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date: 17 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This article presents theoretical simulations of scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) images and spectra of nanostructures. It begins with an overview of the theories of STM and scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS), focusing on four main approaches: the perturbation or Bardeen approach, the Tersoff–Hamann approach and its extension, the scattering theory or Landauer–Bütticker approach, and the non-equilibrium Green's function or Keldysh approach. It then considers conventional STM and STS experimental investigations of various systems including clean surfaces, ad-atoms, single molecules, self-assembled monolayers, and nanostructures. It also discusses STM activities that go beyond conventional STM images and STS, such as functionalized STM tip, inelastic spectroscopy identification, manipulation, molecular electronics and molecular machines.

Keywords: scanning tunnelling microscope, spectra, nanostructures, scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, clean surfaces, ad-atoms, single molecules, inelastic spectroscopy, molecular electronics, molecular machines

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