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date: 04 August 2020

(p. 905) Subject Index

(p. 905) Subject Index

Admittance loci design method, 643–646
Adsorption, 479–481
AFM (atomic force microscope), 244, 247, 249, 253, 257, 258, 259, 260, 357, 372, 389, 390, 392, 406, 516, 905, 907, 851, 954, 955, 970
Alkanethiolate films on metal surfaces, 810–813
Allosteric modulation, 573
Anisotropic surface energy, 779–780
Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), 387–390, 392–398, 405, 412
Antibody binding, 664
kinetic analysis, 664–669
Anticancer activity of gold nanoparticles, 494–495
Antigens, 507
Applications of atomic switch, 306–309
Application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), 309, 310
Applications of SWNTs and MWNTs, 484
Arrays of quantum dots, 234–236
Atomic-layer deposition (ALD), 809, 831, 838–840
Atomistic Si-oxidation mechanism, 5–16
Attenuated total reflection (ATR), 546, 648
Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), 420
Band structure of CNT, 370–374
Band structure of heterodevices, 186–189
Basis of hydrogen sorbents, 701–703
Berry phase, 138
Bifunctional nanomaterials for imaging and treatment of cancer, 474–497
Bioconjugated quantum dots for tumour molecular imaging and profiling, 612–636
Biodistribution of CNTs, 487–488
Biological barriers, 515–516
Biomolecular layer effect, 661–669
Biophysical implications of protein-based nanoelectronics, 588–591
Bonding energy of hydrogen in HSM (hydrogen-storage materials), 701–703
Bottlenecks of metallic field emitters, 738–739
Bottom-up and top-down, 353
Breast tomosynthesis, 686–688
digital, 686
C60, fullerenes, 891
Carbon nanopearls (CNPs), 762–764
Carbon nanopearl field emitters, 749–761
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), 42, 317, 343, 358, 367–369, 481, 676, 712, 716, 743, 750–753, 757–761, 889
anticancer activity of, 539
in tumour imaging, 491–492
physical properties, 481–484
Carbon nano-test-tubes (NTTs), 387–403, 405, 412
synthesis of, 397–399
Cell-based integrated circuits (CBICs), 308, 310
Channel engineering, 38–39
Characterization of nanomaterials, 890–891
Charge-neutrality level (CNL), 20
Chemical lattice image, 206
Classical and quantum light, 230–231
Classical approach for quantum regime, 147–152
Clearance of nanoparticles from human body, 517–518
CNT-based X-ray source, 674
CNT cathode, 684, 690, 691
CNT cathode array, 690
CNT cavities as a reaction field of hydrothermal synthesis, 403–412
CNT field emission cellular microbeam system, 693, 694
CNT field emission electron and X-ray technology, 673–695
CNT field emission technology, 689, 693
CNT field emitters, 749–761
catalytic processes of CNT growth, 750–753
CNT pixels, 689–690
CNTs and CNPs as cold cathodes, 765–768
Complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, 2, 307, 328, 331
CMOS device structure, 3
Conducting metal oxide (CMO), 642, 659–660
Conduction-band minimum (CBM), 38
Conduction electron spin resonance (CESR), 90, 97
Configuration interaction (CI) approach, 50
Controlled filling of magnetic materials into CNTT, 392–397
Conventional understanding of Si oxidation, 3–5
Coordinatively unsaturated sites (CUS), 438
Coupled circular dots, 57–62
Coupled Gaussian potential model, 57–67
Coupled quantum dots, 232–234
Covalent modulation, 573
Cross-linkers and blockers, 724
Current-driven magnetic excitations, 114–118
Current-induced magnetization switching (CIMS), 108–114
time to switch experiments, 108–109
Current problems with use of nanoparticles in medicine, 513–519
CVD, 354, 355, 387, 388, 390, 391, 750–751, 809, 831, 835–838
growth process of carbon nanopearls, 762–764
plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD), 753–756 (p. 906)
Defects properties from first-principles calculations, 16–20
Dendrimers, 511–512
Dermal exposure assessment, 894–896
Device scaling for future MOSFET, 38
Diffusion theory, 344–347
Dip-pen nanolithography (DPN), 823–824
concept of, 343–344
Dircted assembly of nanostructures, 357–369
mechanism, 361–369
procedure, 357–360
Directed self-masking, 831–842
Direct patterning of nanostructures, 343–357
dip-pen nanolithography (DPN), 343–348
microcontact printing (MCP), 348–353
Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, 421
Displacement patterning, 820–822
DNA, 348, 367, 477, 507, 512, 614
heat-induced alterations, 477
DNA linkers, 546
Domain-wall motion, 112–114
Double molecular layer (DML), 344, 345
Double-parabola confinement potential, 53
Double-parabola potential model, 52–57
Double-walled nanotube, 373
Double-triple point (DTP) separation, 60–63
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), 789, 791, 799, 800, 802, 805
performance of, 802–805
Dynamic random access memory (DRAM), 234
Effect of magnetic interaction on the water dispersibility of CNTTs, 400–403
Electrochemical deposition (ECD), 393–396, 398
Electroless deposition, 840–842
Electromagnetic scattering, 551–554
Electron-beam lithography (EBL), 826–828
Electron double layer, 392
Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), 421, 459, 460, 545
Electron field emission from CNTs, 674–677
Electronic and transport properties of CNTs, 370–374
Electronic transport properties of network devices, 374–380
model, 375–377
Monte Carlo results, 377–378
nanotube network, 378–380
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), 141, 146, 156
Electrostatic interactions between hydrogen molecule and charges, 710–711
Elliptical QD, 64
ELISA, 615
Environmental decoherence effects in nanomagnets, 161–166
Environmental TEM (ETEM), 425, 459–463
Epitaxial growth, 210
methods of, 210–212
Epitaxial quantum dots, 236
Evaluating risks associated with nanomaterials, 887–903
Exact diagonalization vs. Hubbard model, 62–63
Exchange bias, 155
Experimental QD IR photodetectors, 260–269
Fermi level pinning (FLP), 28
Few-electron quantum-dot spintronics, 47–85
Few electrons in triple QDs, 76–81
Field effect transistor (FET), 355, 883
Field emission microscopy (FEM), 736
Field-enhancement factor, 783–785
Field-induced pyramidal nanotip, 781
Field-programmable gate array (FPGA), 307, 308
First-principles calculations, 425
Fock–Darwin energy spectrum, 53
Fowler–Nordheim (FN) plots, 757, 758
Fresnel projection microscope (FPM), 742–744
FTIR, 454
Fullerenes, 386
Fundamentals of atomic switch, 299–301
Future trends in Si nanotechnology, 42
GaAs nanowire, 41, 42
Giant magnetoresistance (GMR), 91, 96, 123
Giant spin model for nanomagnets, 141–152
Gold nanoclusters, 454–458
Gold nanoclusters on planar supports, 454–458
Gold nanoparticles (AuNP), 509–510
Gold nanoshells and nanorods, 492–495
physical properties of, 492
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), 603
Grain-boundary grooving, 778
Graphite, 387
Grid-like nanostructures, 789
for photovoltaic devces, 789–806
Half-metallic ferromagnet (HMFM), 91, 97
Hazard evaluation with nanomaterials, 891–893
Heat-induced alterations of the plasma membranes, 476–477
Heat-induced alterations to proteins, 477–478
Heat-shock proteins, 479–481
Heitler–London limit, 52–57
Heitler–London method, 50, 57, 85
Heitler–London states, 56
Heterostructure bipolar transistor (HBT), 182, 189–192, 202
High-performance detectors and arrays, 288–289
Hole-digging method, 163–165
HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electron microscopy), 206, 388, 406, 460, 743, 762
Hydrogen–HSM interaction, 700, 705–714
Hydrogen interaction with carbon-based sorbants, 711–714
Hydrogen storage in nanoscale materials, 699–732
Hydrogen-storage materials (HSMs), 699, 714, 717, 731
internal interactions in, 714–722
Hydrogen-storage properties, 725–731
binding energy, 728–729
capacity-design principles, 730
sorbent design principles, 727–728
stability-design principles, 730–731
Hyperfine interaction, 166
Infra-red photon absorption, 247–254
Infra-red spectroscopy, 826
Interference lithography, 576
Intermolecular dipole interaction, 165, 166
Internal interaction in boron-based materials, 720–722
Internal interaction in carbon–metal system, 717–720 (p. 907)
Internal interaction in pure carbon and hydrogenated carbon structures, 715–717
Intersublevel QD infra-red photodetectors, 244–290
Ion-beam lithography, 575
Ion-scattering spectroscopy (ISS), 456
Iron-oxide nanoparticles, 496
Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) smulation, 215, 427
Kondo effect, 167, 169, 170, 172, 208, 317, 330
Kubus coordination, 708
Landau–Zener tunnelling, 142–144
Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) monolayers, 547
Large-scale integrated (LSI) circuits, 307
Laser applications in nanotechnology, 860–885
Laser thermal annealing (LTA), 866
for ultrashort pn junctions, 865–867
Laser as heat source for device nanoprocessing, 865–867
Laser combination with SPM, 868–871
Laser-interference lithography (LIL), 879–882, 885
Laser nanofabrication, 868
Laser nanopatterning, 879–884
Lateral force microscopy (LFM), 826
LH (light hole)/SO states, 199, 201
Light-harvesting efficiency (LHE), 790, 794, 798
Liposomes, 512
Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), 420, 428
Magnetic properties of Ni Fe-filled CNTTs, 396–397
Mainstream nanoelectronic applications, 189–194
Material issues for field emitters, 748–749
MCIP (Microcontact insertion printing), 821
MCP (Microcontact printing), 348, 349, 809, 818, 820
Mesoscopic physics, 122
Metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy, 211
Metal vapor deposition, 833–835
Methods of nanostructure printing, 353–357
Microcomputed tomography, 681–686
Micro-CT scanners, 682
Microfluidic parts, 659–661
Microlens array (MLA), 882–884
Micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC), 576
Microradiotherapy system, 688–693
Microscopic process of Si oxidation, 3–16
Mid-wave and long-wave QD IR photodetectors, 261–269
current–voltage characteristics, 270–271
detector peak responsivity, 271–276
device characteristics, 270–282
noise characteristics of the device, 276–278
M–H curves, 157, 161, 162
Model catalysts, 438–443
Modified Landau–Lifshitz domain walls, 106–108
Modulation design of plasmonics for diagnostic and drug screening, 641–670
Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), 182, 185, 211, 224, 231
Molecular electronics of SAMs, 312–331
Molecular films used in nanolithography, 809–814
Molecularly defined structures, 843–845
Molecular multidot devices, 172–173
Molecular nanomagnets towards molecular spintronics, 120–157
Molecular rectifying diode, 323–325
Molecular rulers, 842–847
integrated with nanosphere lithography, 845
outlook, 847
patterning, 845–846
position-selective patterning, 845–846
Molecular semiconducting wire, 321–323
Molecular spin-transistor, 146–148
Molecular spin-valve, 148–149
Molecular spintronics with SMMs, 145–152
Molecular switches an memories, 326–330
charge-based memory, 328–329
conformational memory, 326–328
RTD-based memory, 146
Molecular transistor, 330–331
Molecular tunnelling barrier, 319–321
MOSFET, 41, 193, 194, 356
MOVPE, 222, 223, 225, 236
Multilayer asymmetrical structure, 646
Multilayer symmetrical structure, 645
MWNT, 481, 483, 486, 496, 750, 863, 896
Nanocatalysis, 416–465
Nanofabrication of molecular devices, 313–318
Nano FET (n-FET), 41, 42
Nanofibers, 890
Nanografting, 588–591
Nanoimprint lithography (NIL), 809
Nanoionic materials, 295–296
Nanoionics and its device applications, 294–310
Nano-LAMPs (nanolayered metal probes), 541, 542, 549, 550
fabrication and applicability, 565–566
designing, 564–565
theoretical modelling, 548–564
Nanolithography using molecular films and processing, 808–848
Nanomaterial applications, 481–492
Nanomaterials in consumer products, 888–890
cosmetics, 888
sporting equipment, 889
Nanomaterials in thermal therapy, 481–492
Nanoparticle–cell interactions, 519–525
Nanoparticles (NP) (or nanoscale particles NSP), 437–458, 894, 896–899
exposure and the risk evaluation, 896–899
Nanoparticles for nanodiagnostic and nanotherapeutic use, 505
Nanoparticles in medicine, 503–530
Nanophotonics with QDs, 227–234
Nanosorbents, 724
Nano-SQUID, 146, 149
Nanostructured probes to enhance optical spectroscopic imaging for biomedical applications, 539–566
Nanotechnology contribution field emtters—electron cold sources, 736–785
Nanotransfer printing (nTP), 820
Nanotribology, 864, 868
Nanowhiskers, 889
Nanowires (NWs), 94, 343, 358
Nanowires (NWs) for spintronics, 94–96
Néel–Brown model, 147–149
Negative differential resistance (NDR), 326, 329, 331 (p. 908)
New catalysts from first principles, 433–437
Non-polar and polar covalent bonds, 707–708
Object reconstruction from FPM images, 741–746
Optical lithography, 828
Optical matrix element for inter- and intraband transitions, 251–252
Optical properties of individual QDs, 554–559
Optical tunability, 554–564
Organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) nanoparticles, 511
Organic LED (OLED), 656
Organization for Economic Cooperation an Development (OECD), 899
their suggested endpoints for evaluating nanomatrial hazards, 900–901
Oscillations of tunnel splitting, 144–147
Oxidation-enhanced diffusion (OED), 10
Oxidation-induced stacking faults (OSF), 9
Oxidation-reduced diffusion (ORD), 10
Patterning via external tools, 818–831
Peak detectivity of QD photodetector, 278–281
Peptides, 507
Personal protective equipment (PPE) for handling nanomaterials, 902
Phase separation in multicomponent assemblies, 815–817
Phonon bottleneck, 156, 158, 267
Photocatalytic electrodes, 794–799
Photoelectrodes with 2D grid-like nanostructures, 791–794
Photoluminescence (PL), 229, 796
Photon-assisted tunnelling in SMM, 140, 141
Physical vapor deposition (PVD), 809, 831
Poisson-CI approach, 52
Polarization modulation infra-red reflectance absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRAS), 424
Polymeric micelles, 507–508
Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures, Prism coupler, 650
Protein-based nanodevices, 570–605
Proteins, 507
affinity proteins, 573
fundamentals, 572–574
Proton sponge effect, 523
Pseudogap, 374
Pulmonary exposures, 891
assessment of, 893–894
Pulsed laser ablation for nanomaterials, 860–865
synthesis in vacuum, 861–862
synthesis in liquid, 862–865
QD-based FISH/immuno-histo-chemistry techniques, 636
QD configuration, 66
QD confinement plane, 52
QD device, 60
QD resistance, 616
QD size, 74
Quantum cascade emitters, 197–202
Quantum cascade lasers (QCL), 197, 199
Quantum-dot computer memories, 234–235
Quantum-dot crystals, 235–236
three-D, 235
Quantum-dot focal plane array imagers, 282–288
Quantum dot—uniformity requirements, 284–288
Quantum dots (QDs), 47, 49, 53, 56, 57, 59, 61, 65, 66, 67, 72–76, 79, 81, 82, 147, 151, 508–509, 513, 529, 530, 614–618, 621–629, 896
and their epitaxial synthesis, 260–261
antibody conjugates, 627, 636
based multicolor flow cytometry, 630–631
bioprobes, 619, 629, 632–634
coupled, 63
elliptical deformations, 49
gated, 47
labelled biomarkers, 632
lateral (planar), 48
molecular profiling technology, 636
photo-physical properties, 615–621
science and technology, 208–209
streptavidin probes, 633
surface, 628
vertical, 47, 48
Quantum-dot-based probes for biomedical applications, 621–629
QD bioconjugation, 626–629
QD synthesis, 621–622
Quantum dots—self-organized and self-limiting assembly, 205–238
Quantum dynamics of a dimer of nanomagnets, 152–155
Quantum efficiency of QD photodetector, 282
Quantum Hall effect, 206
fractional, 206
Quantum nanostructures, 205
Quantum phase interference, 147
Quantum wire (QW), 172
Quantum-wire quantum-dot (QWQD), 48, 49
coupled QWQDs, 49
Rabi oscillations, 159
Realistic double QDs, 67–72
Coulomb localization in coupled QDs, 67–72
hybrid multiscale approach, 67–69
Redshift between absorbed and emitted photon, 619
Reflectance difference spectroscopy (RDS), 14–16
Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), 211, 215
Replica moulding, (REM), 577
Research priorities for development of more refined estimates of nanomaterial risk, 899–902
Resonant current excitations, 118–123
Resonant excitation of domain walls, 121
Resonant excitation of spin-waves, 120–121
Resonant excitation of vortices, 121
Resonant photon absorption, 136–139
Resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs), 194–197
RNA, 614
Mature RNA (mRNA), 572
Role of computational sciences in Si-nanotechnology, 1–43
SAMFET, 330, 331
SAMs (Self-assembled monolayers), 316, 317, 319, 321, 322, 326, 330, 344–346, 368–369, 582, 668, 809–813, 817–833, 848
insertion and exchange in, 817–818
Scanning-anode field emission microscope (SAFEM), 756–759
Scanning probe lithography (SPL), 576, 822 (p. 909)
Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), 421
Schottky barrier heights and CMOS applications, 20–38
Schottky barrier heights at interfaces, 23–34
Schottky barrier—conventional theory, 20–23
Schottky barrier height—new theory, 34–37
Secondary ion mass spectroscopy, 10
SEIRA (surface-enhanced infra-red absorption), 546–548, 550
Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), 395, 405, 408
Selectivity of nanoparticles for applications, 516–517
Self-assembled hybrid nanodevices, 369–380
Self-assembly strategy of nanomanufacturing of hybrid devices, 343–380
Self- and directed patterning, 814–818
Self-organization in Stranski–Krastanov systems, 212–220
general phenomenology, 213–216
multiplayer quantum dots, 219–220
statistics of quantum dot arrays, 216–219
thermodynamic considerations, 212–213
SEM, 226, 296, 297, 362, 388, 406, 576, 762, 796, 861, 862
Semiconductor photon detectors, 245–247
detection through band-to-band transitions, 246
detection via impurity level conduction band, 246–247
Sensitised TiO2 stacked-grid array photoelectrodes, 799–802
SERS (surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy), 542–546, 548, 550
single-molecule SERS (SM-SERS), 545, 546
SEVS (surface-enhanced vibrational spectroscopy), 542–548, 549
biomolecular applications of, 548
Si-Ge alloys, 181–183
Si nanotechnologies, 1
present trend, 2–3
Si nanowires (SiNWs), 38–41
Si nanowire (SiNW) MOSFET, 38
Single-atom emitters, 739–742
Single-atom nanotip and Fresnel projection microscope, 742–746
Single-atom nanotip—microgun, 746–748
Single-cell irradiation system, 693–694
Single-crystal surfaces, 427–433
Single-layer dielectric thin film, 644–645
Single-layer metallic film, 645
Single molecular magnets (SMMs), 136–174
Single-photon sources, 231–232
Si/SiGe heterostructures in nanoelectronics, 181–202
Site control of quantum dots on patterned substrate, 220–227
ordered arrays of QDs on patterned substrate, 224–227
thermodynamic considerations, 221–224
Size modulation of exchange energy, 74–75
Soft lithography, 577, 818–822
Solid electrochemical reaction, 296–299
Spin-degenerate state, 229
Spin diffusion, 96–100
Spin-parity effect, 146–147
Spin-polarized currents acting on magnetization, 101–108
Spin-transfer torque, 102–105
Spin-transistor, 167–170
Spintronics with metallic nanowires, 90–124
Spin-valves and tunnel junctions SPM (scanning probe microscopy), 419, 424, 425
SPR angle, 644, 650
SPR devices, 646, 657
SPR system, 655
SPR wave-guide measurement system, 661
Stability of nanomaterials, 887
safety evaluation, 888
Stability of nanoparticles, 513–514
Strain, 183–186
Stranski–Krastanov morphology, 213, 214, 216, 218
Strong coupling limit, 169, 170
Structure of hydrogen sorbents, 722–725
Sum-frequency generation (SFG), 424
Super-resolution laser nano-imprinting, 882–884
Surface characterization, 419–427
Surface chemical reactions, 432–433
Surface-enhanced infra-red absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy, 540, 541
Surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectroscopy, 540, 541
Surface-enhanced vibrational (SEV) spectroscopy, 540, 541, 542
Surface-plasmon coupled emission (SPCE), 648
Surface-plasmon grating coupled emission (SPGCE), 646–649
Surface-plasmon resonance (SPR), 509, 643, 649, 662, 667–670
long-range SPR (LRSPR), 642, 657–659
Surface-plasmon wave (SPW), 652, 657
Surface properties of nanoparticles, 514–515
Surface structure, 428–429
SWNT (single-walled nanotube), 350, 353, 354, 358, 368, 386–413, 496, 581, 597, 676, 683, 750, 892
Synthesis of CNTs and carbon nano-test-tubes (CNTTs), 387–392
Targeting strategies employing nanotubes, 490–491
Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), 456
Templated CNTs and use of their cavities for nanomaterials synthesis, 386–413
Terminal events—apoptosis or necrosis, 478–479
The interaction–structure–property paradigm, 704–705
Thermal ablative therapy in cancer, 475–481
Thermally activated magnetization reversal, 147–149
Thermotoxicity, 476
Mechanisms of, 476–479
Three-D nanostructures, 805
Three-D open architecture, 790, 791, 794–799
Three-D photonic nanodevices, 799
Three-D quantum wire, 50
Three-D stacked-grid arrays, 790, 798
Tip-profile evolution, 774–781
Topographically directed etching (TODE), 819
Total-energy distribution (TED), 741, 757, 764–765, 773
Toxicity, 518–519, 890
Toxicology of nanotubes, 488–490
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), 195, 201, 206, 223, 234, 236, 390, 395, 396, 398, 399, 401, 405, 406, 408–410, 420, 421, 462, 463, 601, 631, 632, 793, 898
studies of nanoclusters, 458–463
Triple-walled nanotube, 373
Triple QD (TQD), 76, 77, 81
Tumour molecular imaging and profiling, 629–636
Tuneable and size-dependent light emission, 616–618
Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), 91, 92
Two-D functional building blocks, 799
Two-D nanoscale building blocks, 805 (p. 910)
Two dimensional electron gas (2DEG), 49, 205
Two-DEG-based QDs, 49
Two electrons in double QDs, 50–72
Two electrons in QWQDs, 72–76
Tyramide signal amplification (TSA), 633
UHV-STM, 316, 321, 322, 825
Ultrafast laser-inuced phase-change nanolithogrphy, 882, 883
Ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), 211, 418, 419, 422
Universality of generalized charge neutrality level, 37–38
Use of gold nanoshells and nanorods in cancer imaging, 495
Use of nanoparticles in anticancer thermal therapy, 485
UV absorbance, 870
UV photopatterning nanolithography, 829
V2O5 nanowire, 358–360
Vapor-phase epitaxy (VPE), 211–212
Variational Heitler–London method, 72–74, 85
Variational Monte Carlo (VMC) model, 56–57, 80, 82–85
Vector spherical harmonics (VSH), 551, 552
Vibrational spectroscopy, 423
Volmer–Weber growth, 212
Von Neumann–Wigner Theorem in coupled dots, 66–67
Water-dispersible and magnetically responsive CNTTs, 397–403
Weak-coupling limit, 168–169
XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure), 422, 434, 443
XPS, 420, 423, 424, 826
XPS high-pressure (HPXPS), 423
X-ray (nano)lithography, 830–831
X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, 420
X-ray tubes, 678–694
CNT-based field emission microfocus, 678–679
CNT-based field emission multi-pixel X-ray source, 680–681, 690
CNT field emission X-ray source, 678–681
multibeam field emission X-ray (MBFEX) source, 688
multipixel X-ray, 690
XRD, 405, 420, 422
Zero-field oscillations, 117
ZnO nanowires, 360