Abstract and Keywords
Hope is defined as the perceived ability to produce pathways to achieve desired goals and to motivate oneself to use those pathways. Definitions and explanations are given for the core concepts of Snyder’s (1994a) cognitive model of hope, including: goals, pathways, and agency. Emotions are conceptualized as sequelae of goal-directed thoughts and actions and function as feedback regarding perceived success or failure of a goal pursuit. A temporal model of the goal-pursuit process is presented, and the roles of hope cognitions are explained. Research on hope is reviewed. Higher hope corresponds with superior academic and athletic performance, greater physical and psychological well-being, enhanced interpersonal relationships, and better work performance. Future directions for research and application of hope theory are suggested, including: examining associations between hope and life outcomes in different groups, exploring possible maladaptive aspects of hope, and using hope theory to understand and ameliorate crises.
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