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date: 30 July 2021

(p. xvii) List of Contributors

(p. xvii) List of Contributors

Soon Ang (Ph.D. Minnesota) is Goh Tjoei Kok Endowed Chair and Professor of Management and is Head of the Division of Strategy, Management and Organization at the Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. She is also the Executive Director of the Center for Leadership and Cultural Intelligence. Her research interests are in cultural intelligence, global leadership, and outsourcing. She has published extensively in Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Organization Science, Management Science, Information Systems Research, MIS Quarterly, and Social Forces, and serves on editorial boards including Organization Science, Applied Psychology, Decision Science, MIS Quarterly, and others. She pioneered and co-authored two foundation books on cultural intelligence (Stanford University Press) and co-edited the Handbook of Cultural Intelligence (M.E. Sharpe). She recently received the prestigious Distinguished International Alumni Award from the University of Minnesota for her academic leadership and scholarship record.

Margaret Mendenhall Blair is an economist who focuses on management law. She joined the Vanderbilt's Law and Business faculty in 2004. She was previously at Georgetown University Law Center, where she served as a Sloan Visiting Professor and Research Director for the Sloan-GULC Project on Business Institutions, from 2000 through June 2004. Prior to that, she was a Senior Fellow in the Economic Studies Program at the Brookings Institution, where she wrote about corporate governance and the role of human capital in corporations. Her current research focuses on team production and the legal structure of business organizations, legal issues in the governance of supply chains, and the role of finance in creating bubbles.

Rocio Bonet is an Assistant Professor at IE Business School in Madrid, Spain. Her research focuses on the effects of postgraduate education, in particular of the MBA degree, on individuals' career success. Bonet is also a sworn employee of the Census Bureau where she is conducting research on the effect of work organizational practices on employee welfare, especially on wage growth and promotions. She received her Ph.D. from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.

Peter Boxall is Professor of Human Resource Management and Associate Dean for Research in the Business School at the University of Auckland. His research is (p. xviii) concerned with the links between HRM and strategic management and with the changing nature of work and employment systems. He is the co-author with John Purcell of Strategy and Human Resource Management (Palgrave Macmillan), co-editor with John Purcell and Patrick Wright of the Oxford Handbook of Human Resource Management (Oxford University Press), and co-editor with Richard Freeman and Peter Haynes of What Workers Say: Employee Voice in the Anglo-American Workplace (Cornell University Press).

Rhett Brymer is a Ph.D. student of strategic management at the Mays Business School at Texas A&M University. He received his M.B.A. and M.S. degrees from the Florida State University, and worked as an organizational change consultant for six years with firms such as Hewlett-Packard, Credit Suisse, BearingPoint, Citigroup, and Proctor & Gamble. He is a member of the Academy of Management and the Strategic Management Society. His research interests include human capital, strategy implementation, collective cognitions, strategic entrepreneurship, and acquisitions.

Alan Burton-Jones heads an international management consultancy practice headquartered in Brisbane, Australia, with affiliates in Asia and the UK, and is a senior visiting lecturer at New South Wales, Griffith and Bond Universities. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Canberra. His academic research focuses on the role of knowledge in organizations and the links between strategy, intellectual resources, and organizational effectiveness. He is the author of Knowledge Capitalism: Business, Work and Learning in the New Economy (Oxford University Press, 1999, Nikkei, 2002) and his writings have also been published in a number of leading international journals. He contributed to the Australian government report on the knowledge-based economy in APEC countries (DISR 2000), the first national Knowledge Management Framework published by Standards Australia, and the establishment of the Asia-Pacific Learning and Knowledge Management Council (pan-Pacific industry forum).

Andrew Burton-Jones is an Assistant Professor at the Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia. He holds a Bachelor of Commerce and Master of Information Systems from the University of Queensland and a Ph.D. from Georgia State University. His first research stream seeks a deeper understanding of how well individuals and collectives use information systems. His second research stream seeks ways to improve methods for analyzing and designing systems in organizations. He has published in Data and Knowledge Engineering, Database for Advances in Information Systems, Information Systems Research, and MIS Quarterly, and he has received best paper awards from MIS Quarterly and the International Conference on Information Systems. Prior to his academic career he was a senior consultant in a Big-4 accounting/consulting firm.

Peter Cappelli is the George W. Taylor Professor of Management at The Wharton School and Director of Wharton's Center for Human Resources. He is also a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research in Cambridge, Massachussetts. He has degrees in industrial relations from Cornell University and in labor economics from Oxford, where he was a Fulbright Scholar. His work focuses on human resource practices, talent and performance management, and public policy related to employment. He is the author of over 100 papers in refereed journals and numerous book chapters. He serves on the editorial boards of Organizational Dynamics, Journal of Industrial Relations, Industrial Relations, Administrative Science Quarterly, Employee Relations (UK), and Industrial and Labor Relations Review.

Thomas Clarke is Professor of Management at the University of Technology, Sydney, and Director of the Key University Research Centre for Corporate Governance research at UTS. He was awarded his doctorate in Industrial and Business Studies from the University of Warwick Business School, UK. He was previously DBM Professor of Corporate Governance at the Leeds Business School, UK, and Visiting Professor at the China Europe International Business School (CEIBS), Shanghai, the FGV Business School, Sao Paulo, Brazil, and UAM Business School, Mexico City. His broader research interests include management and business paradigms, globalization, international best practice in knowledge management, the knowledge economy, privatization and deregulation, management reform in China and SE Asia, sustainable enterprise, stakeholder management, media and communications, new organizational forms, and the governance of knowledge-based business. Professor Clarke has published a number of books including Changing Paradigms: The Transformation of Management Knowledge for the 21st Century (Profile Books, 2000), and over 120 book chapters and articles in refereed journals.

Russ Coff (Ph.D. UCLA) is an Associate Professor of Organization and Management at Emory University. He studies dilemmas associated with knowledge-based competitive advantages such as how buyers cope when acquiring human asset intensive targets, and value/rent appropriation from knowledge-based advantages. He served as the Chair for the Business Policy and Strategy Division of the Academy of Management, and currently sits on the editorial boards of the Academy of Management Journal, Organization Science, Strategic Management Journal, Strategic Organization, and Journal of Strategic Management Education.

Nicolai J. Foss is a Professor of Organization and Strategy at the Copenhagen Business School and the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, and a visiting professor at Lund University and LUISS, Rome. His research interests are the theory of the firm, knowledge governance, and social science methodology. He is the author of more than 100 papers in reviewed journals, (p. xx) including the Strategic Management Journal, Organization Science, Human Resource Management, and others. He has edited or written several books on the theory of the firm and strategic management. He blogs on

Robert Grant holds the Eni Chair in Strategic Management at Bocconi University. He previously worked at Georgetown University, City University (London), California Polytechnic, University of British Columbia, London Business School, and St Andrews University, and was economic adviser to the British Monopolies Commission. His interests are in competitive and corporate strategy, and the theory of the firm. His textbook Contemporary Strategy Analysis is used in MBA programs worldwide. He serves on the editorial boards of Strategic Management Journal, Journal of Management Studies, Long Range Planning, Strategy and Leadership, and European Management Review.

James Guthrie is a Professor at Bologna University and an Honorary Professor at the University of Sydney. His research and teaching interests include public sector accounting, auditing, accountability and management, social and environmental reporting and auditing, management of knowledge and intellectual capital, and the measurement of intangibles. He has published 145 articles in both international and national refereed and professional journals, and over 35 chapters in books. He is also co-editor of eight public sector management and accounting books, and has presented his ideas and research findings to over 280 national and international gatherings.

Monika Hamori is Professor of Human Resource Management at IE Business School in Madrid, Spain. Her research focuses on the predictors of managerial and executive career success, on top executive and chief executive career paths, and on the role of executive search firms in the corporate hiring process. Her articles have been published in a number of refereed journals including the Harvard Business Review, International Journal of Human Resource Management and Industrial and Labor Relations Review. She was born in Hungary and pursued her undergraduate studies in Budapest. She received her Ph.D. from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.

James C. Hayton is Goldman Professor of Entrepreneurship at Newcastle University Business School. His research interests include the strategic management of human resources, organizational learning and innovation, and entrepreneurship and firm growth. He serves as Executive Editor of Human Resource Management Journal, and serves on the editorial board of Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Journal of Business Venturing, European Management Review, Human Resource Management Review, and Journal of Management Studies.

Michael Hitt is currently a Distinguished Professor of Management at Texas A&M University and holds the Joe B. Foster Chair in Business Leadership. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Colorado. A recent article noted that he was one of the top ten most cited authors in the management field over a 25-year period. He has served as an editor of the Academy of Management Journal and is currently co-editor of the Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal. He is a Fellow in the Academy of Management and in the Strategic Management Society, and received an honorary doctorate (Doctor Honoris Causa) from the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. He is a former President of the Academy of Management and is the current Past President of the Strategic Management Society. He has received awards for the best article published in the Academy of Management Executive, Academy of Management Journal and the Journal of Management. He has received the Irwin Outstanding Educator Award and the Distinguished Service Award from the Academy of Management.

Thomas Kochan is George Maverick Bunker Professor of Management and Professor of Work and Employment Research at the MIT Sloan School of Management. He is an expert source on labor relations, collective bargaining, human resource management, regulatory policies, and unemployment. His recent work calls attention to the challenges facing working families in meeting their responsibilities at work and at home and in their communities. Through empirical research, he demonstrates that fundamental changes in the quality of employee and labor–management relations are needed to address America's critical problems in industries ranging from health care to airlines to manufacturing. He is the author of over 100 articles in refereed journals and over 40 book chapters.

Jeroen Kraaijenbrink is Assistant Professor at Nikos, the Dutch Institute for Knowledge Intensive Entrepreneurship at the University of Twente. He holds an M.Sc. and a Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering and Management and an M.Sc. in Public Administration from the University of Twente. His research focuses on knowledge-based and entrepreneurial explanations of the theory of the firm. Embracing the non-mainstream economic positions variously labeled Austrian, Knightian, evolutionary or otherwise ‘non-equilibrium’ , and taking a pragmatist sociological perspective, he is working towards a subjectivist and dynamic theory of the firm with human imagination and judgment at its center. He teaches courses on strategy, knowledge management and entrepreneurship in the M.Sc. programs of Business Administration and Business Information Technology. He also teaches these topics to entrepreneurs within the VentureLab Twente and managers at the Twente School of Management (TSM).

Robin Kramar is a Professor and Deputy Dean and Director of Accreditation at MGSM, Macquarie University. She has a particular interest in human resource (p. xxii) management, diversity management, and education for sustainability. She represents Australia in the Cranet Network which undertakes comparative, longitudinal research in more than 40 countries. She is Associate Editor of Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, and serves on the editorial board of Journal of Chinese HRM and Asia Pacific Journal of Business Administration. She has co-authored and co-edited eight books on Australian human resource management and has more than sixty publications in refereed journals and books.

David Lepak is Professor of Human Resource Management and Department Chair of the HRM department in the School of Management and Labor Relations at Rutgers University. His research focuses on strategic human resource management with an emphasis on employment sub-systems and the HR architecture, contingent labor, intellectual capital, and linking HR systems to important company outcomes. His research has appeared in a variety of outlets such as Academy of Management Review, Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Management, and Human Resource Management. He has co-authored a comprehensive textbook with Mary Gowan entitled Human Resource Management (Prentice Hall, 2008). He is currently associate editor of Academy of Management Review, and serves on the editorial boards of many other academic journals.

Peter Lewin (Ph.D. Chicago, 1979) was born and grew up in Johannesburg, South Africa, and emigrated to the United States in 1972. At the University of the Witwatersrand, in Johannesburg, he studied under Ludwig Lachmann, a German scholar specializing in capital theory deriving from the Austrian School of Economics. At the University of Chicago he completed his Ph.D. under the guidance of Gary Becker on The Economics of Apartheid, and acquired an interest in human capital and the Chicago approach human behavior. These two educational experiences provided the basis for his work in human capital as an aspect of capital theory more generally. In recent years his work has focused on applications of capital theory to business organization. He is a Clinical Professor of Economics at the University of Texas at Dallas, School of Management, where he has taught economics for the last 15 years.

Adam Seth Litwin is Assistant Professor and a founding member of the faculty at the Carey Business School at Johns Hopkins University. His research focuses on the interplay of employment practices and workplace technological change. His dissertation, completed at the MIT Sloan School of Management, examined the influence of the employment relationship on the adoption, diffusion, and effective deployment of health IT. Aside from his broad interests in employment relations and strategic HRM, he has recently focused on the effects of employee involvement programs in the healthcare industry as well as on the issue of employment practices in small business.

Brian Loasby was born in Kettering, Northamptonshire, and was educated in local schools and at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. After appointments at the Universities of Aberdeen, Birmingham and Bristol, and a year as Arthur D. Little Management Fellow during which he attended courses at Harvard Business School and the Sloan School of Management at MIT, he moved to the new University of Stirling where he is now Emeritus and Honorary Professor of Economics. His interests centre on the relationships between knowledge and organization, both conceived as distinctive structures of selected elements, and include human cognition, firm and interfirm relationships, decision processes, the history of economics (a major source of reusable ideas) and methodology. He has written five books, and well over a hundred articles and chapters in multi-authored volumes. Knowledge, Institutions and Evolution in Economics (Routledge 1999), developed from his Graz Schumpeter Lectures, was joint winner of the Schumpeter Prize in 2000. He holds an honorary doctorate from the University of Stirling, and is a Fellow of the British Academy and the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

Vijaya Murthy is a lecturer and a Ph.D. student at the Discipline of Accounting, University of Sydney. Vijaya's focus is on intellectual capital research; in particular, human capital. She is interested in developments in human capital accounting. She is currently doing research on the managerial use of non-financial performance information in practice, and is specifically examining how management uses information on workplace flexibility to mobilize the different elements of intellectual capital.

Janine Nahapiet is Emeritus Fellow, Green Templeton College, and Associate Fellow of the Saϯd Business School at the University of Oxford, and specializes in the links between strategy and organization. Her co-authored paper ‘Social Capital, Intellectual Capital and the Organizational Advantage’ won the Academy of Management Review best paper award in 1998, and has been identified recently as the second most cited article in the last decade in the fields of economics and management and the fifth most influential strategic management article published in the last 26 years. Her research focuses on links between social capital, innovation and knowledge, the theory and practice of cooperation, and innovative forms of organizing. In 2006 she moved to a portfolio career in order to focus both her research and work with executives on the challenge of building organizational capabilities for the twenty-first century.

Kok-Yee Ng is Associate Professor in Management at the Nanyang Technological University, and Director of Research at the Center for Leadership and Cultural Intelligence. She received her Ph.D. in Organizational Behavior from Michigan State University. Her research interests include cultural intelligence, leadership, and teams. She has published in the Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied (p. xxiv) Psychology, Management Science, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, and the MIS Quarterly.

Ikujiro Nonaka is a Professor Emeritus at the Graduate School of International Corporate Strategy, Hitotsubashi University, Xerox Distinguished Faculty Scholar, University of California, Berkeley, and also First Distinguished Drucker Scholar in Residence at the Drucker School and Institute, Claremont Graduate University. He has published many books and articles in Japanese and in English. Selected publications include Managing Flow: A Process Theory of the Knowledge-based Firm (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, with co-authors), and The Knowledge-Creating Company (Oxford University Press, 1995, with H. Takeuchi).

David O'Donnell, of the Intellectual Capital Research Institute, Ireland, is an interdisciplinary researcher in the fields of intellectual capital, governance, democracy studies, and critical management studies. A founding member of the New Club of Paris, he has conducted research for CIMA, CIPD, and Houses of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament), and is actively involved in international collaborative research with like-minded colleagues. He serves on the editorial boards of Corporate Governance International Review and Journal of European Industrial Training, and has published widely since rediscovering The Frankfurt School after twenty-five years in various roles in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. Living in rural County Limerick, he is an avid Munster Rugby Club supporter.

Seán Ó Riain is Professor of Sociology and Department Head at the National University of Ireland, Maynooth. He earned his Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of California, Berkeley in 1999, and taught at the University of California, Davis, before moving to NUI Maynooth. His research interests include globalization and the knowledge economy, the politics of the workplace, new state formations, life histories and social change in twentieth-century Ireland, and ethnography and public sociology. He is the author of The Politics of High Tech Growth: Developmental Network States in the Global Economy (Cambridge University Press, 2004), which was co-awarded the James S. Donnelly Prize for Best Book in History and the Social Sciences at the American Conference of Irish Studies in 2005. He is currently co-authoring (with Chris Benner) a book entitled Re-Making the Information Economy: The Politics of Work in Silicon Valley and Ireland (American Sociological Association Rose Series/ Russell Sage Foundation, under contract).

Vesa Peltokorpi is an Assistant Professor in human resource management at HEC School of Management, Paris. He has published various articles in management journals such as Journal of Management Studies, International Business Review, International Journal of Human Resource Management, and Review of General Psychology.

Mario Schijven is currently an Assistant Professor of management at Texas A&M University. He received his Ph.D. from Tilburg University, The Netherlands. His current research focuses on corporate development activities—most notably acquisitions, alliances, and organizational restructuring, which he studies using theories of organizational learning, behavioral decision-making, and evolutionary economics. His work has appeared in the Academy of Management Journal and the Journal of Management, among others.

Peter D. Sherer is an associate professor in the Haskayne School of Business at the University of Calgary. His research focuses on strategy and human resource management, principally in the context of professional service firms. He has published in a number of journals and research volumes including the Academy of Management Journal, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Industrial Relations, Journal of Labor Economics, Organization Science, Research in Organizational Behavior, Research in Personnel/Human Resources Management, Research in the Sociology of Organizations, and Trends in Organizational Behavior. He was the lead author in an article on institutional change in law firms that received the Best Paper award of 2002 in the Academy of Management Journal by the Academy of Management. His chapter in this volume, on bringing organizations deeper into human capital theory, reflects his long-standing interest in integrating economics with organizational and behavioral theories. He is one of the founders of the Human Capital and Competitive Advantage Interest Group of the Strategic Management Society. He serves on the editorial board of the Academy of Management Journal. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

J.-C. Spender served in experimental submarines in the Royal Navy, then studied engineering at Oxford (Balliol), worked as a nuclear submarine reactor engineer with Rolls–Royce & Associates, a sales manager with IBM (UK), a consultant with Decision Technology International (Boston), and as an investment banker with Slater–Walker Securities. His Ph.D. thesis (Manchester Business School) won the Academy of Management's 1980 A. T. Kearney Ph.D. Research Prize, later published as Industry Recipes (Blackwell, 1989). He served on the faculty at City University (London), York University (Toronto), UCLA, and Rutgers. He was Dean of the School of Business and Technology at SUNY/FIT before retiring in 2003. He now researches, writes, and lectures on organization theory, strategy, and knowledge management in the USA, Canada, and Europe, with Visiting Professor appointments at Lund University, ESADE, Cranfield University, Leeds University, and the Open University. He was awarded, jointly with Rob Grant, the SMJ Best Paper Prize for 2006 for the 1996 SMJ Special Issue on Knowledge and the Firm.

Juani Swart directs the Work and Employment research Centre (WERC) where she specializes in Managing Knowledge and Knowledge Workers. Her specific (p. xxvi) research interests include understanding the nature of knowledge in networked processes, strategic knowledge assets, and the links between the intellectual capital, HRM and performance debates. She has published widely in the area of people management in knowledge intensive firms, intellectual capital structures, systems approaches to knowledge management, and network influences on strategic choice in leading journals, and has co-authored two books: People and Performance and Strategic Human Resource Development. Her research publications also include policy-informing reports on performance in knowledge-intensive firms, managing professional knowledge workers, and managing across boundaries.

Riki Takeuchi is an Associate Professor in the Department of Management at the School of Business and Management, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. He received his Ph.D. from the Robert H. Smith School of Business, University of Maryland at College Park. His research interests include expatriate adjustment and international human resource management, strategic human resource management, organizational justice, and organizational citizenship behaviors. His research has appeared in Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Organization Science, and Personnel Psychology, among others. He also received the Distinguished Early Career Contributions Award from SIOP in 2010. He currently serves on the editorial review board for Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of Management, and Personnel Psychology.

Mei Ling Tan is a doctoral candidate in management at the Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University. She holds the prestigious Nanyang President's Graduate Scholarship to pursue her doctoral studies at Nanyang Business School. To date, her research has been presented at the Academy of Management Meetings, and she has published in the fields of psychological contracts and cultural intelligence. Her current research interests include cultural intelligence, international experience, and managing international and diverse workforces.

David Teece is Tusher Professor in Global Business at the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley. He received his Ph.D. in economics from the University of Pennsylvania in 1975. He is the co-author of over 200 books and articles on topics in innovation strategy, intellectual property, and antitrust policy. He also holds four honorary doctorates. Two volumes of Professor Teece's published papers—Economic Performance and the Theory of the Firm and Strategy, Technology and Public Policy—were published in 1998 by the Edward Elgar (London) publishing house in its series ‘Economists of the Twentieth Century.’ Recent books include Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Management: Organizing for Innovation and Growth (Oxford University Press, 2009). He is on the Accenture list of the Top (p. xxvii) 50 Living Business Intellectuals. Prizes include the 2002 Viipuri International Prize in Strategic (Technology) Management and Business Economics, and the 2003 Strategic Management Journal Best Paper Award. According to Science Watch (November/December 2005) he is the lead author of the most cited paper in economics and business 1995–2005, and is ranked number 10 in citations worldwide by the same source for the same time period. Dr Teece has also been an active consultant to corporations and governments worldwide for more than 25 years. He is also an active private equity investor.

Ryoko Toyama is a Professor at the Graduate School of Strategic Management, Chuo University, Tokyo. Her research interests include strategy, technological management, and knowledge creation. She has published books about knowledge management, such as Managing Flow (Palgrave), and articles in management journals such as Industrial and Corporate Change and Long Range Planning, co-authored with Ikujiro Nonaka.

Dr Jacqueline Vischer has degrees in psychology and architecture, and is an environmental psychologist who has specialized in the study of the impact on building users of physical aspects of contemporary work environments. She is Professor in the Faculty of Environmental Design at the Université de Montréal, where she founded the Groupe de Recherche sur les Environnements de Travail (New Work Environments Research Group). She has also worked extensively as a consultant to large organizations in North America and Europe. Vischer is author or coauthor of six published books and a seventh in press. She has also published numerous articles on the environmental psychology of workspace, building evaluation, users' needs in buildings, indoor air quality, user–manager communication, facilities management, and architectural programming.

Georg von Krogh is a Professor at ETH Zurich, where he holds the Chair of Strategic Management and Innovation. He is also the Head of ETH Zurich's Department of Management, Technology, and Economics. He specializes in competitive strategy, technological innovation, and knowledge management. He has conducted research in various industries including financial services, media, computer software and hardware, life-sciences, and consumer goods, and has coauthored books on strategic management, knowledge creation, innovation, and organization and management theory. His articles have been published in leading journals including Management Science, Organization Science, Research Policy, Strategic Management Journal, and Harvard Business Review. He is a Senior Editor of Organization Studies, and an editorial board member of a number of journals including European Management Journal, European Management Review, MIT Sloan Management Review, and Long Range Planning.

Martin W. Wallin is a post-doctoral researcher at the Department of Management, Technology, and Economics, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. He was born in Ludvika, Sweden, and was educated at Chalmers University of Technology, where he received his M.Sc. (Industrial Engineering and Management) and Ph.D. (Technology Management). His research is focused on the organizational and motivational implications of distributed innovation. His empirical research has been conducted in several industries, including information technology, software, chemicals, and professional services. He teaches strategy, industry analysis and marketing, and has been a visiting researcher at Stanford University. He is author of a number of peer-reviewed book chapters and articles in refereed journals, including R&D Management, Organizational Dynamics, Research Policy, and Technovation.