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date: 16 September 2019

(p. 725) Index

(p. 725) Index

Note: page numbers followed by fn refer to mentions in the footnotes.

Abelardus, P. 246
Abeles, M. 620
Abeles, M. et al. 622
Abstract Categorial Grammar (ACG) 56
abstraction, basic level 307–8
Abu H. ayyān 248
ACD (Antecedent Contained Deletion) 126–8
ACG (Abstract Categorial Grammar) 56
action tier 310
activation landscapes (AL) 566, 568–71
Adams, E. W. 552
adicities of lexicalized concepts 129, 131–4, 135–8
greater than two 142–4
adjective intensification 232
adjective—noun combinations 406, 550–1, 658–9
adjectives 224
and sehr 233
semantic flexibility 178
adverbs and sehr 233
agentive verbs 329
Agent—Theme—Goal roles 361–2
aggregation of sets of features 389–90
AL (activation landscapes) 566, 568–71
Al-Fārābī 246
alignment of predicates 414–15
alternation 317–19
ambiguity 52–4, 255, 372
and costs 507
of expressions 513
in minimal pairs 280–1
and PC-inputs 280–1
in the principle of compositionality (C0 ) 67–71
of quantifiers 65–6
in surface strings 84
and underspecification 505
Ammonius 247
analysis stage of RCA model 448–9
analytic core meanings 547–8
animacy/alienability effects 342
Antecedent Contained Deletion (ACD) 126–8
anti-symbolic view of cognitive processing vs. symbolic view 576–7
aphasia 583, 588, 590–1
Arad, M. 349
Arbib, M. A. 491
Arbib, M. A. and M. B. Hesse 486
Arbib, M. A., K. Liebal, and S. Pika 489–90
arbitrary insertion 59
argument—adjunct distinction 361–2
argument hierarchy 322–3
argument structure 359–60
Aristotle, theory of meaning 245–9
Armstrong, S. L. et al. 424, 426–8, 435–6
Arsenijević, B. and W. Hinzen 357
artificial intelligence (AT) and Computational Theory of Mind (CTM) 562
artificial language learning experiments 510–11
Asher, N. and A. Lascarides 281, 300
Aspect of idioms 367
assemblies in neural blackboard architectures (NBAs) 604–6
associationistic empiricism 563
Atkins, B. T. et al. 376
atomic meanings 485
atomic terms 636–7
(p. 726) atomism
vs. complexity 367–9
vs. wholism 155–8
atoms
semantic 356, 367
symbolic representations 598
words as 353
attribute inheritance 460
attribute judgements 394–5
attributes 456–8, 461, 550–1
and values 150, 455
Austin, J. L. 297–8
background knowledge 466–7, 468, 541
and semantic interpretation 480
Baker, G. and D. Hacker 269
Baker, M. 359–60, 361–2
bare grammar 251
bare phrase structure frameworks 365–6
Bar-Hillel, Y. 255
Barsalou, L. W. 440
Barss, A. and H. Lasnik 322
Barwise, J. 288
Barwise, J. and R. Cooper 226
Barwise, J. and J. Etchemendy 198
Barwise, J. and J. Perry 297, 302
base categories 546
basic level of abstraction 307–8
Batali, J. 506–7
Beck, S. and K. Johnson 341
behavioural constraints on compositionality 600
beliefs and holism 169
Belvin, R. S. 340
Berlin, B. and P. Kay 542
Bickerton, D. 492–3
Bienenstock, E. 622
Bierwisch, M. 310, 315–16
Bierwisch, M. and E. Lang 310
Bigelow, J. and R. Pargetter 535–6
Billings, R. S. and S. A. Marcus 391fn
binding 322–3
binding problem 619–20
Bird, H. et al. 588
Bloomfield, L. 249–51
Bolinger, D. 231–2
boom—alarm combination call 499fn
Bresnan, J. 251
Brighton, H., S. Kirby, and K. Smith 500
Broca’s aphasia 583, 588, 590–1
building block view of compositionality 150, 152
Bullinaria, J. and J. Levy 259
C3 model of concept combination 462–3, 468
Caicedo, X., F. Dechesne, and T. M. V. Janssen 39
Calcagno, M. 56
call by name 44
Cameron, P. J. and W. Hodges 274–5
Campbell 499fn
CARIN (competition among relations in nominals) model 416
Carnap, R. 41, 194, 275–6
Meaning and Necessity (1947) 35–6
Carpenter, B. 221
Carrier, J. and J. H. Randall 318
Categorial Grammar 55–6, 58, 112
categorization and predictive and diagnostic
reasoning 544–7, 553
categorization problem 541–2
category coherence 394–5
category membership 422–9
overextension in 393–4
and typicality effects 388–92, 547–8
causative alternation 317
causatives
decomposition 315–17, 332–9
statives and inchoatives 312–14
CAUSE formatives 330
CC (Compositionality Constraint) 420–2
cell assembly model 619–20
‘central coincidence’ relation 339
CG (Construction Grammar) 480, 484, 487
change-of-state verbs 328, 346–50
char (semantic function) 199–204, 208–9, 214–17
character 209
composition 217–18
and contents 194–5
vs. contents 183–4
and standard compositionality 204
characteristic-distinctive relations 408–9, 414, 415
(p. 727) characteristic functions of eigenmodes 632–3
children
concept acquisition 541
language acquisition 595
morpheme boundaries and connectionism 592–4
over-regularization of inflected forms 580–1, 595
signing behaviour 499fn
use of holophrases 487
Chinese, noun—noun combinations 407–8
Chomsky, N. 41, 52, 55, 135, 254, 357, 365, 369, 481, 496, 577, 594–6
Christianson, K. A. et al. 667
Church, A. 35
Church’s Thesis 515
circumstances of evaluation (CIRC) 193 see also indices
Clahsen, H., S. Eisenbeiss, and I. Sonnenstuhl 587
clarification ellipsis (CE) 304
classical cognitive architectures 598–601, 621–2
LISA 601–4
neural blackboard architectures (NBA) 604–6
tensor products 606–9
classical model of concepts 396
classical symbol systems 598–601, 621–2
LISA 601–4
neural blackboard architectures (NBA) 604–6
tensor products 606–9
classicism vs. non-classicism 572–4
co-compositionality 357, 371, 377–8
and function application (FA) 375–6
and functionally dependent verb readings 381
of subject-induced coercions 379–81
coercion, complement 672–3
cognitive functions of prototypes 548
cognitive load 600
cognitive model of compositionality 600
cognitive modules 660–1
cognitive processing 463
symbolic vs. anti-symbolic view 576–7
Cognitive Science 412–13
cognitive state-transitions 567–8
cognitive theory, syntax as 369
cognitive transition function (CTF) 568–71
Cohen, B. and G. L. Murphy 389
Cohen, L. J. 177, 178–9
coherence and verbs 313–15
coherent categories 394–5
coherent discourse 284, 299
combinations
adjective—noun 406, 550–1, 658–9
noun—noun 404, 406–17, 462–3, 483
combinations of concepts 396, 406–17, 440, 442–5
C3 Model 462–3, 468
Composite Prototype Model 459–62
Fast and Frugal Heuristics research programme 463–7
heuristics 468–72
Selective Modification Model 455–8, 461
communication vs. learnability 517–18
competition among relations in nominals (CARIN) model 416
complement coercion 672–3
complements and specifiers 363–5
complete and incomplete propositions 195
complex concepts 352–3, 387–92, 436, 446–7, 638
heuristics 465–7
modifier-head 455–8
noun—noun combinations 462–3
properties 459–62
and prototypes 549–51
and simple concepts 454
complex expressions
and discourse 280
infinity 175–6
interpretation 272–3
and modulation 189–90
semantic values 268–9
and verb meanings 358
complex imitation 487, 490
complexity
vs. atomism 367–9
in interpretation 519–20
measures 521–5
(p. 728) minimizing 525–7
and compositionality 528–31
problems 520–1
of words, internal 356
componential analysis 308
Composite Modification Model 461
Composite Prototype Model 400, 459–62, 466, 468
composite prototypes 391
composition functions 513–15
composition stage of RCA model 448
compositional aspects of idioms 367
compositional interpretations 275
compositional rules for complex expressions 176
compositional semantics 482
compositional view of protolanguage (CPL) vs. holophrastic view (HPL) 488–92
compositional view of prototypes 150
Compositionality Constraint (CC) 420–2
compound thoughts 33–4
computability 512, 515, 517–18
computation, direction 121
computational linguistics 259
computational nativism 562–3
Computational Theory of Mind (CTM) 560–4, 568
computer science
and compositionality 42–5
semantics of 37
concept acquisition 541
concept combinations see combinations of concepts
concept conjunction, extensional vs. intensional routes 392–6
concept representation 429–35
concept specialization model 416
conceptions of compositionality 149–53
concepts 129
as atoms 349–50
classical model 396
complex see complex concepts
context dependence 421–2
definition 418–19
and i-expressions 135
integration of theories 440
lexical 354, 420
modified 400
polyadic 131, 133, 138
as prototypes 419, 422, 437–41, 455, 538–40
and the RCA model 448–9
saturation 130–4, 136–7
simple and complex 454
singular and lexical proper nouns (LPNs) 139–42
stored 448
supradyadic 142–4
theories of 437
vs. thoughts 21–2
without prototypes 398–9, 542–3, 548
conceptual categories 310
conceptual domain 514–15
Conceptual Semantics 310
conceptual structures 352–3
vs. Semantic Form (SF) 310
and syntactic structure 359–60
as syntax 352–3, 360–2
concurrency, semantics for 45
confirmation holism (Definition 5) 167–8
conflation 365–7, 369
conjunction 651
conjunctivist semantics 130fn
connectionism 563, 565–7, 576, 588–92, 596, 638
and morpheme boundaries 592–4
connectionist network model 580
connectivity of neurons 641
Connolly, A. C. et al. 396, 400, 430–1, 433–4, 436, 449–52, 461, 553–5
constituent structure 258
definitions 251–2
constituents 356
degrees of membership 388–90
of linguistic forms 249
meaning of 68–71
constraints
behavioural 600
on conceptual structure 361
(p. 729) discourse 301
on theory of semantic composition 229
construction, definition 249
Construction Grammar (CG) 480, 484, 487
constructional context sensitivity 183fn
constructivist network model 589–91
cont (semantic function) 199–200, 202–3, 205–6, 209, 214–18
content covariation principle 640
contents
and character 194–5
vs. character 183–4
as functions 196
structured (SCONT) 196–7, 200, 216–17
context 210–13
vs. compositionality 20–1
according to Frege 29–30, 33
historical perspectives 22–5, 29, 31–4, 39–42
and indices and semantic values 276–8
and Kaplan style semantics 198
Lotze’s view 24–5
in mathematics 26–8
and meaning change 249, 255–6, 358
and meaning function 482
and natural language 39–42
variable assignments as 286–7
and word senses 375–6
context change and truth values 281
context dependence 183–5, 421–2
properties of mental representations 561
context independence thesis 662
Context Principle (CP)I(X) 78, 269–70, 273, 664–5
vs. Principle of Compositionality (PC) 20–1, 279
context-invariant structures 571
context-shift failure 205
contexts of utterance (CU) 193–4
contextual coordinates 275
contextual modulation 190–1
contextual theory 184–7
contextualism and minimalism 188–90
contextualist account of truth 202
control of PRO 334–5
Convention T 40
Cooper, R. 294, 297
Cooper storage 55
coordinated control programme 485
Cormack, A. 127
Cornish, H. 510–11
correlation theory of brain function 620–1
cortical feature maps 641–3
co-specification 376–7
co-speech gestures 669–70
cost-based system 506–7
Costello, F. J. and M. T. Keane 462–3, 467
covariation with content principle 640
CPL (compositional view of protolanguage) vs. holophrastic view (HPL) 488–92
creativity, argument from 166
Cresswell, M. J. 19, 55
cross-correlation technique 628–32
Crystal, D. 602fn
CTM (Computational Theory of Mind) 560–4, 568
CU (utterance contexts) 193–4
cue validity of categories 546
culminating events and grounding events 313
cultural evolution
of compositionality 502–4
of language 498–500
cultural selection for learnability 500–2, 510
cyclic convolution 610–11, 614
cylindrification 37, 652, 654
‘Dale’s Principle’ 615
Dalgarno 21
dative alternation 319
Davidson, D. 36, 37, 40, 51, 132fn, 178–9, 236, 269, 273, 311, 516, 524
Davis, W. 78fn
Dawkins, R. 535
DCTF (diachronic cognitive-transition function) 570–1
de Beule, J. and B. K. Bergen 506
de Groote, P. 56
de Roever, W.-P., H. Langmaack, and A. Pnueli 45
de Waal, F. B. M. 492
Deacon, T. 501
(p. 730) declarative sentences, external constraints in 88
decomposition 239
approaches 310–11
vs. definition 308
and denominal verbs 323–5
of causatives 315–17, 332–9
of get 342–3
of give 340–3
of have 339–45
lexical 312, 314–15, 326–7, 355–6
and polysemy 357–9
semantic and syntactic 309
of verbs 308–9, 311–12
of want 343–5
Dediu, D. and D. R. Ladd 497fn
Deep Direct Compositionality (Type 4) 115–16, 119
deep structure 354
default to the compositional stereotype strategy (DS) 431–5
default-inheritance rule 551, 553–5
Deferring strategy 93–4, 105
definition vs. decomposition 308
definitional theory of concepts 437–8
degree intensification 232–40
degrees of membership 388–90, 422–9
degrees of typicality see typicality effects
deletion 59
demonstrative conventions vs. descriptive conventions 298
denominal verbs and decomposition 323–5
denotations and t-contexts 296–8
Descartes, R. 166–7
descriptive conventions vs. demonstrative conventions 298
design features of language 495
determinacy thesis 160–1fn
Dever, J. 270
diachronic cognitive-transition function (DCTF) 570–1
diagnostic reasoning 544–7, 553
Dijkstra, E. W. 42
dimensions of meaning 152
Direct Compositionality (DC) 109–10
vs. Logical Form (LF) 122–8
Strong(ish) 113–14
support for 117–21
Type 1, 111–12
Type 2, 112–13
Type 3, 113, 114–15
Type 4, 115–16, 119
direction of explanation 162, 168
disambiguation
of minimal pairs 280–1
see also ambiguity
discourse
coherent 284, 299
and the Context Principle (X’) 279–80
scope in 280–1
as a theory in predicate logic 282–3
discourse constraints 301
discourse phenomena 41
discourse referents 287–92
Discourse Representation Structures (DRSs) 283, 288–92
Discourse Representation Theory (DRT) 41–2
and Montague Grammar 60–1
discourse segments 300
disjunction 652
ditransitive verbs and change of state 321
domain-specific language capacity 596
‘donkey sentence’ 93, 105, 281–3, 288–9, 294, 659–60
do-so ellipsis 338
double object (DO) construction, DO—PO alternation 321–3, 326
double-index theory 276–8
Dowty, D. 62, 309, 315
Dowty, D. R. et al. 48–9, 55
doxastic holism (Definition 6) 168
DPL (Dynamic Predicate Logic) 288
DS (default to the compositional stereotype strategy) 431–5
dual theory of meaning 548
duality 317
Dual-Mechanism Model 578fn, 581–2, 585–6, 589–97
Dummett, M. 19, 23, 24, 32–3, 39
Dunbar, R. 492
dyadic concepts 131–4, 145–7
Dynamic Predicate Logic (DPL) 288
(p. 731) dynamical cognition (DC) framework 559, 563–7
and compositionality 571–4
and the ‘How Possibly?’ question 567–71
dynamical systems 564–7, 570
dynamics of oscillatory networks 640, 651–3
Eckhorn, R. et al. 633
efficiency, maximizing 522, 525–7
and compositionality 528–31
eigenmode analysis 629–32, 646, 647–9
characteristic functions 632–3
eigenmodes, multiple 649–50, 655
Elaboration 300–1, 303
E-languages 135
Eliasmith, C. and C. H. Anderson 605, 612–16
Elimination-by-Typicality Heuristic 471–2
ellipsis sites 125–7
Ellroy, J. 465
embedded events 332–5, 337
embedding in communication 480
embodied meaning 485–6
emergent features 395, 404–6, 410–17, 442–7, 449
emergent properties 156, 460
entailment relations 362
entailments of names 367–9
equation system 524
ERPs (event-related brain potentials) 668–73
Essential Computational Theory of Mind (E(CTM)) 560–1
Estes, Z. and S. Glucksberg 416
evaluation circumstances (CIRC) 193
see also indices
Evans, G. 136fn
event coherence 313–15
Event Identification 330, 331fn, 333, 339, 355
event time E 303
event variables 131–4
event-related brain potentials (ERPs) 668–73
events, number 363
eventualities 303
evolution of compositionality
cultural 502–4
mathematical models 507–11
evolution of language
cultural 498–500
and the problem of linkage 496–8
evolution theory
and normic laws 534–8
and prototype theory 544–8
Exemplar Heuristic 468–70
existential quantifiers 652
Explanation 302–3
explanations
compositionality in 150
direction of 162, 168
explicit parts 282
expression—meaning pairs 516–17
expressions 262–4
ambiguity 513
definitions 252–3
types 221–2
ext (extensional composition) 213–16
extended meaning 376–7
Extension Theorem (Hodges) 273–5
extensional feedback 395, 404, 460, 466–7, 468
Extensional Knowledge Proposal 445–7
extensional predication 228–9
Extensional Principle of Compositionality 83
extensional routes in concept conjunction 388–92
vs. intensional routes 392–6
extensional semantics 275
extensional understanding of ‘prototype’ 398
extensional verbs 230
extensions 81–2, 90–3
extent intensification 231–2
external arguments 329
external constraints in declarative sentences 88
externalist holism 173
failures of analysis 157
fallback proposal 449–50
false presuppositions 666
Fast and Frugal Heuristics research programme 463–7
feature maps 641–3
feature sharing 666
Feferman, S. 297fn
(p. 732) Fernando, T. and D. Westerståhl 259
Ferreira, F. and N. Patson 666
Ferreira, F. et al. 666–7
fictional discourse 670–1
Fillmore, C. J., P. Kay, and M. K. O’Connor 484
Fine, K. 69fn
Floyd—Hoare approach 43
focus and truth-conditional content 303
Fodor, J. 332–9, 420fn, 441–2, 607
classical model 396
computational approach 560–4, 571
contextualism 190
holism 166
Language of Thought 638, 656
lexical decomposition 314–15
modular systems 660
prototypes 429, 437, 541
‘Sam’s Theme’ 355–6
semantic flexibility 178, 270
Fodor, J. and E. Lepore 71fn, 345fn, 442–7
holism 170
lexical decomposition 312
polysemy 358
prototypes 398, 399–401, 429fn, 543–4
prototype semantics 270
‘Sam’s Theme’ 354–5
Fodor, J. and B. McLaughlin 599
Fodor, J. and Z. Pylyshyn 167, 598, 621
Folli, R., H. Harley, and S. Karimi 348
form in prototypes 396–7
formal compositionality 637
vs. procedural compositionality 549–50
formal features 266
formal semantics 47
fragments in model-theoretic semantics (MTS) 226
frame problem 562
frame semantics 239–40
Frazier, L. 667
Freeze, R. 339
Frege, G. 19–20, 23, 130, 133fn, 246, 259, 277, 517–18, 636
compositionality and holism 159
Context Principle (CP) 78, 269
Gedankengefüge (1923) 33–4
Infinity of Language 167
letter to Jourdain (1923) 33
letter to Peano (1896) 32–3
on J. S. Mill 26–7
Posthumous Writings (1969) 29–30
principles of Interchangeability 35
sense and reference 28–9
structured contents 197
Frege’s principles
distinction between the two 20–1
origin in compositionality 35–6
Fregean value 250, 664–5
vs. meanings 259–61
Function Application (FA) 372–3, 663
and co-compositionality 375–6
with qualia unification 378
Function Application with Coercion (FAc) 374
functional contents 196
functional view of compositionality 151–3
functionally dependent verb readings and co-compositionality 381
functions 67–8, 160, 513–15, 522–3, 525–7
polynomially compositional 529–31
of prototypes 542, 548
in PTQ 49
semantic see semantic functions
fundamental operations 254
Fundamental Principle of Cognitive Design 570
fuzzy set theory 539–40
Gagné, C. L. and E. J. Shoben 416
Galantucci, B. 508–9
Gamerschlag, T. 314
game-theoretical interpretation 274–5
garden-path model 667
Garey, M. R. and D. S. Johnson 520
Garrod, S. et al. 508, 509
Gazdar, G., E. Klein, G. Pullum, and I. Sag 19, 265
Geach, P. T. 58, 93, 105, 281–3, 288–9, 294
Geach, P. T. and R. Stoothoff 33
Gedankengefüge (Frege, 1923) 33–4
generality vs. specificity 307–8
Generality Constraint 136fn
generalizability
vs. compositionality 509–11
(p. 733) and the learning bottleneck 504–5
generalized evolution theory 535
Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG) 112
Generalized Principle of Compositionality 82, 84fn, 513–15, 530
Generalized Quantifier Theory (GQT) 226–8, 229–30
Generalized Reflexion Principle (GRC) 198fn
generalizing to the worst case (GWC) 228–9
generative grammar and idioms 484
Generative Lexicon Theory 310, 374
Generative Semantics 55–6, 308, 341, 353–4
similarity to Type 4 Direct Compositionality 115
Gentner, D. 416
German
inflected forms 584–6
morpheme boundaries 592–4
over-regularization 578–9, 589–91
verb gradation 231–40
Gestalt principles 156, 643–4, 655
in oscillatory networks 644
gestural communication 487, 489–91, 669–70
get, decomposition of 342–3
Gibson, E. 519
Gigerenzer, G. et al. 463–7
Gillon, B. 167fn
Ginzburg, J. and R. Cooper 284, 303–4
give, decomposition of 340–3
Glanzberg, M. 195fn
Goddard, C. and A. Wierzbicka 311
Gödel, K. 271–2, 648fn, 649fn
Gödel system 652
Goldin-Meadow, S. and C. Mylander 499fn
Goldstein, R. 393
Gonchar, Y. and A. Burkhalter 606
Gould, S. J. and R. C. Lewontin 536
Government and Binding Theory 55, 62
GPSG (Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar) 112
GQT (Generalized Quantifier Theory) 226–8, 229–30
gradable adjectives 224
and adverbs and sehr 233
gradable verbs and sehr 234–40
gradation of verbs in German 231–40
grammar
Husserlian 264–5
in PTQ 49
as set of signs 56–7
and synonymity 266
grammaticality and meaningfulness 250–1
GRC (Generalized Reflexion Principle) 198fn
Greek, lexical proper nouns (LPNs) 141
Green, G. M. 340
Grice, H. P. 430
Gricean view of semantics and pragmatics 120–1
Grijzenhout, J. and M. Penke 593
Groenendijk, J. and M. Stokhof 288
grounded semantics 517fn
grounding events and culminating events 313
Gruppe, 0 F. 23
Guerssel, M. et al. 310
‘guppy’ problem 387–92, 399–400
GWC (generalizing to the worst case) 228–9
Hagoort, P. et al. 480, 482, 669
Hale, K. and S. J. Keyser 309, 312, 339, 347, 360, 362, 366–7
Hampton, J. A. 386–7, 389, 392–5, 399, 404, 433, 444, 452, 459–62, 466
Hampton, J. A. and Jonsson 551
Harel, D. 288
Harley, H. 332fn, 343, 344fn, 355
Hausser, R. R. 59
have, decomposition of 339–45
Hawkins, J. 520
head-driver phrase structure grammar (HPSG) 303
heads, complements and specifiers 363–5
Heal, J. 169
Hebb, D. O. 619–20
Heim, I. and A. Kratzer 84fn, 182
Hendriks, H. 113–14, 204fn, 529fn
Hesse, M. 486
heterogeneous concepts 543
Hiaki (Yaqui) 346–7
hidden constituents 69
Higginbotham, J. 132, 250, 265–6
Hill, J. C. 487
Hintikka, J. 38, 160fn, 274, 662–3, 670
(p. 734) Hintikka, J. and G. Sandu 274–5
Hinzen, W. 352
Hockett, C. F. 495
Hodges, W. 21, 42, 86fn, 167fn, 204fn
context principle 664–5
Extension Theorem 273–5, 549fn
Fregean values 259
interpretation function 264–5
principle of compositionality 262–3
substitution principle 28
on Tarski 36, 38
type failures 260
holism 501–2
vs. compositionality 158–9, 165–73
definitions 149fn
Definition 5, 167–8
Definition 6, 168
Definition 7, 169–70
externalist 173
individualistic 169–72
two conceptions of 153–5
holographic approach 639
Holographic Reduced Representations (HRRs) 610–12
using NEF 615–16
holophrases in children 487
holophrastic view of protolanguage (HPL) 488–94
Holyoak, K. J. and P. Thagard 416
homomorphy of syntactic and semantic composition (HSS) 225–6, 240
Horgan, T. and J. Tienson 559, 562, 563, 573fn
Horwich, P. 79fn, 267, 398fn
‘How Possibly?’ (HP) question 563, 567–71
HPSG (head-driver phrase structure grammar) 303
HSS (homomorphy of syntactic and semantic composition) 225–6, 240
Hubel, D. H. and T. N. Wiesel 641
Hume, D. 418, 430, 435
Hummel, J. E. and K. J. Holyoak 601–4
Hung, H.-K and J. I. Zucker 44
Husserl, E. 264–5, 484
hybrid content hypothesis (HCH) 304
hybrid interpretations of novel combinations 407
hypercolumns 642, 643
identity 651
idiomatic expressions 483–4, 549–50
and Direct Compositionality 118–19
systematic and compositional aspects 367
understanding of 75
i-expressions 135
I-languages 135, 141, 145
IF languages 274–5
IF-logic (Independence Friendly logic) 38–9
IL (Intensional Logic) 41, 44, 47, 110fn, 117
illocutionary acts and propositional attitudes 276–7
imitation, complex 487, 490
immediate constituents 249
implication 652
impossibility results 269
impossible words 353–5, 367
Inati, S. 246
inchoatives, causatives and statives 312–14
incomplete and complete propositions 195
incremental composition 662
Independence Friendly logic (IF-logic) 38–9
independent modules and inflected forms 582–4
index semantics 194
indexed holophrases 483
indexicals and standing meaning 185
indices 193, 276
and context and semantic values 276–8
individualistic holism 169–72
inductive argument 73–4
inferences 120–1
inferential role semantics (holism Definition 7) 169–70
infinity of complex expressions 175–6
Infinity of Language 166–7
inflected forms
and independent modules 582–4
over-regularization errors 578–82, 588, 589–91, 595
regular vs. irregular 582–8
informational encapsulation 660–1
inherent intensification 232–40
innateness 499–500
inside-out principle 662–3
instrumental verb 325
(p. 735) insulationist approach to semantic composition 178
intensification in German 231–40
intensional interpretation 228–9, 230
Intensional Logic (IL) 41, 44, 47, 110fn, 117
Intensional Principle of Compositionality 83
intensional routes in concept conjunction 388–92
vs. extensional routes 392–6
intensions 194–5, 276
of declarative sentences 82
intention vs. interpretation 479–80
interactionist approach to semantic composition 178
interactive property attribution model 416
interchangeability, principles of 35
internal complexity of words 356
internal relations 157
interpenetration of meaning 163
interpretation
of complex expressions 272–3
complexity 519–20
compositional 275
game-theoretical 274–5
and the garden-path model 667
vs. intention 479–80
of novel combinations 406–17
and polysemy 480
interpretation functions 264
intersubjective meaning stability 547
intrinsicness argument 72–3
i-operations 136
irregularization see over-regularization errors
irregulars, non-compositionality 504
Israel, D. and J. Perry 198fn, 213fn
iterated learning 498, 502–5
experiments in 509–11
Jackendoff, R. 310, 315, 316, 357, 598, 601, 607, 614, 661fn
Jacobson, P. 125, 128
Jacobson, R. 60
Jager, G. and R. Blutner 309, 332fn
Janssen, T. 55, 65fn
Janssen, T. M. V. 42, 222, 225fn, 266, 529fn
Janssen, T. M. V. and P. van Emde Boas 43, 44
Japanese 346–7
Jonsson, M. L. and J. A. Hampton 400, 433–4, 461
Juslin, P. and M. Persson 468
Kamp, H. 41, 60, 194, 283
Kamp, H. and B. Partee 542
Kamp, H. and U. Reyle 60, 283
Kanisza triangle 632
Kant, I. 22
Kaplan, D. 183, 198fn, 277–8, 286
Kaplan, R. and J. Bresnan 251
Kaplan style semantics 193–6
content 196–7
context 198
extensional composition 213–16
functional case 198–200
functions of compositionality 205–8
monsters 213
propositions and truth 200–1
subjectivity 201–2
Karttunen, L. 287
Katz, J. 40, 308, 309
Katz, J. and J. Fodor 150fn, 254, 255
Kaufmann, I. 326
Kaufmann, I. and D. Wunderlich 313
Kayne, R. 339
Keenan, E. 180, 658
Keenan, E. and E. Stabler 251
Keyser 364–5fn
Kim, A. and L. Osterhout 671
King, J. C. 197
King, J. C. and J. Stanley 217–18
Kiparsky, P. 324
Kirby, S. 502–4
Kirby, S. and J. R. Hurford 498
Kirby, S. and Wray 490–1
Kirby, S. et al. 510–11
Kirschbaum, I. 233fn
Klein, E. and I, A. Sag 84fn
knowledge 466–7, 468, 541
and semantic interpretation 480
world vs. linguistic 669
Kobele, G. 55
Kolmogorov complexity 520
Koopman, H. and D. Sportiche 364–5fn
Koster-Moeller, J., J. Varvoutis and M. Hackl 128
(p. 736) Kracht, M. 57, 59, 223fn
Kratzer, A. 133–4fn, 146fn, 330
Kreisel, G. and J. Krivine 652
Krifka, M. 495–6, 503
Kripke, S. 38
labels and variables 294
Lakoff, G. 542
Lambek Calculus 58
language
cultural evolution 498–500
infinity of 166–7
and thought 164, 352–3
and world 304
language acquisition 595
and Generalized Quantifier Theory (GQT) 229–30
language deficits and inflected forms 583–4, 588, 590–1
Language of Thought (LOT) approach 638, 656
Larson, R. and G. Segal 161
Laurier, D. 536
LCS (Lexical Conceptual Structure) 310–11
LDG (Lexical Decomposition Grammar) 310, 318
leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model 613, 614
learnability 40
argument for (LA) 166, 512, 516–18
cultural selection 500–2, 510
Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogies (LISA) 601–4
learning bottleneck 501–2
and compositionality 502–4
and costs 506–7
and generalizability 504–5
Lederer, L. 468–70
Lefebvre, C. and A.-M. Brousseau 323
Leibniz 21, 167, 248
Leibniz’ law 28
levels of surface structures 111
Levin, B. 318–19
Levin, B. and M. Rappaport Hovav 310–11, 326
Lewis, D. 193, 203, 212, 269, 275–6, 277–8, 315
lexical concepts 354, 420
Lexical Conceptual Structure (LCS) 310–11
lexical-decision experiments 584–7
lexical decomposition 312, 314–15, 326–7, 355–6
and polysemy 357–9
Lexical Decomposition Grammar (LDG) 310, 318
lexical expressions 221–2
Lexical Functional Grammar 251
lexical interpenetration 163
lexical meanings 665–6
lexical proper nouns (LPNs) 139–42
lexical rules for simple expressions 175
Lexicalized Adicity Number (LAN) 147
lexicalized concepts, adicities 129, 131–4, 135–8
greater than 2, 142–4
Li, Ming and Vitányi 520
LIF (leaky integrate-and-fire) model 613, 614
linguist’s principle 79
linguistic knowledge vs. world knowledge 669
LISA (Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogies) 601–4
Löbner, S. 230
local compositionality rules 161
local representations 410–12
locality effect 118–19
location (loc)
change 321
and possession (poss) 319–20
location parameters 212
location verbs 323–5
locative alternation 319
Locke, J. 435
logic
and compositionality 36–9
historical applications 22
Intensional (IL) 41, 44, 47, 110fn, 117
and semantics 253–5
Logical Form (LF) 84–5, 111
vs. Direct Compositionality (DC) 122–8
in prototypes 396–7
support for 122–5
and Type 4 Direct Compositionality 119–20
(p. 737) logical inference 51
logical language vs. natural language 52
logical problem of language acquisition 595
logical types 225
Logik (Lotze, 1874) 24–5
Logik (Wundt, 1880) 25–6
Logik (Wundt, 1893) 30–2
Logische Untersuchungen (Trendelenburg, 1840) 22–3
Lotze, H. 24–5
M extensions 196
MacFarlane, J. 194fn, 198fn, 199fn, 213–14
Machery, E. 454
Malagasy, change of state verbs 347
Mandatory Compositionality 443, 445
manner vs. result 326
Marcus, G. F. 38, 589, 591
Margolis, E. and S. Laurence 544
Martin-Löf type theory 293–4, 297
Mateu, J. 312
mathematical function of compositionality 160
Mathematical InformationTheory 523fn
mathematics, objective truth 26
Maximize On-Line Processing principle 520
Maye, A. 645
Mazurkiewicz, A. 43
McCawley, J. 119, 308
McGinnis, M. 349fn
McLaughlin, B. 607
meaning
analytic core 547–8
Aristotelian theory 245–9
change in context 249, 255–6, 358
and compositionality 480
concepts of 161
of constituents 68–71
dimensions of 152
embodied 485–6
extended 376–7
vs. fregean values 259–61
function 67–8, 151, 161, 481–2
and context 482
and Generative Semantics 55–6
and hybrid content hypothesis (HCH) 304
inferences 120–1
intrinsicness 72–3
as label for concepts 129
and the learnability argument (LA) 516–18
and logic 253–4
and Logical Form (LF) 111
modulated 189–91
occasion meaning 187
vs. standing meaning 179–85, 195
parts of 248
postulates 62–3, 309
and primitive items 312
in progressive constructions 663–4
and prototypes 399
in PTQ (proper treatment of quantification) 48–9
in quantifiers 66
vs. representation 128
semantic vs. speaker’s 188
and semantic flexibility 176–9, 182–3
sentences vs. words 249–50, 256–9
standing meaning 185–7
vs. occasion meaning 179–85, 195
and tree structures 110–11
truth conditional in discourse 280–4
and understanding 74–7
and Universal Grammar 51–4
vs. values 162–5
Meaning and Necessity (Carnap, 1947) 35–6
meaningful expressions 264–5
meaningfulness and grammaticality 250–1
Medin, D. L. and E. J. Shoben 458
membership, category 422–9
overextension in 393–4
and 1 typicality effects 388–92, 547–8
memory
and the cell assembly model 619
and concepts 440
and stored concepts 448
memory-based processes 409–10
mental representations 439–40
metaphor of unsaturedness 23
methodological argument for compositionality 659–60
metonymic construal 408
Mill, J. S. 26–7, 39
Millikan, R. G. 536
(p. 738) Milner, H. J. 42–3
minicolumns 642, 643
Minimal Computational Theory of Mind (M(CTM)) 560, 561–2
minimal pairs, disambiguation 280–1
minimalism and contextualism 188–90
Minimalist Morphology 581fn
minimization 514–15
misinterpretation in language processing 666–8
‘missing meaning’ in VP ellipsis 125–7
Mithen, S. 493
Modality-Specific Heuristic 472
model-theoretic semantics (MTS) 221, 224–5, 636, 639–40
fragments in 226
modified concepts 400
modifier—head complex concepts 455–8
modifiers, typicality 450–3
modularity argument for compositionality 660–1
modulation 187, 189
monadic analogues 134
monadic concepts 131–4, 136, 138–42
monsters 213
Montague, R. 36, 41–2, 44, 47–8, 56–7, 114–15, 178–9, 193, 199fn, 225, 226–8, 264, 309
and Direct Compositionality 116–17
and Discourse Representation Theory (DRT) 60–1
and Generative Semantics 55–6
and meaning postulates 62–3
quantifiers 61–2
surface compositionality 59–60
type raising 57–8
Universal Grammar 50–4
Moore, G. E. 157
Moravcsik, J. M. 374
morpheme boundaries and connectionism 592–4
morphological content 566, 568
morphosyntactic rules 222
Morrill, G. V. 58
Moses illusion 666
motion verbs 325–6
motor schemas 485–6
Müller-Olm, M. 44
multi-dimensional representations 368
Murphy, G. L. 405, 416, 458
Muskens, R. 55
N400 (ERP component) 668–71
names, entailments of 367–9
Narration 300–1
natural language
and compositionality 39–42
infinity of 166–7
vs. logical language 52
natural selection 497–8
Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) 311
Navon stimulus 632
Neale, S. 271
negation 652
neoclassical theory 542fn
neural activity, compositionality in 150
neural blackboard architectures (NBA) 604–6
Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) 608, 612–16
and HRRs 615–16
neural synchronization 603, 621, 627–34, 643, 644–6, 656
neural systems 600–1, 618
HRRs using the NEF 615–16
LISA 601–4
oscillatory activity 622–7
tensor products 606–9
neural theory, symbol systems in 599–600
neuronal assemblies, theories 619–21
neuronal feature maps 641–3
Newmeyer, F. J. 354
Nida, E. A. 308
Nieuwland, M. and J. van Berkum 670–1
No-Combination Heuristic 470–1
nodes in the neural network 567–8
non-classical compositionality vs. classical compositionality 572–4
non-compositionality 499, 501, 504
of false presupposition 666
of misinterpretation 666–8
of prototypes 543–4
(p. 739) non-logical reasoning 392–6
non-monotonicity of prototypical properties 537
normic laws
and evolution theory 534–8
and prototype theory 532–4
noun assemblies and verb assemblies 604–6
noun—noun combinations 404, 406–17, 462–3, 483
novel combinations 405–17, 442, 462–3
Nowak, M. A., J. B. Plotkin, and V. A. A. Jansen 497, 501, 506
NSM (Natural Semantic Metalanguage) 311
numerals, interpretation 76
Nunberg, G. 465
objectivity and normic laws 533
Occam’s razor 591–2
occasion meaning 187
vs. standing meaning 179–85, 195
Oehrle, R. T. 340
one-index theory 275–6
online computation of meaning 120–1, 128
ontological approaches to compositionality problems 99
ontological holism 153–4
Ordinary Principle of Compositionality 82
ordinary set theory 297fn
oscillation functions 646–9
oscillators, phase relations 628–32
oscillatory activity 622–7
oscillatory networks 644–6
dynamics 640, 651–3
and the principle of compositionality 653–6
Osgood, C., G. Suci, and P. Tannenbaum 152
Osherson, D. N. and E. E. Smith 387–9, 391–2
overextension 461
in category membership 393–4
overlapping senses 376
over-regularization errors 578–82, 588, 589–91, 595
Özyürek, A. et al. 669–70
P600 (ERP component) 668, 671, 673
Pagin, P. 159, 174, 189, 190, 205–6
Pagin, P. and J. Pelletier 206
Pagin, P. and D. Westerstâhl 515fn
pantomime 487–8, 490
paradigmatic regularities 357
among words 353
parameters
context and circumstance 210–13
and local representation 411–12
Parisien, C. C., H. Anderson, and C. Eliasmith 615
Partee, B. 55, 58, 65, 113, 160fn, 161, 262, 280
Partee, B. and M. Rooth 113
Partee, B., A. ter Meulen, and R. Wall 248–9, 254–5
part—whole relations 637, 638–9
parts of meanings 248
parts of speech 353
Patalano, A. L., S. Chin-Parker, and B. H. Ross 394
PCA (principle component analysis) 629
PC-inputs 280–5, 288–92
PC-outputs 284, 303
PDR (probabilistic default reasoning) 552–5
Pelletier, J. 20, 517fn
Penke, M. 592
perception, Gestalt principles 643–4, 655
perceptual schemas 485
perceptually based approach to novel combinations 413
Perry, J. 198
Persian, change-of-state verbs 347–9
Petersen, W. and M. Werning 653
phase relations between oscillators 628–32
phase-coupled oscillator models 625–6
phenotypes 535
Phillips, D. 156–7
philosopher’s principle 77–8
physical devices 564–7
physical properties principle (P) 67
Piattelli-Palmarini, M. 360–1
Pietroski, P. 146fn, 313
Pietroski, P. and Uriagereka 362fn
Pinker, S. 310, 577, 581–2
Pinker, S. and P. Bloom 496–7, 501, 503, 506
Plate, T. 610–11
Plate, T. and Stewart and Eliasmith, 639
PO construction, DO-PO alternation 321–3, 326
(p. 740) poe-sem (semantic function) 199–203, 208–11, 213–16
polyadic concepts 131, 133, 138
polymorphisms 535
polynomially compositional semantic functions 529–31
polysemy 255–9, 310, 357–9, 371–2
and interpretation 480
POSSE (Property of Smallest Sentential Entourage) 147
possession (poss)
change 321
and location (loc) 319–20
possession relation 340
possible worlds 195fn, 286–7
post-comprehension process 405–6
Posthumous Writings (Frege) 29–30
Potential Compositionality 443–5
Potts, C. 110fn
poverty-of-the-stimulus argument 497, 500, 595fn
pragmatic inferences 120–1
predicate alignment 414–15
predicate—argument structures 504–5
predicate logic 229
discourse in 282–3
predication 651
predictive reasoning 544–7, 553
preservation of high conditional probability 552
presuppositions 298
primary meaning 255
priming effects 584–6
primitive items and meaning 312
primitive wholes 155
principal component analysis (PCA) 629
principle of compositionality (C)I(PC) 19, 71–2, 220, 240, 262–4, 267, 385–6, 636
arguments for 72–7
and the Context Principle (CP)I(X) 269–70
vs. Context Principle (CP)I(X) 20–1, 279
extensional 83
generalized 82, 84fn, 513–15, 530
intensional 83
and the linguist’s principle 79
methodological argument for 659–60
modularity argument for 660–1
ordinary 82
origin 34–6
and oscillatory networks 653–6
and the philosopher’s principle 78
productivity as argument for 166, 658–9
and the psychologist’s principle 79–80
systematicity as argument for 659
principle of compositionality (C) 64, 67–71
principle of compositionality (CI) 66
principle of contextuality see Context Principle
Principles and Parameters system 530fn
principles of Interchangeability 35
probabilistic default reasoning (PDR) 552–5
probability
high conditional 552
and normic laws 533
problem of linkage 496–8, 501
problems of compositionality 86–93
solutions 93–106
procedural compositionality vs. formal compositionality 549–50
processing stages and emergent features 405
productivity 403, 441–2, 444, 495, 544, 595, 621
as argument for compositionality 166, 658–9
as feature of understanding 75–6
and prototypes 400
and simple composition 662–5
progressive constructions, meaning 663–4
projection functions 514
projection rules 254
proof rules 43–4
proof-theoretic perspective 38, 292–6
proper nouns, lexical (LPNs) 139–42
proper treatment of quantification see PTQ
property holism 154–5
property inheritance 460–2
property interpretations 462–3
of novel combinations 407–8, 409–10, 416
Property of Smallest Sentential Entourage (POSSE) 147
property verification 411
propositional attitudes and illocutionary acts 276–7
(p. 741) propositional content 82
propositions
complete and incomplete 195
truth values 200–1
protolanguage 488–94
protosign 488
prototype frames 540
prototype semantics 270–1
prototype theory 150, 396–7, 538–40
and evolution theory 544–8
and normic laws 532–4
objections 541–4
prototypes 386–7
and attribute judgements 394–5
combined 387–92
and compositionality 429–35, 441–7, 549–51
and concepts 419, 422, 437–41, 455, 538–40
concepts without 398–9, 542–3, 548
degrees of membership 422–9
form in 396–7
and the ‘guppy’ problem 399–400
non-compositionality 398, 543–4
and probabilistic default reasoning (PDR) 552–5
and productivity 400
and the RCA model 448–9
semantic, and cognitive functions 548
and systematicity 401
and typicality of modifiers 450–3
prototypical normality and evolution theory 536–8
prototypical properties in the wide sense (i.w.s.) vs. in the narrow sense (i.n.s.) 537–8
psychological approach to concepts 454
psychologist’s principle 79–80
PTQ (proper treatment of quantification) 48–50, 225, 226–8
PTW (Partee, ter Meulen & Wall) compositionality 248–9, 254–5
public version of holism 173
Pustejovsky, J. 310, 345fn, 357–8, 374, 378, 672
Qualia Structure 374, 377–80
qualia unification 378
Quantified Dynamic Logic 288
Quantifier Lowering rule 115–16
Quantifier Raising rule 116, 128
quantifiers 61–2, 652
ambiguity 65–6
Quantifying In rule (Montague) 114–15
quantum holism 153–4
Quine, W. V. O. 169–70, 195, 541, 548
Rapp, I. and A. von Stechow 309
rational monotonicity (RM) rule 554–5
RCA (retrieval, composition, analysis) model 448–52
reality vs. thoughts 23
reasoning, non-logical 392–6
Recanati, F. 186–7, 193fn, 195, 198fn, 206, 217fn
Recategorization as solution to compositionality problems 97–9, 105
recognition heuristic 463–4
records 294
recursive compositionality of language 495–6
recursive truth definitions 209–13
recursiveness 514, 517
in productivity 400
reductionism 157–8
reference and sense 28–9
reference time R 303
referential terms vs. singular terms 197
regularity of semantic composition 220–1
Reichenbach, H. 303
relation interpretations of novel combinations 407, 408–10
relativist account of truth 202
relaxation oscillators 623
relevance problem 562
repetitive and restitutive scopes 330–2
representations
local 410–12
vs. meaning 128
reprotypes 535
Resnik, M. D. 23, 30, 32
restitutive scopes 343
and repetitive scopes 330–2
Restructuring as solution to compositionality problems 95–7
result vs. manner 326
resultative alternation 318
resultative sentences 316–17
(p. 742) retrieval stage of RCA model 448
Richards, N. 341–3
right frontier constraint 301
Rips, L. J. et al. 427
RM (rational monotonicity) rule 554–5
Robbins, P. 555
robustly polyadic concepts 131
root morphemes 349–50
Rosch, E. R. 422, 423–8, 438, 538
Rosch, E. R. and C. Mervis 438, 540
Rosch, E. R. et al. 307
Ross, J. R. 123fn
RS (term rewriting systems) 524–7
and compositionality 528–31
Rumelhart, D. 185–6
Rumelhart, D. E. and J. L. McClelland 579–81, 589
Russell, B. 66–7, 103, 157, 167, 197, 247, 272
Ryle, G. 39
Sag, I. 125
Sam’s theme 354–7
saturating lexical proper nouns (LPNs) 141
saturation of concepts 130–4, 136–7
Saussure, F. d. 162–5, 173
SC (statistical consequence thesis) 533, 536
SCAN (Semantic Composition Adicity Number) 147
schema assemblage 486
schema theory 485–6
Schleiermacher, F. D. E. 22
Schlenker, P. 213fn
Scholz, O R. 39
Schubert, L. 302
Schurz, G. 535, 536
Schuster, H. G. and P. Wagner 625–6
Schütte 38
scientific holism 153
SC0NT (structured contents) 196–7, 200, 216–17
scope of compositionality in discourse 280–1
scopes, repetitive and restitutive 330–2
Scott, D. 194fn
Scriven, M. 532
Searle, J. 177, 180, 182, 187
Sedlak, P. A. S. 323
Segerberg, K. 194
Segmented DRSs 300
Segmented DRT (SDRT) 300, 303
sehr (German adverb) 233–40
selection tasks 465–6
Selective Modification Model of concept combination 430–3, 455–8, 461, 550–1
self-modifying physical devices 565
self-regulatory systems and normic laws 534
Selten, R. and M. Warglien 509
semantic atoms 356
and syntactic complexity 367
semantic bootstrapping 223
semantic category 484
semantic composition 482, 663–5
rules 222
regularity 220–1
Semantic Composition Adicity Number (SCAN) 147
semantic constituency 635–6, 639–40
semantic decomposition 309
semantic differential 152
semantic fields 164–5
semantic flexibility 176–9, 182–3, 270
and contextualism 188
and standing meaning 185–7
Semantic Form (SF) 312–14
vs. conceptual structure 310
semantic functions 198–200, 513–15, 522–3, 525–7
and context 204–8
polynomially compositional 529–31
of prototypes 542, 548
and standard compositionality 203–4
semantic holism, Definition 7, 169–70
semantic illusions 665–6
semantic interpretation and world knowledge 480
semantic meaning vs. speaker’s meaning 188
semantic primes 311
semantic representations 354
semantic types and syntactic types 222–5
semantic values 81–6
of complex expressions 268–9
and compositionality problems 102
and the Context Principle (CP) 269
and context and indices 276–8
top-down heuristics 86–90, 93
(p. 743) semantics
of computer science 37
dependence on syntax 671–2
formal 47
frame 239–40
and logic 253–5
to pragmatics, Gricean view 120–1
sense and reference 28–9
sentence meaning vs. word meaning 249–50, 256–9
Shan, Chung-chieh 297fn
Shannon, C. E. 523fn
signification 271–2
signing behaviour 499fn
signs as component of language 56–7
simple composition 662–5, 673
simple concepts 454, 470
simple expressions 175
and modulation 189–90
simplicity 561–2
Sīnā, Ibn 246, 247, 249
singular concepts 131
and lexical proper nouns (LPNs) 139–42
singular terms vs. referential terms 197
situation semantics 198, 297
situations 302–3
slingshot, Gödel’s 271–2
Slogan for compositionality and holism 159
Sluga, H. D. 22, 24, 29
Smith, E. E. and D. L. Medin 396fn
Smith, E. E. and D. N. Osherson 387–9, 391–2
Smith, E. E. et al. 430–4, 444, 452, 455–8, 461, 540, 550–1
Smolensky, P. 606–9, 638
social schemas 486–8
Solomon, K. O. and L. W. Barsalou 411
Song, S. et al. 606
Sonnenstuhl, I., S. Eisenbeiss, and H. Clahsen 584–5
space complexity 520
‘spandrels’ 536
speaker’s meaning vs. semantic meaning 188
specificity vs. generality 307–8
specifiers and complements 363–5
speech time S 303
Stalnaker, C. R. 276–7
standard compositionality 203–4
standing meaning 185
vs. occasion meaning 179–85, 195
Stanley, J. 194fn
statistical consequence thesis (SC) 533, 536
stative eventualities 338–9
statives, inchoatives and causatives 312–14
Steedman, M. 56
Stewart, O T. 314
Stewart, T. C. and C. Eliasmith 616
Stigler’s Law of Eponymy 387fn
Stoic lekton 195
stored concepts 448
Storms, G. et al. 387fn, 393
Strategy 0 100–1, 104–5
Strategy 1 100, 102–4, 105
Strategy 2 100, 106
strings
ambiguity 84
in Direct Compositionality 112–13
Strong Direct Compositionality (Type 1) 111–12
Strong(ish) Direct Compositionality 113–14
vs. Logical Form (LF) 123, 125–8
structural argument, condition 318
structure
constituent, definitions 251–2
sublexical syntactic 366
syntactic and conceptual 359–60
of verbs 308
structured contents (SCONT) 196–7, 200, 216–17
structured meaning account 303
sub-compositionality 225–6, 230–1, 240
subexpressions 272–3
subject-induced coercions 379–81
subjectivity and truth values 201–2
sublexical syntactic structure 366
substitution argument 28–9, 35, 92
substitutional semantics 38
Substitutivity Condition 264, 268
superposition catastrophe 619
supradyadic concepts 142–4
surface compositionality 59–60
surface structures, levels 111
surface syntax 354
surface-to-LF view 123–4
and Direct Compositionality 119–20
(p. 744) symbol systems in neural theory 599–600
symbolic representations of atoms 598
symbolic theories of meaning 637–40
symbolic view of cognitive processing vs. anti-symbolic view 576–7
synchronization 652–3
and compositionality 622
of neurons 603, 621, 627–34, 643, 644–6
synfire-chain model 620
synonymity 264–6
and intrinsic properties 72–3
syntactic bootstrapping 223
syntactic complexity and semantic atoms 367
syntactic constructions 85
syntactic decomposition 309
syntactic parts of terms 636–7
syntactic structure
and conceptual structure 359–60
sublexical 366
syntactic terms 513–15
syntactic types and semantic types 222–5
syntax
as cognitive theory 369
of conceptual structures 352–3, 360–2
of generative semantics 354
semantic dependence 671–2
systematic aspects of idioms 367
systematic underspecification 505, 510
systematicity 167, 403, 442, 444, 544, 573fn, 621
as argument for compositionality 659
as feature of understanding 76–7
and prototypes 401
Szabo, Z. G. 68fn
Tagalog, change of state verbs 347
taH. r¯if (change of meaning in context) 249, 255–6
‘Take-the-Best’ heuristic 464
Tallerman, M. 492, 493
Talmy, L. 325
Tarski, A. 36–9, 209–10, 254, 258
Tarskian principle 265
Taylor, B. 132fn
t-contexts 294–6, 299–302
and denotations 296–8
tense heads 333
tensor products 606–9
term rewriting systems (RS) 524–7
and compositionality 528–31
Termann, D. and D. Wang 623
theory of meaning, Aristotle 245–9
Theta Criterion 361
Thomason, R. 262
thoughts
compound 33–4
vs. concepts 21–2
and language 164, 352–3
vs. reality 23
time complexity 520, 521–3
minimizing 525–31
total-activation states 569, 574
total cognitive states (TCS) 565–7, 568–71
tractably computable transitions 568–71, 574
transformational grammar 41
Traveling Salesman problem 521
Travis, L. 347
tree structures
and support for Direct Compositionality 118
in Type 1 Direct Compositionality 112
in Type 4 Direct Compositionality 115
without meaning 110–11
Trendelenburg, A. 22–3
triadic concepts 144
truth
in holism 168
in logic 285
in mathematics 26–8
truth conditions
for causatives 315
content and focus 303
meaning in discourse 280–4
and PC-inputs 284
truth definitions 254, 258
recursive 209–13
truth values 198
and context 207–8, 281
of propositions 200–1, 276–8
and subjectivity 201–2
Tsujimura, N. 231fn
two-dimensional semantics 286
Type 0 problems 87–91, 94, 97, 99–101, 104
Type 1 problems 87–91, 94, 95–102, 104–5
(p. 745) Type 2 problems 87–8, 92, 95, 96, 98, 100, 106
type coercion 373–4
type-driven interpretation 84, 86fn, 116fn
type expressions, variables in 299–302
type raising 57–8
type shifting behaviour 374, 672–3
types
of expressions 221–2
logical 225
in proof-theoretic perspective 292–6
syntactic and semantic 222–5
typical features 438, 441
typicality effects 386–7, 422–3, 450–3, 457–8, 539, 541–2
and category membership 388–92, 547–8
of complex concepts 387–92
properties 459–62
UG (Universal Grammar) 50–4, 596
unarticulated constituents and context 205–6
underlying representation 355
underspecification, systematic 505, 510
understanding, argument from 74–7, 166
uniform analysis
of NPs 226–8
of verb arguments 228–9
uniformity assumption 398fn
Universal Grammar (UG) 50–4, 596
universal quantifiers 652
universality 500
unsaturedness metaphor 23
Uriagereka, J. 360, 368–9
utterance contexts (CU) 193–4
utterances
as events hypothesis 304
as truth bearers 198fn
vagueness 52
in complex concepts 389–90
and typicality effects 387
valences of concepts 142–7
values
and attributes 455
vs. meaning 162–5
van Benthem, J. 267
van der Velde, F. and M. de Kamps 604–6
Van Valin, R. 230fn
variable assignments 285–90
variables
and labels 294
in type expressions 299–302
Vector Symbolic Architectures (VSAs) 599–600, 610, 638–9
Holographic Reduced Representations (HRRs) 610–12
and Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) 612–16
Vendler, Z. 232, 309
verb assemblies and noun assemblies 604–6
verb gradation in German 231–40
verb phrase ellipsis 125–7
verbs
agentive 329
causative and decomposition 332–9
change-of-state 328, 346–50
and coherence 313–15
decomposition 308–9, 311–12
denominal and decomposition 323–5
ditransitive and change of state 321
gradable and sehr 234–40
location 323–5
meaning change 358
of motion 325–6
structure 308
Vogt, P. 506
von der Malsburg, C. 619, 620
Von Stechow 309, 332
VP ellipsis 125–7
Wang, D. 623
Wanner, E. 427
want, decomposition of 343–5
Webber, B. et al. 301
Wechsler, S. 345fn
weight/activation landscapes (WALr) 570–1
weight landscapes 566, 570
Weiskopf, D. 183fn
well-formedness conditions 117
Werning, M. 481, 484, 515fn, 645, 650, 653
Westermann, G. 589–91
Westerståhl, D. 161, 190, 204fn, 259, 267
wholism
vs. atomism 155–8
as Definition 3 of holism 155
(p. 746) Wierzbicka, A. 255, 311, 541
Wikipedia 418
Williams, A. 144fn
Wilson—Cowan oscillators 623, 624–7
Winograd, T. 281
wipe alternation 318–19
Wisniewski, E. J. 400, 408, 411, 414, 444, 448
Wittgenstein, L. 39, 438
word meaning 374–6
vs. sentence meaning 249–50, 256–9
words
as atoms 353
impossible 353–5, 367
internal complexity 356
world and language 304
world knowledge 466–7, 468, 541
vs. linguistic knowledge 669
and semantic interpretation 480
Wray, A. 493
Wu, Jing 407
Wunderlich, D. 309, 581fn
Wundt, W. 21, 25–6, 30–2
Zadrozny, W. 42, 65fn, 267
Zagona, K. 330
Zeevat, H. 60–1
zeroary function 57
Zimmermann, T. E. 62