Abstract and Keywords
Humans use a ‘saccade and fixate’ strategy when viewing the world, with information gathered during stabilized fixations, and saccades used to shift gaze direction as rapidly as possible. This strategy is shared by nearly all vertebrates, whether or not their eyes possess foveas. Remarkably, the same combination is found in many invertebrates with eyes that resolve well. Cephalopod molluscs, decapod crustaceans, and most insects stabilize their eyes, head, or body against rotation while in motion, and also make fast gaze-shifting saccades. Praying mantids, like primates, are also capable of smooth tracking. Other invertebrates have eyes in which the retina is a long narrow strip, and these make scanning movements at right angles to the strip. These include heteropod sea-snails, certain copepods, jumping spiders, mantis shrimps, and some water beetle larvae. Scanning speeds are always just slow enough for resolution not to be compromised.
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