Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 05 June 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter reviews the conceptual similarities and differences among Snyder’s (1994) hope, Carver and Scheier’s optimism, and Bandura’s self-efficacy. Unlike optimism, hope is focused on beliefs about the self. Unlike self-efficacy, hope is a generalized belief and involves the determination to achieve one’s goals. This chapter also reviews the existing empirical literature, which shows that hope, optimism, and self-efficacy are structurally distinct and differentially related to important life outcomes, including psychological adjustment, coping, and goal-directed performance. The chapter concludes with a discussion of further research needed to clarify the causal relationships among hope, optimism, and self-efficacy and to differentiate hope from other positive psychology constructs.

Keywords: hope, optimism, self-efficacy, factor structure, psychological adjustment, coping, goal-directed performance

Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.