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date: 05 June 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter reviews the conceptual similarities and differences among Snyder’s (1994) hope, Carver and Scheier’s optimism, and Bandura’s self-efficacy. Unlike optimism, hope is focused on beliefs about the self. Unlike self-efficacy, hope is a generalized belief and involves the determination to achieve one’s goals. This chapter also reviews the existing empirical literature, which shows that hope, optimism, and self-efficacy are structurally distinct and differentially related to important life outcomes, including psychological adjustment, coping, and goal-directed performance. The chapter concludes with a discussion of further research needed to clarify the causal relationships among hope, optimism, and self-efficacy and to differentiate hope from other positive psychology constructs.

Keywords: hope, optimism, self-efficacy, factor structure, psychological adjustment, coping, goal-directed performance

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