Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 30 March 2020

(p. 671) Index

(p. 671) Index

3M 491
ABB 611
abduction 471
Abernathy, W. J. 557 n. 23
Abrahams, R. 579
absorptive capacity 250, 251, 268, 574–5
Academy of Management Journal 506, 508
Accenture 315, 392, 481
access concept 176
acquiring and developing human capital
‘build’ model of 309–10
erosion of ‘build’ model of 310–18 see also recruitment; United States of America
action
instrumental/strategic 447 see also communicative action
activities
functional support 506–8, 512, 514–15, 518
primary 506–7 see also work
Adams, J. 191, 195
Adler, P. S. 74, 80, 229, 417
adverse selection 364, 370, 371
affect, moods and emotions 131
Afghanistan 619
African Company 191
agency
problems 153, 186, 194, 195, 199
-structure debate 441–2
agency theory (AT) 198–9, 203, 207, 370
agents, human 462–4
Akerlof, G. A. 542
Alchian, Armen 61–2, 170, 171, 194, 195, 206, 363
Allen, W. R. 195
Allison, Paul 576–7, 578
Almeida, P. 577, 580
Alvarez, S. A. 224
ambiguity, causal 361, 363, 365, 373–4 see also social complexity
Anderson, E. 174
Andriensson, D. 386
Ang, Soon 12, 100, 101
Ansoff, H. I. 255
AOL 640
Apel, Karl-Otto 437
Apple 543–4
apprenticeship 472
Argote, L. 133
Aristotle 33, 464, 472
Armour & Co. 656
Armstrong, M. 392
Arrow, K. J. 177, 198
Arthur, W. B. 440
ASEAN4 633–4, 635, 636
Ashton, D. 40, 592, 609
Asian Development Bank 619
Asian financial crisis (1997–8) 630, 632, 638
asset specificity 167–8, 171, 174, 175
assets
bottleneck 538, 545
determining 54–5
firm-specific 363
human 360–3, 365, 366, 368, 371
intangible 218–19, 375, 438, 461, 626
strategic 362, 366, 375
Athos, A. 413
Atiyah, M. 249
Australia 388, 608, 656, 660
authority 168–9, 254
relation 170–1, 172
automation funds 656
Autor, D. H. 667 n. 8
ba 465–6, 468, 473, 474, 487, 488, 492, 494
actuality and 469–70
Baetjer, H. 158 n. 4
on knowledge 226–7
Bain, J. S. 219
Baird, Marian 666
Bairoch, P. 621
Baker, G. 177
Balanced Scorecard 383, 388, 439
Bamforth, K. 412
Bandura, A. 126
bargaining
collective 655, 659
opportunistic 171
power and HC 373–5 see also wage-work bargain
Barnard, C. I. 21, 199, 200, 206, 242, 245, 280, 486
on communications 254
on reason 241
Barney, J. B. 19, 20, 200, 220, 360, 368, 373, 572
on organization theory 199
on physical technology 359
on SCA 221
VRIN model 229
Baron, A. 392
Baron, J. N. 337, 340, 420
Bartlett, C. A. 317
Batt, R. 300–1
Baumol, W. J. 533, 534, 536
beauty 463, 465, 472
Becker, B. E. 538, 547
Becker, Gary S. 5, 17, 37, 38, 42, 201, 203, 362, 385, 565, 570, 571, 583, 651–2
as HC pioneer xiii–xiv, 49–50, 75, 145, 266, 434, 563
distinction between specific/general HC 2, 10, 23, 34, 39, 59, 267, 351, 564, 567–8, 574, 648
on HC 123, 267, 575
on leisure time 270
on training 269, 567, 569, 658
Williamson draws on work of 170, 180, 460
writings/thought of 187–8, 189–90
Beckman, C. M. 570, 571, 577, 579, 580
Beethoven, Ludwig van 58
Bell, Daniel 2, 190
Bell Labs 548
benchmarking studies 392
Benson, C. S. 76
Bentham, Jeremy 80
Berg, I. 658
Berksdale, K. 347
Berle, A. A. 193
Berlew, David 421
Berner, M. F. 337, 340
Bidner, C. 83
Bilbao Museum 479
Bingham, C. B. 412
Bjorkman, I. 109
Blackler, F. 519
Blair, Margaret 9–10, 63, 74, 651
Blaug, M. 76
Blauner, R. 299
Bluechipexpert.com 325
Blyler, M. 230
Boeing Corporation 409, 663
Boeker, W. 577, 578
Böhm-Bawerk, Eugen von 7, 14, 154
Bohr, Niels 242
Bonet, Rocio 25
Bontis, N. 386, 388
‘book value’ 56
Boselie, P. 667 n. 6
Boulding, Kenneth 256
Bourdieu, Pierre 11, 12, 79, 97, 440, 442
cultural capital concept of 102–3, 113
on capital 87–8
Bowman, C. 20, 226–7, 228, 230
Boxall, Peter 24–5, 228, 334
Brewer, M. 85
Brittain, J. W. 566, 581
Brown, J. 125, 440
Brown, L. A. 584 n. 7
Brummet, L. R. 385
Burt, R. S. 79, 418
Burton, M. D. 577, 579, 580
Burton-Jones, Alan 36, 181, 452, 614 n.
Burton-Jones, Andrew 36
Busenitz, L. W. 224
Caligiuri, P. M. 106
Camerer, C. 406
Campbell, J. P. 416
Cantillon, Richard 22, 250–1, 254
(p. 673) capital
concept of 72–5
hybrid forms of 74, 80
knowledge and 146, 150–2, 245
nature of 244–5
neo-classical economic theory of 51
production and 147–9
relationships between types of 86–7, 89
structural approach to 74–5, 81, 86
structure 147, 149, 151–2, 154, 155–6
value 147
views of 159 n. 14 see also human capital; and individual entries
capital goods 148–52, 155
knowledge and 150–1, 226–7
Capital One 483
capital-based view of the firm (CBV) 145, 155, 157
Cappelli, Peter 25, 574, 583, 665, 666 n. 2
Carnegie Tech. 193
Carter, Walter 565–6, 568, 571
Cascio, W. F. 388
Casson, M. 22, 252
Castanias, R. P. 362
CDPQ building 495 n. 1
certainty 239–40 see also uncertainty
Chadwick, C. 224, 231–2
Chambers, John 549
Chandler, A. D. 199, 557 n. 23
Charles, M. 610
Chatman, J. A. 413
Chen, A. N. K. 272
Chicago School of Economics 2
Chicago, University of xiv, 145
China 293, 389, 619, 631–2, 639–40, 641
education in 620
exports from 633–4
manufacturing share 621–2
rise of 635, 636
R&D investment in 637
Chiswick, B. R. xiv
Choi, Y. B. 254
Christensen, Clayton 529
Cisco 549
Citigroup 640
Clark, J. M. 188
Clark, K. B. 351
Clark, K. D. 353
Clarke, Thomas 40–1
Coase, Ronald 16, 17, 19, 174, 180, 182 n. 5
lays foundations of TCE 167
on employment/employment relation 168–9, 170, 194
on firms 172, 255
Cockburn, I. 371
co-evolution 87, 89
Coff, Russell 8, 27–9, 123, 219, 223, 230, 366
cognition
as capital 122–3
behaviour, knowledge and 130–4
collective learning and 134–6
different from knowledge 121
-knowledge-behaviour relationship 125, 126–30, 137
strategy, knowledge and 123–6 see also social cognition theory
cognitive human capital 121–2, 136
management and 137–8
Cohen, W. M. 574
Colbert, B. A. 228
Cole, Bob 588–9, 594, 596, 611
Coleman, James 79, 83, 84, 88, 219, 418
on fungibility 87
collaboration 404, 489–90, 552–3
Collins, C. J. 353
Collins, J. C. 415
Columbia University xiv, 145, 565
combination 489–91
commitment 344–6, 347, 355
Commons, J. R. 199
communicative action 436, 441, 442, 444–7, 448–50 see also organizational lifeworlds
communicative relations 444–6, 447–8, 449–50
competencies 391, 420–5
competency approach 421–2, 424
competitive advantage 372, 374–6
assets and 360–3, 371, 546–7
complementarity 87, 88–9, 245, 503
complexity and multi-inventions 537
consumption goods 158 n. 5
contract theory 225, 229, 230
convertibility 87–8
Cook, S. D. N. 125
Cool, K. 572
cooperation 404, 406, 410, 413–14, 478, 548
coordination 404, 409, 478
costs 405
distinction between cooperation and 406
in organizations 413–17, 418, 422
interpersonal 422–3, 425
mechanisms 407–8, 505
(p. 674) Copernicus 249
corporate culture 369–70, 478
cosmopolitan human capital 97, 99, 101 see also cultural intelligence; global culture capital
cosmopolitans 99, 114 see also Kanter, R. M.
cost savings 338–9
Côté, J. E. 79
Coverdill, J. E. 322
Cravath, Paul 565
creative destruction 529, 544
creativity 541–3
Cresson, Edith 439
Crowston, K. 505, 509
cultural capital 72, 102–3, 420 see also Bourdieu, Pierre; Passeron, J.
cultural intelligence (CQ) 114
behavioural 101, 112–13
cognitive 100–1, 111–12
developing capabilities in 110–11
metacognitive 100, 112
motivational 101, 112
Cultural Intelligence Scale 114
Dabu, A. 224, 231–2
Darwinism 243
Davenport, T. H. 440
Davis-Blake, A. 340
Deal, T. E. 413
Dean, A. 3, 74
Dean, J. 299, 333
Debreu, G. 177
decomposability 243–4, 246, 248
Dedrick, J. 632
delayed payment contracts 64
Delery, J. E. 228, 337
Dell 544, 640
Demsetz, Harold 61–2, 170, 171, 194, 195, 206, 363
Demski, J. S. 199
Denison, D. R. 414
Denmark 603
Descartes, René 122
Detterman, D. K. 12, 100–1
Deutsch, M. 30, 410, 412, 504
development
economic studies of 590–1
education, economic growth and 628
flying geese pattern of economic 633
HC, economic growth and 57–8, 65, 528–31, 612, 626, 629–30, 635
in Asia Pacific 632–8
knowledge, economic growth and 152
nature of 619, 620
skills and 638
stages of economic 630–1
theories of growth and 622–6
toward knowledge-based economies 638–42 see also Marshall, Alfred
Dewey, J. 80, 437, 463
Dierickx, I. 572
diffusion 564, 575, 581
distributed leadership 551
DiTomaso, N. 414
Dittman, D. 362
diversification 578
Dobson, J. 471
Doeringer, Peter 60, 171, 569, 570, 573, 652
Dore, R. 596
Dosi, Giovanni 529, 555 n. 3
Doty, D. H. 228
Drago, R. 654
Drazin, R. 566, 577, 578–9, 580
drift 565, 575, 581–2
Drucker, P. F. 2, 190, 393, 472
Du Pont 256
Duguid, P. 440
Dunlop, J. T. 649–50
Durkheim, Emile 80
dynamic capabilities 528, 536–45, 551, 625
definitions 539, 540
value capture and 539–41, 542–5
value creation and 539–42
dynamic capability perspective 461
dynamic hazards 542
Dyson, J. R. 30, 384, 385, 387
Earley, P. C. 100
East India Company 191
Economist Intelligence Unit 97
economy
human capital-intensive 662–5
service 609 see also knowledge economy
ecosystem 538
‘edge of chaos’ 128
Edgington, T. M. 272
education 5–6, 76, 83, 188
parents/children and 102–3
public expenditure on 628–9
Edvinsson, Leif 386, 433, 437–8, 440
e-fellows.net 325
Ehrlich, I. 189
Eisai 469, 470
Eisenhardt, K. M. 199, 412
(p. 675) Ellis, A. P. J. 423
embedded/embodied capital 226, 230
Emerson, Ralph Waldo 544
Emirbayer, M. 441
employee-employer relationships 59, 173, 329, 483
long-term 52–3, 60, 62, 651, 652, 654, 663 see also socio-spatial contract
employees
engagement/satisfaction of 392
job-based 334–5, 343, 344, 345–6, 347, 348
non-core 334, 340, 343, 346, 348, 352 see also motivation; opportunism; workers
employers
HC and 658–9 see also opportunism
employment
differentiation 334, 336–9
protection 595, 596, 602–3, 605, 606
relations system basic features 649–57
services industry 311–12
systems stress 657–61
employment relation/relationship 292, 294, 295, 297, 648
assumptions 650–1, 660–1
Engels, Friedrich 67 n. 3
Enke, S. 188
Enron 67 n. 10
entrepreneurs
importance of 529–30, 531, 533–4
judgments of 149, 152 see also literati/numerati
entrepreneurship 238, 250–4, 536
discovery and 534–5
HC, the firm and 239, 255–7
Kirznerian 529
environment
virtual 478, 480, 491 see also space; work
equity and fairness 348–9
Eraut, M. 86
Esping-Andersen, G. 40, 597, 602
Estévez-Abe, M. 610
Europe 312, 314, 593
European Commission 437, 438
European Union (EU) 40, 439, 613, 636
Evans, P. 41, 591, 609, 620
evolution 243
exchange relationships 346
Excite 544
executive search firms 319–20
contingency 321, 322
HC and 323, 324
retained 321–2, 323
executives 312, 314–15
experiences
aesthetic 472
peak 471
social apprenticeship 111
externalization 489–91
Fabricant, S. 77
factors, use/learning 128–30, 132, 135, 136, 137, 138
Fadel, H. 385
failure 242–4, 248
Fairchild 566, 568, 571
Fama, E. F. 18, 19, 193, 196, 198, 201–2, 205–6, 207
on agency/HC 194–5, 199, 200
Farr, J. 79
Felin, T. 85
Feltham, G. A. 199
Field, J. 83
Fine, B. 80, 201
Finland 603
Finlay, W. 322
Fiol, C. M. 134
firms
accessing of HC by 267–8, 281–2
as organizations 238–9, 254–5
as safe havens 280–1
boundaries of 175, 180, 271, 354–5
definitions/views of 2, 18, 32, 62, 175, 177, 188, 194, 265, 435, 592
HC and knowledge of 268–70, 279
HC investments by 297–301
HC, SCA and 301–3
HC/knowledge and performance of 120–1, 334, 336–41, 343
managing 290–2
neo-classical economic model of 58–9
firm-specific
compensation 368, 374
human capital 227–8, 232, 269, 272, 273, 274, 275, 351, 361, 373
(p. 676) firm-specific/general human capital
distinction 567–74
transfer 574–82 see also Becker, Gary S.
Five Factor Model 131
Flamholtz, E. 385, 387
Fleischhauer, K.-J. 189
flexibility 204–8
functional 339–40
knowledge access 339
numeric 339–40
qualitative 339
skill 339, 341–2
Florin, J. 23
Ford, Henry 42, 405, 654
foreign direct investment (FDI) 634, 636, 640, 641
Fortune 323
Foss, Nicolai 8, 15–17, 18, 19, 188, 206, 224
on theory of the firm 204–5
Freelancers Union 664
Freeman, Chris 555 n. 3
Freeman, J. H. 566, 570, 571, 576, 581
Frey, B. S. 179, 265
Friedman, Milton 2
Fukui, Takeo 472
Fukuyama, F. 85, 418
fungibility 87, 88, 89, 501, 503, 530
Gadamer, H.-G. 437
game theory 197–8
Gardner, H. 423
Gardner, T. M. 584 n. 4
GE 317
Gehry, Frank 479
Genentech 544
General Motors (GM) 405, 611, 658, 660–1
Germany 189, 599, 603, 612, 640
manufacturing share 621–2
production models/strategies 595–6
workforce 593, 594, 606
Ghoshal, S. 17, 80, 179, 317, 364, 419, 437, 440
Gibbons, Robert 67 n. 9, 102
Giddens, A. 440, 442
Gil, R. 541–2
Gilson, R. J. 566, 569
global
and regional integration 636–7
financial crisis (2008) 612, 630, 632
production networks 634, 637
global culture capital 97–8, 114
cosmopolitan HC and 110–13
organizational routines and 104–10
organizational values and 103–4, 110
Global Reporting Initiative 388
globalization 612–13, 621, 661
Goldin, Claudia 66
Goleman, Daniel 424
Gong, Y. 341
Gonzalez, S. M. 336, 343
good, common 464–8
goodness 463–5, 468–9, 472
Google 126, 406, 483, 544
Gordon, G. G. 414
Gottschalg, O. 23, 265
Gouldner, A. W. 12, 97, 99
governance, shared 369
Granovetter, M. 11, 78, 418, 440
Grant, Rob 8, 30–1, 200, 262, 278, 440
Great Britain 293, 294–5
Greenspan, Stanley 423
Griffin, M. A. 416
Gröjer, J.-E. 385
Grossman, Michael xiv
Grossman, Sanford 2, 15, 61, 63, 175, 177, 181 n. 2
Groysberg, B. 577–8, 579
Guest, D. 296
Gunter, G. B. 621
Guthrie, James 29
Haas, M. R. 99, 101, 114
Habermas, Jürgen 31–2, 202, 436, 437, 442, 448, 449, 450–1
on lifeworlds 444
The Theory of Communicative Action by 443
Hall, R. 440
Halpern, D. 82, 87
Hamel, Gary 529
Hamori, Monika 25–6, 323
Hanifan, L. J. 79
Hannan, M. T. 420, 566, 570, 571, 576
Harper, D. A. 22, 252
Harris, J. E. 170
Harrod-Domar growth models 67 n. 7
Hart, Oliver 15, 61, 63, 175, 177, 181 n. 2
Harvard Union of Clerical and Technical Workers 655
Harvey, M. 106
Hauser, Mark 122
Hawthorne studies 486
Hayek, Friedrich 3, 8, 14, 15, 22, 149, 151, 158 n. 6, 227, 249, 438
knowledge-problem of 154
on classification 246, 247
Hayton, James 30–1
Healy, T. 89
Heckman, James 2, 96, 98
(p. 677) Heckscher, E. F. 623
Heckscher, Ohlin, Samuelson (HES) theory 623
Heerwagen, H. 35
Heidegger, M. 437
Hekimian, J. 385
Helfat, C. E. 362, 529
Helper, S. 662
Henderson, R. M. 351, 371, 529
Henningsson, J. 439
Hermanson, R. H. 385
Herzberg, F. 486
Heskett, J. L. 414
Hesterly, W. S. 85
Hewitt 392
Hewlett-Packard (HP) 485, 544, 640
hierarchies/hierarchy 172, 364, 365, 366, 408, 549–50 see also Williamson, O. E.
high technology clusters 641–2
Hill, C. W. L. 340
Hitt, Michael 13, 333
Hobbes, Thomas 198
Hoevan, R. 621
Hoff, K. 619
Hoffmann-La Roche 544
Holmstrom, Bengt 62
Honda 468, 470, 471–2
Honda, Soichiro 471–2
Hong Kong 619, 633–4, 638, 639, 642
hot desking 481, 484
hotelling 481, 484
HSBC 640
Huber, E. 597
Huckman, R. S. 577, 578, 580
human capital (HC)
acquisition 318–20, 324
competition for 293
contemporary policy issues and 65–6
contextualizing 590–2
definitions 11, 15, 27, 29, 30, 49, 75, 76–7, 165, 219, 333, 619
evolution of concept 1–2, 49–50, 75, 145–6, 189, 460, 528
heterogeneity 202
importance 49, 53, 66, 317, 612
inalienability 10, 14, 19, 153
individual investment in 267–8, 280
individual-specific 227–8, 232, 269, 272, 273, 274, 275, 277
industry-specific 227, 232, 269, 272, 273, 274, 275, 277
investment and development 651–3, 654
literature 460–1
measuring 10, 37, 54–7, 391–3
nature/forms of 11, 53, 123, 359, 592
ownership 52, 61, 220, 225, 267
performance and 336–49
renewal 350–2
revolution xiii, xiv–xv
shareholder value and 371–5
social context of 352–3
social view of 78–9
strategic value/uniqueness of 316–17, 334–6, 345, 349, 352, 491
temporal view of 350–2
theory 50, 64, 87, 368, 626–7
transfer 565–7, 568, 570–1, 583
transnational 611–12
value 222, 228–9, 230–1, 350, 353–4, 361, 491, 571–4 see also individual entries
human capital accounting 382–3, 390, 392–4, 517
definition/purpose of 384, 389
development 384–9
future research 395
human capital formation
in developing countries 630–2
regimes and comparative political economy 601–8 see also politics of human capital
Human Capital Management Systems 392
human relations school 556 n. 7
human resource (HR)
advantage 302
architecture 538–9
frameworks 391–3
strategy 297–9, 300–1
value theory 387
-value-chain 354–5 see also accounting
human resource costing and accounting (HRCA) 385, 387, 394, 439, 440
human resource management (HRM) 218–19, 233, 531, 538–9, 540–1
literature/research 231, 232, 301–2, 341, 342–3, 390, 573
nature of strategic 289, 291 see also organizational capital
human resource systems 296, 301–2, 334, 336, 337, 393
commitment 341–2, 343, 347, 349, 351
productivity 349
targeted 342–3
Hunt Scanlon 322
Huselid, M. A. 538, 547
(p. 678) Husserl, E. 437, 444, 465
Hutchinson, S. 303
Hyatt, D. 654
Hyman, R. 24, 297
Hypertherm 485
IBM 310, 311, 481, 543, 632
identity capital 73, 79, 89
Ideo Product Design 491
ignorance 196–7
implicit contracts 176
incentives 553–4 see also problems
incommensurability 197–8
indeterminacy 197
India 389, 612, 619, 620, 635
IT industry in 639–41
manufacturing share 621–2
Indonesia 621, 633–4, 640 see also ASEAN4
industrial organization view 219
industrialization 632–5
information and communications technology (ICT) 478, 489
information dilemmas 366, 369–70 see also social complexity
information systems (IS) 3, 499, 518
HC and 500–3 see also interdependencies
information systems (IS) capital
HC and 501, 517–19
interdependencies between HC and 506–9, 518
Information Systems Journal 506, 508
information technology (IT) 659, 661
HC and 647, 663 see also India
Ingram, P. 133
innovation 252–4, 256, 536, 578–9, 618
exploratory 353
open 542
systemic 537
inpatriation 106
Intangible Assets Monitor 383, 387–8 see also Sveiby, K.-E.
intangible capital 226, 499
HC and other forms of 53–4
Intel 544
intellectual capital (IC) 53, 191, 382, 389, 419, 433, 501, 518–19, 546
accounting 386, 394
evolution of concept 436–41
measuring 3, 434
nature of 383–4
Intellectual Capital Index 388
intellectual property 537, 545, 551, 613
intelligence 246–7
emotional 423–5, 426
interpersonal 424
intrapersonal 423–4
Knightian 248 see also Knight, F. H.
intentionality 243
interaction 87
interdependence 427
pooled task 407–8, 505, 516
reciprocal task 407–8, 412, 505, 509, 516, 518
sequential task 407–8, 412, 505, 509, 516
types of 407–11 see also Thompson, J. D.
interdependencies
among people/resources/tasks 504–5
between intellectual resources 511
composite/simple 508–9
nature of 504–5
people-information systems 509–18
resource-resource 512
task-resource 509, 512
internal labour markets (ILMs) 652–3, 658
internalization 489–91
International Association of Machinists (IAM) 657, 663
investments, balanced/unbalanced 346–7
Ireland 314, 593, 595, 610, 611, 640
Isaacs, N. 206
Itami, H. 440
Iversen, T. 597, 599–600, 602
J. P. Morgan Chase 640
James, L. R. 416
Japan 189, 591, 599, 620, 631–2, 633–9, 641
post-1945 success of 623–4, 629
production models/strategies 592, 593, 595, 596 see also Eisai; Honda; Mitsui and Co.; politics of human capital; Seven-Eleven Japan
Jensen, M. C. 18, 186, 195, 198, 199, 201–2, 206, 207
on PAT 192, 193–4
Jiatong University 638
(p. 679) job
perception/satisfaction 367, 368
security/career prospects 343–4
Job Descriptive Index 367
job performance
individual differences and 421–2, 424–5, 426 see also workspace
Johanson, U. 385, 439, 440, 442, 447
John, G. 174
Johnson, H. G. 385
Jones, C. H. 385
judgments
political 467
value 463, 464–5
Jungblut, J.-M. 593
Kaname, Akamatsu 633
Kang, S. C. 351, 353
Kant, Immanuel 196, 437 see also Kantian pragmatism
Kanter, R. M. 12
on cosmopolitans 97, 99
Kantian pragmatism 31–2, 436, 437, 441, 442, 450
relationist/realist 443, 444–5, 447, 451
Kaplan, R. S. 386
kata 472
Katz, L. F. 66
Katz, R. L. 423
Kelley, H. H. 504
Kelly, George 244, 247, 248, 258
Kennedy, A. A. 413
Keynes, John Maynard 196, 242, 252
Khurana, R. 322–3
Kim, H. 341
Kirzner, Israel M. 3, 22, 37, 252, 529
on entrepreneurship 251, 534, 541
Kiser, E. 192
Klein, B. 167, 175, 177
Klein, K. J. 84
Klein, P. G. 173
Knez, M. 406
Knight, F. H. 21, 196–7, 239, 248, 252
on contracts 241
on entrepreneurship 241, 250
on intelligence 246–7, 258
on profit 240, 250
on uncertainty 241–2, 246, 250, 254
Knightian uncertainty 14, 18–19, 21, 147, 195, 197–8, 199, 200, 257
imagination and 203–4
knowledge 57–8
acceptance 250
Aristotle on 464
belief and 462–3
capital 53, 519
complexity 152, 154–5
explicit 121, 127, 136, 196, 264, 384
firm-specific 368
flows 269
HC and 196, 266, 278
heterogeneous 155–6
imagination and 249, 251–2
intensity 154
nature of 463
refinement 351
relationships and 81
sharing 109, 264–5, 276, 473–4, 488
theories 196
knowledge assets 264, 265–6, 270, 271–2, 280–1
accruing HC and 273–4
accruing HC and decreasing 275–6
decreasing HC and 277–8
decreasing HC and accruing 274–5
leveraging 641, 642
knowledge creation 249, 262–3, 488
actuality and 469–70
aesthetic sense and 463
differences as necessary for 462–3
improving accommodation to increase 489–92
motivation and 473
organizational 264–5, 270–2, 273–7, 278, 279, 280
knowledge economy 433, 609
developing countries and 618–19, 642
growth 382–3
HC in 5–8, 647
managing in 153–5
nature/foundations of 626–7, 635 see also development
knowledge-based view of the firm 124, 175
individuals in 268, 278
nature of 261–2, 271, 278, 624
review of 263–6
Kochan, Thomas 42–3, 67 n. 2, 610–11, 667 n. 4
Koegel, O. E. 565
Kogut, B. 13, 175, 180, 440, 577, 580
on knowledge 264, 266
Kolb, D. A. 107
(p. 680) Kor, Y. Y. 224, 228
Kotter, J. P. 414
Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen 8, 19–20, 219
Kraak, A. 595
Kraatz, M. S. 577, 579–80, 581
Kraemer, K. 632
Kramar, Robin 29
Kramer, R. M. 84–5
Kreps, D. M. 176–7, 205
Kretschmer, M. 3, 74
Krogh, Georg von 8, 22–3, 264
Krugman, P. R. 620, 623
Kuhn, Thomas S. 22
Kuznets, Simon 528, 555 n. 3
Kwon, S.-W. 74, 80, 229, 417
labour
differentiation 301–2
division of 404–5
process 293
Lachmann, L. M. 3, 7, 14, 22, 86, 154, 245
on capital goods 148
on uncertainty 252
Lane, F. C. 189
Lave, J. 111, 591
Lazear, Edward 64, 584 n. 3, 584 n. 5
learning
collective 134–6
firm-specific 363
HC and 202–3
individual 131–2, 134
knowledge and 85–6
life-long 652, 659, 667 n. 8
organizational 350
Leblebici, H. 228, 583
leisure time 270, 271, 273
Lenovo 543, 632
Lepak, David 25, 26–7, 231, 339, 340, 341, 343, 581
on HC 316–17, 334–6, 352, 573, 584 n. 6
on knowledge 354
Lev, B. 385, 386, 439
leveraging effects 228
Levinthal, D. A. 574
Lewin, K. 504
Lewin, Peter 3, 8, 11, 16, 17, 19, 37, 67 n. 1, 158 n. 4, 438
modularization notions of 14–15, 21
on capital 74–5, 86
on HC term 226
on knowledge 226–7
Lewis, Michael 371
Lewis, W. A. 189
Liao, H. 349
Likert, R. 385
Lin, N. 403
Linden, Greg 555
Lingle, C. 620
linguistic turn 437
Lippman, S. A. 364
liquidity 87
literati/numerati 539
entrepreneurs and 533–6, 546
importance 531, 532
nature of 533
organizing/managing 533, 545, 548–54
Lithuania 314
Litwin, Adam Seth 42–3, 67 n. 2
Litwin, G. H. 416
Llewellyn, K. N. 206
Loasby, Brian 8, 20–2, 37, 166, 188, 200, 205
locals 99
Locke, John 196, 203
Long, J. S. 576–7, 578
Lorenz, E. 593, 595, 596, 611
Lotka, Alfred 37, 531
Lucas, Robert 2
Luhmann, N. 196
Lycos 544
Lyles, M. A. 134
Mabon, H. 385
McBer 421
McCarthy, Thomas 443
McClelland, D. C. 421, 424
MacDuffie, J. P. 662
McGirt, E. 37, 549
Macher, J. 173
Machiavelli 191, 467
McKinsey 317
Macquarie Bank 483, 495 n. 1
Malaysia 619, 633, 640, 641 see also ASEAN 4
Malone, T. W. 30, 409, 505, 509
management 472
cooperative 280
decentralized 549
dilemmas and HC 361–5, 366
entrepreneurship and 530, 533–4, 535, 538, 541–2, 545
knowledge-based 474
scientific 556 n. 7
Mansfield, Edwin 555 n. 3
manufacturing 621–2
Marengo, L. 205
Marlowe, Christopher 192
Marshall, Alfred 21, 22, 37, 75, 189, 241, 256
on capital 528
on organization 245, 257
theory of economic development 248–9
Marx, Karl 67 n. 3, 80, 190, 621
Marxism, structural 442
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Center for Coordination Science 30, 409
Masten, S. 174–5
Mathieu, J. E. 416
Matusik, S. F. 340
Mayer, J. D. 424
Mayo, Elton 556 n. 7
Mead, G. H. 437, 466
Means, G. C. 193
Meckling, W. H. 18, 186, 195, 199, 201–2, 206, 207
on PAT 192, 193–4
Menger, Carl 7, 14, 74, 255
Mercer 392
Merck 544
Merton, R. K. 12, 97, 99
metacognition 131
microeconomics 201
microfoundations 246–50, 263, 264
Microsoft 126, 317, 360, 409, 543–4
Miles, Raymond 557 n. 16
Mill, John Stuart 75, 266
Mincer, Jacob xiii, xiv, 2, 23, 145, 188, 267, 281
Mintzberg, H. 30, 408–9
MIS Quarterly 506, 508
Mische, A. 441
Mises, Ludwig von 8, 251
Mitnick, B. M. 18
agency theory of 201–2
Mitsui and Co. 468–9, 473
Mnookin, R. H. 566, 569
Mobley, W. H. 367
modularity 156–7, 158 n. 10
Molloy, Janice 583
monitoring 370
Monteverde, K. 174
Moore, J. H. 577, 579–80, 581
moral hazard 370 see also motivation
Moran, P. 17, 179
motivation 131, 270, 278, 367
employee 178–9, 293–7
individual 273–5, 279–80, 282
Mouritsen, J. 386
Mowery, David 555 n. 3
Murphy, K. J. 312
Murphy, K. M. 189
Murthy, Vijaya 29
mutual adjustment 407–8, 505
Muzak 483
M&As 583
Nahapiet, Janine 11, 80, 364, 419, 440, 666 n. 2
Nash, Michael 556 n. 12
National Center on the Educational Quality of the Workforce 56
Nelson, Richard 529, 548, 555 n. 3, 557 n. 23
Nenonen, S. 35, 488, 492
Nesheim, T. 339, 340
Netherlands, the 388
Netscape 543
neuroscience 85, 247
New Deal 648, 649, 651
new growth theory 58, 623
New York (city) 565
New Zealand 608
Newton, Isaac 249
Ng, Kok-Yee 12, 107–8
NIEs 633, 635
Nisbett, R. E. 532
NMB Bank 495 n. 1
Nonaka, Ikujiro 23, 33, 35, 272, 440, 529, 584 n. 7
Norton, D. P. 386
Norway 603
‘not knowing’ 196–7
NUMMI 611
Ó Riain, Seán 25, 39–40
O'Connell, P. 593
O'Donnell, David 31–2
OECD 11, 72, 83, 426, 437, 438, 613
Amsterdam conference (1999) 439, 440
countries 626, 638
definitions of HC 77
Helsinki conference (1996) 439, 440–1, 447
on learning 89
The Knowledge-Based Economy by 618
(p. 682) Ohlin, B. 623
Ohno, Taiichi 470
Oliver, C. 582
opportunism 167–8, 176, 178–9, 205, 542
employee and employer 172–3
opportunity
costs 267, 274, 278, 279
-motivation-ability framework 229, 417 see also uncertainty
orders, physical/sensory 247–8
O'Reilly, C. A. 413
organic structures 369
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development see OECD
organization
-accommodation (O-A) relationship 480–2, 491–2, 493, 494
knowledge and 245
nature of 404
self- 243, 244
theory (OT) 189, 192, 198–200, 205, 435 see also Marshall, Alfred
organizational
citizenship behaviours (OCBs) 341, 347–8
climate 415–17, 426–7
culture 413–16, 426–7, 478, 485
design 157, 411
effectiveness 512–13, 514, 515–16, 517–18
environment 478
learning theory 124
processes 411–12, 427, 505, 574–81, 582
routines 104–10, 411–12, 414, 427, 470, 530
science 506–8
organizational capital 53, 73, 384, 392
strategic human resource management (SHRM) and 546–8 see also social capital
organizational knowledge creation theory 262–3, 264–5, 278
organizational lifeworlds 436, 442, 450–1
communicative action and 443, 449
contours of 443–8, 449
Organizational Studies (journal) 506, 508
organizations
accommodation of 477–8
managing interdependencies within407–17 see also coordination; firms
Orlikowski, W. J. 13, 86, 507
on knowledge 125
Osterloh, M. 179, 265
Osterman, P. 337, 667 n. 7
Ouchi, W. 172, 199, 200, 365, 370, 413
outsourcing/offshoring 297, 300, 301, 311, 338–9, 530, 532, 637, 661
by Fortune 500 companies 640
Owen, Robert 546
ownership 175–7
Pakistan 621–2
Palacios, Miguel 555
Palm 543
Parsons, T. 444
Pascale, R. 413
Passeron, J. 12, 97
cultural capital concept of 102–3, 113
Paton, W. A. 384
patronage 206–7
Peirce, C. S. 437
Peltokorpi, Vesa 33
Pennings, J. M. 333
Penrose, Edith 7, 9, 22, 24, 124, 126, 180, 202, 203, 440
on firms 256, 290 see also rents
Pentland, B. T. 412
People's Express 550
perceived organizational support (POS) 347–8
performance
non-uniform distribution of 531–3 see also job performance
Perrow, C. B. 193, 201, 207
personality 131
Peteraf, M. 573
Peters, T. 413
Petty, Sir William 188, 189
Pfeffer, J. 547
Pfizer 544
Philippines 633, 640 see also ASEAN4
Phillips, D. J. 570, 571, 577, 579, 580
phronesis 460
abilities that constitute 465–7
collective 465, 467–74
HC interdependencies as distributed 462–7
nature of 464
phronetic leaders 464–5, 466, 467, 472
physical capital
HC and 51–3, 420–1
similarities to/differences from HC 153, 245
Pigou, Arthur 2, 49, 158 n. 1, 189, 190
Pinfield, L. T. 337, 340
Piore, Michael 60, 171, 569, 570, 573, 612, 652
Pisano, Gary 555, 558 n. 23, 577, 578, 580
(p. 683) Pitelis, Christos 555, 623
planning 407–8, 505
poaching 652
Poland 314
Polanyi, M. 122, 132–3, 439–40, 443, 444
on belief/knowledge 462, 463
politics of human capital
formation 598–600, 605, 606
in American and Japanese industry 588–90
labour and 601–2
social protection and 597–8, 600
Poppo, L. 175
population processes 564–5, 575, 581–2
Porras, J. I. 415
Porter, M. E. 219, 221, 546, 624, 630
Portugal 314
positivism 197
practical wisdom 535 see also phronesis
Prigogine, I. 242, 243
principal-agent theory (PAT) 186, 188–9, 191, 206, 365
appeal of 192–3
criticism 193
game theory and 197–8
literature 204, 207
nature of 193–4, 195, 201
opportunism and 205
Pritchard, R. D. 370
problems
‘hold-up’ 60, 153, 171, 177
incentive 154–5, 173
knowledge- 153–5
retention 315, 326 see also agency; skills
product development 631–2
production
knowledge and 147–50, 152
lean model of 593, 595, 596, 602–3
learning model of 593, 595, 596–7, 602–3
organization of 155–7
Taylorist 588, 593
team 60, 61–3, 363–4, 370 see also capital
production strategies 601, 606
high road 590, 595, 596, 605
low road 596, 602, 605, 607
skill formation regimes and 592–7, 599–600
professional associations 664
profit 372 see also Knight, F. H.
Profiting from Innovation framework543–5
property rights approach 166, 181
HC and 175–7
property rights theory 225
Prusak, L. 440
psychological contracts 295–6, 347
Puranam, P. 406
Purcell, J. 228, 303
Putnam, Hilary 437
Putnam, R. D. 79, 418
Quinn, James B. 550
Rajan, Raghuram 63, 176, 592
Rankin, Scott 583
Rao, H. 566, 577, 578–9, 580
rational choice 241, 243, 246, 253
‘rational man’ (RM) 199, 203
rationality
bounded 167, 177–8, 194, 365
communicative 446–7
instrumental 446
recruitment 317
internet/online 319, 320, 324–8
Reed, M. 32, 441–2, 444
reflective observation 108
regimes
Christian democratic 599, 602–5, 606–7
continuity/change in HC 608–13
liberal 602–5, 608
social democratic 602–6
Reich, R. B. 2, 6, 532
relational/relationship capital 384, 420
relocation 564, 575–8, 581–2
rent appropriation 360
firm performance and 372–5
rents 59–60, 61–3
entrepreneurial 224, 231
generation of 372–4, 375–6
Penrose 224, 231
quasi- 167–8, 180
replication 564, 575–7, 578–80, 581–2
reputation capital 53, 177, 205
resource
dependence theory 225
fit/dependency 513–14, 517
procurement 513–14
(p. 684) resource-based view of the firm (RBV) 124, 218, 263–4, 359, 373, 440, 624
approaches to 229
criticism 220–1, 222–4, 233
nature of 291, 389
rents and 223–4, 230–2
resources in 220, 230
value in 221–2
resources 146
tangible/intangible 202–3, 225, 389
reverse bonding 206
rewards 108–9
Rhymer, Brett 13
Ricardo, David 218, 227, 266, 623 see also rents
Richardson, G. B. 22, 245, 251
Richman, B. 173
Roberts, J. 555
Roberts, K. 440
Roehl, T. W. 440
Romania 314
Romer, Paul 2, 58
Rose, M. 295
Rosen, Sherwin 2
Rosenberg, Nathan 555 n. 3, 557 n. 23
Roslender, R. 30, 384, 385, 387
Rousseau, D. M. 279, 345
Rumelt, R. P. 364
Rust, R. T. 392
Ruth, Babe 572
Safford, S. 612
St Augustine 462
Salovey, P. 424
Samra-Frederick, Dalvir 449
Samuelson, P. A. 623
Sappington, D. E. M. 207
Saxenian, A. 566, 612
Scarpello, V. 385, 387
Schein, E. H. 413
Schijven, Mario 13
Schmittlein, D. C. 174
Schuller, T. 79, 88–9
Schultz, Theodore W. xiii, xiv, 2, 75, 91 n., 145, 188, 189, 385, 434
on HC 11, 73, 266
Schulze, W. 23
Schumpeter, Joseph 22, 37, 256, 544, 558 n. 23, 632
on entrepreneurship 253–4, 258, 529, 534
Schütz, A. 437, 444
Schwartz, A. 385
Scott, H. Lee 661
Scott, S. V. 507
Scott-Kemmis, D. 624
SECI (socialization, externalization, combination, internalization) model/cycle 440, 473, 488, 489–90, 494 see also combination; externalization; internalization; socialization
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) 438, 439
Sedikides, C. 85
seizing 540–1, 542
Seleim, A. 334
self-renewal 472
Selfridges 303
Sen, A. 41
capabilities approach of 77, 591, 621
sensing 540–2, 556 n. 11
separability 171–2
separable capital 226, 230
Service Employees International Union 655
Seven-Eleven Japan 470
Shackle, George 21, 22, 244, 252, 255
on uncertainty 242, 248
Shakespeare, William 192
Shane, S. A. 541
Shaw, J. D. 337
Shelanski, H. 173
Shell 255
Sherer, Peter 25, 28, 38–9, 579
Shore, L. M. 347
Shperling, Z. 279
Shubik, M. 197
Silicon Valley 533, 566, 567, 579, 612
Simmel, Georg 80
Simon, H. A. 16, 21, 167, 178, 180, 200
on decomposability 243
on employment relation 168–9
on rational choice 246
Williamson takes issue with 170–1
Singapore 619, 628, 629, 633–5, 638, 639, 641–2
situated learning theory 98, 110–11
Skandia 388, 437–8, 439, 440
skill
specificity 569
-weights 64
skill-biased technological change 659
skills 591–2
problem 602
soft 609
(p. 685) skills, knowledge, and abilities 462
Slichter, S. H. 667 n. 5
Smith, Adam 15, 22, 74, 150, 187, 190, 192, 193, 195, 201, 206, 226, 254, 623
HC concepts in work of 1–2, 7, 75–6, 122–3, 189, 384, 528
on division of labour 49, 266
on economic development 248, 249
on knowledge creation 249
on pin manufacture 405
Theory of Moral Sentiments by 254
Wealth of Nations by 191
Smith, K. 416
Snell, S. A. 26, 231, 299, 333, 339, 340, 341, 343, 581
on HC 316–17, 334–6, 352, 573, 584 n. 6
on knowledge 354
social
climates 295–7
constructionism 79
contract 230, 232, 651, 652, 656, 657–8
identity theory 79
social capital 53, 73, 295
as public good 418–19
definitions 80, 417–18, 426, 619
evolution of concept 79–80
HC and 3, 82–6, 87–9, 290, 353, 403, 417, 419
health and 83–4
limitations of concept 420
nature of 79, 80–1
negative 82, 83
networks and 80, 81, 86, 417–18
ownership 418
research 80, 81–2, 90
social complexity and 364
within organizations 419–20
social cognition theory 112, 126
social complexity 363, 369
causal ambiguity, information dilemmas and internal 363–5
general assets and external 362–3
social learning theory 111
social theory approaches
conflationist 442, 451
determinist 442, 451
reductionist 441–2, 451
relationist/realist 442 see also Kantian pragmatism
socialization 489–91
Society for Knowledge Economics 388
socio-spatial contract 483–6, 491, 493
environmental control and 484
territoriality and 483–4
Socrates 122
Song, J. 577, 580
Sony 620
Sørensen, J. B. 414
Sorsa, Pertti 440
Soskice, D. 599
South Korea 619, 628, 633–4, 639, 641
South Sea Company 191
space
as organizational cost 479, 480–1
as organizational resource 479, 480
as tool for work 479, 483, 493
intra-organizational relationships and 479, 488, 489–90 see also socio-spatial contract; workspace
Spain 314, 336
specialization 404–6, 537–8
specification 565, 575, 581
Spence, L. 83
Spender, J.-C. 2, 17–18, 157, 181, 269, 435, 440, 452
on capital 75
on knowledge 86
on social/human capital 89
Spiller, P. T. 541–2
standardization 407–8, 505
Stephens, J. 597, 599–600, 602
Sternberg, R. J. 12, 100–1
Stevenson, B. 327, 328
Stewart, T. A. 440
Stiglitz, J. 619
Stout, L. A. 63
strategic factor market theory 371
Strategic Management Society 72
strategies
information 366, 370–1
organizational design 366, 368–70
rent-sharing 366, 367
retention 366–8
Streeck, W. 595
Stringer Jr., R. A. 416
Stroh, L. K. 106
Strom, R. J. 533
structural capital 420, 444
HC and 3, 434–6
interdependencies between HC and 448–9, 451–2
structuralism 442
Subramaniam, M. 353
substitutability 87, 88
Sun Microsystems 485
surveys 392
sustainability reporting 388
(p. 686) sustained competitive advantage (SCA) 218–19, 220, 222, 291, 460, 474
defined by Barney and Porter 221
RBV and 223–4, 229, 232 see also firms
Sveiby, K.-E. 386, 433, 434, 439
Intangible/Intellectual Assets Monitor of 30, 387–8, 440
Swaine, Robert 565
Swart, Juani 20, 26, 226–7, 228
on rents 230
Swedberg, R. 11, 78
Sweden 30, 588, 591, 596, 603
HC accounting and 387–8, 440
workforce/workplaces 589–90, 594, 611
Sweetland, S. R. 75
syllogism, practical 470–1
Szulanski, G. 583
tacit knowing 439, 444
tacit knowledge 133, 150, 247, 264–5, 341, 364, 365, 474
converting to/from explicit knowledge 136, 489
difficulties of articulating/transferring/imitating 123, 124, 154, 359, 459, 539
externalization of 473
learning 132
nature of 58, 384
Tacorante, D. V. 336, 343
Takeuchi, Hirotaka 529
Takeuchi, Riki 26
talent
competition for 531, 533
contextual 553
inter-firm movement of 563–5, 566, 574, 576, 580–1
intrinsic 553
non-uniform distribution of 531–2 see also firm-specific/general human capital; literati/numerati
Tan, Mei Lang 12
tangible capital 226
task idiosyncrasies 171
Taylor, F. W. 421, 556 n. 7
Teachman, J. D. 89
teams 551–3
national differences between 589, 591
traditional/virtuoso 552 see also production
teamwork 548–9
technological
change 656–7
deepening 634–5
Teece, David 37–8, 174, 180, 440, 534, 537, 538, 550, 557 n. 23
on competitive advantage 624–5
tenure, importance of 64
Thailand 619, 628, 633–4, 640 see also ASEAN4
Theeke, H. A. 385, 387
Thelen, K. 599, 612
theory of the firm 123, 200
criticism 178–9
role of HC in 58–63 see also Foss, Nicolai
Thibaut, J. 504
Thomas, Sir John Meurig 240
Thompson, J. D. 30, 205, 410, 509
on interdependence 407–9, 412, 427, 505, 518
Tiessen, R. 386
time, use of 271
Tjosvold, D. 30, 410, 412, 427
Tocqueville, Alexis de 198
Tolksdorf, R. 409
total factor productivity 244
Toyama, Ryoko 33
Toyota 572, 611, 662
Production System 470, 544
training 267–8, 272, 309–10, 571–2, 602, 663–4
external workers 339
general 652, 658
national differences in 599
transaction cost approach 60–1, 173
transaction cost economics (TCE) 181, 192, 201
bounded rationality and 177–8
capabilities view and 179–80
criticism 177, 178, 179
development of 167
employee motivation and 178–9
HC and 166, 177–80
literature 173–5, 461
nature of 166
role of HC in 167–75 see also Williamson, O. E.
transforming 540–1, 542
Trist, E. 412
trust 254–5, 662 see also management
truth 462–3, 464, 465, 466, 469, 471, 472
Tsoukas, H. 125, 435
(p. 687) Tsui, A. S. 341, 346–7
Tung, R. L. 99
Turner, J. H. 444
Ulrich, D. 547
uncertainty 196–8, 199–200, 207–8, 240, 243, 255
imagination and 242
in representations 246
union shock effect 667 n. 5
unionization 658
de- 593, 595, 596, 659
United Auto Workers (UAW) 657, 658
United Kingdom (UK) 314, 593, 595, 596, 599, 603, 640
manufacturing share 621–2
recruitment in 319
Transfer of Undertakings/Protection of Employment Regulations 657 see also Great Britain
United States of America (USA) 309, 532, 591, 592, 595, 596, 603, 631–2, 636
employment in 658
employment services industry 311
exports to 633, 640
HC acquisition in 318–19
losing competitiveness 66
manufacturing share 621–2
services industry 125
staffing industry 321–2
telecommunications industry 300–1
training in 599
Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act 657
workforce 312–13, 314–15, 533, 593, 594, 660
work-life integration in 655–6, 660 see also New York; politics of human capital; Silicon Valley
upskilling 293, 594, 602, 635, 649, 653, 656
Utsuda, Shouei 468–9
Utterback, J. M. 557 n. 23
Uzzi, B. 340
Valeyre, A. 593, 595, 596, 611
valuable, rare, inimitable, non-substitutable (VRIN) 229
/Organization (O) 221, 223, 227
Veblen, T. 193–4, 199, 205, 208, 438
Verma, A. 667 n. 5
Vietnam 621
Vischer, Jacqueline 34–5
Vladimirou, E. 125
Volvo 589
Vroom, V. H. 369
Vryonides, M. 102
W. L. Gore Co. 558 n. 29
Wachter, M. L. 170
Wade-Benzoni, J. M. 345
wage-work bargain 292, 293, 297
Waldman, M. 102
Wallin, Martin 8, 22–3
Wallman, Steven 439
Wal-Mart 658, 660–1
Wang, H. C. 368
Warner Brothers 556 n. 12
Waterman, R. 413
Watson Wyatt 392
Wayne, S. J. 347
Weber, Max 80, 190, 192, 435
Weber, R. 500
Weeks, John 415
Weick, K. 440
Weisbrod, B. A. 188
Weitz, A. 174
welfare
production regimes 597, 599, 601, 603
states 597–8, 600, 606, 608
Wenger, E. 111, 591
Wernerfelt, B. 19, 20
Wezel, F. C. 265
White, H. 18, 206–7
Wijnbergen, C. van 612
Williamson, O. E. 9, 15–16, 17, 21, 166, 175, 176, 179, 557 n. 23
‘hold-up’ problem of 153
on bounded rationality 177–8
on employee/employer opportunism 173
on HC and employment relation 169–72, 180
on hierarchy/forbearance 172, 238–9
on transaction cost approach 60–1
TCE theory/approach of 167–8, 174, 460
Winter, S. G. 264, 529, 555 n. 3, 557 n. 23
Wittgenstein, Ludwig 202, 437
Wolfson, M. A. 200
Woolcock, M. 80, 84
work
environment 477
-life integration 653–6, 660, 665
tasks 506–8, 512
(p. 688) workers
external 335, 338–9, 344, 345–6, 348
temporary/contract 312–14, 335, 340, 347, 348
women 598, 610, 654, 655, 660
workspace 480
change 484
competitive advantage and 485
environmental psychology of 486–8, 494
functionally comfortable/uncomfortable 487–8, 494
job performance and 486, 487–8
World Bank 618, 626, 633, 638
Wright, P. M. 341
Xerox 543
Xing.com 325
Yahoo 544
Yetton, P. W. 369
Youndt, M. A. 228, 353
Young, A. 252
Young, A. 620
Yusuf, S. 634–5, 636, 637
Zábojnik, J. 312
Zambon, Stefano 438
Zander, U. 13, 175, 180, 264, 266, 440
Zenger, T. 175
Ziman, J. M. 249
Zingales, Luigi 63, 176, 592
Zollo, M. 23, 265
Zuboff, S. 2
Zucker, L. 370
Zweig, D. 612