- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- Notes on Contributors
- Introduction: A Social Science which Forgets its Founders is Lost
- The Value of the Classics
- Tocqueville as a Pioneer In Organization Theory
- Marx and Organization Studies Today
- It's Not Just for Communists Any More: Marxian Political Economy and Organizational Theory
- Weber: Sintering the Iron Cage Translation, Domination, and Rationality Stewart Clegg
- Max Weber and the Ethics of Office
- On Organizations and Oligarchies: Michels in the Twenty-First Century
- How Durkheim's Theory of Meaning‐making Influenced Organizational Sociology
- A Durkheimian Approach to Globalization
- Gabriel Tarde and Organization Theory
- Georg Simmel: The Individual and the Organization
- Types and Positions: The Significance of Georg Simmel's Structural Theories for Organizational Behavior
- Schumpeter and the Organization of Entrepreneurship
- Norbert Elias's Impact on Organization Studies
- Thorstein Veblen And The Organization of the Capitalist Economy
- The Sociology of Race: The Contributions of W. E. B. Du Bois
- Organizations and the Chicago School
- After James on Identity
- Reading Dewey: Some Implications for the Study of Routine
- Mary Parker Follett and Pragmatist Organization
- Peopling Organizations: The Promise of Classic Symbolic Interactionism for an Inhabited Institutionalism
- John R. Commons: Back to the Future of Organization Studies
- The Problem of the Corporation: Liberalism and the Large Organization
- Bureaucratic Theory and Intellectual Renewal in Contemporary Organization Studies
- The Columbia School and the Study of Bureaucracies: Why Organizations Have Lives of their Own
- Parsons as an Organization Theorist
- Sociological Classics and the Canon in the Study of Organizations
Abstract and Keywords
This article aims to make a case for using Georg Simmel's ideas to illuminate features of organizational life that connect individuals, groups, organizations, and society. It first summarizes three related aspects of Simmel's approach to social action that are relevant to organizational research: his method of using ‘pure types’ for describing social roles; positions for locating social actors in relation to each other; and structure for describing recurring social relationships. It then examines Simmel's applications of these ideas to social groupings of increasing complexity beginning with simple social interactions consisting of a monad, dyad, and triad; pyramidal hierarchies of dominant and subordinate relations; and finally, overlapping and interacting affiliations. The article continually draws parallels between Simmel's conceptual ideas and how they relate to critical topics in organizational behavior and to the larger social context. The article concludes by suggesting that Simmel may be even more relevant to a post-industrial age than he was to the machine age in which bureaucracy dominated, which might account for his relative neglect in the past and possible re-emergence today.
Rosabeth Moss Kanter holds the Ernest L. Arbuckle Professorship at Harvard Business School, where she specializes in strategy, innovation, and leadership for change. The former editor of Harvard Business Review (1989–1992), Professor Kanter is the author or co‐author of seventeen books, which have been translated into seventeen languages. Among her best‐known are: Men & Women of the Corporation, When Giants Learn to Dance, and The Change Masters. She chairs a Harvard University group creating an innovative initiative on advanced leadership, to help successful leaders at the top of their professions apply their skills to addressing challenging national and global problems.
Rakesh Khurana is Associate Professor of Organizational Behavior at Harvard Business School. He received his Ph.D. (Organizational Behavior) and A.M. (Sociology) from Harvard University. His research focuses on the sociology of elites, leadership, and governance. He is the author of From Higher Aims to Hired Hands: The Social Transformation of American Business Schools and the Unfulfilled Promise of Management as a Profession (Princeton University Press, 2007) and Searching for a Corporate Savior: The Irrational Question for Charismatic CEOs (Princeton University Press, 2002). He is currently researching the impact of financial markets on corporate governance and the social structure of global elites.
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