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date: 30 March 2020

Subject Index

Subject Index

Page numbers in italic indicate figures and tables.

(p. 1011) abducens nuclei 105, 136
accessory optic system 68, 69, 74
accommodation, coining of term 20
accumulator models 427–8
active pulley hypothesis 139–40, 142
affective disorders
saccades 700–1
smooth pursuits 693–4
affordances 986
afterimages 21, 22, 24
agamids 68
agents 645, 782
age-of-acquisition effects 756, 824, 884
Aha! moment 556–8
A.I. 86
aircraft pilot screening 22–3
albinism 76–7, 677
al-Haytham, Ibn 19
alligators 68
alternating monocular occlusion 75
amodal 551–2
amphibia 5, 68
amygdala, autism 718–19
anterior cingulate cortex 290–3
antisaccades 630–1
cognitive role 290–1, 384
conflict monitoring 291–3
historical studies 280
reward sensitivity 611
saccades 291
superior collicular connections 197
anticipatory pursuits 125, 127–8
antipsychotic medication 691, 697–8, 700–1
antisaccades 389, 694–5
anterior cingulate cortex 630–1
antipsychotic medication 697
attention 462–6
autism 711–12
basal ganglia 247
bipolar disorder 700
competition account 462–6
contrast of stimulus 466
depression 700
development of 626–31
diagnostic tool 464
frontal eye fields 370–2, 391, 403
globus pallidus 247
inhibition of return 476
latency 88–9, 418
prefrontal cortex 289–90, 403, 628–9
schizophrenia 696, 698, 699
somatosensory stimulation 465–6, 501
supplementary eye fields 286, 391
thalamus 246–8
transcranial magnetic stimulation 400, 403–4
working memory 464
apparent motion, pursuit movements 123–4
aprataxin gene 672
area praetectalis 68
Aristotle 19, 20, 512
artificial learning agents 645
attention
allocation 358–9, 360
antisaccades 462–6
autism 715–16
conceptualization 797, [link]
connection between covert and overt attention 452
disengagement and express saccades 460–2
dorsal stream 442
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex 372–3
efficient performance 440
free viewing 451–2
frogs 452
frontal eye fields 283, 442
general framework for models 440
general principles 440–1
goal-driven 204
interactive behaviours 452
(p. 1012)
language influences 991
lateral intraparietal area 197, 266–8
microsaccades 37, 86, 104–5, 109
nasal/temporal asymmetry 465
normative (ideal observer) models 442, 447–50
posterior parietal cortex 266–8
premotor theory 358, 372, 459–60
pursuit movements 123
reading 744–5, 797
saccades 416, 456–60, 518
stimulus-driven 204
strongly-specified versus weakly-specified tasks 441
superior colliculus 204–5
thalamus 248–9
ventral stream 442
visual search and 358
attentional capture, superior colliculus 204–5
attentional cueing in autism 716, [link]
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 626
attention-gradient models 767
auditory saccades 466, 497–9, 503–4
autism spectrum disorder
amygdala 718–19
antisaccades 711–12
attentional cueing 716, [link]
basic oculomotor control 710–14
biological motion processing 720
complex information processing disorder 724
embedded figures test 714–15
executive function 722, [link]
eye-region fixation 716–19
face processing 716–20
fear recognition 719
fixation stability 712
gap effect 712–13
imitation 722
linguistic ability 722
memory-guided saccades 711, 712
motion processing 713
mouth-region fixation 719–20
oculomotor delayed response 711
realistic scene scanning 720
repetitive behaviours 715–16
saccades 711–13
smooth pursuits 713–14
social processing 716–22
visual attention 715–16
visual search 714–15
weak central coherence theory 715
autokinetic motion 517
barn owls 68
basal ganglia
anatomy 216–17
antisaccades 247
canonical model 216, [link]
direct pathway 216–17
hyperdirect pathway 217, 220, 221, 294
indirect pathway 216–17
reward 433
saccades 218–28
superior collicular connections 201, 216
basal optic root 68, 69
Bayesian statistical decision theory 447–50
bees 11
behavioural goals 608–11
Bereitschaftspotential 246
bilinguals 981
binocular deprivation 75
binocular eye movements
historical accounts 19–21
reading 802–4, 807–10
biological motion processing, autism 720
bipolar disorder 700
birds 4, 68
bite bars 23–4
blank screen paradigm 987
blind source separation 864
blinks
amplitude of lid movement 324
antisaccades 332–3, [link]
characteristics 324–5
during fixation 326–7
executive control 332–3
eye-head gaze shifts 327–9
gaze-evoked 324
movement cancellation 332
omnipause neurons 326
saccade interaction 325, 326, 327, 330–2, 675
smooth pursuits 329
superior colliculus 325
synkinetic 672, 675–6
vergence movements 329
blowflies [link] , 11
boundary paradigm 653–4, 826, 840, 884, 970
brain–computer interfaces 866–7
brain maturation 633, 635–6
brainstem [link]
bubbles masking 719
burst neurons
excitatory burst neurons 154–5
inhibitory burst neurons 155
long-lead burst neurons 156, 157
saccadic burst neurons 155–6, 157, 167, 311–13
burst-tonic neurons 157, 158
butterfly fish 68
Caiman crocodilus 68
cat
eye-head gaze shifts 312, 313
multisensory saccades 495–6
neck muscles [link] , 309
optokinetic reflex [link] , 69, [link] , 74
spontaneous saccades 4
cataract operations 19
catch-up saccades 119
caudal fastigial nucleus 183
caudal pontine reticular formation 155
caudate nucleus 216, 217–20
reward 219, 433–4, 611
saccades 218–19
(p. 1013) c-commands 934
central mesencephalic reticular formation 351
centre median nuclei 249
centre of gravity (global) effect 89, 446, 474, [link] , 499, 741–2, 745
cephalopods 13
Cerceris 11, [link]
cerebellum
anatomy 173
climbing fibres 173
complex spikes 173–4
eye-head gaze shifts 315
Golgi cells 174
granular layer 173
granule cell axons 173
hemispheric oculomotor region 175, 181–2
inertial vestibular processing 51, 52
molecular layer 173
oculomotor regions 174–5, [link]
oculomotor vermis 175, 182–9
parallel fibres 173
Purkinje cells 173, 178–9
simple spikes 174
superior collicular connections 201
three-dimensional gaze shifts 351
‘vestibular’ 174, 175
cervical dystonia 348
chameleons 4–5, 68
change blindness 519, 529, 567–70
change blindness flicker paradigm 519, 528–30, 567
change detection
chess experts 528–30, 582
cognitive factors 566–74
contextual cueing 573–4
face change detection 582
long-term memory 571–3, 574, 582–4
memory-guided prioritization 570
oculomotor capture 565–6
short disruptions to vision 566–71
short-term memory 580–2
transsaccadic memory 580
check detection task 526–7, [link]
chelicerates 6–8
chess expertise 524–32
change detection 528–30, 582
check detection task 526–7, [link]
chunking theory 525
eye movements 525–31
move-choice task 530–1
PERCEIVER 525
perception 524–5
unconscious processing 532
visual span 525, 529–30
Chinese reading
basic patterns of eye movements 963–4
character and word complexity 966–7
developmental trends 974–5
historical studies 961
neighbourhood effects 968
parafoveal-on-foveal effects 973–4
parafoveal preview benefit 970–3
perceptual span 969–70
predictability 967–8
semantic anomalies 917
target selection 968–9
word boundary information 964–6
word frequency 967
Chinese writing system 962–3
chunking by experts 525, 538
cingulate eye fields 291
classes of eye movements 151, [link]
classical approaches to cognition 551–2
clefted sentences 926, 930–1
climbing fibres 173
closed-loop gain 119, 121
closed set problem 989–90
Cogan’s apraxia 671
cognition
anterior cingulate cortex 290–1, 384
caudate nucleus 219
change detection 566–74
coextensive with eye movements 553–4
embodiment 552–3
microsaccades 104–5
supplementary eye fields 384
cognitive lag 752
common ground 945–51, 984–5
community membership 947
commutative controller hypothesis 140
competition-interaction model 745
competitor effects 980–1
conceptual similarity 982
conflict monitoring 291–3
congenital cataracts 680
congenital nystagmus 676
congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA) 671
conspicuity area 443, [link]
constraint satisfaction theories 981
contextual cueing 573–4
contrast, microsaccades 100
convergence neurons 158–9
copepods 8
Copilia 8
corollary discharge 240, 241, 514
corpus geniculatum laterale 66
corrective saccades 370, 691
corticostriatal pathway 219–20
corticotectal projections 197
countermanding task 261–2, 285–6, 305, 332, 389
counter-rolling 144
covert attention 439–40, 452; see also attention
cows 4
crabs 9
crayfish 9
cricket batsmen 611, 614
crowding 737
crustacea 8–9
cumulative distribution function 585
cumulative hazard 667
cuttlefish [link] , 13
Cyclura cornuta 68
(p. 1014) Daphnia 8
dead-time 89
decapod crustaceans 9
decision-field models 426–7
deep brain stimulation 74
depiction 595
depression 700
descriptions of eye movements 18–19
development
antisaccades 626–31
binocular coordination during reading 809–10
brain maturation 633, 635–6
Chinese reading 974–5
evolutionary developmental biology 664, 665–71
express saccades 624–5
fetal eye movements 671
fixation 622–3
memory-guided saccades 631–3, [link]
neonatal eye movements 671, 674
optokinetic nystagmus 623
optokinetic reflex 74–5
perceptual span 652–4
plasticity 664
pursuit movements 623–4
reading eye movements 643–60
reflexive/automatic eye movements 622–5
response inhibition 625–6, 628–31
saccades 624–5
voluntary control of eye movements 625–33
working memory 626, 631–3
developmental fitness surfaces 665–7
dialogue
acceptance phase 946
common ground 945–51, 984–5
community membership 947
egocentric processing 948–50
gaze projection paradigms 954–5
importance of gaze 953–5
interactive-alignment model 951
joint activity 946
linguistic copresence 947
optimal design 947–8
physical copresence 947
presentation phase 946
visual coordination and alignment 951–3
diffusion models 427, 428
diplopia 19
disappearing text paradigm 654–5, 756, 820
disconjugate saccades 165–7
discrete sensory sampling 107–8
distractor effects
pursuit movements 122–3
saccades 87, 88, 89–90, 417, [link] , 499, 502
divergence neurons 158–9
dogs
gene therapy 680
saccades 4
Donders’ law 340, 341–2
dorsal long-lead burst neurons 156
dorsal paraflocculus 180–1
dorsal stream, attention 442
dorsal striatum (striatum) 216, 217–20
dorsal terminal nucleus 69, 73, 74–5, 76–7
dorsolateral pontine nucleus 73
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
antisaccades 403, 628–9
attention 372–3
memory-guided saccades 405–6
reward sensitivity 611
saccades 287
superior collicular connections 197
target selection 372–3
transcranial magnetic stimulation 401, 405
working memory 288
double-step paradigm 89, 306, 406
dragonflies 10
drifts 86, [link] , 97
drug-related eye movement changes 691, 697–8, 700–1
dual motor control hypothesis 137
Duncker’s radiation problem 558–9
dynamical systems 788–9
dynamic field theory 788
dyslexia 644, 645, 810–13
Ebers papyrus 19
efference copy [link] , 121, 128, 511–14, 515–18
egocentric processing 948–50
Einstellung (set) effect 532
electrical ear stimulation 21
electromyography of neck muscles 307, 314–15
embedded figures test 714–15
embodied intentions 955
embodiment of cognition 552–3
EMMA model 768, 769–71
entropy minimization models 450–1
episodic trace 988
Escher stimuli 517
Esox lucius 68
Eurythemis simplicicollis 10
event-related potentials 858
error-related negativity 291
reading 862, 901, 905–6, 912
target selection 360, 364–5
evidence integration models 427–8
evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) 664, 665–71
evolutionary perspective 257–9, 420
excitatory burst neurons 154–5
excitatory long-lead burst neurons 156
executive control
blinks 332–3
prefrontal cortex 287
supplementary eye fields 286
visual search 589–90
executive dysfunction, autism 722, [link]
expectancy 416
expertise
perceptual processing of domain-related patterns 524–38
skill domains studied using eye movements 523
tacit or implicit knowledge 538–44
(p. 1015) expert systems 539
express saccades 88, 419–20
attentional disengagement, 460–2
development 624–5
schizophrenia 696, 697
superior colliculus 199–200
extraocular muscles 135–6, 152
active pulley hypothesis 139–40, 142
global layer 136, 152
innervation 136–7, 152
listening to 24
non-twitch fibres 136, 137, 153
orbital layer 136, 152
palisade endings 137
phasic and tonic innervation 137–8
proprioception 136–7
twitch fibres 136, 137, 152–3
viscosity 154
extrastriate cortex
relationship with frontal eye fields 364–5
target selection 359–60
eye-fixation related potentials (EFRP) 859–67
blind source separation 864
brain–computer interfaces 866–7
EOG-based 859–60
fixation categorization 866
independent component analysis 865–6
infrared eye tracking-based 860–2
microsaccades 865
overlap processes 865–6
parallel factor analysis 866
principle component analysis 865–6
reading 862–3
saccade artefacts 864–5
eye-head gaze shifts
blinks 327–9
bottom-up control 306
brainstem control 310–13
cerebellum 315
complex environments 305–6
cortical control 313–14
frontal eye fields 313–14
kinematics 304–6
mesencephalic reticular formation 315
omnipause neurons 311–13
saccadic burst neurons 311–13
superior colliculus 164, 310–11
supplementary eye fields 313–14
terminology 304–5
torsional components 306
variability in eye and head motion 305
eye-head neurons 158, 165
eyelid movements 323–5; see also blinks
eye-mind assumption 769
eye movement research
applications 27–37
origins 18–27
phases of investigation 17, [link]
portraits of eye movement researcher [link]
eye position monitoring 238, 242–4
eyepress 512, 515–16, 517–18
eye velocity Purkinje cells 179
E-Z Reader model 771–82, 787–8, 841, 886–8, 903–4, 920–1, 927
face change detection 582
face processing in autism 716–20
fast priming paradigm 822, 823
fear recognition 719
feature binding 610
feature guidance 32, 444–7
ferret albinism 76
fetal eye movements 671
fictive motion descriptions 552
fiddler crabs 9
Finnish compound words 780–1
first-order model 154
fish 5–6, 66, 68
fitness 665, 682
fixation
autism 712
blinks 326–7
development 622–3
eye-fixation related potentials 866
frontal eye fields 390
historical accounts 29–34
miniature eye movements 34–7, 86, [link] , 97
release/disengagement 88
scene perception 595–6, 600–2
superior colliculus 157, 199
fixation disparity 802–4, 850
fixation-duration IOVP effect 735, 740, 743, 744, 795, 821
fixation saccades 100
fixed phenotype 667
flash studies 533, 536
flocculus 158, 177–80
flocculus/central-vestibular neuron complementarity 179
flocculus target neurons 158
focus 925–6
focused word 927–30
referential processing 930–1
focus-sensitive particles 760–2, 931–7
foraging behaviour 473, 481
free viewing models 451–2
frequency-segregation hypothesis 57
FRMD7 mutations 677–8
frogs
attention 452
blindness to static objects 95–6
eye movement repertoire 5
optokinetic reflex [link] , 68
frontal cortex, historical overview 279–82; see also frontal eye fields; prefrontal cortex
frontal eye fields
antisaccades 370–2, 391, 403
attention 283, 442
corrective saccades 370
double-step saccades 406
eye-head gaze shifts 313–14
fixation 390
fMRI 385
historical studies 280
(p. 1016)
identifying in humans 386
inputs and outputs 282
lateral intraparietal area connections 260
localization 383–4
neuron types 384
positron emission tomography 386
prior probability 432
relationship with extrastriate visual cortex 364–5
reward sensitivity 611
saccades 282–4, 390
stop-signal task 391, 393
superior collicular connections 197, 201
target selection [link] , 363–72
three-dimensional gaze shifts 350
topographic map 384
transcranial magnetic stimulation, 363, 400, 402, 406
Type I and Type II neurons 370–2
visual attention 283
functional magnetic resonance imaging
antisaccades 390–1, [link] , 629–31
BOLD–spike relationship 387–9
event-related designs 391
localizing oculomotor areas 385–6
microsaccades 102
stop-signal task 393
fusion maldevelopment nystagmus syndrome 676
gain 117, 122, 623
Galen 18, 20
galvanic ear stimulation 21
gamma-band synchronization 101–2
gap effect 88, 123, 331, 417, 461, 476–7, 712–13
garden-pathing 755, 897–8
gaze-contingent window technique 32, 529, 537
gaze-duration-OVP effect 735–6
gaze projection (cursor) paradigms 954–5
gaze velocity Purkinje cells 178–9
gear-and-belt diagrams 556, 557
geckos 68
general flash suppression 103
gene therapy 680
genetic mutation 664, 677–8
geometry problems 555
gist 595
Glenmore model 789
global (centre of gravity) effect 89, 446, 474, [link] , 499, 741–2, 745
global-focal search model 533
global layer 136, 152
global processing advantage 533, 536–8
globus pallidus 216, 221–2, 247
granule cell axons 173
gravitational jerk 50
Gricean pragmatics 985–6
growth curve analysis 998
hair cells 159
half-angle rule 139, 140, 142
half-angle rule gimbal 144
haltere system 11
hazard function 585–6
hazard surface 666–7
head acceleration 50, 51
head attitude 50
head-bobbing 4
head movement control 306–10
head orientation, premotor control 345–8
head saccades 4, 86, 107
Helmholtz, Hermann von 456
hemispheric oculomotor region 175, 181–2
heteropod gastropods 13
Hick’s law 432
hierarchical log linear analysis 996
higher-order network 258
homonym reading 824
horses 4
house-building analogy 670
hoverflies 11
humans
accessory optic system 74
eye movement repertoire 3
frontal eye fields 386
neck muscles [link]
optokinetic reflex [link]
hymenoptera 11
hyperdirect pathway 217, 220, 221, 294
ideal observer models 442, 447–50
ideal reader model 450, 738
idiopathic infantile nystagmus syndrome 676, 677
iguanids 68
illusions 29, 30, 109
illusory motion 123–4, 517
image features 32, 596–8, 607–8
imitation in autism 722
immediacy assumption 768–9
impasse 556–8
implicit knowledge 538–44
incidental meaning, change detection 572–3
independent component analysis 865–6
inertial head motion 50–2
infantile nystagmus syndrome 676–80
inference problems 555
inferior olive 174, 178
inferior temporal cortex, target selection 360
inferior vermis 181
information theory 451
inhibition of return
antisaccades 476
centre of gravity effect 474
coining of phrase 471
foraging facilitator 473, 481
gap effect 476–7
manual and saccadic response dissociation 477
mapping 472–3
microsaccade biases 105
model task 471–2
novelty-seeking mechanism 473–4
oculomotor activation theory 478–9
oculomotor capture 474–6
orienting behaviour 481–8
parietal lobe 473
(p. 1017)
progressive supranuclear palsy 472
saliency maps 597
superior colliculus 204–5, 472, 473
two ‘flavours’ 477–81
visual search 473–4
inhibitory burst neurons 155
insects 9–12
insight problem solving 556–8
integration constants 51
integrative visual buffer 32
interactive-alignment model 951
interpreting eye movements 27–9
interstitial nucleus of Cajal
saccades 157
three-dimensional gaze shifts 345, 347
unilateral damage 348
intraparietal sulcus 259–60
invertebrate eye movements 6–13
inverted optimal viewing position (IOVP) effect 735, 740, 743, 744, 795, 821
jerk 50
jumping spiders 6, [link] , 8
just-in-time strategy 571, 581
knowledge
driving eye movements 598–600, 614
expertise 538–44
task knowledge 599, 608, 609
Labidocera 7, 8
lambda response 860
landing sites 651–2, 732–3
language-mediated eye movements 980–7
blank screen paradigm 987
conceptual overlap 987
disfluency interpretation 985
episodic representation 987
episodic trace 988
fixation plotting 991–4
mechanism 987–8
name retrieval 984
prediction 982–3
regions of interest 995–6, [link]
resolving pronominal reference 983–4
saccade plotting 994–5
sentence planning 984
social referencing 985
statistical issues 996, 998
syntactic ambiguity 982
task sensitivity 988–91
timing 990
language processes and embodiment 552, 553
laparoscopic surgery simulation 538
latent nystagmus 75
lateral geniculate nucleus 100, 102, 201
lateral intraparietal area
attention 197, 266–8
fMRI 385
frontal eye field connections 260
reward sensitivity 433, 611
saccades 259–64, 268–70, 384
sensory evidence integration 431
subdivisions 261
superior colliculus connections 197, 260
target selection 268–70, 361, [link]
three-dimensional gaze shifts 350
visual search 267
visual working memory 264–6
lateral masking 737
lateral terminal nucleus 69, 73
LATER model 88, 91, 427–8
launch site effect 733, 741–2
law of equal innervation 19
learning
natural vision 610–11
reinforcement 611–13, 782
Leber’s congenital amaurosis gene 680
lens stability 92
levator palpebrae 324, 325–6
lid movements 323–5; see also blinks
lid saccades 323–4
linear summation hypothesis 163, 164–5
linguistic copresence 947
listening to extraocular muscles 24
Listing’s coordinates 340
Listing’s law 52–3, 152, 340–1
Listing’s plane 139, 144, 340
lithium 693–4
lizards 4
lobsters 9
local field potentials 292, 364, 387
local fractional income 433
locomotion and visual stability 519–20
locusts 10
logic problems 555
long-lead burst neurons 156, 157
long-term episodic scene knowledge 598–9
long-term memory 571–3, 574, 582–4
look-ahead fixations 599
look-and-listen task 989
looking at nothing phenomenon 598
looming 519–20
macaque
optokinetic reflex 69, [link] , 74–5
posterior parietal cortex [link]
magnocellular theory of dyslexia 810–11
main sequence 86, 97
major depression 700
mammals
eye movement repertoire 4
optokinetic reflex 69–77
manifest latent nystagmus 676
mantids 9–10
mantis shrimps [link] , 9
mathematical problem solving 554–5
mechanical problem solving 555–6
medial inferior olivary nucleus 188
medial terminal nucleus 69, 73
medical expertise 532–8
global processing advantage 533, 536–8
implicit knowledge 539–44
visual feedback and diagnostic accuracy 540, 541–4
(p. 1018) medication-related eye movement changes 691, 697–8, 700–1
memory; see also working memory
change detection 566–73, 574, 579–84
improvement with eye movements 553
online scene memory 566–71
pursuit movements 125, 128
reading eye movements 898–9
transsaccadic 580
visual search 584–90
memory-guided saccades 695–6; see also oculomotor delayed response
autism 711, 712
development 631–3, [link]
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex 405–6
latency 88–9
posterior parietal cortex 405–6
schizophrenia 696, 698
mental rotation 555–6
mesencephalic reticular formation 154, 167, 315
microsaccades 86, [link]
amplitude 100
attention 37, 86, 104–5, 109
biases 104–5
brain mechanisms 105
burst activity 107–8
cognition 104–5
coining of term 99
contrast effects 100
extraretinal modulation of neural response 109–10
eye-fixation related potentials 865
foveal vision 108–9
fMRI 102
gamma-band synchronization 101–2
historical accounts 37
illusory percepts 109
impact of research 97, [link]
importance to visual perception 97
lateral geniculate nucleus 100, 102
neural responses 100–2
operational definition 99
optimal sampling strategy 107
parameters 99
pathologies 110
perceptual consequences 102–4
physical and functional properties 97–100
properties shared with saccades 97–8, 105, [link]
receptive field displacement 100
spatial resolution 100
spatial summation 100
superior colliculus 99, 100, 105, 199
temporal summation 100–1
upper threshold 99
V1 100, 102, 109
visibility 102–3
visual responses 100–2
visual suppression during 97, 103–4, 109
working memory 104
middle superior temporal (MST) area
direction sensitivity 73
smooth pursuit control 158
middle temporal (MT) area
direction sensitivity 73
motion pattern response 431
smooth pursuit control 158
superior collicular connections 197
mindless reading 762–3
minimum variance model 673–4
mislocated fixation hypothesis 744, 794–5, 821, 845, 848–9
Miss+Realization model 586
MiXeD cAsE text 808
mixed effects models 996
molluscs 13
monkey
eye-head gaze shifts 312, 313
neck muscles [link] , 309
optokinetic reflex [link]
motion blur 13
motion camouflage 10
motion discrimination task 268
motion parallax 54, 57
motion processing
autism 713
pursuit movements 123–4
schizophrenia 692–3
sensory evidence 429–31
motoneurons 136, 137, [link] , 140–2, 153–4
motor preparation 329–32
mouse optokinetic reflex [link]
move-choice task 530–1
moving window technique 652–3, 737, 820, 825–6, 840, 969
Mr Chips 738
multilevel logistic regression 996
multisensory integration 496, 503–6
multisensory saccades 493–4
bimodal stimuli 498–9, 501–3
models of multisensory interactions 503–6
superior colliculus 494–6, 503
visual-auditory saccades 497–9, 503–4
visual-somatosensory saccades 499–503, 504
myelination 635–6
N2pc 360, 364
N400 862
natural selection 667
natural vision
behavioural goals 608–11
learning 610–11
prior knowledge 614
reward 611–13
stimulus features 607–8
task-linked eye movements 608, 609
uncertainty 613–14
nauplius eyes 8
near response neurons 158–9
near vision, vestibulo-ocular reflex 49–50, 53–7
neck muscles 307, 308–9
neck proprioception 244
(p. 1019) neighbourhood effects 876–7, 968, 981
neonatal eye movements 671, 674
net jerk 50
neural adaptation 95–7
neural integrator 137, 157
nigrotectal projections 201, 203
NKCC2 77
nodulus 181
non-twitch fibres 136, 137, 153
novelty-seeking 473–4
nucleus accumbens 216
nucleus lentiformis mesencephali 68, 69
nucleus of basal optic root 68, 69
nucleus of the optic tract 69, 73, 74–5, 76–7
nucleus prepositus hypoglossi 157, 344, 345
nucleus raphe interpositus 156
nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis 174
long-lead burst neurons 156
three-dimensional gaze shifts 351
null region 8
nystagmus;
fusion maldevelopment nystagmus syndrome (manifest latent nystagmus) 676
infantile nystagmus syndrome 676–80
latent 75
optokinetic after nystagmus 162
spontaneous 75
torsional 348
transient in infants 679, 680
voluntary 514–15
object file 610
octopus 13
ocular albinism 677
ocular motor apraxia 671
ocular pursuits, see pursuit movements; smooth pursuits
ocular tilt 348
oculomotor capture 474–6, 565–6
oculomotor delayed response 695–6;
autism 711
bipolar disorder 700
schizophrenia 696, 698
oculomotor nuclei 136
oculomotor readiness hypothesis 358
oculomotor vermis 175, 182–9
Odontodactylus [link]
omnipause neurons
blinks 326
eye-head gaze shifts 311–13
saccades 156–7
online scene memory 566–71
open-ended movement fields 199
open-loop gain 119, 121
ophthalmology, historical accounts 19–20
optical coherence tomography 677
optimal design 947–8
optimal viewing position effects 734, 821
optokinetic after nystagmus 162
optokinetic nystagmus
cuttlefish 13
development 623
neural substrates 161–3
optokinetic reflex
cortical input 73–4
crustaceans 9
development 74–5
floccular region 177, 179
inferior vermis 181
mammals 69–77
neuronal substrate 69–74
pathology 75–7
phylogeny 65–9
retinal input 69–70, 72–3
orbicularis oculi 324, 325
orbital layer 136, 152
otolith-ocular reflexes 46
outflow 511–14
overt attention 439, 452; see also attention
owls 4, 68
Oxygyrus [link] , 13
palisade endings 137
parafascicular nuclei 249
paraflocculus 158, 177–81
parafoveal-on-foveal effect 793, 826, 829, 841–51, 888, 918–20, 973–4
parafoveal preview benefit 738–9, 769, 797, 826, 840, 884–5, 970–3
parallel factor analysis 866
paramedian pontine reticular formation 174
saccade generation 154, 157
superior collicular connections 201
three-dimensional gaze shifts 344, 345, 346–7
parietal cortex;
inhibition of return 473
spatial updating 238, 241
parietal eye field 384
Parkinson’s disease 246
passive listening task 989
past pointing 513
pathology experts 538
pattern processing and expertise 524–38
Paulus Ægineta 20
pedunculopontine nucleus 216
Perca fluviatilis 68
PERCEIVER 525
perceptual-economy hypothesis 743–4, 821
perceptual span 652–4, 737, 738, 796–7, 840, 969–70
perch 68
periodic stimuli 117–19, 124, 125, 128
phasically active neurons 218
Phidippus [link]
phonological deficit theory of dyslexia 810
physical constraints 594
physical copresence 947
picture-scanning 30–2, [link] , 90, [link]
pigeon [link]
pike 68
(p. 1020) pipefish 68
plasticity 664
plastic phenotype 667
plausibility 658, 758–9, 846, 882, 914, 918–19
Pogona vitticeps 68
polarization vision 9
pontine nuclei 158
portable eye tracker development 34
position vestibular pause (PVP) neurons 158, 160–1, 163–4
positron emission tomography 386
Posner cueing paradigm 204
posterior parietal cortex
attention modulation 266–8
behaviour and 258
double-step saccades 406
evolutionary perspective 257–9
hemispheric asymmetry 405
memory-guided saccades 405–6
subdivisions in primates 259
target selection 361–3
transcranial magnetic stimulation 400, 404, 405, 406
visual search 267
visual vector inversion 403–4
posterior suprasylvian cortex 76
post-rotational eye movements, historical accounts 21–3
post-saccadic enhancement 117
praying mantids 9–10
precentral sulcus 386
predictability 756, 825, 881–2, 899–900, 967–8, 982–3
predictive saccades 611, 614
preferential looking 986–7
preferred viewing(/landing) position effect (PVP/PLP effect) 732–3, 740–1, 968, 969
prefrontal cortex; see also dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
antisaccades 289–90
executive control of eye movements 287
flexible control processes 287
historical studies 280
response suppression 288, 289–90
saccades 286–90, 384
target selection [link] , 372–3
working memory 287–8
premotor control
head orientation 345–8
interactions between eye movement systems 163–7
saccades 154–8
smooth pursuits 158
three-dimensional gaze shifts 343–5, [link]
vergence 158–9
vestibulo-ocular reflexes 159–63
premotor theory of attention 358, 372, 457, 459–60
pre-supplementary motor area 280, 293–4
presupposition 926
primary somatosensory cortex 244
primary visual cortex 359–60; see also V1
primates
eye movement repertoire 3
oculomotor range 258
otolith-ocular reflexes 46
subdivisions in posterior parietal cortex 259
priming 951
principle component analysis 865–6
priority, superior colliculus 200–5
prior knowledge, natural vision 614
prior probability 431–3
probability density function 585
problem solving 554–9
Aha! moment 556–8
impasse 556–8
insight problems 556–8
mathematical problems 554–5
mechanical problems 555–6
visual imagery 553
processing gradient models 788–9
productions 768
production systems 768
progressive supranuclear palsy 472
pronoun resolution 983–4
proprioception
extraocular muscles 136–7
neck 244
space constancy 517–18
pruning of synapses 635–6
pseudo-clefted sentences 926
psycholinguistic grain size theory 659
psycholinguistics 980–7
pulley hypothesis 139–40, 142
pulley system diagrams 556
pulse of innervation 137, 154
pulse-step command 137, 154
pulvinar 201, 249
Purkinje cells 173, 178–9
pursuit movements; see also smooth pursuits
absence of moving target 125
acceleration sensitivity 124–5
anticipatory 125, 127–8
apparent motion stimuli 123–4
attention 123
background presence 122
birds 4
catch-up saccades 119
closed-loop gain 119, 121
development 623–4
distractors 122–3
efference copy model [link] , 121, 128
expectation 127
extrafoveal targets 123
extraretinal mechanisms 115, 119–21
first saccade 117
gain 117, 122, 623
gap effect 123
illusory motion 124
indirect pathway 128
inferior vermis 181
local versus global motion effects 124
memory 125, 128
mismatch 127
modelling 128
motion perception and 123–4
motion stimuli 116–19
open-loop gain 119, 121
(p. 1021)
periodic stimuli 117–19, 124, 125, 128
post-saccadic enhancement 117
predictive processes 115, 119, 124–8
pseudo-random stimuli 119
ramp stimuli 116–17
randomized stimuli 119
retinal mechanisms 119–21
saccadic component 117, 121, 691
sample and hold mechanism 121
schizophrenia 624, 690–3
selective processes 115
sinusoidal stimuli 117–19, 124, 125, 127, 128
step-ramp stimuli [link] , 117
stroboscopic illumination 123
subject’s experience 127
superior colliculus 202
timing 125, 127
triangular waveform stimuli 119, 127
vestibulo-ocular reflexes 164–5
visual stability 519–20
working memory 128
putamen 216, 217–18
quarter-angle rule 142
quasi-static otolith-ocular reflexes 46
rabbit
albinism 76
optokinetic reflex [link]
otolith-ocular reflexes 46
spontaneous saccades 4
race model 369–70
radiation problem 558–9
radicals 962
radiology expertise
global processing advantage 533, 536–8
implicit knowledge 539–44
visual feedback and diagnostic accuracy 540, 541–4
rainbow trout 68
ramp stimuli 116–17
random dot kinetogram 430–1
random-fixation models 443–4, 445
randomized stimuli 119
random walk models 427
range effect 741
rat
albinism 76
multisensory neurons 496
optokinetic reflex [link] , 73
Reader model 768–9
readiness 416
readiness potential 246
reading eye movements
abstract concepts 884
age-of-acquisition 756, 824, 884
attention 744–5, 797
attention-gradient models 767
binocular coordination 802–4, 807–10
calibration errors 849–50
c-commands 934
children 643–60
clefting 930–1
cognitive lag 752
competition-interaction model 745
concrete entities 884
consonant versus vowel processing 822
contextual effects 914–15
correlational approach 848
default process 886
EMMA model 768, 769–71
eye-fixation related potentials 862–3
eye-mind assumption 769
E-Z Reader model 771–82, 787–8, 841, 886–8, 903–4, 920–1, 927
failure to notice anomalies 917
familiarity 756
Finnish compound words 780–1
fixation disparity 802–4, 850
fixation duration 734–5, 756–7, 758–63, 902–3
fixation-duration IOVP effect 735, 740, 743, 744, 795, 821
fixation-duration trade-off 735
fixation location 651, 732–6, 821
focus 927–31
focus-sensitive particles 760–2, 931–7
foveal load 831
foveal processing 820–5, [link]
fusion of disparate retinal inputs 804–6
garden-pathing 755, 897–8
gaze-duration-OVP effect 735–6
Glenmore model 789
historical accounts 23–7
homonyms 824
immediacy assumption 768–9
information extraction 652–5
inverted OVP effect 735, 740, 743, 744, 795, 821
landing sites 651–2, 732–3
launch site effect 733, 741–2
lexical ambiguity resolution 781
lexical identification 757–8, 972–3
lexical-semantic effects 829–30
linguistic/cognitive view 752, 753–4
machine error 849–50
memory 898–9
mindless reading 762–3
mislocated fixation hypothesis 744, 794–5, 821, 845, 848–9
misspellings 822, 845
MiXeD cAsE text 808
morphological influences 824–5, 830–1, 879–81
multivariate analysis 796
neighbourhood effects 876–7, 968
neural signal for binocular saccades 806–7
oculomotor view 752, 753
optimal viewing position effects 734, 821
orthographic influences 821–2, 827–8, 876–8, 971–2
parafoveal-on-foveal effects 793, 826, 829, 841–51, 888, 918–20, 973–4
parafoveal preview benefit 738–9, 769, 797, 826, 840, 884–5, 970–3
parafoveal processing 825–31, [link]
perceptual-economy hypothesis 743–4, 821
(p. 1022)
perceptual span 652–4, 737, 738, 796–7, 840, 969–70
phonological influences 822–3, 828–9, 878–9, 971–2
plausibility 658, 758–9, 846, 882, 914, 918–19
post-lexical processing 658
predictability 756, 825, 881–2, 899–900, 967–8, 982–3
preferred viewing(/landing) position effect (PVP/PLP effect) 732–3, 740–1, 968, 969
processing gradient models 788–9
range effect 741
Reader model 768–9
referential effects 759–60, 930–1
refixation-optimal viewing position effect 734, [link] , 739–40, 742–4
refixation saccades 651
regressions 736, 739, 795–6, 902, 903
reordered access model 781, 883
reverse word-length effect 781–2
self-paced reading 904–5
semantic influences 881–4, 911–21, 934–7, 972
serial (sequential) attention models 767–8, 787, 788
spillover effects 769
structural factors 916
subordinate bias effect 883
SWIFT model 789–91, 792, 793–5, 797, 842, 903
syntactic factors 896–901, 932–4
syntactic processing problems 901–3
transposed letters 822, 844–5, 877–8
universal patterns 732–6
virtual reading agent 782
visual span 737, 738
word boundary information 964
word frequency 657–8, 756, 823–4, 844, 874–6, 967
word meaning 756, 824, 882–4
word recognition 757–8
word skipping 732, 739, 791–3, 830, 843–4, 885
word superiority effect 737
world knowledge violation 913–14
z-reading 740, 795
reading models 450–1
real-world scene stimuli, 31–2, 594–5; see also scene perception
reference resolution, common ground 945–51, 984–5
referential effects, reading 759–60, 930–1
refixation-optimal viewing position effect 734, [link] , 739–40, 742–4
regions of interest 995–6, [link]
regressions 736, 739, 795–6, 902, 903
reinforcement learning 611–13, 782
remote distractor effect 88, 89–90, 417, [link]
reordered access model 781, 883
reptiles 4–5, 68
response time 413
retinal direction selectivity 69–70, 72–3, 74–5
retinotectal pathway 197
reverse modelling 514
reverse word-length effect 781–2
rhyme competitor effects 981
rise-to-threshold 413–14, [link]
river-crossing problem 551, 552
rock crab [link]
rodents 4; see also rat
root mean square error 690
rostral interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus 154–5, 157, 201, 344–5
rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex 46–50, 142–4, 159–61
saccade initiation failure 671–6
saccade-related potentials 859–60
saccades; see also antisaccades; microsaccades
accuracy 624
adaptation 90, 240–1
affective disorders 700–1
amplitude 86
anterior cingulate cortex 291
antipsychotic medication 697–8, 700–1
attention 416, 456–60, 518
auditory stimuli 466, 497–9, 503–4
autism 711–13
basal ganglia 218–28
baseline shifts 416, 417
bimodal stimuli 498–9, 501–3
bipolar disorder 700
blink interactions 325, 326, 327, 330–2, 675
catch-up saccades 119
caudate neurons 218–19
centre of gravity (global) effect 89, 474, [link] , 499, 745
characteristics 86–7
chromatic stimuli 415
coining of term 25
competition and inhibition 417–19
contrast of stimulus 88, 415, 429
corrective 370, 691
cost–benefit explanation 86
criterion shifts 416–17
cross-modal distractors 499, 502
curved 87
dead-time 89
decision-making models 426–8
depression 700
derivation of term 86
development 624–5
disconjugate 165–7
distractor effects 87, 499, 502; see also remote distractor effect
dorsal paraflocculus 180–1
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex 287
double curve 87
double-step 89, 306, 406
eccentricity of stimulus 88, 415–16
endogenous 414–15
evolutionary perspective 420
exogenous 414–15
expectancy 416
express, see express saccades
fish 5–6
fixation release/disengagement 88
fixation saccades 100
frontal eye fields 282–4, 390
(p. 1023)
gap effect 88, 331, 417, 461, 712–13
global (centre of gravity) effect 89, 474, [link] , 499, 745
globus pallidus 221–2
head saccades 4, 86, 107
hemispheric oculomotor region 182
historical accounts 24, 25
infants 674
intensity of stimulus 88
intersaccade interval 87
landing position 89–90
language-mediated launch 990–1
lateral intraparietal area 259–64, 268–70, 384
LATER model 88, 91, 427–8
lens stability 92
lid saccades 323–4
main sequence 86
mammals 4
mantis shrimps 9
memory-guided, see memory-guided saccades
minimum variance model 673–4
models of multisensory interactions 503–6
motoneuron firing 137, 153, 154
neonates 674
neural integrator 137, 157
oblique 87
oculomotor vermis 182–9
omnipause neurons 156–7
origin of term 25
parallel programming 90–1
perceptual processing 421
perisaccadic mislocalization 241
picture-scanning 90, [link]
planning 244–5
predictive 611, 614
prefrontal cortex 286–90, 384
premotor control 154–8
pre-supplementary motor area 293–4
prior probability 431–3
properties shared with microsaccades 97–8, 105, [link]
pulse-step command 137, 154
range effect 741
readiness 416
remote distractor effect 88, 89–90, 417, [link]
reptiles 4
reward 433–4
rise-to-threshold 413–14, [link]
schizophrenia 696–700
self-timed 245–6, [link]
sensory delay 415
sensory evidence 429–31
sequences 90–1, 406–7, 458
smooth pursuit interactions 117, 121, 691
somatosensory stimuli 465–6, 499–503, 504
spatial frequency of stimulus 88
speed-accuracy trade-off 416–17
strength of stimulus 415
substantia nigra pars reticulata 222–6
substantia nigra pars reticulata–superior colliculus pathway 226–8
subthalamic nucleus 220–1
superior collicular neurons 157, 199, 202, 383
supplementary eye fields 284–6
suppression of 220–2, 224
target selection, see target selection
temporal profile 86, [link]
thalamus 236, 238–41, 244–8
tonic inhibition 420–1
trajectories 87
transcranial magnetic stimulation 400–2, 406–7
transsaccadic integration 32, 34
transsaccadic memory 580
velocity 624
vergence interactions 165–7
vertical, premotor control 157–8
vestibulo-ocular reflexes 163–4
visual stability 92, 514–19
visual suppression during 22, 92, 514
winner-take-all mechanism 200
saccadic burst neurons 155–6, 157, 167, 311–13
saccadic overhead 990
saccadic range error 741
saccule 159
salamander 68
salience maps 91, 200, 203, 360, 363, 366, 445–6, 596–7, 608
sample and hold mechanism 121
sandlance 68
scanning eye movements 6, [link] , 8, 14
scanpaths 90
scan path theory 599–600
scene onset delay paradigm 601
scene perception
definition of a scene 593–5
depictions 595
edge preference 596
fixation 595–6, 600–2
gist 595
image features 32, 596–8
knowledge-driven control 598–600
long-term episodic scene knowledge 598–9
manipulating images 597–8
real-world scenes 594–5
saliency maps 596–7
scan path theory 599–600
scene schema knowledge 599
scene statistics 596
short-term episodic scene knowledge 598–9
task knowledge 599
scene schema knowledge 599
schizophrenia
antisaccades 696, 698, 699
motion processing 692–3
pursuit movements 624, 690–3
saccades 696–700
scincids 68
Scyliorhinus canicula 66, 68
sea bass 68
sea-birds 4
sea horses 6
sea-snail [link]
selective gating 312–13, 314–15
(p. 1024) self-paced reading 904–5
self-timed saccades 245–6, [link]
semantic constraints 594
semicircular canals 21, 46–7, 159
sensitive periods 667–8
sensory defect infantile nystagmus syndrome 676–7
Sepia officinalis 13
sequential attention shift models 767–8, 787, 788
sequential sampling models 427
serial-attention models 767–8, 787, 788
Serranus cabrilla 68
shape recognition 450–1
sharks 66
short-term episodic scene knowledge 598–9
short-term memory 580–2
shrimps 9
signal detection theory 447
sinusoidal stimuli 117–19, 124, 125, 127, 128
sleep 25–6
small world network 668
smooth pursuits; see also pursuit movements
affective disorders 693–4
anticipatory movements 125, 127–8
antipsychotic medication 691
autism 713–14
blinks 329
dorsal paraflocculus 180–1
extraretinal signals 242
floccular region 158, 177–9
gain 117
global measures 689–90
initiation 116–17
latency 116
lithium 693–4
maintenance 117
oculomotor vermis 183
open-loop phase 117
overshoot 117
premotor control 158
saccadic component 117, 121, 691
schizophrenia 690–3
specific measures 690
stimulus types 688–9
termination 117
thalamus 238, 241–2, [link]
social processing in autism 716–22
social referencing 985
somatosensory cortex 244
somatosensory saccades 465–6, 499–503, 504
space constancy
‘calibration’ solution 518–19
efference copy 511–14, 515–18
proprioception 517–18
voluntary nystagmus 514–15
spasmodic torticollis 348
spatial attention; see also attention
conceptualization 797, [link]
lateral intraparietal area 197
thalamus 248–9
spatial expectancy 416
spatial updating 238–44
spatial working memory 631–3
spiders 6
spillover effects 769
sports players 611, 614
spotted dogfish 66, 68
‘spot the difference’ tasks 567
squash players 614
squid 13
squints, historical accounts 19, 20
stabilized retinal images 35–6
starburst amacrine cells 69–70, 72–3, 76
static otolith-ocular reflexes 46
step of innervation 137, 154
step-ramp stimuli [link] , 117
stomatopods 9
stop signal reaction time 286, 332, 391, 393
strabismus, historical accounts 19, 20
striatum 216, 217–20
stroboscopic illumination 123
subordinate bias effect 883
substantia nigra pars compacta 201
substantia nigra pars reticulata 201, 203, 216, 222–8, 433
subthalamic nucleus 216, 220–1
superior colliculus
attention 204
attentional capture 204–5
basal ganglia connections 201, 216
colour sensitivity 202
cortical inputs 197
deeper region 196
direction-of-motion tuning 202
disconjugate saccades 167
express saccades 199–200
eye-head gaze shifts 164, 310–11
fixation 157, 199
fixation-related inhibition 417
inhibition of return 204–5, 472, 473
inputs and outputs 197, [link] , 201
integration of eye and eyelid movements 325–6
lateral inhibition 201, 202
lateral interactions 200
lateral intraparietal area connections 197, 260
layers 195–6
long-lead burst neurons 156, 157
microsaccades 99, 100, 105, 199
motor representations 197
multisensory representations 197
multisensory saccades 494–6, 503
omnipause neurons 157
open-ended movement fields 199
priority 200–5
prior probability 432
pursuit movements 202
quasi-visual neurons 198
response properties 198–9
retinal inputs 197
reward expectancy 205
saccades 157, 199, 202, 383
saccadic burst neurons 157
(p. 1025)
stimulus intensity sensitivity 201
substantia nigra pars reticulata connections 201, 203, 216, 222, 224, [link] , 226–8
superficial region 195–6
target selection 203–4, 360–1, [link]
three-dimensional gaze shifts 348–50
topographic maps 196–7
vergence movements 167, 202
visual inputs 197
visual map 197
visual neurons 198
visual response 198, 199
visual salience 200, 203
superior precentral sulcus 386
supplementary eye fields
antisaccades 286, 391
cognitive role 384
double-step saccades 406
executive control of eye movements 286
eye-head gaze shifts 313–14
historical studies 280
reward sensitivity 611
saccades 284–6
superior collicular connections 197
three-dimensional gaze shifts 350
stop-signal task 393
transcranial magnetic stimulation 406
supplementary motor area 280, 293, 406–7
supranuclear gaze palsy 671
survival curves 543, [link] , [link]
SWIFT model 789–91, 792, 793–5, 797, 842, 903
synaptic pruning 635–6
synchronous neural oscillation 101–2
synkinetic blinks 672, 675–6
syntactic constraints 594
Syritta pipiens 11, [link]
tacit knowledge 538–44
targeted language games 950
target locator networks 56
target selection
bottom-up factors 91
Chinese reading 968–9
event-related potentials 360, 364–5
frontal eye fields [link] , 363–72
inferior temporal cortex 360
lateral intraparietal area 268–70, 361, [link]
posterior parietal cortex 361–3
prefrontal cortex [link] , 372–3
primary visual cortex 359–60
priority/relevance 420
saccade preparation and production 366–9
salience 91
substantia nigra pars reticulata 227–8
superior colliculus 203–4, 360–1, [link]
top-down factors 91
ventral stream 359–60
target step reaction time 369
task knowledge 599, 608, 609
task set 628
task switching 292
temporal expectancy 416
thalamus
anatomy 236
antisaccades 246–8
basal ganglia inputs to 216
electrical stimulation 236, 238
eye position 238, 242–4
internal medullary lamina 236
intralaminar nuclei 236, [link] , [link] , 244, 245, 248–9
neuronal activity 236
paralaminar nuclei 236, [link] , 238, 242, 245, 246, 248
saccades 236, 238–41, 244–8
smooth pursuits 238, 241–2, [link]
spatial attention 248–9
spatial updating 238–44
vestibular signals 244
Theophrastus 21
Thermonectus marmoratus 11–12
thinking for speaking hypothesis 986
three-dimensional gaze shifts
central mesencephalic reticular formation 351
cerebellum 351
interstitial nucleus of Cajal 345, 347
nucleus prepositus hypoglossi 344, 345
nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis 351
paramedian pontine reticular formation 344, 345, 346–7
premotor control 343–5, [link]
rostral interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus 344–5
superior colliculus 348–50
2D to 3D transformation 350–1
three neuron arc 46, 159
tilt-linear vestibulo-ocular reflexes 46
time window of integration (TWIN) model 504–6
toads 5
tonically active neurons 218, 219
torsional eye movements 138–9, 340
eye-head gaze shifts 306
floccular region 179
historical accounts 23
non-commutative-driven 140
sensory-driven 140
torsional nystagmus 348
Tower of London problem 556
transcranial magnetic stimulation
antisaccades 400, 403–4
double-pulse 401–2
frontal eye fields 363, 402
memory-guided saccades 404–6
offline approach 400
online approach 400
physiological mechanism 400
principle 399
repetitive protocols 400, 401
saccades 400–2, 406–7
spatial mapping 402
vergence movements 407
transfer function of eye plant 137
transient nystagmus 679, 680
(p. 1026) translational vestibulo-ocular reflex 50, 57–9, 142, 161
transsaccadic integration 32, 34
transsaccadic memory 580
tree frogs 5
tremor 86, [link] , 97
triangular waveform stimuli 119, 127
trochlear nuclei 136
turtles 68
TWIN model 504–6
twitch fibres 136, 137, 152–3
two-stage detection model 533
Uca 9
uncertainty 613–14
unconscious inference 513
utricle 159
uvula 181
V1
microsaccades 100, 102, 109
superior collicular connections 197
velocity storage 47, 52
velocity-to-position neural integrator 137, 157
ventral paraflocculus 177–80
ventral stream 359–60, 442
ventral striatum 216
ventral tegmental area 216
ventrolateral prefrontal cortex 287
vergence angle 54
vergence movements
blinks 329
premotor control 158–9
saccade interactions 165–7
superior colliculus 167, 202
transcranial magnetic stimulation 407
vertigo, historical descriptions 21
vestibular function, historical accounts 22–3
vestibular nerve 159
vestibular nuclei 158, 159, 244
vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR)
active pulley hypothesis 142–4
after-response 52
attenuation during gaze 675
floccular region 177, 178, 179
function 46
gaze shifts 163–4
gaze velocity Purkinje cells 178
inertial head motion 50–2
inferior vermis 181
kinematic restrictions 52–3
Listing’s law 52–3
near vision 49–50, 53–7
overview 46–50
pitch movements 52–3
premotor control 159–63
pursuit movements 164–5
roll movements 53
rotational 46–50, 142–4, 159–61
tilt-linear 46
translational 50, 57–9, 142, 161
velocity storage 47, 52
yaw movements 52–3
vestibulospinal system 309
virtual reading agent 782
visual affordances 986
visual attention;
see also attention
autism 715–16
frontal eye fields 283
language influences 991
lateral intraparietal area 266–8
reading 744–5
visual fading 95–7
visual imagery 553
visual salience, see salience maps
visual search 266–7, 358, 443–50
autism 714–15
Bayesian statistical decision theory 447–50
conspicuity area 443, [link]
executive processes 589–90
feature-based mechanisms 444–7
guided search models 446
hazard function 585–6
ideal observer models 442, 447–50
identity information 588–9
inhibition of return 473–4
lateral intraparietal area 267
location information 588–9
maximum a posteriori fixation 449–50
memory 584–90
posterior parietal cortex 267
random-fixation models 443–4, 445
revisitation rates 586
salience map 445–6
signal detection theory 447
visual span
chess expertise 525, 529–30
reading 737, 738
visual stability
historical descriptions 511–14
locomotion 519–20
pursuit movements 519–20
saccades 92, 514–19
visual vector inversion 403–4
visual world paradigm 980–6, 989–90, 996
voluntary nystagmus 514–15
warning-signal effect 502
wasps 11
water beetle larvae 11–12
water flea 8
water mites 6
weak central coherence theory 715
wiener noise 427
Willensanstrengung 513
winner-take-all mechanism 200
word boundary information 964–6
word frequency effects 657–8, 756, 823–4, 844, 874–6, 967
word length effects 656–7, 732–6, 781–2, 821, 826–7, 844, 846–7
word meaning effects 756, 824, 882–4
(p. 1027) word recognition 757–8
measures874
word skipping 732, 739, 787, 791–3, 830, 843–4, 885
word superiority effect 737
working memory
antisaccades 464
development 626, 631–3
lateral intraparietal area 264–6
microsaccades 104
prefrontal cortex 287–8
pursuit movements 128
response inhibition 625–6
visual search 589–90
zebrafish 68, 277
z-reading 740, 795