, 75, 85–6, 93–4, 227, 297
parrot44, 101, 108, 116, 127
peeps43, 88, 94
playback experiments with41, 62, 64–5, 74, 76, 91–2, 94, 104
popping (dolphin)104
primate25, 42, 62, 93, 297, 355, 383, 444, 481, 485–6, 487–9
primate, holistic nature of5, 297, 427, 487, 488, 615
primate, musicality of297, 490
pulsed sounds (dolphin)104
rain (chaffinch)100
sequences64, 66, 70, 76–7
soft avian128
soft primate43, 44, 88, 128
threat‐grunts64–6
usage61–2, 115
calorific expenditure12, 275
Campbell's monkey2, 74, 76, 453
canalization (Waddington)134, 150, 152, 153, 154, 604
canary171
capuchin monkey (cebus monkey)192
caretakers44, 322–3, 326, 327
case‐marking (linguistic)25, 67, 414, 438, 445, 449, 457, 467, 474, 477, 506, 519, 520, 526, 532, 565–6, 575, 579
catarrhine254, see also Old World monkeys; apes; humans
catbird100
categorical perception95, 110, 365, 614
categorization6, 19, 203, 356, 387, 530, 533, 534, 536, 624
causality, understanding of42, 64, 66, 144
cave paintings30, 244, 294
cebus monkey, see capuchin monkey
central executive, see executive functions
cerebellum137–8, 170, 177–8, 179, 182, 342
cetacean33, 40–1, 44, 61, 102–8, 129, 224, 410, see also Akeakamai and Phoebe (dolphins); dolphin; whale
mysticeti102, 104
odontoceti102
chaffinch100
Chantek, orang‐utan50, 54, 56
character state59, 60, 234
characters shared (in taxonomy)78, 79
cheap signals12, 326, 327
chickens5, 115
child language357, 400, 464, 481–2, 484, 491, 535, 540
childhood79, 222, 229, 230, 247–8, 331, 332–3, 335, 403, 413, 414
ape79
characteristics of332
evolution of331–5
length of332, 413, 414
chimpanzee, see also Austin; Gua; Lana; Loulis; Lucy; Mojo, Tatu, and Dar; Nim Chimpsky; Pan; panins; Panzee; Sarah; Sherman; Tania; Washoe:
anatomy, neuroanatomy4, 32, 40, 60, 86, 139, 171–3, 177, 185, 189–96, 227, 229, 231, 243, 263, 264, 271, 275
(p. 741) behaviour, cognition4, 41, 42, 43, 46–58, 61, 65, 68, 72, 73, 75–7, 79, 82–8, 91–5, 120–7, 136, 138, 168, 185–96, 211, 213, 285, 297, 340, 348, 349, 363, 372, 378–9, 383, 418, 440, 467, 481, 485, 560
phylogeny, genetics7, 14, 27, 32, 39, 42, 59, 60, 68, 83, 162, 166, 168, 170, 175, 251, 254, 255, 257, 259
choking, risk of229, 230
chunking (linguistic)507, 529–30, 534, 536
clade7, 258–60, 261, 262, 266, 268, 270, 271
definition of259–60
classification51, 64, 123
by lexigram‐using apes51
open‐ended63–5, 66
clause boundaries25, 448, 457, 484
clauses4, 25, 47, 55, 116, 308–9, 362, 443, 447, 448–50, 453, 454, 457, 460, 461, 462, 465, 472, 474, 483, 486, 519, 539, 541, 544, 632, see also sentences
embedding of308–9, 448, 450, 453, 472, 474, 483, 519
cleavers286
click languages226, 569–70
clines/clinal distributions280, 300
of Neanderthals and modern humans280
CMAH gene169
CNTNAP gene174–5
co‐articulation111, 212
coevolution9, 89, 135, 157–67, 171, 184, 202, 296, 297, 298, 325, 347, 375, 379, 383, 604
of language and brain9, 135, 157–67, 171, 184
cognition2, 8, 9, 13, 19, 22, 25, 26, 30, 31, 33, 40, 41, 59–70, 74, 102–8, 122, 125, 126, 167, 181, 198, 202, 203–4, 248, 281, 282, 288, 291, 294, 295, 297, 307–8, 309, 346, 366, 370, 376, 388, 404, 441, 468, 484–7, 493, 499, 501, 605, 610, 633
animal13, 25, 26, 41, 59–70, 74, 102–8, 122, 125, 204, 297, 376, 441, 484–7
cognitive capacity for language and symbolic behaviour353, 362, 368, 442, 559, 562
collaborative behaviours19–20, 72, 78, 348, 485–6, see also cooperation
early human78
evolution of19–20, 348
in childcare78
shared intentions485–6
colobine80
colobus monkey76
combinability and recursion220
combinations (call/gesture) and combinatorial behaviour3–4, 6, 43, 48–9, 50, 51, 53, 54, 58, 68, 76–7, 85, 87, 88, 95, 97, 111–2, 117, 120, 123, 125–6, 127, 128, 207, 213, 226, 227, 357, 362, 364, 380, 385, 390, 417, 421, 431, 442, 452–3, 481, 498, 507, 551–6, 596, 600, 624
in apes (great):
gestural, facial, vocal85, 87, 88
lexigram, lexigram/sign51, 53–4, 453
object117, 213
sign48–50, 54, 112, 117, 120
vocal restrictions on227
in bees4
in birds;
object117
vocal4, 111, 112, 115, 123, 126, 128, 452
in children, with objects117, 213
in dolphins/sea lions, comprehension of125
in human language and communication3, 6, 97, 117, 125, 207, 219–20, 226, 228, 339, 357, 363, 364, 380–1, 385, 390, 394, 397–400, 402–4, 415, 417, 421, 431, 452, 488–9, 498, 507, 514, 530, 535–6, 545–6, 550–7, 596–7, 600, 615, 624, 628
in humpback whales126
neural basis of219
parrot112, 117
primate (nonhuman) calls4, 43, 68, 76–7, 95, 115, 117, 127, 128, 442
combinatorial principle2, 480
combinatorial structure615
common ancestor7, 13, 32, 39, 40, 42, 57, 60, 61, 62, 63, 67, 83, 88, 142, 170–1, 175, 185, 205, 210, 231, 233, 253, 256, 261, 262, 298, 330, 363, 484, 499, see also last common ancestor
communication/communication systems:
anatomical basis of128, 231, 232
animal1–6, 7, 10–12, 15, 25, 31, 33, 41, 44, 123, 125, 128, 362, 364, 377, 378, 452, 457, 459, 489, 495, 596
as language function15, 23, 24, 25
avian96, 101, 109, 112, 115, 116, 224
cetacean102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 224
evolution of/evolutionary models of1, 2, 10, 15, 22–6, 67, 82–3, 88, 90, 95–6, 102–8, 109, 111, 113, 115, 117, 119, 164, 186, 195, 196, 224, 297–8, 301, 326–7, 335, 362, 369, 377, 411, 418–9, 433–4, 452, 484–6, 489–90, 494, 509, 510, 536, 541, 544, 548, 552, 556, 602, 605–11, 628, 636, 637
gestural, ape43, 55, 82–9, 91, 484
in fragile X syndrome169
modern human2, 11, 33, 79, 216, 224, 227, 296, 309, 355, 363, 373, 382, 385, 393–4, 401, 404, 410, 415, 445, 451, 476, 484–6, 500, 507, 538, 539, 541–4, 545–9, 550, 552, 555–7, 560, 580, 590, 614, 617, 635
neural basis of117, 195, 196, 202, 206–7, 215, 221, 313, 342, 544, 627
primate10, 17, 25–6, 35, 41, 43, 49, 55, 57, 63, 68, 72–3, 75, 82–9, 90–5, 111, 113, 115, 122, 186, 195, 211, 344, 347, 383–4, 484
comparisons10, 28, 29, 83, 87, 113, 184, 201, 202, 215, 225, 232, 261, 269, 273, 285, 319, 454, 474, 577
ape/Homo erectus29
ape/human170, 245, 342, 409, 559
avian/great ape, tool‐making124–25
early hominins/panins261, 318
Homo habilis/earlier australopithecines273
human/other species, vocal anatomy and vocal production228, 230–1, 232
human infants/other animals411, 454
Neanderthals/living humans279
of DNA of living humans279
speech/animal song44, 121, 126–7, 128, 130, 452, 490
speech/primate vocalization227–8, 485–6
words/primate calls485–6
competition64, 65, 67, 73, 79, 80, 93, 117–8, 246, 247, 249, 276, 334, 335, 336, 348, 583
for caregiver attention79, 80, 246, 334
for resources79, 249
social, in human infants67
complementizer445, 447, 463, 488, 519
complex sentences214, 308–9, 448, 464, see also recursion
complexity8, 14, 21, 25, 73, 91, 95, 99, 101, 107, 118, 122, 165, 230, 288, 290, 302, 319, 323, 325, 328–39, 344, 357, 358, 408, 421, 435, 439, 457, 459, 463, 469, 470, 478, 486, 521, 536, 544, 559, 581–3, 614, 615, 625, 630
compositional semantics472, 488, 637
compositional structure4, 13, 43, 66, 67, 298, 302, 359, 380, 381, 400, 452–3, 472, 480–4, 487, 488, 489, 509, 583–4, 587, 596–7, 599–600, 602–44, 609, 610, 618, 633, 637
compound inferences304–5, 311–2
comprehension42, 48, 62–3, 74, 75, 80, 106, 122, 125, 189, 218–9, 222, 268, 341, 356, 404, 410–12, 453–4, 609
false beliefs, in children55–6
inference‐based75
interrogation, concept of51
of alarm calls of other species2, 74, 453
of knowledge states of others56
of negation51
of same/different51, 123, 375, 380
of spoken language by apes41, 47, 48, 122, 356, 411, 453–4,
open‐ended42, 62, 63
vocal42, 71, 75
computer modelling, see modelling, computational
concept(s), cognitive ability to form5, 13, 19, 25, 42, 66, 69, 105, 106, 110, 123, 139, 140, 200, 202–3, 221, 275, 354, 356, 359, 370–7, 379–81, 408, 409, 412, 433, 439, 443, 485, 486–7, 489, 497–9, 500, 513, 516, 522, 548
in dolphins106
in parrots110, 123
of conservation of quantity548
conceptual structure/system13, 25, 139, 140, 200, 203, 204, 205, 356, 408, 486–7, 496, 497, 499, 500
condition(s):
groundedness310
pertinence310
subjacency, see subjacency condition
warrantedness305–6, 310
conjunction (linguistic)445, 454, 457, 465
consonant77, 110, 226, 231, 356–7, 417–8, 421, 423, 425, 426, 428–33, 441, 569–70, 617, 624
anatomy and physiology226, 231, 421, 428
consonant–vowel co‐occurrence patterns421, 429, 431
inventories421
parrot production of110
systems617
constituent (linguistic)17, 20, 25, 366–7, 438, 446–9, 450, 455, 459, 463, 466, 467, 482, 532
order438, 447, 449, 467, 482
constraints (on):
biological systems18, 314, 510, 628, 632
biomechanical14, 357, 428, 431
brain evolution316
developmental21, 166, 415, 633
genome evolution593
language evolution633–6
learning634, 636, 638
construction412, 443, 447, 450, 465, 466, 474, 488, 507, 516, 518, 520–1, 529–36, 574, 638
Construction Grammar21, 529, 609, 638
hierarchical17, 24–5, 44, 55, 213, 214, 243, 324
mental47, 55, 58, 140, 243, 307–8, 398–400
(p. 743) contact calls, see calls, contact
context specificity76, 80, 92, 124, 163
Context‐Tie Index (CTI)85
contextual associations84
contextually defined usage84
conventionality/conventionalization13, 112, 183, 211, 214, 319, 374–5, 378, 379–81, 384–5, 388, 391, 395, 397–8, 409–10, 412, 440, 529–30, 534–5, 552, 631–2
convergent evolution3, 7, 33, 41, 91, 159, 365, 373, 490
cooking27, 28, 29, 230, 245, 287, 340, 341, 342
and Homo erectus27, 29, 230, 287, 342
cooperation13, 19, 29, 32, 41, 52, 56–7, 72, 78–80, 108, 121, 123, 124, 127, 165, 217, 246, 326, 346–8, 379, 480
cooperative breeding71–80, 246–7, 334
cooperative communication560
cooperative problem‐solving57
cooperative scavenging342, 480
copulation calls, see calls, copulation
copying:
in dolphins104
of constituents467
with mistakes, in bird song99, 101
cordage292
cortex138–9, 141, 171, 172, 175, 176, 182, 189, 194, 202, 203–4, 208, 212, 219, 220–1, 269–70, 384, see also neocortex
definition of176
cortical control in human and non‐human primates84, 86, 89, 362, 383
corvid cognition, memory, tool use44–5, 123, 124–5
cosmetics, blood‐red349
counterdominance348
cranial base, see basicranial flexion
creole/creolization35, 309, 358–9, 457, 464–5, 466, 470–1, 474, 478, 507, 533, 537–44, 631
critical period10, 444, 486, 540, see also sensitive period
cross‐modal association and perception106, 529, 530, 536
culture19, 86, 134, 142, 158, 162, 165, 181–2, 183, 244, 288, 292–5, 301–2, 307, 309, 311, 320, 323, 347, 349, 384, 437, 469, 481, 507, 544, 546, 560, 588, 591, 631
complexity of8, 288
evolution, rate of163
material culture301–2, 311, 347
modern, including emergence of244, 292–5
CV syllable421, 428, 429
Dali, China278, see also anatomically modern humans
Darwin's finches99, 159
dating language origins34, 239–45
deception, in animals56, 86, 124, 245, 378, 485, 486
declarative learning342
declarative memory, see memory, declarative
deictic reference, see deixis
deixis378, 513
demonstratives (linguistic)13, 378, 454, 513, 515, 519, 520, 532, 533
Denisova Cave, Siberia279
dependency, grammatical447–9, 624
descent of larynx, see hyolaryngeal descent; hyoid bone; larynx
descent with modification418, 427, 429, 495
design, appearance of19, 509, 590, 595
determiner, see article
development and evolution, see also babbling; Baldwin effect; brain growth and development; canalization; epigenesis; genetic assimilation; evolutionary developmental biology; Waddington's concepts:
developmental constraints on evolution21, 246, 497
evolution of developmental genes166
in relation to language evolution328–39, 544
ontogeny and phylogeny418
regulatory genes and evolution14
self‐organization in development612
stages of human development328–39
developmental genetics155
developmental perspectives and the instinct/learning fallacy147
developmental plasticity135–7, 361, 464
developmental stages329, 330–1, 466–7
developmentalists (biologists/ psychologists)144–56, 301, 633
diachronic perspectives151, 182, 512, 631, 638
dialects:
in animals11, 12, 42, 43, 48, 75–6, 80, 93, 99, 101, 105, 117, 410
in humans226, 345, 411, 560, 563, 616
Diana monkey2, 74, 76–7, 227, 375, 453
diet7, 15, 27, 28, 29, 34, 130, 141, 161, 230–1, 235, 241, 263, 275, 285, 290, 342, 480
(p. 744) and vocal tract anatomy27, 130, 141, 230–1, 235
early hominin275
digital communication67, 635, 637
Dikika, Ethiopia233, 271, 283, 284
discrete combinatorial system67, 362, 421, 486, 488, 553, 563
displaced reference5, 13, 41, 121–2, 123, 125, 341, 342, 371, 485, 487
displacement, syntactic447–8, 455
distinctive features (linguistic)357, 423, 425–6, 431, 433
Dmanisi, Georgia276
DNA8, 15, 31, 170, 173, 239–40, 250–7, 279, 414, 576–7, 579, see also genes; X chromosome; Y chromosome
and origin of modern humans, see Out of Africa model
definition of251
Denisova279
mitochondrial31, 239, 251, 252, 253, 254, 256–7, 576–9
definition of576
Neanderthal239, 256–7, 279
nuclear240, 253, 256
dog69, 96, 121, 122, 229, 372, 410, 411–2, 440
dolphin10, 44, 69, 102–8, 121–2, 125, 128, 129, 376, 452, 454, see also Akeakamai; Phoebe
artificial communication system105–6
bottlenose104, 105–7, 108
calls44, 104, 107–8, 128
concept formation and cognition105, 106
cooperative hunting121
displacement122
echolocation108, 129
language comprehension44, 69, 105–6, 122, 454
metacognition107
domain‐general abilities, faculties, and processes20, 507, 528–6
dominance, neural, see asymmetry, neural
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex138, 141, 182, 219
and mimesis138, 182
and working memory140–1, 219
duality of patterning6, 22, 24, 34, 55, 247, 362, 486, 510
dyadic communication377
dyspraxia, see orofacial dyspraxia
ear151, 225, 271, 275, 276
anatomy of in apes271
anatomy of in fossil hominins271, 275, 276
early hominin28, 241, 259, 261, 265, 266, 271, 275, 319, 479
foraging strategies28, 275, 341
language capacities271, 319, 479
edge features497, 499
E‐language15, 22
elephant44, 123, 125, 127, 129
embedding47, 55, 116, 219, 308–9, 450–1, 465–6, 474, 541, see also clauses, embedding of
embodied representation180
emotional valence195
empty categories (linguistic)18, 458
emulation106, 209
endocasts7, 178, 189, 192, 200–1
endorphins345
endurance running230
engraved bones and/or ochres244, 306, 307, 308
environment of evolutionary adaptedness25
epigenesis/epigenetic15, 126, 144, 148, 152–3, 154, 155–6, 497
determination144, 152, 154
landscape152, 155
robustness153
epiglottis226, 229, 231
episodic buffer140, 218
episodic memory, see memory, episodic
ergativity449, 565–6
ethology/ethologists145, 146, 147, 148, 150, 152, 492
evolution and development, see development and evolution
evolution, culture vs. genes162
evolutionary byproducts, see spandrels
evolutionary developmental biology (evo‐devo)331, 501, see also development and evolution
evolutionary developmental linguistics (EDL)330–1
evolutionary psychology148–9, 315, 493, 592
exaptation21, 33, 139, 140, 142, 151, 202, 206, 224–35, 314, 428, 458, 491, 539
neural140, 202
executive functions140, 221–3, 244, 294
expensive tissue hypothesis342
extra neurons270
extractive foraging27–8, 107, 340, 341
F5116–7, 208, 212, 384, see also Broca's area
face size, reduction in230
facial expressions138, 145, 170, 185, 187–8, 194, 195–6, 211–2, 231, 319, 347, 355, 377, 385, 393, 404, 407, 420
faculty of language in the broad sense (FLB)16, 364, 495, 500
(p. 745) faculty of language in the narrow sense (FLN)16, 364, 474, 495, 497, 630
false belief tests55–6, 222, see also theory of mind
fast‐changing environment158, 159, 167
finch97, 99, 100, 101, 159, 171, 337
fine motor skills129, 178, 342, 356, 536, see also motor control
finite‐state grammar597, 623
fire / fire usage31, 287, 290, 293, 341
fish1, 2, 28, 40, 147, 185, 293, 340, 341, 613, see also guppies
fishing293, 340, 341, see also shellfish
fitness, biological12, 21, 72, 165, 315, 322, 323, 326, 328–39, 348, 354, 363, 368, 459, 494, 603–4, 607, 608, 610, 614
flexibility211–2
selective pressures for118, 356, 409, 413, 414
vocal12, 32, 41, 42, 43, 68, 71–80, 93–4, 95, 108, 126, 129, 329, 383, 485
flycatcher115, 117
FMR‐1, see fragile X syndrome
focalization (linguistic)24
Focus Last482, 541
food calls, see calls, food
foraging activities/strategies20, 27–9, 79, 91, 105, 107, 128, 129, 130, 241, 245, 246, 248, 249, 290, 293, 318, 321, 334, 337, 344
by anatomically modern humans245
by bees2
by robots606, 607, 608–9
early hominin27, 28, 29
human vs. ape27, 79, 241
scheduling of, modern humans293
tool‐dependent340–2
formants62, 77, 110, 226, 228, 420
FOXP2 gene9, 14, 58, 136, 169–71, 174–5, 177, 243, 245, 257, 302, 385, 396
actions of136
and gene regulation14, 136, 174–5
and orofacial praxis177, 302
downregulation of CNTNAP2 caused by174–5
evolution of170–1
in KE family169–70, 171
in Neanderthals58, 171, 243, 245, 257
mutations in136, 169, 170–1, 177, 385
fragile X syndrome (FMR‐1)169
Frame/Content theory of speech production428, 430–1
frontal‐parietal circuitry204
fronto‐cerebellar pathway182
functional vocabulary, see word, functional
gap (syntactic), see empty categories
gelada (baboon)297, 427
gene flow23, 277, 278, 279–80, 577
gene networks174–5
generative grammar13, 18, 21, 248, 459, 474, 493–4, 497, 510, 528, 529, 593, 626–7
genetic assimilation (Waddington)15, 134, 158, 354, 604
genetic coding614
genetic determination149
genetic drift23, 34, 136, 162, 172
genetic endowment17, 18, 21, 134, 368, 506, 592
genetic entrenchment152
genetic evolution158, 162, 167, 608, 629
genome14, 15, 147, 148, 161, 162, 166, 167, 168, 174, 199, 250, 251, 254, 256, 279–80, 302, 314, 316, 457, 458, 497, 501, 576, 610
Neanderthal256, 279–80, 302
genotype and phenotype15, 134, 145, 147, 149, 152, 158, 257, 314, 364
gestural origins hypothesis34, 39, 43, 58, 83–5, 89, 116, 140, 164, 208, 211–2, 214–5, 355, 382–6, 391, 479
and mirror neurons207–215
gestural approach to speech production431
gestural protolanguage41, 120, 130, 479
gestural/vocal codevelopment117
gestural/vocal/facial combinations in great apes, see combinations
gestures32, 41, 43, 53–5, 58, 69, 72, 83–9, 95, 115, 120, 129, 130, 138, 185–7, 94–5, 208, 210–11, 214, 347, 355, 382–6, 391, 404, 407, 409, 410, 411, 412, 415, 453, 481, 484, 485, 487, 546–57
articulatory118, 212, 226, 228, 231, 418, 419, 421, 430, 431, 531, 615
combinations of85, 87, 88
in homesign, see homesign
manual, in apes83–9, 185–7, 94–5, 210–11, 214, 347, 355, 377, 378, 383, 453, 481
novel120, 129, 130, 210, 211
vocal211, 212, 536
gibbon:
anatomy, neuroanatomy32, 228, 233, 235
phylogeny, genetics254
song, calls76, 297, 452
glottis225, 226, 233, 235
(p. 746) glottochronology571
Gona, Ethiopia282–3
gorilla, see also Koko; Michael:
anatomy, neuroanatomy32, 177, 191, 193
behaviour, cognition41, 46, 48, 50, 61, 82, 84, 120, 126, 138, 185, 186, 195, 209, 213, 373, 383
phylogeny, genetics170, 251, 254, 255
gossip and language origins hypothesis247, 248, 249, 335, 342, 343–5, 373
Government and Binding model493–5, 630, 634
grammar4, 17, 19, 20, 43, 44, 51, 54, 70, 124, 170, 171, 213, 314, 319, 337, 354, 366, 367, 369, 385, 404, 405, 436, 437, 439, 445, 468, 469, 470, 471, 472, 474, 476–7, 489, 493, 509–10, 513–26, 539, 540, 541, 543, 544, 584, 590, 597, 599, 601, 616, 621, 623, 634
change314, 315, 465–6, 512–26
‘gene’, absence of169–70
in apes and other animals46–58, 120–30, 452–5, 481
usage‐based18–19, 21, 528, 638
grammatical categories377, 445, 506, 512–26, 543
grammatical functions25, 404, 449–50, 516, 554, 632, see also subject, grammatical
grammatical relations, see grammatical functions
grammaticalization9, 13, 35, 354, 358, 360, 385, 438–41, 463, 465, 477, 484, 488, 506–7, 512–26, 530–4, 535, 536, 542, 574, 632, 638
definition of438
Gran Dolina, Spain277
great apesee also apes; bonobo; chimpanzee; gorilla; lesser apes; orang‐utan:
anatomy, neuroanatomy32, 72, 129, 137, 139, 140, 141, 176, 178, 184–97, 200, 201, 205, 226, 231, 233, 241, 269, 356
phylogeny, genetics255
Griffin, African Grey parrot110, 117
groundedness condition310
grounding kernel (meaning)24, 355, 390, 605
grunts:
human infant77, 246
primate43, 64–6, 91, 93, 128, 138, 187–8, 195, 427
Gua, chimpanzee47
guppies159, 160
habitat matching100
Hadar, Ethiopia264, 268, 274, see also Australopithecus afarensis
hafting30, 31, 58, 243, 291, 292
handaxe29, 57, 242, 259, 286, 287, 341, 459, see also Acheulean
throwing of341
handedness138, 184–7, 194–5, 200, 430, see also orofacial asymmetry
hand‐moulding techniques48
harpoon8, 30, 244, 292
head order (linguistic)3, 634
headedness (of phrases)3, 6, 451, 472
hemisphere specialization, see asymmetry, neural
Herto, Ethiopia250, 278, 280, see also anatomically modern humans
Heschl's gyrus189, 190
hierarchical abilities33, 67, 126, 140, 141, 200, 213, 214, 242, 243, 307, 308, 342, 362–3, 398–400, 446–8, 450, 452
and tool‐making126
in baboons42
in early modern humans243
in great apes vs. human41–2, 47, 54–5, 58, 141, 213, 455, 635
in hyena123, 126
in Neanderthals58
hierarchical structure:
and gesture547
and imitation213
and language3–4, 125, 141, 202, 204, 213, 214, 242, 243, 342, 358, 359, 362, 363, 396, 446–8, 450, 460–1
and social grouping/classification67, 126
definition of613
in bird song4, 44, 126, 128, 452
in feeding sequences in apes126
in humpback whale song4, 103, 126
in phonology3, 125
in syntax18, 302, 308, 446–8, 450–1, 456, 457, 460–2, 468, 499, 623
in vocal sequences116, 546
lacking in animal calls127, 128
lacking in protolanguage480–2, 491
hippocampus135, 177–8, 179, 342
and declarative/episodic memory135, 342
holistic communication5, 297, 298, 427, 487, 488, 596, 597, 603, 615
holistic protolanguage487–90, 491, 583, 597, 602, 603, see also protolanguage
holophrasis213, 540
homeobox genes40
and KE family170
(p. 747) homesign9, 11, 35, 309, 481, 507, 539, 552–4, 556
Homo, genus27, 217, 230, 234, 235, 241, 255, 273–81, 332, 344, 384, 480
defining273
vocal complexity in, dating emergence of230–1, 233, 344
Homo erectus28–9, 142, 164, 171, 230, 233–4, 235, 242, 258, 259, 260, 268, 270, 274–8, 280, 285–8, 342, 459, 539, see also Homo ergaster; KNM‐WT 15000; KNM‐ER 3733; Nariokotome; Trinil, Java; Zhoukoudian
characteristics of28–9
contemporaneous with H. habilis, H. rudolfensis, and Au. boisei274
cooking, use by27, 28, 29, 230, 287, 341–2
diet29, 235, 287
fire usage287, 341
language and/or speech capacities of29, 164–5, 233–4, 235, 242, 539
meat eating29, 287, 342
mode 1 techologies286
mode 2 technologies29, 242, 286–8
social behaviour, characteristics of287–8
Homo ergaster28, 171, 234, 242, 259, 260, 275, 298, see also Homo erectus; KNM‐WT 15000; KNM‐ER 3733; Nariokotome; Trinil, Java; Zhoukoudian
vs. Homo erectus28, 242, 275
Homo habilis164, 171, 200, 234, 241, 259, 260, 268–9, 271, 273–4, 276
Homo heidelbergensis29, 233, 234, 242, 259, 260, 270, 277–8, 289, 345, 384, see also archaic Homo sapiens
group size345
hunting by29, 242
hyoid233, 234
vs. archaic Homo sapiens29, 242, 278
Homo neanderthalensis, see Neanderthal; archaic Homo sapiens
Homo rudolfensis234, 241, 259, 260, 265, 268, 269–70, 273–4
Homo sapiens2, 7, 29, 118, 161, 168, 234, 250, 257, 259, 260, 275–6, 277–8, 280–1, 291, 292–5, 298, 359, 365, 384, 386, 480, 487, 494, 498, 539, 540, 544, see also archaic Homo sapiens; anatomically modern humans; modern humans
anatomical modernity29, 242, 250, 278, 292
behavioural modernity280–1, 292–5
evolution of277–8
hafting243–4, 292
language capacity in2, 168, 234, 257, 359, 365, 494, 498, 539–40, 544
reliable tools made by292, 294
speciation of281, 480
tool use by292, 294
homologues/homologous traits or structures3, 7, 32–3, 60, 62, 63, 83, 91, 117, 126, 139, 140, 177, 178–9, 185, 189, 194, 196, 201–2, 204–6, 208, 212, 219, 356, 364–5, 384, 404, 442, 486, 490
of brain structures139, 185, 194, 201–2, 204–6, 212
of Broca's area and F5139–40, 189, 196, 206, 384
of cortical structure177
of intraparietal sulcus204
of neural structure117, 126, 140
honest communication/signalling12, 249, 323, 326
honeybee2, 374, 596
horizontal information transmission13–14, 320, 594
Hoxne, England; hunting at290
human nature/humanness149, 153, 273, 277, 281, 314, 492
hummingbirds99
hunting20, 27, 29–30, 214, 245, 275, 287, 290, 291, 292–3, 299, 302, 321, 340–1, 342, 343, 347–9, 414, 560, 561
by Homo erectus29
by Homo heidelbergensis29
by Neanderthals91
cooperative20
in Europe290
hyenas123, 126
hyoid bone7, 27, 34, 141, 228–31, 233, 241, 243, 245, 270–1, 559
australopithecine, Australopithecus afarensis27, 141–2, 233, 241, 271
descent, in development229
descent of, human vs. animal228–9
(p. 748) in Homo heidelbergensis233
modern human559
Neanderthal243, 245
hyolaryngeal descent26, 27, 141, 228–30, 243, 247, 365, see also hyoid bone; larynx
hypersociality348
hypoglossal canal and nerve231, 270
iconicity5, 41, 48, 51, 54, 164, 383, 384–5, 391, 393–4, 397–401, 404, 412, 433, 541, 547, 551
and protolanguage164
I‐language15–16, 22, 500
imitation12, 13, 29, 43, 49, 53, 54, 68, 94, 106, 109–11, 113, 121, 122, 123, 129, 140, 179, 207–15, 242, 248, 329, 365, 378, 384, 389, 391, 408–9, 418, 419–20, 421, 486, 490, 536, 609, 619
action level209
facial420
gestural54, 207–10
human vs. ape53, 94, 329, 356
production level54
programme level209, 213, 214
role in language evolution207–15, 420
role in language learning12
vocal12, 100, 365, 419, 486, 490
index (reference)355, 378, 393–405
infancy, human vs. primate331–2, 334–5, 339, 375
infant clinging321
infant‐directed speech19, 296–7, 322–7, see also motherese
inference8, 268, 303–12, 531–2, 533, 536
inference‐based comprehension75
of mental states of others12, 68–70, 347
symbols‐to‐syntax305, 309–12
inferior frontal gyrus189–90, 192–4, 200, 201, 269
inferior parietal lobe138–41, 219–20
information sharing341, 343
inhibitory functions/processes222–3
innate language faculty11, 13, 17–20, 22, 144, 359, 361, 385, 423, 424–7, 432, 470, 493, 496, 508, 510, 528, 559, 592, 600–1, 603–4, 621, 625, 630, see also language faculty
innate(ness)133–4, 143–56, 325, 357, 379, 393, 424–7, see also instinct
behavioural patterns145
Darwin's usage of term145
definition of143–8, 424
developmental critiques of146–8
human nature149
in animal calls5, 61–2, 115, 127, 210, 212, 214, 375, 444, 487–8, 489, 563
in animal song11, 33, 115, 118
intuitive nature of concept154
learning mechanisms14, 17, 19, 20, 144, 147, 154, 368, 506, 510, 591, 593, 618, 621–5
mechanisms62, 144, 147–8, 325
vs. learned10, 33, 62, 118, 143–56
inner speech24, 221, 223
insects2, 28, 40, 41, 121, 124, 178, 275, 340, 364, 374, 613
instinct/instinct concept133–4, 143–56, 492, 563, see also innate(ness)
Darwin and145, 492
developmental critiques of146–8
‘instinct to learn’15, 153
varied usages of term143–5
instinct vs. learning controversy133–4
intentional communication84, 86, 347, 379–80, 383–4
intentionality and gestures383–4
intentions41, 47, 65, 66, 70, 78, 80, 121, 123, 180, 220–1, 345, 347, 355, 370, 379, 411–2
announcement of, by Kanzi52–3
comprehension of41, 47
shared, lacking in apes55–7, 355, 379
International Phonetic Alphabet225
interrogation, comprehension of, in apes51
intersubjectivity347–8, see also theory of mind
intraparietal sulcus204, 221
inventories, consonant, see consonant systems
inventories, vowel, see vowel systems
Isolating‐Monocategorial‐Associational472
Iterated Learning Model325, 509, 594–604, 609, 617–19
jaw, hominin/human116, 228, 230–1, 234–5, 261, 262, 264, 265, 274, 276, 278, 279, 332, 357, 428, 559, 635
reduced230–1, 235, 276
joint attention20, 108, 113–4, 356, 378, 408–9, 485, 536, see also shared attention
juvenility:
in animals56, 61, 78, 116, 118, 340
in hominins/humans247, 271, 331, 332–3, 335
Kanzi, bonobo41, 47, 52–5, 86, 94, 122, 284, 356, 374, 378, 411, 453–4, 481–3
KE family169–70, 171, 320
(p. 749) Kenyanthropus264, 265
keyboard, use of in ape language research51–2, 86, 355, 383, 453, 481
kin selection246–7, 324, 326–7
KMN‐WT15000274–5, see also Homo erectus; Homo ergaster; Nariokotome
knapping283–4, 289, 292
KNM‐ER3733274–5, see also Homo erectus; Homo ergaster
Koko, gorilla48, 50, 54
Kyaaro, parrot110, 113–4
La Chapelle‐aux‐Saints, France243, see also Neanderthal
Lana, chimpanzee51, 54
language:
acquisition9, 10, 17, 19, 20–1, 69, 110, 113, 144, 151, 154, 182, 213, 219, 222, 297, 324–5, 357, 366, 380, 403, 426, 464, 481, 496, 507, 535–6, 562, 590, 592, 621–5, 627, 630–1, 635–6, 638
adapting to become learnable13, 14, 16, 325, 354, 361, 367, 509, 587, 597–604, 617, 636
and brain, coevolution of9, 165–6
and fitness12, 21, 165, 328–39, 354, 363, 459, 603–4, 615
and social grooming217, 249, 344–5, 430
and timescales12–14, 590–1
artificial477–8, 602, 622–4, 634
as an autapomorphy2–6
as an evolving system14, 627, 631
as a saltation21, 25, 30
amodal nature of183, 208, 432
biological basis of199, 201, 627
capacities, see language capacities
change, see language change
cognitive/developmental relationships248
compared with animal communication systems1–6, 10–12, 15, 25, 31, 362, 442, 445, 451, 452
complex310, 327, 519
complexity, see language complexity
comprehension, see language comprehension
contact13, 573–80
creation35, 505, 507, 508, 511, 537, 542–4
design features of2–4, 6, 24, 542
developmentally adaptive328–39
diversity11, 22, 173, 300, 493, 494, 500, 508, 560, 561–3, 570, 572, 618, 637
emotional regulation by223
faculty, see language faculty
function11–12, 15, 23–5, 500, 633
genesis9, 516
handedness, relationship to138–9, 184–5
in children14, 16, 17
information sharing18, 248, 335, 341, 345, 373, 379, 382, 441, 554, 631, 633
Monocategoric Grammar472, 475–8
multicomponent perspective on155
modern9, 34, 220, 299, 302, 303–12, 337, 429, 463, 472, 479, 505, 514, 518, 520, 521, 526, 542, 568–9
non‐configurational448–9
of thought23–4, 396, 498
‘organ’199, 201, 459, 497, 500–1, 627–8, 630
phonemic124, 310
processing16, 19, 20, 62, 75, 111, 141, 165, 167, 199, 219, 404, 458, 461, 462, 507, 510, 530, 533, 534–7
prerequisites for3, 12, 32, 34, 88, 233, 323, 371, 383, 459, 461, 486, 536
second309, 323, 473–4, 481, 539, 543, 560, 562, 574
shift35, 505, 508, 538, 575, 577–9
syntactic35, 245, 301, 302, 304–7, 310, 381, 456–68
tonal136–7, 172, 174, 363–4
typology558, 636, 638
usage‐based approaches to18–19, 21, 528, 638
vocabulary size in5–6, 10, 99, 163–4, 213, 218, 222, 247, 319, 337, 357, 374, 380, 406, 413–4, 419–20, 637
vs. animal communication systems4–5, 10–12, 15
Language Acquisition Device9, 17, 426, 593
language capacities:
early modern humans559
great apes67–76, see also ape language studies
Homo erectus242
Homo habilis268
Neanderthals58, 243–5, 300, 302, 480
language change13, 35, 134, 174, 465–6, 488, 505, 506–8, 510, 514, 518, 526, 528, 534, 535, 573–80, 616, 619, 629, 631, 638
and language evolution, similarities314, 518, 542, 631
(p. 750) and technological innovation163
rate of134–5, 162–3
Plio‐Pleistocene134, 167
language complexity97, 301, 327, 412, 519, see also coevolution of language and brain
as driver of biological evolution325
language comprehension42, 189, 213, 218–9, 222, 268, 338, 356, 404, 410–12, 485, 609
by apes41, 42, 47–8, 51–2, 122, 356, 411, 443, 453–4
by dolphin44, 106, 122
by sea lion44
language faculty2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17–18, 21–3, 25, 30–2, 33, 34, 35, 155, 240, 242, 244–6, 313–6, 325, 354, 357, 358, 359, 361–9, 437, 439, 451, 464, 466, 470, 475, 477, 480, 484, 492–501, 505, 506, 508–9, 510–11, 541, 544, 591, 592, 593, 629, see also innate language faculty
dating of8, 30, 31, 34, 240, 242, 244–5
language game model602, 608–9, 610, 617–19
language‐specific adaptations614
language‐specific biases, patterns, principles and mechanisms17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 232, 395, 404, 443, 601, 630, 636, 638
languages in the vocal modality discussed/illustrated, see also sign(ed) languages; American Sign Language of the Deaf:
Afrikaans543
Buriat532, 533
Chinese385, 445, 457, 483, 520, 522–6
English3, 20, 162, 366, 378, 402, 410, 423, 435, 436, 439, 440, 444, 445, 447, 449, 450, 451, 454, 455, 465, 481, 513, 516–7, 529, 531–2, 534, 553, 568, 632
Esperanto477–8
Evenki579
French437, 438, 465, 489, 513, 514–5, 632
German439, 444, 513, 556
Latin437, 438, 513, 632
Pirahã309, 358, 450–1, 474–5, 478
Portuguese465
Riau Indonesian309, 358, 445, 471–2, 474, 478
Sakha579
Saramaccan465
Seselwa465
Tok Pisin540
Warlpiri449
langur73
lark99
laryngeal descent, see hyolarygneal descent
larynx94, 128, 129, 212, 226, 227, 385, 417–18, 427, 430
articulating cartilages of225, 233
descent of in animals229, 365
descent of in development229, 247
descent of in human phylogeny26, 27, 141–2, 229–30, 243, 365
position of141, 228, 243, 270–1
temporary descent of229
valvular/non‐valvular233–235
last common ancestor:
African apes and humans330
apes and humans7, 13, 32, 42, 46, 57, 62, 88, 205, 210, 246, 250, 254
early hominins and humans142, 171, 233, 240, 256, 277, 298
great apes and humans, behaviour/cognition of7, 13, 32, 42, 57, 62, 210, 246
monkeys, apes, and humans62, 63, 205, 210, 231, 254
panins and humans7, 32, 39–40, 60, 61, 67, 83, 88, 170, 185, 210, 250, 254, 261–2, 363, 484, 499
lateral fissure, see Sylvian fissure
learning19, 29, 35, 106, 110, 134, 135, 138, 144, 147, 178, 179, 181, 209, 213, 242, 243, 249, 332, 366, 388–91, 393, 507, 536, 582, 584, 586, 588, 590–1, 628, 633, 638
and innateness10, 17, 19, 20, 59, 75, 143–56, 368, 414, 444, 458, 470, 506, 510, 559, 563, 592, 600, 601, 603–4, 621, 625, 633
and instinct15, 133–4, 144–6, 147–8, 155, 563
Bayesian model of600–2
biases17, 18, 510, 584, 585, 586, 594, 600–2, 604, 624, 634, 636
in lexigram‐using apes50–3, 54
mechanisms14, 17, 19, 20, 144, 147, 154, 368, 388, 506, 510, 591, 593, 618, 621–2, 625, 634–5
of bird song10–11, 33, 99–101, 116–17, 121, 125–6, 147, 179, 334, 362, 365
of calls in birds10, 101, 179
of lexicon69, 213, 355, 356, 406–16, 443, 486
sequential20, 634–5
statistical14, 19, 506, 509–10, 621–5, 634
learning bottleneck583, 584, 585, 586, 595, 597–600, 601, 603, 609
legisign397–8, 400, 402
lemur231, 254
lesser apes32, 76, 190, 227, 228, 233, 235, 254, 255, 297, 452, see also gibbon; siamang
Levallois290, see also prepared core techniques
lexical envelope359, 497–9
lexicalization203, 497, 498, 499
lexigram(s)41, 50–5, 56, 121, 122–3, 374, 378, 453, 454, 481
life history314, 331
changes in hominin27, 338
limbic control383
linearization, see word order
linguistic change, see language change
linguistic diversity11, 22, 173, 300, 493, 494, 500, 508, 560, 561–2, 563, 570, 572, 618, 637
linguistic expressions370, 378, 522, 524
spatial nature of202–3, 513
linguistic fossils410, 438, 481, 482, 539, 540–1, 564, 634
linguistic universals, see language universals
linguistics:
evolutionary16, 34, 505, 508, 540, 543, 583, 588, 591
functionalist20–1, 367, 493
generative13, 18, 21, 248, 459, 474, 493–7, 510–11, 528, 529, 593, 626–7, 630
lips93, 112, 117, 128, 129, 178, 225, 226, 231, 234, 411, 417–8, 428, 429, 430, 433
lizards159, 160, 161
loris231
LRC (Language Research Center, Georgia State University)50–1, 52, 53
Lucy, chimpanzee49–50, 54, 56
Lucy, fossil hominin241, 264, see also Australopithecus afarensis
lumpers241–2
lunate sulcus139, 200, 204, 270
lyrebird97
macaques42, 62, 170, 191, 208, 212, 220, 254, 376, 418
crab eating191
Japanese (Macaca fuscata)61, 194, 320
rhesus (Macaca mulatta)61, 139, 187, 191, 193, 194, 195, 419
Machiavellian intelligence348
maintainable tools292
manual gestures, see gestures
marmoset/common marmoset/pygmy marmoset42, 75, 79–80, 128, 138, 187, 191, 195
Matata, bonobo52, 481, 482
material culture347
relationship to symbolic and syntactic language301–2, 311, 544
meaning (linguistic)2, 4, 5–6, 24–5, 41, 67, 77, 97, 106, 125, 207, 211, 214, 219, 301, 306–9, 354, 355, 362, 370–81, 382, 387–92, 394–6, 402, 406–16, 427, 440–1, 443, 445–9, 452, 454, 462, 466, 472, 477, 480–1, 483, 487, 489–90, 509, 513, 514, 529–32, 534, 536, 539, 541, 542, 544, 547, 551, 583–7, 600, 604, 608, 622, 633
conceptual354, 370–7, 489
flexibly defined43, 84–5, 115, 485
pragmatic25, 354, 370, 377–9, 435–6, 440, 446, 454, 480, 507, 633–4
symbolic85, 89, 301, 305, 306–7, 310–11, 355, 382
meat‐eating129, 241, 275, 285, 287, 342, 349
and brain size230, 275, 287
and stone tools27, 28, 57, 275, 285, 341
by Homo erectus29
memory2, 16, 65, see also working memory
capacity30, 209, 218, 219, 222, 288, 291, 294, 629
declarative135, 177
episodic372–3
and hippocampus135, 177–8
in apes53, 121
in birds124, 373
prospective/retrospective374
semantic372, 373, 544
Mendelian genetics418
and Darwinian evolution145
mental constructional skills47, 55, 58, 243
mental representation24, 42, 66, 108, 329, 347, 354, 371, 374, 376, 377
of predator classes in monkeys74
Merge (linguistic)18, 22, 30, 359, 451, 461, 462–3, 473, 483, 498, 544, 630
Michael, gorilla50
microcephalics/microcephaly136, 137, 161–2, 169, 172–3, 179
brain organization vs. brain size in137, 169, 173, 179
language ability in137, 169, 173
microcephalin (MCPH1):
and brain development161, 172, 173
and genetic drift172
and natural selection172
global frequency of variants173
recent selection or genetic drift136, 161–2
tone languages and172–4
microliths30
Middle Palaeolithic279, 291
Middle Stone Age31, see also Mousterian
symbolic behaviour in303–12
migration63, 107, 170, 252, 257, 280, 341, 473, 508, 539, 560, 566, 573, 577, 578–80, 629
mimesis138, 180–3, 208, 242
mimetic act180
mimicry42, 53, 64, 129, 130, 168, 209
definition of110
mind‐reading, see theory of mind
Minimalist Program18, 30, 359, 459, 461, 473, 494, 495, 496–7, 498, 499, 501, 630–1
mirror neurons117, 118, 139, 140, 182, 207–15, 220, 384, 391, 419, 430, 433, 605–6
mirror self‐recognition106, 121, 123
mitochondrial DNA8, 31, 239–40, 251–2, 253–4, 255, 256, 257, 576–7, 578–9
mockingbird97
modality, language12, 34, 39, 67, 82–9, 95, 96, 110, 130, 139, 329, 355, 380,