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date: 11 December 2019

(p. 739) Index

(p. 739) Index

A
abduction, 181–84
Abelson, R. P., 284, 669
abnormality, 608–9
abstract data, fitting, 331–32
abstract relations, 235–36
action(s)
character evaluation and permissibility of, 591–94
consciousness and control of, 272–73
identification of, by inferring motive, 651–52
inferring required, from observation, 708–9
from movement to, 266–67
reasoning about, 705–6
reasoning about outcome of one's own, 706–8
representations of agents and their, 680–81
actions on objects hypothesis, 256–59
Adams, E., 314
adaptive causal representation, 67–68
agency
assignment of, in causal attribution, 723
of goal-directed actions, 271–72
in psychological/social domain, 722–23
agents
reasoning about actions of social, 705–6
representations of, 680–81
social, 705–6
Aitken, M. R. F., 17
Ajzen, I., 436
algorithmic solutions, 298–300
Ali, N., 340–42
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (Lewis Carroll), 217
Alicke, M. D., 584, 657
Alksnis, O., 333
ALLOW relations, 154
alternative causes, 387–88
alternative models, 403–4
alternative representations, 106–8
amplification, of movement, 252–54
Amsel, G., 256, 678–79
Amsterdam, A., 365–66, 421
analogical reasoning, 459–70
Bayesian model of causal inference by analogy and, 469–70
integrating causal models with, 465–69
representation of causal relationships, 464
in science education, 461–64
subprocesses of, 460–61
analogical reminding, 460–61
analytic knowledge, 76–77
Anderson, J. R., 45–46
Anderson, P. A., 668
animacy, early understanding of, 719
animates, in biological domain, 720–22
Anjum, R. L., 157–59
argument, 475–91
Bayesian approach to strength of, 482–83
for causes, 476–84
from cause to effect, 479–81
cognition and, 484–88
from consequences, 481–82
consequentialist, 485–86
from corpus analysis, 476–77
from effect to cause, 482
reasons vs. causes in, 475–76
research agenda for, 488–91
scheme-based approaches to, 477–79
Aristotle, 2, 4
artifacts, 358–61
artificial categories, 350–58
Asai, S., 702
Asher, N, 627–29
Asoko, H., 462
aspiration, causal invariance as, 71–74
assignment
of agency in causal attribution, 723
of causal responsibility, 421–23
associations, as mental representations, 133–34
association theory, 53–54
associative learning, 13–26
causal judgment vs., 238
causal learning as, 13–15
causal order and, 19–22
contiguity, contingency, and cue competition in, 15–17
selective conditioning in non-human animals in, 23–25
temporal contiguity in, 22–23
theories of, 17–19
assumption(s)
of causal power, 437–38
default, 71–72
implicit covariance, 655–56
Astuti, R., 731
asymmetry bias, causal, 729
Atran, S., 392
attention
in multi-process account of causal learning, 58
as stimulus condition, 251–52
attribution
automatic vs. controlled, 656–57
of causality, with legal reasoning, 581–86
implicit theories and, 728–29
attribution theory, 506–8
attributive inquiries, 667–68
Au, T. K.-F., 630
Austin, J. L., 626
automatic stereotyping and attribution, 656–57
Avrahami, J., 197
B
Baetens, K., 648
Baetu, I., 140
Baeyens, F., 58–59
Bailenson, J., 132, 133
Baillargeon, R., 679, 681
Baird, G. L., 611
Baker, A. G., 41, 140
Baker, C. L., 536–39
Baldwin, D., 392
Band, G. P. H., 267
Barbería, I., 41
Barbey, A. K., 153
Bartalone, J., 662
basic causal relations, 170–73
Bates, L. A., 701
Battaglia, P. W., 518–19, 524–25
Baumrind, D., 137
Bayesian approach, to argument strength, 482–83
Bayesian model of causal inference by analogy, 469–70
Bayesian models, hierarchical, 116–17
Bayes model, 434–36
Beach, L. R., 85
Bechlivanidis, C., 561
Bechtel, W., 427
Beck, S. R., 637
Beckers, T., 55, 58–59, 81–82, 98, 124, 708
(p. 740) Beebe, H., 2
Beesley, T., 14
Belanger, N., 679
beliefs, about causal structure, 94–95
Beller, S., 730
Bender, A., 730
Bennett, L., 611
Bennett, S., 321
Berry, D., 287
Bes, B., 106
bias(es)
causal asymmetry, 729
causal relations as, 105–6
de-biasing tools, 47–48
density, 36–37
in social judgment, 657–58
biological bases, of mental disorders, 609–10, 614
biological domain, 720–22
biological essences, 720–22
Biro, S., 271
Bittner, M., 623
Blaisdell, A. P., 705, 708
blended concepts, 725–26
Bloch, M., 731
Bloom, L., 628
Bluemke, M., 194
Blum, B., 510
Bocklisch, F., 445
Boddez, Y., 58–59
Bödeker, K., 719, 726
Bodenhausen, G. V., 656–57
Bodner, R., 509
Bohr, Niels, 66
Bolles, R., 303
Bonawitz, E. B., 392, 416, 684, 688–93
Borsboom, D., 605
Bott, O., 631, 632
Botvinick, M., 299–300
Bouton, M., 303
Bowerman, M., 156
Boyle, Robert, 180
Bradner, A., 422
Bramley, N. R., 94, 95, 449
Bräuer, J., 703–4
Bridgers, S., 124–25
bridging process, 528–29
Bright, A. K., 393, 396
Britton, B. K., 463
Broadbent, D. E., 287
Brown, R., 630
Brubaker, D. L., 704
Buehner, M. J., 22, 70, 71, 74, 426, 551–53
Bulloch, M. J., 368, 393
Burnett, R. C., 381–83, 386, 387
Burns, P., 555
but-for test, 581–83
extensions to, 571–73
imprecision in, 569–70
involvement in, 572
necessity in, 581–83
overdetermination in, 571
pre-emption in, 570–71
promiscuity in, 570
proof in, 569–70
structural model approach to, 572–73
sufficiency in, 581–83
Byrne, R. M. J., 309, 310, 312, 319, 333–35
Byrne paradigm, 337–38
C
Cacchione, T., 702
Cafferty, T. P., 508
Call, J., 700–701, 703–5, 709, 710
Cándido, A., 119
Caño, A., 20–21
Caramazza, A., 630
carbon molecules, in causal invariance example, 72–73
Carey, S., 423, 424, 683, 684
Carroll, C. D., 71, 73–74, 120
Carroll, Lewis, 217
categorization, 347–72
as causal reasoning with inferential features, 366–70
concepts as causal models, 348–49
feature weights in, 361–66
with intrinsic features, 349–61
category-based induction, 377–408
category discovery, 398–402
concepts as causal models, 403–7
feature generalization, 388–98
feature prediction, 378–88
category discovery
category-based induction, 398–402
inter-category causal relations and, 399–402
inter-feature causal relations and, 398–99
category-to-category generalizations, 398
Catena, A., 37, 38, 46, 119
causal assertions, 176–77
causal asymmetry, 381–84
causal asymmetry bias, 729
causal attribution
assignment of agency in, 723
attribution theory and, 506–8
implicit covariance assumptions and, 655–56
for launching and floating, 719–20
causal-based conditional probabilities, 378–85
causal-based feature generalization, 394–98
causal Bayes nets (CBNs), 328
causal interpretation and, 332
as causal structure, 86–88
conditional reasoning and, 335
as psychological model, 339–43
causal chains, 151–53
causal cognition
causal reasoning and theories of, 5–6
cultural context of, 731–32
culture and content of, 718–27
causal conditionals, 307–22, 328–29
in causal argument, 484–85
close possibilities and, 313–16
experiments on probabilities of realistic, 319–22
imaging, 316–18
material conditional, 311–13
modus ponens, 309–11
probability conditional, 318–19
causal connection, 661
causal considerations, 496–99
causal constructions, 633–38
causal decision-making, 495–510
based on causal considerations, 496–99
engagement in, 499–502
future research on, 509–10
psychological theories of, 502–8
causal expected utilities, 501–2
causal explanation, 415–29
assignment of causal responsibility, 421–23
causal mechanisms and, 426–28
conversational processes in, 665–69
dispositional attributions vs., 655
of inconsistencies, 181–82
inference to the best explanation and, 416–19
intuitive theories and, 535–39
process of explaining, 419–21
types of, 423–26
using Mill's method of difference, 653–54
causal exploration, 691–92
causal induction, 115–25
elemental, 98–99
functional form in, 119–24
hierarchical Bayesian models, 116–17
learning ontologies of, 117–18
models of, 123–24
plausible relations in, 118–19
prior knowledge in, 124–25
causal inference
by analogy, 469–70
covariation in, 129
mechanisms in, 129–31
structural constraints in, 129–30
temporal cues in, 130–31
causal interpretation, 332
causal invariance, 65–82
in adaptive causal representation, 67–68
application of, 73–74
for binary cause-and-effect variables, 78–79
in causal power theory, 68–71
development of causal knowledge with, 71–72
domain-specific knowledge and, 76–77
empirical evidence on, 79–82
exit conditions for, 77–78
generalization and, 74–76
(p. 741) perceived causality and postulate of relativity, 65–67
as wishful thinking, 72–73
causality
attribution of, in legal reasoning, 581–86
in concepts of mental disorders, 604–5
in control-based decision-making, 283–90
at discourse level, 624–28
implicit, in natural language, 628–33
intentionality vs., 559–60
laws of physics and, 260–62
in moral reasoning, 587–90
perceived, postulate of relativity and, 65–67
in planning, 283–85
temporal order and, 560–61
in verbal domain, 620–24
causal judgment, 29–48, 232–35
associative learning vs., 238
cell weights and density bias in, 36–37
confirming vs. disconfirming evidence contrasts in, 42–44
counterfactual simulation model of, 529–30
de-biasing tools for, 47–48
Δp and causal power, 40–41
as dual-factor heuristic, 41–42
hypothesis dependence in, 37
intuitive physics and, 521–23
intuitive theories and, 525–34
learning-driven cues-to-causality approach to, 44–47
presentation format effects in, 37–38
probe question effects in, 39–40
rules of, 30–31
statistics as inputs for, 31–33
types of rules for, 33–36
causal knowledge
causal invariance and, 71–72
decision-making and, 503
effects of, on DSM-based diagnosis, 610–11
effects of, on judgments of abnormality, 608–9
effects of, on mental disorder diagnosis, 605–11
partial observability and, 301
causal learning
association theory of, 53–54
as associative learning, 13–15
complexity and, 724
multi-process account of, 57–59
process of explaining and, 419–21
causal mechanisms, 127–43
causal explanation and, 426–28
defining, 128
learning, 139–42
mental representations of, 133–39
using mechanism knowledge, 128–33
causal models
causal model theory of choice and, 504
concepts as, 348–49, 403–7
integrating, with analogical reasoning, 465–69
causal model (CM) theory
neural implications of, 230–31
as psychological theory, 224–25
causal narratives, 504–6
causal order, 19–22
causal power
diagnostic reasoning under assumptions of, 437–38
Δp and, 40–41
causal power theory, 68–71
causal questions, 667–68
causal reasoning, 1–7
alternative representations for, 106–9
of children, 690–91
cognitive functions and, 6
from covariation information, 681–82
descriptive and normative theories of, 2
disposition framework of, 157–59
domains of, 6
emergence of, from representations of agents and their actions, 680–81
emergence of, from representations of motion events, 678–80
evolutionary patterns and, 709–10
frameworks of, 3–5
with inferential features, 366–70
interdisciplinary approach to, 6–7
models of, 227–32
neural implications of models of, 227–32
prerequisites for, by non-human animals, 700–702
psychological theories of, 222–27
review of evidence on, 232–38
social, 236–38
taxonomic vs. ecological, 721–22
theories of, 5
theories of causal cognition and, 5–6
ubiquity of, 2–3
causal relations
basic, 170–73
causal representation and, 283–84
control-based decision-making and, 285–87
deductions from, 177–79
implicit and explicit, 625–27
inductions of, 179–81
inter-category, 399–402
inter-feature, 398–99
meanings of, 170–76
planning behaviors and, 284–85
reasoning biased by, 105–6
causal relationships
domain-specific mechanism information, 685–86, 688–89
learning, in early childhood, 685–91
prior knowledge about, 124–25
representations of, 464
statistical learning, 686–89
causal representations
causal invariance in adaptive, 67–68
causal relations and, 283–84
control-based decision-making and, 285–90
planning behaviors and, 284–85
causal responsibility
assignment of, 421–23
from diagnostic probabilities to estimates of, 450–51
causal selection, 161–63, 661
causal simulation, 586–87
causal status effect, 605–8
causal strength
controlling for other causes in inferences of, 99–100
feature prediction and, 384
between two variables, 98–99
causal structure, 85–111
causal Bayes networks, 86–88
challenges in, 109–10
diagnostic reasoning with uncertainty in, 438–40
future research on, 109–10
learning, 88–100
reasoning with, 100–109
temporal order and, 554–56
underlying decision problems, 500–501
causal thought, 487–88
causation
common-sense, legal, and philosophical notions of, 568
counterfactual conditionals and, 173–74
dispositional theory of, 157–59
factual and legal, 568–69
general vs.singular, 201–2
in the law, 567–68
legal reasoning and, 566–67
meaning of conditionals and, 329–30
moral reasoning and, 566–67
by omission, 153–54
process vs. dependency accounts of, 525–34
causative lexical triggers, 633–38
cause(s)
alternative, in feature prediction, 387–88
arguments for, 476–84
combinations of, 119–21
diagnostic reasoning with multiple, 439–46
from effects to, in causal argument, 482
empirical vs. analytic knowledge of, 76–77
enabling conditions vs., 161, 178–79
from, to effects, in causal argument, 479–81
(p. 742) as guide to space, 561–62
as guide to time, 557–62
from hidden states to latent, 301–2
how-cause, 531–33
reasons vs., in causal argument, 475–76
robust-cause, 533–34
selection of, from conditions, 665–67
strength of, 121–23
sufficient-cause, 533
time as guide to, 549–57
whether-cause, 530–31
cell weights, 36–37
Chaigneau, S. E., 359, 360–61, 369–70
Channon, S., 583
character evaluation, 591–94
Chase, C. C., 427
Chater, N., 332
Chen, X., 418
Cheney, D. L., 706
Cheng, P. W., 40, 45, 69–74, 76, 118, 120, 137, 161, 179, 189–90, 400, 405, 406, 437, 451, 466
Chi, M. T. H., 420, 421, 427
children
causal reasoning of, 690–91
causal relationships learned by, 685–91
studies of feature generalization with, 393–94
studies of feature weights with, 365–66
Chin-Parker, S., 422
Chiu, M.-H., 420
Chockler, H., 573, 586
Choi, H., 251–52
Churchland, Patricia, 427
classification
as diagnostic reasoning, 366–68
as prospective reasoning, 368–70
Clayton, N. S., 704
Cleary, M. D., 506
Clement, C. A., 463
Clifford, P., 666
Clifton, C. J., 628
close possibilities, 313–16
CM theory. See causal model theory
Cobos, P. L., 20–21, 61, 606
Coenen, A., 92, 93–94, 449, 510
cognition, 484–88. See also causal cognition
cognitive functions, 6
cognitive neuroscience, 217–40
future research on, 239
neural implications of causal reasoning models, 227–32
psychological theories of causal reasoning, 222–27
review of evidence on causal reasoning, 232–38
cognitive processing
impact of culture on, 727–31
reasoning as effortful, 55–56
cognitive reasoning, 678–85
Cohen, L. B., 256, 678–79
coherence-based reasoning, 579–81
coherence effect, 350–61
Cole, S., 16
Coley, J. C., 425–26
Coley, J. D., 392, 393
Coll, R. K., 462
Collins, D. J., 39
common-cause structures, 444–46
common-effect structures, 441–44
common-sense notions, of causation, 568
complexity, causal learning and, 724
complex judgments, of abstract relations, 235–36
concepts
as causal models, 348–49, 403–7
of mental disorders, causality in, 604–5
representations and blended, 725–26
conditional(s)
causal (See causal conditionals)
in causal constructions, 634–36
counterfactual (See counterfactual conditionals)
material, 311–13
probability, 318–19
conditional probabilities, 378–85
conditional reasoning, 327–44
Byrne paradigm, 337–38
causal, 328–29
causal Bayes nets, 328, 332, 335, 339–43
Cummins paradigm, 335–37
discounting in, 335
fitting abstract data, 331–32
further research on, 338–39
meaning of conditionals and, 329–30
probabilized, 330–31
suppression effects, 333–35
conditions
enabling, causes vs., 161, 178–79
selection of causes from, 665–67
stimulus, affecting visual causal impressions, 250–52
confirming evidence, 42–44
consciousness, goal-directed actions and, 272–73
consequences, argument from, 481–82
consequentialist argument, 485–86
considerations, causal, 496–99
constraints
inductive, 689–90
structural, 129–30
contiguity
in associative learning, 15–17
temporal (See temporal contiguity)
temporal contingency and, 549–52
contingency(-ies)
in associative learning, 15–17
joint frequencies as source of estimation of, 190
pseudocontingencies vs., 191–93
temporal, 549–52
temporal contiguity and, 549–52
contingency assessment
as module of inductive cognition, 189–91
pseudocontingencies and, 193
contingency-based causal judgment rules, 31–33
contract cases, 665–67
control, causal representations and, 287–90
control-based decision-making, 279–91
causality in, 283–90
defining problems for, 280
future research on, 290–91
planning behaviors and, 280–82
public policy program example, 279–80
controlled stereotyping and attribution, 656–57
conversational processes, 665–69
Copernicus, N., 66
Copley, B., 155–57, 638, 640
Copley and Harley's force-theoretic model, 155–57
Cordier, F., 366, 606
Corner, A., 485–86
corpus analysis, 476–77
correlation, Bayesian approach and, 482–83
Corrigan, R., 630
counterfactual analysis, 590–91
counterfactual conditionals
in causal constructions, 637
causation and, 173–74
in moral reasoning, 587–90
counterfactual questions, 668–69
counterfactual simulation model (CSM), 529–30
counter-normative alternative, 190–91
Courville, A. C., 304
covariance
as causal inference, 129
dimensions of, 652–53
implicit covariance assumptions, 655–56
covariation information, 681–82
covers, predictive value of, 704–5
Craik, Kenneth, 170
Cramer, A. O., 605
Craver, C. F., 427
Critcher, C. R., 592
Crupi, V., 448
cue competition, 15–17
cues, temporal, 130–31
cues-to-causality approach, 44–47
(p. 743) cultural evolution, 140–41
culture, 717–33
content and causal cognition, 718–27
context of causal cognition, 731–32
domain boundaries across, 726–27
future research on, 732–33
impact of, on cognitive processing, 727–31
indirect source of mechanism knowledge, and, 140–41
Cummins, D. D., 310, 333–34, 336–38, 342
Cummins paradigm, 335–37
Curtis, R., 462
D
Danks, D., 510
Darley, J. M., 582–83
Darlow, A., 387–88, 438
Darwin, Charles, 645, 646
Davis, K. E., 651, 652, 655
Deacon, B. J., 603, 611–12
Deal, D. C., 560
de Almeida, R. G., 624
de-biasing tools, 47–48
de Blijzer, F., 628
Dechter, E., 524
decision-making
causal knowledge and, 503
control-based (See control-based decision-making)
story model of, 504–6
deductions, from causal relations, 177–79
default assumption, 71–72
de Finetti, B., 318, 319
Dehghani, M., 428
De Houwer, J., 55, 80, 708
de Kwaadsteniet, L., 368, 613
delay, as stimulus condition, 250
De Leeuw, N., 420
Dennis, M. J., 261, 262, 361
density bias, 36–37
dependency accounts
bridging process and, 528–29
process vs., of causation, 525–34
dependency framework, of causal reasoning, 3–4
described situations, 552–54
description, causal invariance as, 73–74
descriptive research, on singular causation, 209–12
descriptive theories, of causal reasoning, 2
Desrochers, S., 256, 679
developmental studies
of feature generalization, 393–94
of feature weights, 365–66
diagnosis, of mental disorders, 605–11
diagnostic hypothesis generation, 451–52
diagnostic inference, 444–46
diagnostic probabilities, 450–51
diagnostic reasoning, 433–53
classification as, 366–68
explaining away, 441–44
future research on, 449–52
power PC theory, 437–38
quantifying diagnostic value of information, 446–49
sequential, 444–46
simple Bayes model, 434–36
structure induction model, 438–40
diagnostic value, of information, 446–49
Dickinson, A., 14–16, 18, 53, 55, 296, 550
Dieterich, J. H., 590
difference-making approaches, to singular causation, 205–8
Dillingham, E. M., 424–25
dimensions of covariance, 652–53
direction, relative, 250–51
direct statistical induction, 139–40
disconfirming evidence, 42–44
discounting, in conditional reasoning, 335
discourse connectives, 627–28
discovery, 691–92
diSessa, A. A., 261
dispositional attribution(s)
causal explanations vs., 655
using Mill's method of agreement, 654–55
disposition framework, of causal reasoning, 4–5, 157–59. See also force(s); force dynamics
DiYanni, C., 424
domain(s)
biological, 720–22
of causal reasoning, 6
physical, 718–20
psychological/social, 722–23
domain boundaries
overlapping of, 724–25
relevance and invariance of, 723–27
domain knowledge, 689–90
domain-specific knowledge, 76–77
domain-specific mechanism information, 685–86, 688–89
Domjan, M., 23–24
Donders, F. C., 273
Douven, I., 319, 417–18
Dowe, P., 4, 134, 164, 204
Dowty, D., 625
DSM-based diagnosis, 610–11
dual-factor heuristic, causal judgment as, 41–42
Dunbar, R. I. M., 700–702
Duncan, B. L., 656
dynamic stimuli, 523–25
E
ecological causal reasoning, 721–22
ecosystems, 724–25
Edwards, B. J., 428
effects
from cause to, in causal argument, 479–81
diagnostic reasoning with multiple, 439–46
from, to causes, in causal argument, 482
in physical domain, 718–20
effortful cognitive process, reasoning as, 55–56
Einstein, A., 66, 67
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 479
elemental causal induction, 98–99
elemental diagnostic reasoning, 434–40
power PC theory, 437–38
simple Bayes model, 434–36
structure induction model, 438–40
Elsner, B., 270, 271
empirical evidence, 79–82
empirical knowledge, 76–77
enabling conditions, 161, 178–79
enforced disintegration, 248–49
engagement, in causal decision-making, 499–502
Engbert, K., 559
Engelmann, N., 614–15
entraining, as causal impression, 247
environmental feedback, 194–95
Erb, C. D., 327–28, 335–37, 343
Erb, H.-P., 422
errors, in causal Bayes nets, 341–42
essences, in biological domain, 720–22
essentialism, 368
Estes, Z., 368
Evans, J. St. B. T., 321, 485
Evans-Pritchard, E. E., 731
Evenden, J., 14, 53
events-to-be-changed, 668–69
Evers-Vermeul, J., 628
evidence
confirming, 42–44
disconfirming, 42–44
empirical, 79–82
review of, on causal reasoning, 232–38
theory-laden confirming, 43–44
theory-laden disconfirming, 43–44
evidential expected utilities, 501–2
evidential reasoning, 574–81
evolutionary patterns, 709–10
exclusion, inference by, 702–3
execution, of goal-directed actions, 268–69
exit conditions, for causal invariance, 77–78
Exner, S., 268
explaining, process of, 419–21
explaining away
as diagnostic reasoning, 441–44
reasoning about, 104–5
explanation-based understanding, of stories, 658–65
explanations
causal (See causal explanation)
generation of, 659–61
for visual causal impressions, 252–56
(p. 744) explanatory gap, implicit causality as, 632–33
explanatory inquiries, 667–68
explanatory reasoning, 574–81
explicit causal relations, 625–27
F
factual causation, 568–69
Fair, D., 4
Featherstone, C. R., 631
feature generalization, 388–98
category-to-category generalizations, 398
models of causal-based feature generalization, 394–98
object-to-category generalizations, 394–96
object-to-object generalizations, 396–98
relationship with similarity-based effects, 390–94
feature prediction, 378–88
alternative causes in, 387–88
as causal-based conditional probabilities, 378–85
Markov violations, 385–87
feature weights
in categorization, 361–66
causal status effect and, 605–6
Feeney, A., 393, 396, 438
Feldman, J., 258–59
Fenton, N., 578
Fernbach, P. M., 95, 105, 106, 327–28, 335–37, 343, 387–88, 438
Ferstl, E. C., 630
Fiedler, K., 191–92, 194, 197
Fincham, F. D., 538
Fine, K., 315, 635–36
Fischer, J., 704
Fish, D., 630
Fisher, Sir Ronald, 555
Flanagan, E. H., 503, 605, 609
Flanagan, J. R., 256
floating, causal attributions for, 719–20
Flores, A., 606
Fodor, J. A., 624
folk-biological reasoning, 720–21
food trails, as causal predictor, 705
Forbus, K. D., 135, 522–23
force(s)
applied to skin, 259–60
early understanding of, 719
as mental representations, 134–35
in physical domain, 718–20
force composition (FC) theory
neural implications of, 231–32
as psychological theory, 225–27
force creators, 161–63
force dynamics, 147–65
causes vs. enabling conditions in, 161
challenges in, 164–65
commonality between theories of, 160–61
Copley and Harley's force-theoretic model, 155–57
force creators, 161–63
force redirection, 163
mechanisms in, 163–64
Mumford and Anjum's dispositional theory of causation, 157–59
Pinker's theory of, 159–60
Talmy's theory of, 148–50
Wolff's force theory, 150–55
force redirection, 163
foresight, intentionality and, 583–84
forward reasoning, 368–70
Fragaszy, D. M., 701
frameworks, of causal reasoning, 3–5
Fraser, B., 210, 667
Fratianne, A., 405
frequency estimates, 31–33
Freytag, P., 191–92, 194
Friel, D., 691, 692
Fugelsang, J. A., 46
Fujita, K., 702
functional features, 364–65
functional form
in causal induction, 119–24
feature prediction and, 384
future research, topics for
causal decision-making, 509–10
causal structure, 109–10
cognitive neuroscience, 239
conditional reasoning, 338–39
control-based decision-making, 290–91
culture, 732–33
diagnostic reasoning, 449–52
goal-directed actions, 274–75
human development, 692–94
intuitive theories, 539–40
mental disorders, 613–15
mental models, 185–86
non-human animals, 710–11
planning, 290–91
G
Gandevia, S. C., 257
gap
explanatory, 632–33
as stimulus condition, 250
Gärdenfors, P., 156–57, 159
Garssen, B. J., 478
Garvey, C., 630
Gavetti, G., 470
Gelman, S. A., 127, 365–66, 393, 426
Gemberling, G. A., 24
general causation, 201–2
generalization, 74–76
Gennari, S., 623–24
George, N. R., 156
Gershman, S. J., 299–300, 303
Gerstenberg, T., 518, 531, 582, 593, 594
Gigerenzer, G., 190, 436
Gilovich, T., 461
Ginsburg, G. P., 666
Girotto, V., 319
Gleason, C., 273
Glymour, C., 137, 434
Glynn, S. M., 463
goal-directed actions, 265–75
agency and ownership of, 271–72
consciousness and, 272–73
future research on, 274–75
habit and, 267–68
monitoring of, 273–74
from movement to action, 266–67
preparation and execution of, 268–69
selection of, 269–71
goals, explanatory relevance of, 668
Godoy, A., 606
Goikoetxea, E., 630
Göksun, T., 156
Goldberg, A. E., 638
Goldberg, J. H., 657
Goldin-Meadow, S., 730
Golinkoff, R. M., 156
Gonzalez, J. S., 608, 610
González-Martín, E., 606
Good, I. J., 418
Goodman, M. D., 117
Goodman, N. D., 123, 403, 518, 636
Goodsale, M. A., 269
Goodwin, G., 313
Gopnik, A., 124–25, 365, 367, 419, 687
Graesser, A. C., 665, 668
Greene, E. J., 582–83
Greiff, S., 286
Grennan, W., 479
Grether, F. W., 702–3
Greville, W. J., 553
Grice, H. P., 646, 664
Griffiths, O., 14
Griffiths, T. L., 71, 98, 99, 109, 115–25, 406, 418, 518, 525, 687, 688
Gurevitch, G., 507
Güss, C. D., 724
Guy, S., 462
Gweon, H., 538, 690
Gwynne, N. A., 425
H
Ha, Y. W., 43
habit, goal-directed actions and, 267–68
Hadjichristidis, C., 321, 396
Haggard, Patrick, 558, 559, 560
Hahn, U., 485–86
Hall, N., 203
Halpern, J. Y., 573, 586
Hamm, F., 638
Hampton, J. A., 358, 360–61, 368
Hamrick, J. B., 525
Handley, S., 321, 485
Hanus, S., 700–701
Harley, H., 155–57, 638
(p. 745) Harman, G., 416
Harris, V. A., 443
Harrison, A. G., 462
Harrison, P. D., 508
Hart, H. L. A., 659, 667
Hartshorne, J. K., 630
Hastie, R., 103, 104, 328, 350, 352, 353, 357, 361, 378, 390, 444, 505, 575, 581
Hastings, A. C., 478, 479, 481
Hattori, M., 33, 41, 190
Hawking, S., 66, 72
Hawkins, G. E., 444
Hayes, B. K., 357, 366, 392, 393, 444
Hegarty, M., 136
Heider, F., 516, 535, 537, 647, 651, 669
Heit, E., 392, 393
Hemphill, D., 665
Hermans, D., 58–59
Herrera, A., 38
Hesse, F. W., 476–78, 483, 490
Hesslow, G., 147, 661
Heussen, D., 358
Hewstone, M., 193–94, 538
hidden states, to latent causes, 301–2
hierarchical Bayesian models, 116–17
Hilton, D. J., 422, 659–60, 662–65
Hirsh-Pasek, K., 156
Hitchcock, C., 2, 584, 664
Hoffrage, U., 436
Hohenstein, J., 365–66
Holbrook, J., 650
Holyoak, K. J., 20, 45, 405, 406, 451, 464–68, 470
Hommel, B., 270, 271
Honoré, A. M., 659, 667
Horowitz, A., 684
Hovav, M. R., 622
how-cause, 531–33
human development, 677–94
causal exploration and discovery, 691–92
future research on, 692–94
learning causal relationships in early childhood, 685–91
origins of cognitive reasoning in, 678–85
Hume, D., 2, 3, 13–14, 78, 129, 169, 173, 201, 205, 549, 556, 561, 634
hybrid causal theories, 5
hypothesis dependence, 37
hypothesis generation, diagnostic, 451–52
hypothesis revision, 71–72
I
icons, as mental representations, 135–36
Iliev, R., 428
imaging, 316–18
impetus theory, 521–23
implicit causality, 628–33
implicit causal relations, 625–27
implicit covariance assumptions, 655–56
implicit reliance, 194
implicit theories, 728–29
inconsistencies, causal explanations of, 181–82
indeterminacy, of rational models, 449–50
indirect sources, of mechanism knowledge, 140–41
individual relations, 150–51
induction(s)
causal (See causal induction)
of causal relations, 179–81
direct statistical, 139–40
mechanisms as, 131–33
inductive cognition, 189–91
inductive constraints, 689–90
inference(s)
action identification by motive, 651–52
algorithm for analogical, 464–65
analogical reasoning and, 460–61
Bayesian model of causal inference by analogy, 469–70
causal (See causal inference)
diagnostic, 444–46
diagnostic, in common-cause structures, 444–46
by exclusion, 702–3
qualitative and quantitative, 103–4
of required action from observation, 708–9
social, 652–53
valid, 195–96
inference to the best explanation (IBE), 416–19
inferential features, 366–70
inferential reasoning theory (IRT), 53–62
associative theory of causal learning and, 53–54
components of, 54–57
evaluation of, 59–61
multi-process account of causal learning and, 57–59
information
causal reasoning from covariation, 681–82
dimensions of covariance, 652–53
domain-specific mechanism, 685–86, 688–89
quantifying diagnostic value of, 446–49
temporal, in described situations, 552–54
Inhelder, B., 33, 42, 691
innate structures, 254–56
inquiries, explanatory vs. attributive, 667–68
intentionality
causality vs., 559–60
foresight and, 583–84
interactions, between the systems, 300–301
inter-category causal relations, 399–402
interdisciplinary approach, to causal reasoning, 6–7
inter-feature causal relations, 398–99
interrogation, 340–41
interventions
learning causal structure from, 91–95
reasoning based on, 101–2
intrinsic features, 349–61
intuitive psychology, 535–39
intuitive theories, 515–41
causal explanations and, 535–39
defining, 516–17
with dynamic stimuli, 523–25
future research on, 539–40
modeling of, 517–19
process vs. dependency accounts, of causation, 525–34
purpose and use of, 519–21
intuitive theory of mind, 535–38
invariance
causal (See causal invariance)
of domain boundaries, 723–27
J
Jackendoff, R., 154, 638
Jahn, G., 445
James, William, 182, 426
Jara-Ettinger, J., 538
Järvikivi, J., 631
Jaspars, J. M., 538
Jeffrey, R. C., 318, 319
Jeon, G., 163
Jern, A., 389, 398
Jiménez, G., 38
Johnson, S. B. G., 138, 139, 427
Johnson, S. G. B., 610
Johnson-Laird, P. N., 239, 312, 313, 319
joint frequencies, 190
Jones, C. E., 303
Jones, E. E., 443, 651, 652, 655
judgments
of abnormality, 608–9
causal (See causal judgment)
contingency-based causal judgment rules, 31–33
of psychological vs. biological bases of mental disorders, 609–10
K
Kahneman, D., 105, 135, 136, 314, 503, 586, 662
Kalish, C. W., 127, 141, 365–66, 426
Kamin, L. J., 54
Kaminski, J., 703–4
Kant, Immanuel, 2, 78
Kareev, Y., 197
Karmiloff-Smith, A., 691
Kashima, Y., 666
Katz, J., 420
Kaufman, L., 681
Kaufmann, S., 428
Keeble, S., 255, 679
(p. 746) Kehler, A., 628–30
Keil, F. C., 164, 367
Kelemen, D., 424
Kelley, H. H., 421, 538, 652–54
Kemp, C., 117, 118, 123, 389, 392, 396–98, 403
Kemp, J. J., 611–12
Kendler, K. S., 603
Khalife, D., 608
Khemlani, S. S., 313, 417
Kim, N. S., 361, 362, 367, 368, 405, 604, 605, 608, 610, 615
Kim, S., 356, 361, 364
Kim, S.-H., 258–59
Kincannon, B., 582
Kirkham, N. Z., 367, 682
Kirmayer, L., 609
Kistler, M., 164
Klayman, J., 43
Kleiman-Weiner, M., 590
Kliger, D., 507
Knobe, J., 210, 584, 664, 667
knowledge
analytic, 76–77
causal (See causal knowledge)
domain, 689–90
domain-specific, 76–77
empirical, 76–77
inductive constraints beyond domain, 689–90
mechanism, 128–33, 140–41
prior, in causal induction, 124–25
world, in explanation of story events, 664–65
Knowles, E. D., 719, 728
Koehler, D., 285
Koehler, J. J., 436
Köhler, W., 700
Kominsky, J. F., 585
Koornneef, A. W., 631
Kotovsky, L., 679
Kratzer, A., 623
Krems, J. F., 445
Krist, H., 702
Krol, N. P., 613
Krugman, Paul, 459
Krynski, T. R., 108, 437
Kuhn, D., 420, 487–89, 577
Kuhn, T., 78
Kummer, H., 710
Kuperberg, G. R., 627
Kuroshima, H., 702
Kushnir, T., 367
Kutzner, F., 194
L
Lagnado, D. A., 101, 343, 555, 560, 561, 583, 586
Lakusta, L., 162
Lalljee, M., 666
Lamb, R., 666
language, natural. See natural language
Larrick, R. P., 443
Lascarides, A., 627–29
Lassaline, M. E., 361, 464
latent causes, 301–2
launching
causal attributions for, 719–20
as causal impression, 246–47
LaVancher, C., 420
Lavendar, H., 615
Lavis, Y., 58
law, causation in the, 567–68
laws of physics, 260–62
Lawson, R., 141
learning
associative (See associative learning)
causal (See causal learning)
causal mechanisms, 139–42
causal relationships in early childhood, 685–91
causal structure, 88–100
ontologies, 117–18
reinforcement (See reinforcement learning)
statistical, 686–89
systems, 724–25
temporal causal structures, 95–97
Lebowitz, M. S., 611
Lee, H. S., 465, 466, 470
Lee, K., 348
legal causation, 568–69
legal inquiry, 574
legal reasoning, 565–87
attribution of causality with, 581–86
causal simulation, 586–87
causation in the law, 567–68
explanatory and evidential reasoning, 574–81
factual and legal causation, 568–69
legal inquiry in, 574
and moral reasoning, 565–66
philosophical theories of causation and, 566–67
See also but-for test
Legare, C. H., 365
Le Pelley, M. E., 14
Lepore, E., 624
Lerner, J. S., 657
Leslie, A. M., 255, 679
Leslie, D. S., 304
Levin, B., 622
Levin, S., 361
Lewis, D., 205, 314–18, 528, 625, 635, 636, 669
lexical triggers, 633–38
Libet, B., 273
Lickel, J. J., 611–12
Lieberman, M. D., 649
Lien, Y., 72, 118, 400, 405
Liljeholm, M., 40, 45, 76, 120, 406
linguistic constructions, 637–38
linguistic factors, in cognitive processing, 729–31
Liu, P. P., 62
Lloyd, K., 304
Lombardi, L., 448
Lombrozo, T., 210, 212, 364, 365, 416–19, 421, 423–26, 428, 527, 655, 689, 693
Lopez, A., 392
López, F. J., 20–21, 61, 606
Love, J., 624
Lovibond, P. F., 58
Lu, H., 45, 71, 109, 121–24, 406, 450, 465, 466
Lubarts, T., 333
Lucas, C. G., 98, 120, 124–25
Luhmann, C. C., 62, 348, 362, 371, 405, 606
Luo, Y., 681
Luque, D., 61
M
MacFarland, T., 623
Mackie, J. L., 476, 662
Mackintosh, N. J., 58
Maio, G. R., 486
Maldonado, A., 37, 38, 119
Malle, B. F., 630, 650, 651, 668
Malt, B. C., 358
Mandel, D. R., 37, 40, 42, 43, 662
Mansinghka, V. K., 117, 118, 124, 518
mapping, 460–61
Markman, E. M., 393
Markov condition, 102–3
Markov violations, 385–87
Marsh, J. K., 123, 348, 361, 402, 605
Martin, A. E., 637
Martin, J. B., 357, 404, 405
Mascalzoni, E., 256, 701
Maslow, A., 702–3
material conditional, 311–13
Mathes, R. M., 659–60
Matute, H., 38
May, J., 22
Mayrhofer, R., 103, 123, 162, 444
McCauley, C., 655
McClelland, J. L., 403
McCloskey, M., 522
McClure, J. L., 668
McCormack, T., 555
McDonnell, J. V., 406
McGill, A. L., 422, 666
McGrath, S., 154
McGregor, S., 426, 551–52
McKenzie, C. R., 45
McKintyre, A., 666
McKoon, G., 623, 624
McLaren, I. P. L., 60, 62
McNair, S., 438
McNally, G. P., 16
meaning(s)
of causal relations, 170–76
of conditionals, 329–30
mechanism knowledge, 128–33, 140–41
mechanisms
biological explanations of mental disorders, 614
in force dynamics, 163–64
Meder, B., 109, 131, 439, 444, 510
Medin, D. L., 127, 350, 392, 426
Meehl, P. E., 608, 609, 614
Meiser, T., 193–94
memory
interrogation and working, 340–41
in multi-process account of causal learning, 58–59
Mendelson, R., 550, 551
mental disorders, 603–15
causality in concepts of, 604–5
diagnosis of, 605–11
future research on, 613–15
prognosis of, 611–12
treatment of, 612–13
mental models, 169–86
abductions of causal explanations, 181–84
of causal assertions, 176–77
deductions from causal relations in, 177–79
future research on, 185–86
inductions of causal relations in, 179–81
meanings of causal relations in, 170–76
of nature, 724–25
mental models (MM) theory
neural implications of, 228–30
as psychological theory, 222–24
mental physics simulation engine, 523–25
mental representations
associations as, 133–34
of causal mechanisms, 133–39
challenges concerning, 138–39
forces and powers as, 134–35
icons as, 135–36
networks as, 137–38
placeholders as, 136–37
schemas as, 138
mental simulations, 339–40
Menzies, P., 2
Mermin, David, 66–67
Mervis, C. B., 350
Meunier, B., 366, 606
Michotte, A., 4, 65, 124, 162, 232–33, 246, 247, 250–55, 258, 259, 261, 523, 550, 678, 679–80
Mikkelsen, L. A., 45
Milgram, S., 656
Mill, J. S., 189
Miller, D., 314
Miller, F. D., 650–51
Miller, J. G., 650
Miller, R. R., 55, 708
Mills, K. K., 627–28
Mill's method of agreement, 654–55
Mill's method of difference, 653–54
Milne, A., 248, 249
Milner, A. D., 269
Minard, E., 58
mind, in psychological/social domain, 722–23
Miresco, M., 609
Mitchell, C. J., 58, 61
Mlodinow, L., 66, 72
MM theory. See mental models theory
Mobayyen, F., 624
model(s)
alternative, 403–4
Bayesian model of causal inference by analogy, 469–70
causal (See causal models)
of causal-based feature generalization, 394–98
of causal induction, 123–24
Copley and Harley's force-theoretic model, 155–57
counterfactual simulation model, 529–30
of evidential reasoning, 577–79
of intuitive theories, 517–19
of intuitive theory of mind, 536–38
mental (See mental models)
probabilistic contrast, 68–71
psychological, 339–43
rational, 449–50
Rescorla–Wagner model, 17–19
simple Bayes model, 434–36
situation, 662–65
of social attribution, 650–58
story (See story model)
structure induction, 438–40
as tools in science education, 461–64
modules, in visual causal impressions, 254–56
modus ponens (MP), 309–11
Mohamed, M. T., 628
Monfils, M.-H., 303
monitoring, of goal-directed actions, 273–74
Moore, J. W., 560
moral reasoning, 587–95
from action permissibility to character evaluation, 591–94
causality and counterfactuals in, 587–90
counterfactual analysis in, 590–91
and legal reasoning, 565–66
philosophical theories of causation and, 566–67
Morís, J., 61
Morris, M. W., 443, 649, 719, 728
motion, understanding of, 719
motion context, 251–52
motion events, 678–80
movement
action and, 266–67
amplification of, 252–54
MP. See modus ponens
Muentener, P., 162, 683, 694
Müller, S. M., 46
multiple causes and effects, 439–46
multi-process account (of causal learning), 57–59
attention in, 58
memory in, 58–59
perception in, 57–58
Mumford, S., 157–59
Mumford and Anjum's dispositional theory of causation, 157–59
Murphy, G. L., 399
Murphy, R. A., 37
Murray, A. J., 611
Muth, K. D., 463
N
Nakayama, K., 251
narratives, causal, 504–6
Natsoulas, T., 251
natural language, 619–40
causal constructions without causative lexical triggers, 633–38
causality at discourse level, 624–28
causality in verbal domain, 620–24
implicit causality in, 628–33
nature, mental models of, 724–25
Neeleman, A., 622
Neilens, H., 485
Nelson, J. D., 448
networks, as mental representations, 137–38
network topology, 381–84
neural implications, of causal reasoning models, 227–32
neurological bases, of social perception, 647–50
Newell, B. R., 444
Newman, G. E., 256
Newton, D. P., 463
Newton, Sir I., 67
Newton, L. D., 463
Nguyen, T. P., 610
Nieuwland, M. S., 637
Nisbett, R. E., 649
Niv, Y., 303
Niyogi, S., 117
noisy Newton theory, 523–25
Nolden, S., 559
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., 611
non-human animals, 699–711
evolutionary patterns and causal reasoning, 709–10
future research on, 710–11
inference by exclusion, 702–3
inferring a required action from observation, 708–9
prerequisites for causal reasoning by, 700–702
reasoning about actions of social agents, 705–6
reasoning about object–object relationships, 703–5
reasoning about outcome of one's own actions, 706–8
selective conditioning in, 23–25
(p. 748) Noordman, L. G., 626, 628
Norman, K. A., 303
normative theories
of causal reasoning, 2
of singular causation, 202–9
norms, in causal attribution, 584–85
Novick, L. R., 161, 179, 189–90, 451, 608
Nozick, R., 497
O
Oaksford, M., 33, 41, 190, 332, 485–86
Oatley, K., 647
object–object relationships, 703–5
objects, in physical domain, 718–20
object-to-category generalizations, 394–96
object-to-object generalizations, 396–98
observation(s)
inferring a required action from, 708–9
learning causal structure from, 88–91
reasoning based on, 101–2
O'Connell, S., 700–702
Oden, D. L., 709
Oestermeier, U., 476–78, 483, 490
Öllinger, M., 288
omission, causation by, 153–54
Onifade, E., 508
Opfer, J. E., 368, 393
Oppenheimer, D. M., 105, 366–67, 371, 417
order
temporal, causality and, 560–61
temporal, causal structure and, 554–56
Ortega-Castro, N., 41
Osman, M., 39, 284, 285, 287
outcome of one's own actions, 706–8
Over, D. E., 319–21, 396, 485
ownership, of goal-directed actions, 271–72
Oxford Handbook of Causation (Beebe, Hitchcock, and Menzies), 2
P
p (causal power), 40–41
Pacer, M. D., 124, 417, 418
Page, D. M., 707
Pais, A., 66
Palmeri, T. J., 362, 606
Pander Maat, H., 626
parameterization, 384
Pardeshi, P., 623
Park, J. Y., 79, 82, 103, 386, 426, 427
partial observability, 301
Pasqualino, M., 444
Patalano, A. L., 390
Paulus, D. J., 608, 610
Pavlov, I. P., 14, 302
Payton, T., 37
Pearl, J., 117, 137, 139, 171, 174, 315–18, 320, 434, 481, 517, 586, 636
Pearson, D., 14
Peirce, C. S., 170
penetration, as causal impression, 249–50
Peng, K., 649, 719, 728
Penn, D. C., 60, 711
Pennington, N., 505, 575
people, in psychological/social domain, 722–23
Perales, J. C., 37, 38–40, 42, 45, 46, 71, 119, 190
perceived causality, 65–67
perception
as indirect source of mechanism knowledge, 141
in multi-process account of causal learning, 57–58
Peterson, C. R., 85
Phelan, J. C., 611
Phillips, A., 680–81
philosophical notions, of causation, 568
philosophical theories
legal reasoning and, 566–67
moral reasoning and, 566–67
physical domain, causal cognition about, 718–20
physical events, 232–35
physical process approaches, 203–5
physics, intuitive, 521–23
Piaget, J., 33, 42, 266, 680, 685
Pierce, M. L., 362, 405
Pinker, S., 159–60
Pinker's theory of force dynamics, 159–60
placeholders, as mental representations, 136–37
planning, 279–85, 290–91
causality in, 283–85
control-based decision-making and, 280–82
defining problems for, 280
future research on, 290–91
public policy program example, 279–80
plausible relations, 118–19
Plessner, H., 191–92
Plotnik, J. M., 704
pluralistic causal theories, 5
Poeppel, D., 220, 623–24
Politzer, G., 319
populations, sampled, 74–76
possibilities, close, 313–16
Povinelli, D. J., 60, 711
power(s), causal
as mental representations, 134–35
p (See p)
power PC theory, 437–38
Prasada, S., 424–25
preconditions, explanatory relevance of, 668
predictions
and action selection, 269–71
covers and, 704–5
noise and, 703–4
Prelec, D., 509
Premack, A. J., 648, 652, 700, 702, 705
Premack, D., 648, 652, 700, 702, 705
preparation, for goal-directed actions, 268–69
presentation format effects, 37–38
prior knowledge, in causal induction, 124–25
probabilistic contrast model, 68–71
probabilities
causal-based conditional, 378–85
diagnostic, 450–51
diagnostic reasoning with empirical, 434–36
estimates of, 31–33
feature prediction as causal-based conditional, 378–85
of realistic causal conditionals, 319–22
probability conditional, 318–19
probabilized conditional reasoning, 330–31
probe question effects, 39–40
problem(s)
causal structure underlying, 500–501
defining, for control-based decision-making, 280
defining, for planning, 280
formulization of, in reinforcement learning, 297–98
process, of explaining, 419–21
process accounts, of causation, 525–34
process framework, of causal reasoning, 4
Proctor, C. C., 503, 607, 609
Proffitt, J. B., 392
prognosis, of mental disorders, 611–12
propositions, 56–57
Proske, U., 257
prospective reasoning, 368–70
pseudocontingencies (PCs), 189–98
contingencies vs., 191–93
contingency assessment, 189–91
as proxy for dealing with paucity of environmental feedback, 194–95
as resilient cognitive illusion, 191–94
as smart heuristic, 195–96
psychological bases, of mental disorders, 609–10
psychological model, 339–43
psychological/social domain, 722–23
psychological theories
of causal decision-making, 502–8
of causal reasoning, 222–27
public policy program, 279–80
Puebla, G., 360–61, 369–70
pulling, as causal impression, 247–48
Putnam, H., 423
Pylyshyn, Z. W., 135
Pyykkönen, P., 631
Q
qualitative inferences, 103–4
qualitative reasoning, 521–23
(p. 749) quantifying diagnostic value of information, 446–49
quantitative inferences, 103–4
Quattrone, G., 509
R
Rafferty, A., 419
Ramsey, F. P., 313, 316, 335
Rao, R. P., 301–2
rationality, mental disorder diagnosis and, 613–14
rational models, 449–50
realistic causal conditionals, 319–22
real-world categories, 358
reasoning
about actions of social agents, 705–6
about explaining away, 104–5
about object–object relationships, 703–5
about outcome of one's own actions, 706–8
based on observations vs. interventions, 101–2
biased by causal relations, 105–6
with causal structure, 100–109
as effortful cognitive process, 55–56
as indirect source of mechanism knowledge, 141
Markov condition and, 102–3
qualitative and quantitative inferences in, 103–4
See also specific types
reasons, causes vs., 475–76
Rebitschek, F. G., 445
Redondo, M., 268
Regolin, L., 256, 701
regularity, temporal, 556–57
Reigeluth, C., 462
reinforcement learning (RL), 295–304
algorithmic solutions, 298–300
causal knowledge and partial observability, 301
formulization of problem, 297–98
from hidden states to latent causes, 301–2
historical background of, 296–97
structure learning and, 302–4
transitions and interactions between the systems, 300–301
relations
abstract, 235–36
ALLOW, 154
basic causal, 170–73
causal (See causal relations)
explicit causal, 625–27
implicit causal, 625–27
individual, 150–51
inter-category causal, 399–402
inter-feature causal, 398–99
plausible, 118–19
relationships
object–object, 703–5
relative direction, 250–51
relative speed, 251
relativity, postulate of, 65–67
relevance, of domain boundaries, 723–27
religion, science vs., 725–26
representations
adaptive causal, 67–68
of agents and their actions, 680–81
alternative, 106–8
alternative, for causal reasoning, 106–9
blended concepts and, 725–26
of causal models, 405–6
of causal relationships, 464
of motion events, 678–80
Rescorla, R. A., 15–16, 17
Rescorla–Wagner model, 17–19
research agenda, for causal argument, 488–91
resilient cognitive illusion, 191–94
responsibility
attribution of, in groups, 585–86
from diagnostic probabilities to estimates of causal, 450–51
reverse engineering, 183–84
Riedel, J., 703–4
Rips, L. J., 135–36, 343, 368, 428
Rist, R., 333
Robertson, S. P., 668
Robinson, B., 724
Robinson, E., 501
robust-cause, 533–34
Rogers, T. T., 403
Rojas, R. R., 124
Rosch, E. H., 350, 720
Roscoe, R. D., 427
Rosenthal, J. E., 611
Ross, B. H., 359, 390
Ross, N. O., 725
Rothe-Wulf, A., 727
Rottman, B. M., 103, 104, 328, 378, 444
Rottman, J., 424
Roy, M., 427
Rubinstein, J., 392, 393
Rudolph, U., 630
rule-governed behavior, 30–31
Runeson, S., 254, 262
Ryan, M. M., 362, 405
S
Salmon, Lord, 565
Salmon, W. C., 4, 203
Samland, J., 584–85, 667
sampled populations, 74–76
Sanborn, A. N., 124, 518, 523
Sanders, T. J., 626, 628
Sanislow, C. A., 605
Saxe, R., 538
Scandura, J. M., 30
Schaffer, M. M., 350
Schank, R. C., 284, 669
Scheines, P., 434
schemas, as mental representations, 138
scheme-based approaches, 477–79
Schloegl, C., 704
Schlottmann, A., 21–22
Schmeltzer, C., 662
Schmid, M., 705
Scholl, B. J., 251–52, 255
Scholz, A., 445
Schulz, K., 636
Schulz, L. E., 538, 684, 688, 690–92
Schum, D. A., 579
Schupbach, J. N., 417–18
science, religion vs., 725–26
science education, 461–64
Seligman, M. E., 284
semantics, of implicit causality, 631–32
Semrud-Clikerman, M., 463
sequential diagnostic reasoning, 444–46
Seston, R., 424
Seyfarth, R. M., 706
Shafto, P., 392, 393, 398, 690
Shanks, D. R., 14–16, 18, 21, 25, 38–40, 42, 45, 53, 58, 71, 190, 550–51, 557
Shannon, C. E., 447
Shaw, R. C., 704
Shepard, J., 259, 260
Sheu, C. F., 45–46
Shibatani, M., 622, 623
Shultz, T. R., 527, 550, 551
Silk, J. B., 706
Silva, F. J., 707
Silva, K. M., 707
similarity-based effects, 390–94
Simion, F., 256
Simmel, M., 516, 535, 647
Simmons, C. L., 358
Simmons, S., 368
Simon, D., 580
Simpson's paradox, 193–94
simulations
causal, 586–87
counterfactual simulation model, 529–30
mental, 339–40
mental physics simulation engine, 523–25
Singh, M., 258–59
Singmann, H., 320
singular causation, 201–13
challenges with, 212–13
descriptive research on, 209–12
general vs., 201–2
normative theories of, 202–9
situation models, 662–65
Skills of Argument, The (Kuhn), 487–88
Slotta, J. D., 427
Slugoski, B. R., 666
smart heuristic, pseudocontingencies as, 195–96
Smith, E. E., 358, 392
Smith, E. R., 650–51
Smith, K. A., 524, 525
Snedeker, J., 630
Snow, John, 180, 181
Sobel, D. M., 365, 367, 682, 687
soccer balls, in causal invariance example, 72–73
social agents, 705–6
social attribution, 645–70
conversational processes in causal explanation, 665–69
explanation-based understanding of stories, 658–65
models of, 650–58
social perception and, 647–50
social causal reasoning, 236–38
social domain. See psychological/social domain
social inference, 652–53
social judgment, biases in, 657–58
social perception, 647–50
Solstad, T., 622, 631, 632
Song, J., 730
Soto, F. A., 304
space, cause as guide to, 561–62
Spapé, M., 271
spatiotemporal contiguity, 549–62
causality vs. intentionality, 559–60
cause as guide to space, 561–62
cause as guide to time, 557–62
temporal contiguity and contingency, 549–52
temporal information in described situations, 552–54
temporal order and causality, 560–61
temporal order and causal structure, 554–56
temporal regularity, 556–57
time as guide to cause, 549–57
speed, relative, 251
Spelke, E., 680–81
Spellman, B. A., 464, 506, 582
Spirtes, P., 434
Spohn, W., 434
Spooren, W. P., 628
Sprenger, J., 418
Spunt, R. P., 649
Stachenfeld, K. L., 299–300
Stalnaker, R. C., 313, 314, 316, 329–30, 635, 636
Stapleton, J., 571, 572
statistical induction, direct, 139–40
statistical learning, 686–89
statistics, as inputs for causal judgment, 31–33
stereotyping, 656–57
Stevenson, R., 396
Stewart, A. J., 637
Steyvers, M., 90, 92–95, 140, 449, 510
stimulus conditions, 250–52
Stitt, C. L., 655
Storms, G., 358, 392
story model
of decision-making, 504–6
in legal reasoning, 575–77
story understanding
explanation-based, 658–65
situation models in, 662–65
structural constraints, 129–30
structure. See causal structure
structure, of social perception, 647–50
structure induction model, 438–40
structure learning, 302–4
Sturt, P., 631
subprocesses, of analogical reasoning, 460–61
sufficient-cause, 533
Suppes, P., 260
suppression effects, 333–35
Sussman, A. B., 417
Sutton, R. S., 300
Sweetser, E., 625, 626, 628, 632
systems, interactions between, 300–301
systems learning, 724–25
T
Talmy, L., 148–50, 621, 622
Talmy's theory of force dynamics, 148–50, 154–55
tasks, of causal models, 404–5
taxonomic causal reasoning, 721–22
Taylor, A. H., 709
temporal causal structures, 95–97
temporal contiguity
in associative learning, 22–23
as causal inference, 130–31
contingency and, 549–52
temporal contingency, 549–52
temporal cues, 130–31
temporal information, 552–54
temporal order
causality and, 560–61
causal structure and, 554–56
temporal regularity, 556–57
Tenenbaum, J. B., 71, 99, 108, 115–21, 123, 124, 392, 403, 406, 437, 510, 518, 524, 538, 687, 690
Tenney, E. R., 506
Tentori, K., 448
testimony, as indirect source, 140–41
Tetlock, P. E., 657
Thagard, P., 580
theory-laden confirming evidence, 43–44
theory-laden disconfirming evidence, 43–44
theory of mind, 722–23
Thirlaway, K., 611
Thompson, R. K. R., 709
Thompson, S. P., 393
Thompson, V. A., 46, 309, 321
Thrornley, S., 85
Tiller, L. N., 704
time
cause as guide to, 557–62
as guide to cause, 549–57
Tolman, E. C., 296
Tomasello, M., 703–4,