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date: 02 June 2020

(p. 363) Index

(p. 363) Index

Page references for figures are indicated by f, for tables by t, and for boxes by b

A
Abramson, L. Y., 30, 70, 210
absorption, 327
academics, 32–33, 83–84, 107–113, 289
definitions, 107–108
enhancing and engendering hope
college, 112
parents, 112
school counselors, 110–111
teachers, 111–112
future directions, diverse student body, 112–113
measuring, in schools, 108
multicultural context, 109–110
outcomes, 120
research studies, 262, 274t
action-controlled beliefs, 63, 64–65
actualization, social, 292
Adams, V. H., III, 33, 101
adaptation, positive, 256
adaptive developmental regulations, 11
adaptive goals, 315
Adelabu, D. H., 109
adherence, treatment
children, 173, 175
medication, 119
adjustment
psychological (see psychological adjustment)
social, 289
adolescence, 300. see also children; specific topics
changes and theoretical models, 300
cognitive development, 300
competence-related beliefs, 300–301
development, 170, 300
losing hope, 30
mental health, 299–309 (see also mental health, adolescent)
motivation, 300–301
negative aspects, 300, 301
origins of hope in, 305
parents’ hope, 306
Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), 314
Adult (Dispositional) Hope Scale (AHS, DHS), 4, 47, 54, 84–85, 90, 108, 118, 302
across cultures, 99–100
beliefs, 47
valued goals, 330–331
Ægisdóttir, S., 98
affect. see also emotions
negative, 45, 146–147, 212, 262, 265t266t, 289, 303–304
positive, 265t266t, 289–291, 304
research studies, 262, 265t266t
Affleck, G., 17, 21
Afrocentricity, 110
ageism, 150–151
agency, 4, 17, 45, 83, 107, 133, 180, 221, 255
action, 63
cultural context, 96
wise thinking, 146
agency, trust and, 15–18
agency thinking
development, student, 118, 122, 123
goal pursuit feedback loops, 224
in hope theory, 28, 180, 211, 234, 245, 255, 299, 330
in hope therapy, 135
agentic action, 63
agentic theories, human, 63
agents. see also specific types
significant, 121, 130–131
aging, 293
healthy, 356–357
optimal, 256
Ai, A. L., 235
Ainsworth, M. D. S., 320, 321
Alain, M., 136, 148, 344
Alarcon, G. M., 48–49, 50
alcohol use, 109, 120
Aldridge, A. A., 101
Alexander, E. S., 228
Alloy, L. B., 70
Almond, R., 342
Al-Yagon, M., 244–245, 247, 248, 250
Andersen, B. L., 136–137
Anderson, J. R., 133, 225
Anderson, K., 210
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (Locke), 59–60
Angyal, Andras, 60–61
Ani, A., 110
Antonovsky, H., 247, 342–343
anxiety, 221–230
attachment figure, 314
Barlow’s anxious apprehension, 223–224, 228
empirical studies, 225–227
future research, 228–230
generalized, 222
Herth Hope Scale and Herth Hope Index, 222
hope theory, Snyder’s, 221–222, 224
hope therapy, 138–139
panic-related, 223, 224
research studies, 258, 262, 266t270t
test, 227–228
test anxiety, 227–228
types, theoretical framework, 223–224
anxious apprehension, 223–224, 228
Aquinas, St. Thomas, 19
Arnau, R. C., 213, 222, 226, 227
Aspinwall, L. G., 17, 46
asthma, 119
athletic performance, 33, 83, 120–121, 179–187, 289
burnout, sport, 181–182
career transitions, 184
future research, 185–186
hope constructs, 179–180
injury rehabilitation, 182–184
interventions and therapies, 185
motivation, 179
performance slumps, 185
research studies, 180–182, 262, 274t
well-being, athlete, 181
Zapotek on, 179
attachment
secure vs. insecure, 314
specific learning disorder, 247–248
styles, 314
system, 314
theory, 314–315
unresolved/fearful, 321
attachment processes and social/developmental bases, 313–323
adulthood, moving hope and attachment into, 318–319
attachment theory, 314–315
attachment to God, 322–323
future research, 323
insecure, 320–321
parenting and “goal corrected partnership,” 315–317
secure base, 315–322 (see also secure base)
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 113 (p. 364)
specific learning disorder with, 244
attitudes. see also specific types
older adults, 146
attributes, individual, 256. see also specific types
Augustine, St., 19
authenticity, 345
autonomous motivation, 64
autonomy, need for, 61, 294
B
Bailey, S., 210
Bakker, A. B., 327, 333
Bandura, A., 31–32, 31t, 46, 47–48, 53, 54, 211
Baník, K., 237
Banks, K. H., 100, 101, 109, 294
bare-bones conception, 12
Bargh, J. A., 72
Barkley, R. A., 244
Barkus, E., 290–291, 301
Barlow, D. H., 223–224
base, secure, 315–322. see also secure base
basic psychological needs theory, 62
Bastianello, M. R., 100
Battista, J., 342
Baumeister, R. F., 321, 343, 359
Baumrind, D., 315, 318
Beck, A. T., 70, 160, 234
Becker, Ernest, 342
Beck Hopelessness Scale, 160
becoming, 20
behavior, goal-directed, 51, 69–77, 108, 119, 122, 135. see also goal-directed behavior
behavioral health, 161
academic achievement, 262, 274t
athletic achievement, 262, 274t
coping strategies, 262, 273t274t
externalizing behaviors, 262, 272t
health behaviors, 262, 271, 274t
stress resilience, 262, 271, 272t274t
suicide, 262, 272t273t
being, 20
beliefs
action-controlled, 63, 64–65
capacity, 65
control expectancy, 64–65
Belmont, J. M., 119
Bemieri, F., 317
Bempachat, J., 66
Bennett, A., 112
Berg, C. J., 119, 162
Bergeman, C. S., 146, 153
Bernier, A., 314, 315
bias, 98
Bible, Old Testament, 12
Billington, E., 166
birth, psychological, 29, 53
Biswas-Diener, R., 357
Bloch, Ernst, 70, 73
Blustein, D. L., 66
Bouffard, L., 136, 148, 344
Bouwkamp, J., 125t, 126
Bovens, Luc, 13–14
Bowlby, J., 248, 313–315, 317–318
Bowles, R. E., 99
Brandtstädter, J., 50–51
Braun-Lewensohn, O., 344
Bridges, L., 317
Brislin, R. W., 98
broaden-and-build theory, positive emotions, 329
broader thinking, 109
Bruera, E., 20–21
Bruner, Jerome, 17
Bryant, F. B., 48
Buchanan, C. L., 304
Building Hope for the Future, 125t, 126–127, 304–305
Bullough, R. V., 330
Bundick, M. J., 66
burnout, sport, 181–182
Buschor, C., 290
Butterfield, R., 112
Byron, K., 333
C
Calhoun, L. G., 236
Callahan, B., 110–111, 124, 125t
Callina, K. S., 10
Campbell, D. G., 87
cancer, 33, 163–164
capacity beliefs, 65
capital, psychological, 289, 328–329
career goals and efficacy, 109
career transitions, athletics, 184
Carifio, J., 48
Carnelley, K., 321
Carretta, C. M., 227
Cartesian split conception, 10
Carver, C. S., 15, 17, 30–31, 31t, 46, 54–55, 71
causal action sequence, 63–65, 64f
causal agency, 62
causal agency theory, 62–63
causal determinism, 59
causality orientations theory, 62
Chan, C. K. Y., 237
Chang, E. C., 101, 109, 214, 293, 294
change
mechanism, 140
symptom changes, 139
therapy, 135–137
Chapin, R. K., 149
Chard, K. M., 134
Cheavens, J. S., 134–140, 215, 238, 306, 344
children, developmental stages, 169–170
children, promoting hope, 110–112, 117–127, 170–171, 171b, 172b
agents, significant, 121, 130–131
development, hope, 118
foundation, building, 122–123
hope system and measurement, 118–119
parents’ role, 112
programs and interventions, potential, 123–127, 125t
Buchanan, 125t
Kirschman et al., 125t
Making Hope Happen, 111, 124–126, 125t
Making Hope Happen, adolescents, 304
Making Hope Happen for Kids, 126
Making Hope Happen High School, 126
Marques et al., Building Hope for the Future, 304–305
McDermott et al., 124, 125t
McNeal et al., 125t
Robitschek, 125t
refugees, 113
school counselors, 110–111
teachers’ role, 111–112
theory, 119–121
academics, 120
athletics, 120–121
demographics and social contexts, 121
physical health, 119–120
social-emotional development, 119
spirituality and religion, 119
Children’s Domain-Specific Hope Scale, 87, 108
children’s health, 169–177
chronic diseases, coping with, 171–174
chronic illness, adjustment, 171–173
interventions targeting hope, 173–174
treatment adherence, 173
chronic diseases, fostering hope, 174–177
acceptance, 174–175
“can do’s” vs. “can’t do’s,” 175
humor, 175
social support, 176–177
treatment adherence, 175
developmental stages
adolescents, 170
infants and toddlers, 169–170
middle years, 170
preschoolers, 170
fostering hope, 170–171
goal setting, 171, 171b
waypower thinking, 171, 172b
willpower thinking, 171, 172b
Children’s Hope Scale (CHS), 4, 30, 43, 86–87, 108, 111, 118, 201, 302–303
across cultures, 99
Making Hope Happen for Kids, 126
Making Hope Happen program, 111, 124–126, 125t
mental health outcomes, optimal, 301, 302–303
Choi, H., 293
chronic illness, 165–166
chronic pain, 162
Ciarrochi, J., 108–109, 290–291, 293, 301
(p. 365) Ciciolla, L., 249
Clark, L. A., 228–229
cognitive-behavorial therapy (CBT), 215, 237–238
cognitive development, adolescence, 300
cognitive evaluation theory, 62
cognitive-motivational characteristic, adolescence, 301, 306–307
cognitive processing therapy, PTSD, 237–238
cognitive reappraisal, 288
cognitive-temporal dimension, 222
coherence
sense of, 342–343
sense of, specific learning disorder, 245, 247
social, 292
cold pressor task (CPT), 162
college, promoting hope, 112
companionship support, 176
competence
adolescents, beliefs on, 300–301
need for, 61
conceptual equivalence, 98
conditioned transcendence, 19
connection, human, 35–36
construct bias, 98
construct equivalence, 110
control expectancy beliefs, 64–65
controllable, 45
Cook, D. L., 180
Coopersmith, S., 32
coping, 35, 109, 288
children, 119
future directions, 357–358
hope vs. optimism and self-efficacy, 50–51
older adults, 146–147
PTSD, positive, 234
specific learning disorder, 247
strategies, research studies, 262, 273t274t
stress, 234
Coyle, L. D., 294
Crow nation, 19–20
Crowson, J. J., 211
Crumbaugh, J. C., 342
Csikszentmihalyi, M., 301, 334–335
culture, 95–102
academics, 109–110
agency and pathways, 96
case example, Rocio, 97–98
diverse student bodies, 112–113
ethnic identity, 96
family, 96
future directions, 102
goals and obstacles, 95–96
how hope operates, 100–102
measurement across cultures, 98
scales, 99–100
values, 96
Western and Eastern differences, 294–295
Curry, L. A., 120–121, 180, 185
Cutcliffe, J. R., 21
Cvengros, J. A., 48
D
Danoff-Burg, S., 101
Davidson, O. B., 112, 250
Davidson-Arad, B., 236
Davies, F., 108–109
Day, J. P., 13
daydreams, 71, 74. see also fantasies
Deci, E. L., 61–62, 314–315, 317, 334, 335
dedication, 327
de Mello, G. E., 76
Demirli, A., 290
demographics, 121
dependency paradox, 317
depression, 36–37, 209–216
children, 119
cognitive-behavorial therapy for, 215
cognitive conceptualizations, 210
definition and characteristics, 209
empirical studies, 213–215
etiology, 209–210
future directions, 216
helplessness and hopelessness theories, 210–211
hope theory, 211–213
hope therapy, 137–138
interventions, 215–216
major depressive disorder, 209
older adults, 145
prevalence, 209
PTSD, 235
research studies, 258, 262, 266t270t
treatment, lack of, 209
youth, future directions, 358–359
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), 226–227
Derks, D., 333
Descartes, Rene, 12–13
despair, 346
determinism, 59
development, of hope, 118
developmental stages. see also adolescence; children
adolescents, 170
hope across, 355–356
infants and toddlers, 169–170
middle years, 170
preschoolers, 170
diabetes, 120
Dickson, J. M., 213–214
Dieffenbach, K., 180
Diener, C., 290
Diener, E., 290, 334
disengagement, employee, 327–328, 332–333
dispositional tendency, 180
distress, psychological
hope vs. optimism and self-efficacy, 50
research studies, 266t
Domain-Specific Hope Scale (DSHS), 87, 108, 118
adolescence, 306–307
Children’s, 87, 108
dismissing adults, 320
purpose, 306
Dreher, D. E., 112, 136, 344
Driver, R. E., 317
Duangado, K. M., 101
Dubé, M., 136, 148, 344
Dufault, K., 222
Dumont, M., 316
E
Early, S., 211
Eastern culture, 294–295
Edwards, L. M., 99, 126, 146, 153
efficacy. see also self-efficacy
career goals, 109
expectancies, 31
effort, 108
Efklides, A., 146
Eggum, N. D., 346
Eisenberg, N., 346
elderly, 143–153. see also older adults
Elliott, T. R., 164
emerging goal theory, 330
Emery, C. F., 136–137
emotional support, 176
emotion regulation, 288
emotions. see also affect; specific types
goal-pursuit cognitions, 28
hope and, 76, 84, 211–212
impediments, 28
older adults, 146
positive vs. negative, 45, 146–147
empathically attuned parent, 316
empirical relationships, meaning in life, 344
employee engagement crisis, 327–328, 332–333
Employment Hope Scale (EHS), 90
end of life
care problems, 193–194
hope at, fundamental error, 194–195
energy (energization), 73
engagement
definition, 327–328
employee crisis, 327–328, 332–333
enjoyment, positive fantasies, 75
environment, older adults
physical, 151–152
social, 150–151
epigenetic changes, 11
equivalence, 98, 110
Erikson, Erik, 12, 16, 18, 70, 159, 313, 359
essence, 345
ethnic identity, 96, 109
ethnicity, 293–294
ethnic minorities, 96
eudaimonic well-being, 49, 289
Euripedes, 12
executive functioning, 213, 244
(p. 366) existence, 345
existentialism, 341–347. see also meaning in life
authenticity, 345
despair, 346
existence, essence, and responsibility, 345
thrownness/facticity, 345–346
existential vacuum, 36
expectancy-based hope theories
theories of hope, 70
theories of hopelessness, 70
theories of optimism, 71
expectancy-value models, 46
expectations, 69
positive, 71
self-efficacy, 71
Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR), 318
exploration, 318
goals, 315
parents promotion, 315
externalizing behaviors, research studies, 262, 272t
external support systems, 256
F
Facial Action Coding System, 77
facticity, 345–346
false alarms, 224
false hope, 148–149, 288
adolescents, 308
end of life, 194–195
familismo (family), 96
family. see also parents and parenting; siblings, support
specific learning disorder, 249
fantasies, 69
fantasies, positive, 69, 71–73
hope as, 69, 71–73
mental exploration, 75–76
origins, 73
patient waiting, 75
vs. positive expectations, 71
relaxation and enjoyment, 75
success, 71–73
temporary relief, 75
fantasy realization theory, 69–70, 73–74
fathers sensitivity, in play, 319
fear, 223, 224
feed-forward and feed-back functions, 29–30, 29f
Feeney, B. C., 316–317
Feldman, D. B., 33, 51, 53, 108, 112, 136, 161, 238, 249, 250, 331, 332, 344, 345, 346
Fenney, B. C., 359
Ferguson, M. J., 72
Feudtner, C., 192, 194–197, 196f, 199, 200
fight-or-flight response, 223
Finch, J. F., 226
Fischer, R., 335
Fiske, S. T., 150, 151
Fite, P. J., 109
Flory, K., 235, 236
flow, 331–332, 332f
Folkman, S., 165, 234
Fortunato, J. V., 226
Foucault, D., 137
Fouché, R., 52
four needs for meaning, 343–344
Frank, J. B., 120, 287
Frank, J. D., 3–4, 36, 120, 159, 287
Frankl, Viktor, 20, 36, 341, 342
Franklin, Benjamin, 12
Freud, Sigmund, 3
friends, support, 177
Frodi, A., 317
full hope model, 28–29, 28f
functional equivalence, 98
Fung, H. H., 294–295
future directions. see also specific topics
aging, healthy, 356–357
coping, 357–358
depression, youth, 358–359
developmental stages, 355–356
giving hope away, 355
healthy relationships, 359
meaning in life, 359–360
psychotherapy, 354–355
social justice, 357
future expectations, positive, 12–15
future-oriented perspective, 45, 108
Future Scale. see Trait Hope Scale
future self-views, 150–151
G
Gajdošová, B., 237
Gallagher, M. W., 48, 49–50, 238, 358
Gallup Student Poll, 6
gangs, 322
Gardner, H., 333
Gariglietti, K., 110–111, 124, 125t
Geiger, K. A., 214
gender, 293
generalized anxiety, 223
Gillham, J. E., 54
Gilman, R., 134, 139, 238
Gingerich, K., 110–111, 124, 125t
Gladstone, T. R., 210
Glass, K., 235, 236
glycemic control, 120
“goal corrected partnership,” parenting and, 315–317
goal-directed behavior, 69–77
academics, 108
children, 119, 122
depressed vs. nondepressed, 213–214
emotion of hope, 76
fantasy realization theory, 69–70, 73–74
future directions, 76–77
hope and, 70–71
hope as positive fantasies, 69, 71–73
hopeful pessimist, 74–76, 74f
hope therapy, 135
hope vs. optimism and self-efficacy, 51
goal-focused group psychotherapy (GFGP), 136
goal pursuit
cognitions, emotions from, 28
feedback loops, hope theory, 224
goals
adaptive, 315
cultural diversity, 95–96
expanding, 321–322
in hope theory, 28, 45, 83, 84, 133–134, 211, 221, 245, 299
lifespan, 143
positive, importance, 330–332
positively valenced, 330
secure base, expanding, 321–322
setting, student development, 122
stagnation, perception of, 212
unrealistic, older adults, 148–149
valued, 330–331, 331f
goals, at work
importance, 330–332
meaningful, 332
pursuing, 332–334
employer role, 333–334
organization role, 333
universal and widely held values, 334–336
Goals Scale for the Present. see State Hope Scale
God, attachment to, 322–323
Golden-Kreutz, D. M., 136–137
Goldhagen, J., 112
Gonzalez-Roma, V., 327
good death, 195
Gosselin, C., 316
Gottschalk, L. A., 14, 70
Gould, D., 180, 185
G-POWER, 111, 124
grades (grade point average, GPA), 32–33, 51–52, 53, 72, 84, 88, 97, 108–109, 120
grandparents, support, 176
Grolnick, W., 317
Grossman, K., 319
growth, posttraumatic, 236–237
research studies, 270t271t
Gum, A., 238
Gustafsson, H., 181–182
H
Haanstra, T. M., 48, 52
Haase, C. M., 144
Hall-Kenyon, K. M., 330
Hamilton, N., 162
Handbook of Hope: Theory, Measures, and Applications (Snyder), 6
hang in, 70
Hankin, B. L., 235, 236
harmonious passion, 331–332, 332f
Harper-Jacques, S., 137
Harris, C., 313
(p. 367) Hartley, S. M., 165
Harwood, C., 184
Hassija, C. M., 235
Hastings, S. L., 110–111, 124, 125t
Hawley, P. H., 59
Hays, Pamela, 96–97
health, physical. see physical health
health behaviors. see behavioral health
healthcare providers, support, 177
Health Perceptions Questionnaire, 319
Heater, D., 60
Heaven, P. C., 108–109, 290–291, 293, 301
Heckhausen, J., 144
hedonic treadmill, 289–290
hedonic well-being, 49
Heidegger, Martin, 345–346
Heider, Fritz, 27
Heiy, J. E., 138
Henrich, C. C., 59
Herth, K., 21, 160, 194, 222
Herth Hope Index (HHI), 160, 222, 227
Herth Hope Scale (HHS), 222, 229
Hesiod, 11
Hewitt, J. P., 32
Hirsch, J. K., 101, 214
history, philosophical and psychological, 9–24
Erikson, Erik, 12, 16, 18
Greeks, ancient, 11–12
Luther, Martin, 12
Menninger, Karl, 3, 12, 14
Snyder’s Hope Theory, 4–5, 12
Stotland, Ezra, 4, 12, 14, 15–16
history, study of hope, 3–6, 353
Ho, S., 163–164
Ho, S. M. Y., 237
Hobbes, Thomas, 12
Hockemeyer, J. R., 346
holism, 10, 20
Holleran, S., 225
Holt, K., 317
hope. see also specific topics
bare-bones conception, 12
capacity to, 9
characteristics, 45–46, 46t
conception, 12, 221
conceptualization, 70
enhancing and engendering, 110–112
expectancy-based theories, 70–71
Greek mythology, 11
history of study of, 3–6
measuring, 4–5 (see also specific scales)
optimism, self-efficacy, and, functional relationships, 52–53
as positive fantasies, 71–73
as protective factor, 235–236
why study?, 10–11
Hope (elpis), 11
hope, definitions and components, 4, 11–21, 95, 107, 117, 133, 243, 299, 353
agency and trust, 15–18
church fathers, 19
Erikson, Erik, 12, 16, 18
Greek mythology, 11–12
Luther, Martin, 12
Menninger, Karl, 3, 12, 14
positive future expectations, 12–15
in present for present, 20–21
radical hope, 19–20
Snyder’s Hope Theory, 4–5, 12, 221–222 (see also Hope Theory, Snyder’s)
Stotland, Ezra, 4, 12, 14, 15–16
hope for the many rather than the few, 37
hopefulness, 19
hopeful pessimist, 74–76, 74f
hopeful thinking, 200–201, 233
terminal illness, 194–195
terminal illness, regoaling, 195–201, 196f (see also regoaling, terminal illness and hopeful thinking)
Hope Game, 111, 124, 126
Hope Index, 159
hope in the present for the present, 20–21
hopelessness, 70, 160, 234–235
hopelessness scale, 70, 160
hopelessness theories, 70
hopelessness theory of depression, 210
HopeMap, 110
Hope Project, 113
Hope Scale, 17, 160
Hope Talk, 111
Hope Theory, Snyder’s, 4–5, 12, 16–17, 27–43, 221–222
adaptive goals, 315
agency thinking, 28
attachment, 315
birth, 27–28
criticisms, 17
feed-forward and feed-back, 29–30, 29f
full hope model, 28–29, 28f
goals, 28
hope for the many rather than the few, 37
impediments, emotion, and, 28
vs. other positive psychology theories, 30–31, 31t
optimism, 4, 46–47
optimism, Scheier and Carver, 30–31, 31t, 46
optimism, Seligman, 30, 31t
problem solving, 31t, 32
self-efficacy, Bandura, 4, 31–32, 31t, 47–48
self-esteem, 31t, 32
shared processes, 31t, 32
pathways + agentic thinking, 28
pathways thinking, 28
positive psychology, 32–37
academics, 32–33, 83–84
for another time and place, 36–37
athletics, 33, 83
human connection, 35–36
meaning in life, 36
physical health, 33–34
psychological adjustment, 34–35
psychotherapy, 36
scales, individual-differences (see scales; specific scales)
workplace, 328
hope therapy, 133–141. see also therapy, hope
hoping against hope, 19
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, 225
Hotchkiss, L., 317
Howell, A. J., 162–163
Hoy, B. D., 306
Hoza, B., 121
Hsu, Y., 165, 181, 183
Huebner, E. S., 99, 245, 307
human agentic theories, 63
human connection, 35–36
Hume, David, 13
Hutz, C. S., 53, 100
hyperactivation, 321
hypochondriasis, 225
I
Idan, O., 247–249
illness symptoms, 262, 271, 277t
impediments, 28
individualistic cultures, 294
Ingram, R. E., 34
injuries, 34, 46, 50, 165
rehabilitation, 182–184
spinal cord (see spinal cord injuries)
traumatic brain, 50
insecure attachment, 320–321
instrumental support, 176
integration, social, 292
intentional forces, 108
interpersonal functioning, 271, 275t276t
interventions. see therapy, hope; specific types
intrinsic motivation, 314
Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), 319
Irving, L. M., 133, 137, 163, 236, 290
item bias, 98
J
Jackson, L. T. B., 52
Jackson, R., 166
Jackson, W. T., 165
Jacobson, R. M., 162–163
Jafari, E., 164
James, William, 71
Jankowski, P., 319
Jeglic, E. L., 101, 214
Jiang, X., 319
Joplin, J. R., 319
Juntunen, C. L., 89, 109
K
Kahle-Wrobleski, K., 331, 345
Kalvelage, J., 72
Kant, Immanuel, 12
Kappes, A., 72–73
Kappes, H. B., 72–73
(p. 368) Kashdan, T. B., 290–291, 301
Kaslow, N. J., 210
Kato, T., 101
Kaye-Tzadok, A., 236
Keinan, G., 237
Kennedy, P., 164–165
Kenny, M. E., 66
Keyes, C. L. M., 291–292, 334
Kierkegaard, Søren, 345
Kinderman, P., 213–214
King, Jr., Martin Luther, 357
Kirkpatrick, L. A., 322–323
Klausner, E. J., 136, 138, 147–148, 215
Kloos, B., 235, 236
Kluck, B., 15
Koestner, R., 317
Kohn-Wood, L. P., 101
Kopelman-Rubin, D., 250
Kortte, K., 165
Kraemer, D. F., 112
Krauss, B. J., 34
Krauss, H. H., 34
Krieshok, T. S., 111, 124–126, 125t
Kroo, A., 236
Kubota, M., 51, 53
Kwon, P., 87, 214
L
Lackaye, T., 52, 87, 246
Lapierre, S., 136, 148, 344
LaPointe, A. B., 211
Larsen, D. J., 162–163
Laschinger, H. K. S., 235
Lavallee, D., 184
Lazarus, R. S., 165, 179, 181, 186
Leaf, S. L., 17, 46
Lear, Jonathan, 19
learned helplessness theory, 210
learning disorder, specific, 243–251. see also specific learning disorder (SLD)
learning hope, adolescence, 306
Leary, M. R., 321, 359
Lerner, R. M., 10–11
Lester, D., 70, 160
Leung, K. K., 199
Levi, U., 53, 108
Lewin, M., 318
Life Orientation Test, 48
Life Orientation Test–Revised, 47
Life Regard Index, 344
life satisfaction. see satisfaction, life
limitations, physical, older adults, 145
linguistic equivalence, 98, 110
Little, T. D., 15, 59, 66
Locke, John, 13, 59–60
logotherapy, 342
longevity, 145
Lopez, Shane J., 5–6, 48–50, 65, 66, 87, 99, 110, 111, 124–126, 125t, 304–305, 358
Making Hope Happen, 6, 355
tribute, xxi–xxiii, 353–354
Lu, F. J. H., 165, 181, 183
Lundqvist, C., 181, 182
Luterek, J. A., 235
Luthans, F., 52
Luthar, S. S., 249, 256, 257
Luther, Martin, 12
Lyness, J. M., 214
M
MacInnis, D. J., 76
Madan, S., 165
Magaletta, P. R., 32, 48, 49, 256
Mageau, G. A., 314, 315
Maholick, L. T., 342
major depressive disorder (MDD), 209. see also depression
Making Hope Happen (Lopez), 6, 355
Making Hope Happen (MHH), 111, 124–126, 125t, 304
Making Hope Happen for Kids (MHHK), 126
Making Hope Happen High School (MHH-HS), 126
Maniar, S., 185
Margalit, M., 87, 112, 246–250
Marques, S. C., 65, 87, 121, 122, 125t, 126–127, 304–305, 307
Marsland, K., 59
Martin, A., 13
Martin, A. M., 320, 321
Martin, D., 306
Martocchio, B., 222
Mascaro, N., 211, 344
Maslow, A., 334, 335
Mathew, J., 214
Math Hope Scale (MHS), 88, 93
Mayer, D., 71, 72
Maza, E., 250
Mazama, A., 110
McClintock, J. B., 101, 102
McDermott, D., 36, 110–111, 121, 124, 125t, 304
McDougal-Wilson, I., 317
McGeer, Victoria, 17–18
McNeal, R., 125t
meaning, four needs for, 343
meaningful goals, 332–334
meaning in life, 36, 341–347
defining and measuring, 341–342
empirical relationships, 344
existentialism, hope and, 344–346
four needs for meaning, 343–344
Frankl and logotherapy, 342
future directions, 346, 359–360
psychotherapy, 345–346
sense of coherence, 342–343
terror management theory, 342
theories, commonality, 343–344
measurement, hope, 83–91. see also scales; specific scales
across cultures, 98
in illness/injury, 160–161
literature overview, 83–84
in schools, 108
Values in Action (VIA), 84
medication adherence, 119
Mendez, L. R., 306
Menninger, Karl, 3, 12, 14, 287
mental exploration, positive fantasies, 75–76
mental health, 258, 262, 263t271t. see also specific disorders
definition, 299, 300
domains, 300
mental health, adolescent, 299–309
cognitive-motivational process, 301, 306–307
definition, 300
domains, 300
future directions, 308–309
general characteristics, 299–302
hope and, 299, 303–304
hope measurement, 302–303
implications, research and professional, 305–308
interventions, 304–305
literature review, 299–300
protective factor, 301
Metalsky, G. I., 70
method bias, 98
metric equivalence, 98
Miao, F. F., 294–295
Michael, S. T., 238
Midgett, A., 100
Mikulincer, M., 244–245, 322
Miller, George, 355
Miller, J., 160
Miller Hope Scale, 160, 227
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), anxiety, 225
minorities, 96, 121
Moberly, N. J., 213–214
Moffett, A., 180
Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire, 229
Moore, S. A., 235
Moraitou, D., 146
Moss, E., 316
motivation
adolescence, 300–301
in athletics, 179
autonomous, 64
intrinsic, 314
positive, 84
motivational forces, 108
Mowrer, O. H., 4, 76
Multidimensional Hope Scale, 159
multiple sclerosis, 165
N
Nagy, H., 236
Naragon-Gainey, K., 235
nature vs. nurture, 10
(p. 369) negative affect, 45, 146–147, 289, 303. see also specific types
adolescence, 304
goal stagnation, perception, 212
research studies, 262, 265t266t
Nekolaichuk, C. L., 20–21
Nel, J., 124
Nelson, D. L., 319
Nelson, J., 101
neurological difficulties, specific learning disorder, 246–247
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 341, 345
nihilism, 345
nonequivalence, 98
North, M. S., 150, 151
Nosko, A., 235
Notwotny, M. L., 160
O
obstacles, 107, 288
cultural, 96
marginalized, youth, 113
older adults, 146
overcoming, 180
Oettingen, G., 71–76, 74f
older adults, 143–153
attitudes and coping, 146–147
goals, 143
interventions promoting, 147–152
false hope, 148–149
individual and small-group, 147
physical environment, 151–152
research, 147–148
social environment, 150–151
strengths, maximizing, 149–150
nature of hope for, 143–144
well-being
physical, 144–145
psychological, 145–146
Old Testament, 12
Oliver, J. M., 32, 48, 49, 256
Ong, A. D., 99, 146, 153
on-task focus, 37
Onwuegbuzie, A. J., 227–228
opportunity, 64
optimal aging, 256
optimism, 4, 14–15, 46–47, 255
vs. hope, 48–49, 51
theories, 71
optimism models, 4, 46–47
Scheier and Carver, 30–31, 31t, 46
Seligman, 30, 31t
organismic integration theory, 62
O’Sullivan, G., 49
outcome expectancies, 31
outcome value, 29, 29f
overarching trait expectancy, 52
P
Pacico, J. C., 100
Paetzold, R. L., 320
pain, 34, 84
chronic, 162
State Hope Scale, 163
tolerance, 262, 271, 277t
Trait Hope Scale, 162
Pais-Ribeiro, J. L., 87, 304–305
Pakenham, K. I., 165
palliative and hospice care, 192–194
benefits, 192–193
end-of-life, problems, 193–194
Pandora myth, 3, 11
panic-related anxiety, 223, 224
Parent, S., 316
Parental Authority Questionnaire, 318
Parental Bonding Instrument, 318
parents and parenting
autonomy support, 315
empathically attuned, 316
“goal corrected partnership,” 315–317
hope-instilling, 316
hope of, on adolescents, 306
promoting hope, 112, 121
scaffolding, 17–18
as secure base, 315–317
specific learning disorder, 248–249
support, 176
Parker, P., 290–291, 301
passion, 331–332, 332f
pathways
cultural context, 96
in hope theory, 4, 17, 45, 83, 107, 133, 221, 255
multiple, 84
pathways thinking
+ agency thinking, 28
development, student, 118, 122–123
in hope theory, 28, 180, 211, 234, 245, 255, 299, 330
hope therapy, 135
patient waiting, 75
Pedrotti, J. T., 110, 111, 124–126, 125t
peer scaffolding, 18
peer support, 121
specific learning disorder, 249
perceived stress, 266t
perfectionism, depression and, 214
performance slumps, athletic, 185
Personal Meaning Profile, 344
person–context relations, 11
pessimist, hopeful, 74–76, 74f
Peterson, C., 14–15, 84
Peterson, S. J., 86, 333
Pettit, Philip, 13, 14
Phan, H. P., 108
philosophical perspectives, history, 9–24. see also history, philosophical and psychological
philosophy, modern, 12
physical environment, older adults, 151–152
physical health, 33–34, 159–167, 262, 271, 277t. see also well-being, physical
conceptualizations and measures
history and literature review, 159–160, 159–161
hopelessness, 160
Snyder’s hope scales in illness/injury, 160–161
excess hope, 166
health behaviors (see behavioral health)
health outcomes, specific, 161–166
cancer, 163–164
chronic illness, 165–166
injury and rehabilitation, 165
spinal cord injury, 164–165
older adults, 144–145
place, another, 36–37
placebo effect, 36
plasticity, 10–11
Plenty Coups, 19–20
Podlog, L., 181, 182, 183
positive adaptation, 256
positive affect, 265t266t, 289–291
adolescence, 304
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), 289, 294
positive emotions, 45, 108–109, 134
effects, 288
positive fantasies, 69, 71–73, 75–76. see also fantasies, positive
positive future expectations, 12–15
philosophical perspectives, modern and contemporary, 12–14
psychological perspectives, modern and contemporary, 14–15
positively valenced goals, 330, 332–334
positive organizational leadership, 327
positive organizational psychology, 327
positive organizational scholarship, 327
positive psychology theories, 30–31, 31t, 355
optimism, 4, 46–47
Scheier and Carver, 30–31, 31t, 46
Seligman, 30, 31t
problem solving, 31t, 32
self-efficacy, Bandura, 4, 31–32, 31t, 47–48
self-esteem, 31t, 32
summary, shared processes in theories, 31t, 32
positivity, 288
posttraumatic growth, 236–237, 270t271t
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 134, 139, 233–239
coping, positive, 234
depression, 235
hope as protective factor, 235–236
hopelessness, 234–235
mental health, 233
posttraumatic growth, 236–237
prevalence, 233
psychotherapy, 237–238
research studies, 262, 270t
trauma and hope, 233–235
poverty, 96
(p. 370) Powers, M., 160
pragmatists, 19
Prelow, H. M., 101
Prenoveau, J. M., 229
present-oriented hope, 20
Pressgrove, C. L., 66
primary prevention, 33–34
Principle of Hope, The (Bloch), 70
problem-solving skills, 83, 120
problem-solving theory, 31t, 32
problem-solving therapy
depression, 215
older adults, 148
protective factor, hope as, 235–236, 256, 257. see also resilience; stress resilience
adolescence, 301, 303
for PTSD, 235–236
specific learning disorder, 244
Proyer, R. T., 290
psychasthenia, 225
psychological adjustment, 289
hope and, 34–35
hope vs. optimism and self-efficacy, 49–50
psychological distress, 50
psychological well-being, 49–50
psychological birth, 29, 53
psychological capital, 289, 328–329
psychological health, 35
psychological needs theory, 62
psychological perspectives, history, 9–24. see also history, philosophical and psychological
psychological symptoms and disorders. see also specific types
anxiety, 138–139
depression, 36–37, 119, 137–138
well-being, 139
psychological well-being. see well-being, psychological
psychotherapy, 36. see also specific types
future directions, 354–355
hope and, 237–238
meaning, 345–346
Pummell, B., 184
Purpose in Life Test (PIL), 36, 342
Q
quality of life, 264t265t
“Questions About Your Goals.” see Children’s Hope Scale (CHS)
Quick, J. C., 319
R
race, 293–294
racial minorities, 96
radical hope, 19–20
Ramadiyanti, D. W., 138
Rand, K. L., 48, 49, 51–52, 108, 331, 345, 346
Rapoff, M. A., 119
refugee children, 113
regoaling, terminal illness and hopeful thinking, 195–201, 196f
barriers, 197–199
issues and assumptions, 195–196
parents of seriously ill children, 196–197
process and factors, 196, 196f
supporting, 200–201
rehabilitation, 165, 182–184
Rehm, M., 180
Reichard, R. J., 333
Reivich, K. J., 54
relatedness, need for, 61
relational developmental systems theories, 10–11
relationship motivation theory, 62
relationships, 256. see also specific types
relaxation, positive fantasies, 75
relevance, 110
relief, temporary, 75
religion, 119
Renner, G., 50–51
Resick, P. A., 238
resilience
construct, 243–244 (see also stress resilience)
definitions, 256
hope as source of, 257
as maintenance of development, 256
research, 256–257
stress, 255–279 (see also stress resilience)
theoretical perspectives, 256–257
responsibility, 345
responsive hoping, 18
Retnowati, S., 138
Rhodes, L., 48
Rholes, W. S., 320
Rhudy, J. L., 226
Riolli, L., 166
risk, positive adaptation, 256
Ritschel, L. A., 137, 139
Robbins, J., 317
Roberts, M. C., 99
Robinson, C., 88, 90
Rodriguez-Hanley, A. S., 357
Roesch, S. C., 101, 294
Roitschek, C., 15
Rolo, C., 185
Rose, S., 88–89, 90
Rosen, D. H., 211, 226, 344
Rosenstreich, E., 250
Rousseau, D., 316
Ruby, B. C., 180
Ruch, W., 290
rumination, depression and, 214
Ruscher, J., 321
Ryan, R. M., 61–62, 314–315, 317, 334, 335
Ryff, C. D., 257, 291–293, 334
S
safe haven, 314, 316, 319
Sagy, S., 344
Salanova, M., 327
Sallquist, J., 346
Sandage, S., 319
Sapir-Budnero, O., 113
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 345–346
satisfaction, life. see also well-being, subjective
adolescents, 303
attachment, 319
children, 119
older adults, 146
research studies, 263t264t, 290
Savicki, V., 166
scaffolding
Math Hope Scale, 88, 93
parental, 17–18
peer, 18
self-, 18
scales
Adult (Dispositional) Hope Scale, 4, 47, 54, 84–85, 90, 108, 118, 302
across cultures, 99–100
valued goals, 330–331
Beck Hopelessness Scale, 160
Children’s Domain-Specific Hope Scale, 87, 108
Children’s Hope Scale, 4, 30, 43, 86–87, 108, 111, 118, 201
across cultures, 99
Making Hope Happen, 111, 124–126, 125t
Making Hope Happen for Kids, 126
Making Hope Happen High School, 126
mental health outcomes, 301, 302–303
Domain-Specific Hope Scale, 87, 108, 118, 306–307, 320
Employment Hope Scale, 90
Herth Hope Index, 160, 222
Herth Hope Scale, 222, 229
hopelessness scale, 70, 160
Hope Scale, 160
in illness/injury, 160–161
Math Hope Scale, 88, 93
Miller Hope Scale, 160, 227
State Hope Scale, 4, 30, 42, 85–86, 118–119, 331
Stoner Hope Scale, 160
Trait Hope Scale, 4, 30, 42, 161, 313–314
Work Hope Scale, 89–90
Writing Hope Scale, 88–89, 93
Schaufeli, W. B., 327
Scheier, M. F., 15, 17, 30–31, 31t, 46, 54–55, 71
school counselors, promoting hope, 110–111
Schroeder, L. L., 33
Schumm, J. A., 134
Schwartz, S., 335
Schwartz, S. H., 335
Schwörer, B., 73
secure base
exploration and pathways thinking, 318
(p. 371)
goals, expanding, 321–322
God as, 322
hope agency, 317–318
parents as, 315–317
self-acceptance, 294
self-actualization, 37
self-awareness, 118
self-determination, 59–66
action-controlled beliefs, 63
agentic action, 63
causal agency theory, 65
definition, 59, 62
development, 63–65, 64f
origins and uses, 59–61
education, 61
philosophy, 59–60
politics and governance, 60
psychology, 60–61
social work and social welfare, 60
psychological theories, 61–63
causal agency theory, 62–63, 65
self-determination theory, 61–62, 314–315
research, 65–66
volitional action, 63
self-determination theory (SDT), 61–62, 314–315
self-efficacy, 4, 31–32, 31t, 47–48, 180, 211, 255–256
hope in, 108
hope vs., 51
performance slumps, 185
structure, vs. hope, 48
Self-Efficacy Scale, 54
self-esteem, 31t, 32
children, 119
models, 31t, 32
self-orientation vs. other orientation, 294
Self-Reliance Inventory, 319
self-scaffolders, 18
self-views, future, ageism vs. positive, 150–151
Seligman, M. E. P., 14–15, 30, 31t, 54, 71, 84, 210, 301
Seltzer, J., 66
sense of coherence (SOC), 342–343
specific learning disorder, 245, 247
Seppala, E., 294–295
Sevincer, A. T., 72
sex difference, 37
Shade, P., 19, 250
Shadlow, J. O., 99
Sharma, E., 72
Shatté, A., 54
Shaver, P. R., 322
Sheldon, K. M., 344
Shiri, S., 113
Shmotkin, D., 237
Shogren, K. A., 66
Shorey, H. S., 15, 108, 318, 319, 320, 346, 359
Shrira, A., 237
siblings, support, 176
sickle-cell disease, 120
Sieben, N., 88–89, 90
Sills, J. R., 161
Simmons, B. L., 319
Simpson, T., 235
Singleton, J. L., 101
Sirois, F. M., 214
Skoog, T., 181, 182
Smedema, S. M., 160–161, 164
Smith, B. W., 322
Smith, J. L., 182
smoking, 120
Snyder, C. R., Handbook of Hope: Theory, Measures, and Applications, 5–6
Snyder Hope Scale (SHS), 221
Snyder’s Hope Theory. see Hope Theory, Snyder’s
social actualization, 292
social coherence, 292
social contexts, 121
social/developmental bases, 317–318
social-emotional development, 119
social environment, older adults, 150–151
social functions, older adults, 147
social integration, 292
social justice, 357
social support
companionship, 176
emotional, 176
friends, 177
grandparents, 176
healthcare providers, 177
instrumental, 176
parents, 176
siblings, 176
teachers, 177
validation, 176
social well-being, 289, 292–293
societal primary prevention, 34
Sokang, Y., 138
Son, J., 292
Sparkes, A. C., 182
specific learning disorder (SLD), 243–251
diagnostic criteria and general features, 244–245
future research and intervention, 249–251
hope, defined, 243
hope and, 245–246
lower hope, factors in, 246–249
attachment, 247–248
coping resources, sense of coherence, 245, 247
family and peer resources, 249
neurological and ongoing difficulties, 246–247
parents’ emotion and coping resources, 248
primary (internal), 246–248
secondary (external), 248
prevalence, 244
protective factors, 244
resilience construct, 243–244
sex differences, 249
Speridakos, E. C., 90
spinal cord injuries
athletes, 182–183
hope on, 34, 84, 161, 164–165, 195
Spinoza, Baruch, 13
spirituality, 119
sports. see also athletic performance
positive psychology, 33, 83
Staats, S. R., 14
Stanton, A. L., 163
Stassen, M. A., 14
State Hope Scale (SHS), 4, 30, 42, 85–86, 118–119, 226
pain, 163
valued goals, 331
state level hope, 211
State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), 225–226
Stoner Hope Scale, 160
Stotland, Ezra, 4, 12, 14, 15–16, 70, 159, 221
Hope Index, 159
strengths
cognitive-motivational, 301
older adults, maximizing, 149–150
stress
coping, 234
perceived, research studies, 266t
stressors, 35, 52
stress resilience, 255–279. see also specific types
behavioral health, 262, 271, 272t274t
academic achievement, 262, 274t
athletic achievement, 262, 274t
coping strategies, 262, 273t274t
externalizing behaviors, 262, 272t
health behaviors, 262, 271, 274t
suicide, 262, 272t273t
future directions, 278
glossary, 278–279
limitations, 276–278
methodological approach, 257–271
behavioral outcomes, 262, 271, 272t274t
characteristics, included studies, 258, 259t262t
database sources and study screening, 257
data extraction and quality assessment, 257–258
interpersonal functioning, 271, 275t276t
mental health and other well-being measures, 258, 262, 263t271t
physical health, 271, 277t
quality assessment and strength of evidence, 258, 262f
source of, hope as, 257
summary, 271, 274–276
theoretical perspectives, 256–257
stroke survival, 145
(p. 372) subjective well-being. see well-being, subjective
substance abuse, 109
treatment, entering, excess hope on, 166
substantial trust, 18
Suciati, A. A., 138
suicide, 262, 272t273t
Suldo, S. M., 99, 245, 306
Sun, H., 214
support systems. see also specific types
external, 256
social, 176–177
Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), 152
Sweeney, P. D., 210
Swenson, R. R., 101
systematic change, potential for, 10–11
T
Tay, L., 334
Taylor, C. E., 109
Taylor, J., 185
Taylor, J. D., 33
Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, 225
teachers
promoting hope, 111–112, 121
support, 177
Teasdale, J. D., 30
Tedeschi, R. G., 236
temporary relief, 75
Tenenbaum, A., 113
Tennen, H., 17, 21
Tennen, R., 17, 21
terminal illness, 191–202
challenges, 191
family members and loved ones, 191–192
future directions, 201–202
hope, hopes, and hopeful thinking, 194–195
hope at end of life, fundamental error, 194–195
hopeful thinking
supporting, 200–201
palliative and hospice care, 192–194
benefits, 192–193
end-of-life care, problems, 193–194
parents, 192
terrorist groups, 322
terror management theory, 342
test anxiety, 227–228
therapy, hope, 133–141
changing hope, 135–137
fundamentals, 135
future research
hope therapy vs. other cognitive behavioral interventions, 140
mechanism of change, 140
for what and whom?, 139–140
hope changes and symptom changes, 139
psychological symptoms and disorders
anxiety, 138–139
depression, 36–37, 119, 137–138
well-being, 49–50, 139
treatment response, hope prediction, 134–135
Thiel, D. L., 136–137
Thimm, J. C., 213
Thornton, L. M., 134–139
threat, 64
thrownness/facticity, 345–346
Thrush, R. L., 316, 359
Tiger, Lionel, 4
time, another, 36–37
Tims, M., 333
Tonigan, J., 322
trait expectancy, overarching, 52
Trait Hope Scale, 4, 30, 42, 161, 313–314
injury and rehabilitation, 165
pain, 162
trait level hope, 211
trauma, 233–234
children, 113
traumatic brain injuries, 50
treatment adherence
children, 173, 175
medication, 119
treatment response, 133–135
Trexler, L., 70, 160
trust
agency and, 15–18
philosophical perspectives, 17–19
psychological perspectives, 15–17
substantial, 18
Tsai, J. L., 294–295
Tucker, R. P., 214
Turecki, G., 235, 236
U
universal goals, paying attention to, 334–336
unresolved/fearful attachment, 321
V
Vacek, K. R., 294
validation, 176
Valle, M. F., 99, 245, 303
valued goals
importance, 330–331, 331f
organization role, 333
at work, pursuing, 332–334
values, 135
cultural, 96
Values in Action (VIA), 84
van de Vijver, F. J. R., 52
Van Ryzin, M. J., 66, 112
Vaughn, A. A., 101
Vera, E. M., 294
Verdenius, 11–12
Vieth, A. Z., 166
vigor, 327
Villodas, F., 101
Viola, H., 138
Visser, P. L., 101, 214
volitional action, 63, 64–65
W
Wagner, G., 72
Wagnsson, S., 181, 182
Walker, Margaret, 13, 18
Walsh-Blair, L. Y., 66
Wandeler, C. A., 66
Watson, D., 228–229
waypower, 221, 330. see also pathways
Weber, M., 307
Wehmeyer, M. L., 66
Weis, R., 90
Weissman, A., 70, 160
well-being, 287–295
definitions, 289
future directions, 295
how hope promotes, 287–289
moderators of hope, potential, 293–295
gender and age, 293
race and ethnicity, 293–294
Western and Eastern cultural differences, 294–295
well-being, physical. see also physical health
older adults, 144–145
well-being, psychological, 258, 262, 291–292. see also mental health
adolescent emotional, 303
adolescents, 303
athlete, 181
definition, 289, 303
distress, general, 266t
hedonic vs. eudaimonic, 49, 289
hope therapy, 139
hope vs. optimism and self-efficacy, 49–50
older adults, 145–146
quality of life, 264t265t
research studies, 264t
stress, perceived, 266t
well-being, social, 289, 292–293
adolescence, 304
well-being, subjective, 264t, 289–291
definition, 289
life satisfaction, 119, 146, 263t264t, 290
positive affect, 265t266t, 289–291, 304
Westburg, N. G., 306
Western culture, 294–295
Wettersten, K. B., 89, 109
Wexler, I. D., 113
Wheatley, J. M. O., 13
Whipple, N., 314, 315
widely valued goals, 334–336
Wiesel, Elie, 113
Wilcock, A., 315
willful hoping, 18
Williams, Robert, 61
willpower, 221, 255, 330. see also agency
Wilson, B., 343
(p. 373) Wilson, J., 292
Wilson, Woodrow, 60
Winston, L., 99
wishful hoping, 18
Wood, D., 112
Woodman, T., 180–181
work, 327–336, 328
employee engagement crisis, 327–328, 332–333
flow and passion, 331–332, 332f
goals, importance
meaningful, 332
positively valenced, 330
valued, 330–331, 331f
goals, pursuing, 332–334
employer role, 333–334
organization role, 333
goals, universal and widely held values, 334–336
Hope Theory, 328
modern workplace, 327
positive outcomes, 328–329
work hope, 109
Work Hope Scale, 89–90
working models, 318
Writing Hope Scale (WHS), 88–89, 93
Wrobleski, K. K., 150
Wrosch, C., 144
Wrzesniewski, A., 333–334
Y
Yalom, I., 341
Yang, X., 318
Yang, Y.-L., 50
Yeung, D. Y., 294–295
Young Children’s Hope Scale, 108
Yuen, A. N. Y., 237
Z
Zanon, C., 100
Zapotek, Emil, 179
Ziv, N., 86