Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 17 September 2019

(p. 797) Index

(p. 797) Index

Abadie, A. 123, 126
Abrevaya, J. 342
Acemoglu, D. 420
Activity-based measures 465
Actual choice behavior 584–585
Adda, J. 342, 356n11
Adhikari, A. 204
Adiponectin 134–135
Adolescent growth spurt
deprivation 230–233, 231f, 232f
nutritional requirements 37, 38f
Adolphs, R. 660
Adrianzen, B. 434
Affluence
HAZ, factory children 232–233, 232f
health risks 236
height, female 228
market imagination 583
neighborhoods, poor children 256
obesity 236, 443
overweight, urban 302
psychosomatic symptoms, adolescent 254
societal 585–587
weight, body 583
African enigma 669–685
environmental factors 681–682, 682f
explanations 681–682, 682f
future research 682–683
income–height relationship 673–680 (See also Income–height relationship, African enigma)
scarring vs. selection 669–671
tall adults
infant mortality, high 669, 670f
low incomes 669, 670f
Age
biological 268
gestational 624
gestational, birthweight 636–637
obesity 567
obesity, wealth 551–554, 554f
Aging population 454
Agricultural techniques, height 283
Agricultural transition, Neolithic, height 277–278, 278f
Agüero, J. M. 63
A'Hearn, B. 784–785, 793n16
Aimone, J. A. 662
Aizer, A. 342
Akaike Information Criterion 128n9
Akee, R. 324–325
Akresh, R. 62–63, 682
Alderman, H. 406, 407–409, 408t, 411, 413, 414, 417, 673
Alecke, B. 212
Allele 792n9
Allen, R. 79, 774, 778, 779
Allison, P. D. 554
Almond, D. 58, 60, 62, 424n1, 425n6, 640, 744
Always-takers 116
Amygdala 660, 661–662
Anderson, M. 117, 164
Anderson, T. 115
Angrist, J. 111, 115, 116
Animal donation programs 447
Antebellum puzzle 42–43, 43f, 282, 669, 694, 751–762
definition 753
economic development dynamics 761
economic growth, modern 751–754
evidence 754–757, 756f
food consumption 758–760
immigration 757
income inequality 758–760
(p. 798) transportation improvements and urbanization 758, 760
work effort intensification 757–758
Anthropometrics, East Asia 693–706
fundamentals 693
GDP and economic growth 694
overview, 1500-2010 694–695, 695t
trends, post–World War II 699–705
adolescents, 1955-2005 701, 702t
adults, 2000 701–703, 703t
children, 1985-2005 700t, 701
data sources 699
data stratification 699
protein, calorie, and fat consumption 703–705, 704t
trends, pre–World War II 695–699
China, emigrants and contract workers 697
China, militia recruits 696
Japan, high imperialism era 696–697
Japan, militia recruits 696–697
Korea, late 1800s 698–699
Korea, militia recruits 696, 698–699
rural–urban differences, 2000 698, 698t, 699
Anthropometrics, indicators 71–72. See also specific types
archaeology 90
economic development 456
Anthropometrics, indicators, children 604
BMI, overnutrition 605
height, nutrition 604, 605f
Anthropometrics, indicators, children and later disease 604–617
birthweight 606–608
metabolic diseases 614
catch-up growth
cardiovascular disease 614, 615
coronary heart disease 615
chest circumference 613
cross-sectional measures 606–614
growth trajectories 614
head circumference 613
health risks 604–605, 605f
height 608–611, 609f, 610f
leg length 613–614
longitudinal measures 614–615
weight, relative 611–612
Anthropometrics, Mediterranean history 765–793, 775t, 792nn7–12
1700-1850 767f, 776–781, 777t, 779f, 780f
1850-1980 781–783, 781f
GDP per capita, by country 790–791
genetics 772–775, 775t (See also Genetics, Mediterranean)
health, weight, and height, contemporary 766–772, 767f, 769t–771t, 772f
height
bivariate correlations, late 20th century 791f
determinants and, adult males 767f, 768, 769t–770t
GDP per capita, 1980s 766, 767f
historical estimates, by country 784–788
life expectancy, 1980s births 768, 772f
predicted deviations, by model 768–772, 771t
historical study 765
Northern Europe
height 766
height, GDP 767f
Southern Europe 765–766
height 766, 767f
height, GDP 766, 767f
height, long-run 775–776, 776f
wages, real
1700-1850 788–789
1850-1980 789
Anttila-Hughes, J. K. 61
Apgar test, birthweight 634
Apicella, C. L. 341–342
Appetite, growth 270
Arceo-Gomez, E. O. 62
Archeology
anthropometry 90
height trajectory, Europe, 8th century BCE to 18th century CE 73, 74t, 92–93nn10–14
Argentina 713, 721
economic development 716–717
indigenous people 721
Armelagos, G. J. 277, 712
(p. 799) Arora, R. 514
Arps, S. 200
Ashraf, Q. H. 420
Asset index 672
Assortative mating 567, 568–569, 576, 576n2
obesity 567, 568–569, 576, 576n2
Atella, V. 319–320, 525t
Attenuation bias 113, 127n3
Auld, M. C. 161–162, 328
Au, N. 547, 553
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) 660–661
Auxology 37, 266. See also Growth and maturation
Average treatment effect (ATE) 110–111
Average treatment effect among treated (ATT) 110–111
Averett, S. 525t, 568, 577n10
The Backbone of History: Health and Nutrition in the Western Hemisphere 46
Backlund, E. 743
Baetschmann, G. 509
Baez, J. E. 63
Bailey, M. J. 744
Baird, S. 56
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. 352–353
Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) 447
Barbaresco, S. 121
Barker, D. J. 134, 340, 410, 574, 606, 627, 745n4
Barker hypothesis 134, 233, 236, 627, 745n4
Barreca, A. I. 60, 61, 742
Barrett, R. 78
Barro, R. 419
Baum, C., II 111, 113, 319, 321, 327, 330n1, 525t, 539
Baumgartner, T. 661
Becker, G. S. 564, 565, 569
Behavioral endocrinology 338–339. See also Biological time-varying markers
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)
food prices and BMI 162–163
income inequality
cardiovascular disease 490
weight status 490–491
Behavior regulation, biological time-varying markers 338
Behrens, T. E. J. 659
Behrman, J. 17, 17t, 407–409, 408t, 409, 411, 413, 417, 424n1, 525t
Bengal Famine (1944) 57
Bennett, D. 59–60
Berg, J. 657–658
Betrayal aversion, oxytocin 661–662
Beydoun, M. A. 329
Bhalotra, S. 236–237
Bhattacharya, J. 320, 538–539, 573
Bhutta, Z. A. 20, 406–407, 409–410, 412
Biddle, J. E. 503
Biggs, B. 251
Binge eating, undereating and 444
Biological age 268
Biological health risks, economic development 454–479. See also specific types
activity-based measures 465
aging population 454
anthropometric measures 456
biomarkers 455–456
blood-based markers 466–475 (See also Blood-based markers)
body mass index 458–461
causal models 466–467
cholesterol, total 469–470, 471f, 478–479n3
C-reactive protein 473–475, 474f
data 456–457, 457f
doubly labeled water 466, 478n2
glycosylated hemoglobin 470–473, 471f
height and weight 458–459
hypertension 461–464, 463f
noncommunicable diseases 454–455
nutrient (food) intake measures 465–466
overweight
economic prosperity 461
education 459–461, 460f
percent 459, 460f
physical health measures 455
physical performance measures 456
self-reports 455
(p. 800) Biological measures, well-being 32–49
frontiers 47–48
health vs. income 33–34
height
long-term trends 42–44, 43f
nutritional status 37–41, 38f, 40f
life tables 34–36
morbidity 36–37
Native Americans 44–45
skeletal remains 45–47, 71–72
slaves, American 41–42
Biological programming 606
Biological standard of living (BLS) 71, 292n1, 753, 755
antebellum puzzle 755–756, 756f (See also Antebellum puzzle)
anthropometric indicators 71–72
height, environmental factors 71
Middle Ages 72
skeletal remains 45–47, 71–72
Biological standard of living (BLS), Europe 70–99
8th century BCE to 18th century CE 82–89 (See also Height trajectory, Europe, 8th century BCE to 18th century CE)
anthropometry with archaeology 90
cattle plague 78
cattle share 77, 78, 93n19, 94n27
climate change 75–77, 93nn16–18
cultivation and three-field crop rotation 78
diet quality and quantity 75
epidemics and war/persecution 80, 95n32
fundamentals 70–72
gender inequality 81–82, 96nn42–44
gene-culture co-evolution 94n25
grain 77, 80–81
height, archeological remains, new estimates 73, 74t, 92–93nn10–14
land per capita 78–79, 95nn28–30
legumes, eggs, fish bones 93–94n21
medical care and sanitary conditions 81, 96nn38–41
method and data 72–82
milk and dairy products 77–78, 93–94nn20–26
urbanization rate 79, 95n31
Biological time-invariant markers 343–354
definition 337–338
gene–environment interactions 349–354 (See also Gene–environment interaction (G×E))
gene–gene interactions 353–354
genetic markers 344–348 (See also Genetic markers)
Biological time-varying markers 338–343
behavior regulation 338
definition 337, 338
hormones 341–343
measures 338–339
menstrual cycle 339–340
proxies
2D:4D ratio 340, 343, 355–356n6
fatness 340–341
imaging 341
Biomarkers 337–355. See also Blood-based markers; specific types
biological time-invariant 337–338, 343–354
biological time-varying 337, 338–343
definitions 337–338
economic development 455–456
future research 354–355
validity 355n1
Biroli, P. 350–351
Birth, human capital endowment 632–642
Birthweight
blood pressure, systolic 606
classification 632
cross-sectional vs. twin samples 636–637
determinants 636
environmental factors 623–624
female vs. male 622
frequency distribution 621
genetics 623
gestational age 624, 636–637
heavy, diabetes 624
historical use 621
increases, 20th century 632–633
marital status 625
maternal height and ethnicity 623
maternal nutrition 625
maternal social position 624–625
(p. 801) measurement 632
overweight, adult 611–612
parity 624
population health 627–628
public health problems 621–622, 627–628
stressors and toxicants 633
women's health 627–628
Birthweight, growth faltering first 1000 days
identical twin controls 16–17, 17t
longitudinal associations 15, 16t
synthetic cohorts, estimate linking across life cycle 18, 19t
Birthweight, human capital endowment 632–642
confounders 634
differential sensitivity hypothesis 640
effects
heterogeneity 639–641
mechanisms 637–638
exclusion restriction 635
gene–environment interaction 641
genetic factors 635
increases, 20th century 632–633
macrosomia, fetal 641–642
measurement and classification 632
mitigation 642
prenatal exposures 632
Ramadan-induced fasting 635
research, history 633–635
sibling comparison studies 634–635
socioeconomics 640
stressors and toxicants 633
twin fixed-effects models 636–637
twin fixed-effects research 634–635
weathering hypothesis 639–640
Birthweight, human welfare 621–630
fetal growth 623–625
historical use 622–623
significance 626–628
trends 625–626
Birthweight, low 407–411
avoiding, economic value 407–409, 408t
brain effect 637–638
cardiovascular disease 606–608
categories 621
cognitive function 638
consequences, adult 410, 425n6
coronary heart disease 606–607
definition 441
diabetes type 2, 607
female vs. male 622
global 622
hypertension 624
infant mortality 627, 633
later disease 606–608
limitations 621–622
metabolic diseases 614
noncommunicable diseases 409, 411
prevention 409–410, 425n5
productivity cost 407–409, 408t
stroke 607
stunting 410
symmetric and asymmetric types 638
threshold 621
well-being, significance 626–628
Bishai, D. 527t
Black, D. A. 743
Black Death 59
Black, R. E. 425n8
Blanchflower, D. G. 533t
Bleakley, H. 742
Blisard, N. 328
Bliss, C. 415
Blood-based markers 466–475. See also Biomarkers
causal models 466–467
cholesterol, total 469–470, 471f, 478–479n3
collection methods 467–468
cost decline 467
C-reactive protein 473–475, 474f
glycosylated hemoglobin 470–473, 471f
Blood groups, Mediterranean 772–774
Blood pressure
high (See Hypertension)
measurement, field 461–462, 478n1
systolic, birthweight 606
Blum, M. 184, 186, 282, 287f, 293, 694, 766, 791–792n2
BMI-for-age curves, global trends 297
Boas, Franz 44, 287–288
Böckerman, P. 512, 516
(p. 802) Body mass index (BMI) 133–146. See also Weight, body
20th century trend 145
applications 296
Barker hypothesis 134
biological family member 537
calculation 157, 296, 448n3, 561n1, 583
calories 133–134
childhood, metabolic disease 612
children, later disease 611–612
classification system 135, 436–437, 583
definition 133, 536
economic prosperity 461
energy gap 144
fat vs. fat-free mass problems 340–341, 536–537
formula 267
future directions 144–145
GDP increase and 544, 544f
genetics 532t, 537
glycosylated hemoglobin 476, 477f
health 135–136
healthy (WHO) 311n1
income inequality 490–491
increase, 20th century U.S. 485
inflammation 477, 477f
insulin and insulin resistance 134
interpreting 133
marriage 570
measurement 135, 436–437
normal curves 267
obesity prevalence 296
percent hypertensive 475f, 476
productivity 417
reliability 193
selection 144
standard deviation score 268, 269–270
thrifty-gene hypothesis 134, 145n2, 236
total cholesterol 476, 477f
U.S. history 136–138, 137t, 138f, 146n4
weight vs. 193
well-nourished population 133, 145n1
Body mass index (BMI), global trends 296–311
BMI-for-age curves 297
children and adolescents 297
data sources 298
definition 297
distribution 304–305
fat mass, subcutaneous 305–306
health impact 306–307
malnutrition
childhood, health outcomes 309–310
prevalence 438, 438f
prevalence, preschool children 298–299
mean BMI 303
morbidity and mortality risk 296
obesogenic environments 310
overweight and obesity 299, 301–309 (See also Overweight and obesity, global trends)
pattern, general 302–303
reference distribution 297
reference population 297
time trends 301–302
waist circumference 305–306
Body mass index (BMI), U.S. factors over time 138–141, 139f–141f, 146n5
men 139–140, 139f, 140f
occupations 142, 142t, 144
residence 143, 143t, 144
women 141, 141f
Body size change, secular, global 284–286, 285f, 287f
Bogen, B. 321
Bogin, B. 215
Böhm, A. 284
Boisguillebert, Sieur de, Pierre Le Pesant 751, 752
Boix, C. 182, 278–279
Bolivia 720–721. See also Tsimane'
Bone age 268–269
Bones 45
skeletal remains, biological standard of living 72–73, 91–92nn5–9
Borderline personality disorder 660
Bossavie, L. 416
Bouis, H. E. 417
Bounded rationality 584–585
Bozoyan, C. 526t, 537
Brabec, M. 139, 301, 306
Brain mapping 653
Braudel, F. 765
Bray, B. E. 186, 284, 285f, 508
Brazil 711, 713, 717–718, 721
Breast milk 216
Brewer, G. 514
Brinkman, H.-J. 694
Brock, W. A. 156
Bröder, A. 339
Brosnan, S. 657
Brown, A. 71
Brown, M. 568
Brunello, G. 319, 320–321, 526t
Bruner, E. 422
Bubonic plague 59
Bundervoet, R. 63
Bundorf, M. K. 320, 538–539
Burgess, R. 61–62
Burkhauser, R. 340–341, 536
Burundi civil war 63
Caballero, B. 441, 443–444
Cabieses Valdes, B. 422
Cai, T. 351
Caliendo, M. 322
Caloric intake, East Asias, post–World War II 703–705, 704t
Cancer survival, U.S. racial differences 732, 733t
Candidate genes 344–345, 347
Cardiovascular disease
catch-up growth 614, 615
low birthweight 606–608
risk factors, income inequality 490
Carmalt, J. H. 569
Carpenter, J. 345
Carrieri, V. 514
Carson, S. A. 144
Cartes Velásquez, R. 200
Case, A. 59, 417, 502, 503, 513
Caspi, A. 349, 351
Catch-up growth 22–27, 38, 210
adult disease risk 608
African enigma 678–680, 679f, 680f, 684nn12–15
cardiovascular disease 614, 615
coronary heart disease 615
diets after 2 years 28n11
height-for-age z-scores 22–24
implications
cognitive achievement 24–25
determinants of growth patterns 25
individual patterns 24
life cycle framework 11–14, 12f
literature, limitations 26–27
migrants 288
patterns across ages 22–23
regression estimates 23–24
slaves, American 210, 212–215, 213t–214t
Cattle plague
biological standard of living 78
height trajectory, Europe, 8th century BCE to 18th century CE 87t, 88
Cattle share
biological standard of living 77, 78, 93n19, 94n27
height trajectory, Europe, 8th century BCE to 18th century CE 87, 87t, 94nn23–24, 97–98n52
height trajectory, Europe, Common Era beginning-1800 279–280, 279f
Causal effect, variation among persons 127
Cavalli-Sforza, L. 773
Cawley, J. 111, 115, 167, 170, 319, 323, 324–326, 330n3, 340–341, 447, 526t–527t, 535, 536, 537, 572, 574
Central-Western Europe 93n12
Cesarini, J. D. 345
Chabris, C. F. 347, 357n18
Chadwick, E. 415
Chang, V. W. 490–491
Charles, K. 126
Charness, G. 167
Chay, K. 744
Cheese, hard 93n20
Chen, E. Y. 568
Chen, Y. 339
Chest circumference, children, later disease 613
Chiang, C. F. 59–60
Childbearing slaves, American 221–223
Child Growth Standards, WHO 297
(p. 804) Children (childhood)
anthropometrics, and later disease 604–617 (See also Anthropometrics, indicators, children and later disease)
definition 245–246
early 245–246
health and health habits, on adult disease 604
investment, economics 571–572
mother's height, health 236–237
nutrition investment, subsequent human capital 412–415
Children's growth, female 228–233, 229f, 231f–232f
1960s Britain, velocity 228–229, 229f
deprivation 230–233, 231f, 232f
height-for-age z-scores 230
WHO standards 229–230, 229f
Children's health, socioeconomic inequality 244–259
childhood 245–246
GDP 247
health and well-being 246
importance 244
income inequality
high-income countries 248–251, 249f, 250f
low- and middle-income countries 251–252
inequality 246
key concept definitions 245–246
literature review 246–248, 247f
pathways
epigenetics and chronic stress 257
family life and relationship 254–255
material and psychosocial 253–254
status differentiation 255–257
patterns 248
policy implications 258
poverty 245
social gradients 252–253
UN Convention on the Rights of Children 244
Children's obesity, family economics 571–575
child investment 571–572
genetics 575
market failures 573–575
technological change 572–573
China, anthropometrics 693–706. See also Anthropometrics, East Asia
China, anthropometrics, post–World War II 699–705
adolescents, 1955-2005 701, 702t
adults, 2000 701–703, 703t
children, 1985-2005 700t, 701
data sources 699
data stratification 699
protein, calorie, and fat consumption 703–705, 704t
China, anthropometrics, pre–World War II 697–698
emigrants and contract workers 697
militia recruits 696
Chingos, M. 126
Chiu, P. N. 660–661
Choi, S.-J. 698–699
Cholesterol, HDL 478–479n3
Cholesterol, total
body mass index 476, 477f
economic development 469–470, 471f, 478–479n3
Chou, S. 117, 162–163, 174, 598
Christakis, N. 144, 172–173, 490–491
Chronic conditions, U.S. racial differences 739–741, 741f
Chu, P. H. 653
Cigarettes, obesity 173–175
Cinnirella, F. 284, 505, 516
Clark, R. 247
Climate
biological standard of living 75–77, 93nn16–18
height trajectory, Europe, 8th century BCE to 18th century CE 87t, 89
Coates, J. M. 340
Coatsworth, J. H. 715
Coclanis, P. 760
Coefficient of variation (CV) 293n5
height inequality 288–290, 290f, 293n5
Cohen-Cole, E. 173
Cohen, M. N. 277, 712
Coimbra, C. E. A. 200
Colchero, M. 201, 527t
Cole, T. J. 284, 437
(p. 805) Collins, W. 738
Colman, G. 113–114
Colombia 717, 721
Coly, A. N. 680
Community
growth faltering, first 1000 days 20–21, 21t
native population weight 201
Compensatory growth. See Catch-up growth
Complementary traits, marital unions and obesity 569–570, 576n3
Compliers 116
Concavity-induced income effect 489
Conformity 156
Conley, D. 346, 351, 357n23, 527t, 535, 539, 568, 641
Connelly, L. B. 328
Constant-effect instrumental variable model 114–115
Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) 269, 270, 271–272
Consumer behavior theory 584
Conti, G. 352
Coppola, M. 793n16
Cornaglia, F. 342, 356n11
Cornelissen, T. 513
Coronary heart disease
birthweight, low 606–607
catch-up growth 615
height 608–609
height, childhood 609–610, 609f, 610f
obesity, childhood 605
Cortisol 135, 341–343
behavioral endocrinology 338
risk and decision making 656
Cosmetic discrimination 318, 320
Costa-Barbosa, F. A. 271
Costa-Font, J. 329
Cotinine 338, 341, 342, 356n9, 356n11
Counterfactual outcome 110
Courtemanche, C. 121, 124, 174–175
Cox, L. A. 267
Craig, L. A. 757, 762n12
C-reactive protein (CRP) 473–475, 474f
Cribra orbitalia 91n6
Crisis, human biology 52–65. See also Disasters, natural
aggregate 54
conceptual issues 53–54
definition 53
environmental 61–62
epidemics 59–60
famines 57–58
focus 53
levels 53–54
natural disasters 60–61
recessions 54–57
wars 62–63
Croatia
height
historical estimates 788
long-run 775–776, 776f
Crookston, B. T. 24
Croson, R. 658
Cross-price elasticity 153–154
Cuff, T. 139–140
Cultivation, biological standard of living 78
Cultural norms, obesity 443
Cunha, F. 406, 424n1
Currie, A. 168
Currie, J. 324, 424n1
Curtin, S. 168–169
Cutler, D. M. 165, 572
Dairy products. See Cattle share; Milk
Datar, A. 638
Dating, accurate 92n11
Dave, D. 113–114, 126
Davila, A. 533t, 536
Deaton, A. 514, 669–671
Deb, P. 125
DeCicca, P. 126
Defiers 116, 127n5
Dehejia, R. H. 55–56
Del Bono, E. 638
Delgado, M. R. 659
Demand
food, uninformed consumption 573–574
growth faltering, first 1000 days 13–14
nutritional
work 755
Demment, M. M. 327
Demographic transition 35
Neolithic 277–279
Dendrochronology 711
DeNeve, J.-E. 345
Denny, K. 514
Deolalikar, A. 63, 417
de Paola, M. 514
Depression
post-partum 411–412
weight gain 577n6
Dercon, S. 58
Deschenes, O. 61
Developmental programming, metabolism and body weight 308
De Waal, F. 657
D'Hombres, B. 319, 320–321, 526t
Diabetes
birthweight, heavy 624
gestational 134, 145n2
Diabetes mellitus type 2
birthweight, low 607
height
adult 610
childhood 610–611
obesity and overweight risk 307
obesity, childhood 605
Diamond, A. 123
Dieffenbach, S. 440
Diet. See also Food; specific foods
change, native population weight 201
height, adult male, 1980s Europe 769t–770t, 770
on poverty–obesity link 327–328
quality and quantity 75 (See also specific topics)
Diez-Roux, A. V. 490
Difference-in-differences (DDD) 120–123, 121t, 128nn11–12
Differential sensitivity hypothesis, birthweight and human capital 640
Diocletian’s price edict 91n3
Disasters, natural 60–62. See also Crisis, human biology
Discount rate 585
assumed, on future productivity 408–409
Discrimination, obese 318
cosmetic 318, 320
job promotion 318, 321
statistical 318, 320–321
Discrimination, short people 515–516
Disease. See also specific types
childhood anthropometric indicators 604–617 (See also Anthropometrics, indicators, children and later disease)
noncommunicable 454–455
nutritional demands 755
Dizygotic twin fixed-effects (MZ-FE) 28n3
DNA, structure 792n6
Doak, C. M. 439–440
Domes, G. 656, 661
Dominance, tall people 515
Donaldson, D. 62
Dopamine 656–657
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left 655–656
Doubly labeled water 466, 478n2
Down syndrome, growth and maturation 272
Dreber, A. 340
Drewnowski, A. 328
Dried blood spots (DBS) 467–468
Drukker, J. 694
Duncan, G. J. 642
Durlauf, S. N. 156
Dutch famine (1944-1945) 57
Dynamic complementarities 406
Early childhood 245–246
Early-industrial-growth puzzle 694
Eaves, L. J. 358n32
Echevarria, G. 410
Eckhardt, C. L. 28n11
Ecological effect, obesity and income inequality 488–490
Econometrics 109–128
attenuation bias 113, 127n3
average treatment effect 110–111
average treatment effect among treated 110–111
(p. 807) causal effect, variation among persons 127
counterfactual outcome 110
difference-in-differences 120–123, 121t, 128nn11–12
first-differencing vs. mean-differencing 112–113, 127n1
fundamentals 109–111
heterogeneous treatment effects 123–126
instrumental variables 114–118, 127–128nn4–8
just-identified system 115, 127n4
monotonicity assumption 117, 127–128n7
panel data and fixed effects 111–114
regression discontinuity design 118–120, 128nn9–10
selection bias 110, 127
self-selection problem 109, 110
stable unit treatment value assumption 110
strict exogeneity 112–113, 127n2
treatment effect 110
2SLS estimator 115, 127n7
variation, key independent variables 127
Economic equality 589t–590t
Economic freedom index 597–598
Economic growth, modern
biological standard of living 753
definition 752
history 751–754
Kuznets on 752–753
negative results 753
Economic insecurity hypothesis of obesity 588–591, 589t–590t
Economic Security Index 596
Economic security/insecurity 588–591, 589t–590t
Educational attainment
height 413
global 284
inequality 179–180
wages 513, 514
obesity 323, 443
overweight 459–461, 460f
Edwards, R. D. 247
Eisenberg, N. 349
Eisenegger, C. 342
Electroencephalography (EEG) 654–655
Elgar, F. J. 253, 256
Employment and obesity 322–323. See also Wages
discrimination, Sweden 522
males vs. females 522
Employment security 592t
Endocrine disorders 273–274
Endocrinology, behavioral 338–339. See also Biological time-varying markers
Endogamy. See Assortative mating
Endogenous stratification 126
Energy gap 144
Engerman, S. L. 219
Environmental crises 61–62
Environmental factors
African enigma 681–682, 682f
birthweight 623–624
height 71
Epidemics 59–60
biological standard of living 80, 95n32
Epidemiological trap 723
Epigenetics, chronic stress and child health 257
Eriksson, K. 743
Eritrean-Ethiopian conflict (1998-2000) 63
Esping-Andersen, G. 586
Ethiopia famine (1984) 58
Ethnicity. See Race and ethnicity
Eudomaneia 598
Europe. See also specific countries and topics; specific topics
anthropometric history 765–793 (See also Anthropometrics, Mediterranean history)
Central-Western 93n12
Mediterranean 93n12
Europe, Northern
height 766
height and GDP 767f
Europe, Southern 765–766
1700-1850
height and GDP per capita 777t, 778–779
real GDP 778, 780–781, 780f
real wages 778–780, 779f
height 766, 767f
GDP 766, 767f
, long-run 775–776, 776f
(p. 808) Eveleth, P. B. 39–40, 40f, 222
Exchange theory, obesity and marriage 569
Exclusion restriction 115, 118, 537
birthweight and human capital 635
Exercise
, bodyweight 154, 155–156
obesity 166–167
Exogeneity, strict 112–113, 127n2
Extreme weather 61–62
Ezzati, M. 157
Fahr, R. 527t, 538
Fakhar, A. 656
Familial short stature 271
Family economics 565
informal health service organization 566
Family health capital 565–568
household's production of health 565–566
obesity 567–568
Family life, children's health 254–255
Famines 57–58
Fast-food exposure 598
Fast-food shock 585
Fat, body
vs. body mass index 134–135, 157–158, 193, 536–537
proxies 340–341
stress and stress hormones 134–135
subcutaneous mass, global trends 305–306
wages 158
Fat consumption, East Asia, post–World War II 703–705, 704t
Fawzi, W. W. 672
Fehr, E. 341
Females
birthweight 622
children's growth 228–233 (See also Children's growth, female)
employment and obesity 522
health, birthweight 627–628
height 226–238 (See also Height, female)
obesity and wages 522, 524, 525t–533t, 535–536
Fertility, natural disasters 61
Fetal growth, mother's height 235–237
Fetal origins hypothesis 410–411
obesity 443–444
principles 443–444
Fetal programming, metabolism and body weight 308
Finite mixture models (FMM) 124–125
Finkelstein, A. 574, 747n21
Finlay, J. E. 61
First-differencing 112–113, 127n1
First-stage regression equation 114
Fishback, P. 742
Fish bones 93–94n21
Fixed-effects estimator 330n1
Fixed-effects methods 111–114
Fletcher, J. M. 173, 323, 346, 351, 354
Floud, R. 40, 234–235, 755, 757
Fogel, R. 4, 35–36, 136, 219, 234, 419, 425n12, 446, 758, 760, 761n5
Folate deficiency, pre-conception 411
Fonda, S. J. 548, 553
Fontaine, K. R. 326
Food. See also specific types
demand 158–159
Food assistance programs 330–331n4
Food consumption
antebellum puzzle 758–760
biological health risks 465–466
market failures 573–575
uninformed demand 573–574
Food diaries 465–466
Food industry, obesity epidemic 577n8
Food insecurity 596
undernutrition 441
Food intake
measures 465–466
prices and income 152, 153
Food prices
, bodyweight 152, 153–154
compensating behavior 154
composite index 160
data sources 160
food intake 152, 153
Food prices, obesity 158–165
adults 162–164
body weight status 164
children 161–162
(p. 809) endogeneity and measurement issues 158–165
measurement challenges 159–161
socioeconomic status 165
Food processing technology, self-control 165–166
Food recalls 465–466
Ford, W. 111, 113, 319, 321, 330n1, 525t, 539
Forest fires 62
Fowler, J. 144, 172–173, 345
Frakes, M. 174
France
1700-1850 777t, 778–781, 779f, 780f
1850-1980 781f, 782
height, long-run 775, 776f
France, South
GDP per capita 790
height, historical estimates 785–786
Fraunholz, U. 184
Friedlaender, J. S. 204
Friedman, J. 56
Frisvold, D. 744
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 652–654
Gallagher, M. 566
Gao, W. 506–507
Garcia, J. 507, 528t, 538
Garcia Villar, J. 169
Garfinkel, L. 152–153
Garnsey, P. 95n35
Garrett, J. L. 440
Gelman, A. 119
G*E modifications 353
Gender inequality
biological standard of living 81–82, 96nn42–44
hidden penalties 235–236
Gene-culture co-evolution 94n25
Gene–environment interaction (G×E) 349–354
aggregate macroenvironmental conditions 350, 358n34
birthweight, human capital endowment 641
definition 353
early life environments 349
environmental factor timing 351
gene*cohort effects 350
genetic variation
life cycle 352
within-family 351–352, 358n35
heterogeneity of effects 352–353
modeling G*E effects 350–351
selection bias 349–350, 358n29
Gene–gene interactions 353–354
Generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) 660
Genetic disorders, growth and maturation 273–274
Genetic lottery 346–347
Genetic markers 344–348
best practices 347
candidate genes 344–345
candidate genes, literature conflicts 347
early research 344
exogenous variation and comorbidity 345, 356n13
genetic lottery 346–347
genetic polymorphisms 344
plausibility 346
polygenic scores 348
population stratification 346
risk allele count 346
single-nucleotide polymorphisms 344
single-nucleotide polymorphisms, Mediterranean 773–775, 775t, 792nn7–12
SSGAC research 347–348
Genetic polymorphisms 344. See also Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
Genetics 662
African enigma 681, 682f, 684–685nn16–18
birthweight 623, 635
growth and maturation 270–271
height 210–211
European trajectory, 8th century BCE to 18th century CE 89, 99nn58–59
global 281–282
obesity, childhood 575
short stature 271
(p. 810) Genetics, Mediterranean 772–775
blood groups 772
genome-wide association studies 774
single-nucleotide polymorphisms 773–775, 775t, 792nn7–12
Genocide 63
Genome-wide association (GWA) studies
growth and maturation 271
Mediterranean 774
Genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) 358n27
Genomics 662
Genovese, E. D. 221
Georgiadis, A. 24–25
Gerdtham, U.-G. 55
G*E responses 353
Gertler, P. 414
Gestational age 624
birthweight 624, 636–637
Gestational diabetes 134, 145n2
Ghrelin 135
Gilaie-Dotan, S. 341
Gill, I. 698
Gill, J. 329
Gini coefficients, height inequality 289–290, 291t, 293n7
Gini Index 768, 792n3
height, adult male, 1980s Europe 768, 769t–770t
Glaeser, E. L. 165, 572
Glauber, D. 568
Glauber, R. 527t, 535, 539
Global methods 119
Global perspectives 276–293. See also specific topics
agricultural and demographic transition, Neolithic 277–278, 278f
body size change, secular 284–286, 285f, 287f
early developments 277–280, 278f, 279f
fundamentals 276–277
genetics 281–282
height inequality 288–292, 290f, 291t, 293n7
industrialization 282–283
labor market bias 281
market integration 282–283
migration 287–288
sample selectivity 280–281
Glover, J. W. 734, 735, 746n10
Gluckman, P. 411
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)
body mass index 476, 477f
economic development 470–473, 471f
Gneezy, U. 167, 658
Golberstein, E. 744
Goldberger, A. S. 344, 356n14
Goldman, D. 163
Goodman-Bacon, A. 744
Gordon-Larsen, P. 571
Gørgens, T. 57–58
Grabka, M. M. 527t
Grain 77, 80–81
Granados, J. A. 55
Grasgruber, P. 99n59, 284–286
Great Famine (China, 1959-1961) 57–58, 64n7
Greece
1850-1980 783
GDP per capita 790
height
historical estimates 787
long-run 775–776, 776f
Greenstone, M. 744
Gregory, C. 116, 528t, 537
Grépin, K. A. 59
Greve, J. 320, 528t, 535, 538
Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita 33. See also specific topics
children's health 247
economic growth and anthropometrics 694
France, South 790
Greece 790
height, adult male, 1980s Europe 767f, 768, 769t–770t
infant mortality 56
Italy, North 790
life expectancy at birth 456, 457f
other countries 791
Portugal 790
Spain 790
stunting 694
Turkey 790
world, body mass index and 544, 544f
(p. 811) world, increases 544
Gross national income (GNI) 548
Growth and maturation 266–274. See also specific measures
appetite 270
auxology 266
biological age 268
body mass index 267
bone age 268–269
constitutional delay of growth and puberty 269, 270, 271–272
Down syndrome 272
endocrine and genetic disorders 273–274
genetics 270–271
diminished growth, causes 272–273
potential, adult height 267–269
short stature 271
genome-wide association studies 271
growth chart 273–274
growth reference 267
growth standard 267
intrauterine growth restriction 272
Laron syndrome 273
leg growth 293n4
medications on 273
mid-parental height 268
monitoring, infants, children, and adolescents 269–270
normal pattern 266
normal pattern, deviations 266–267
pathological 273
Prader-Willi syndrome 272–273
proportionate vs. disproportionate 267
target height 267–268, 270
trajectory 268–269
variants 270–272
Growth chart 273–274
Growth faltering, first 1000 days 9–22, 25–28
demand relations 13–14
epidemiology 9, 10f
input determinants 12–13, 12f
life cycle framework 11–14, 12f
literature, limitations 26–27
outcomes and irreversible damage 9–11, 10f, 12f
production functions 11–12, 12f
subsequent life cycle outcomes, growth determinants
household and community 20–21, 21t
nutritional interventions, other 21t, 22
nutritional supplements, protein-dense 21–22
subsequent life stage outcomes, direct estimates 14–20
birthweights, identical twin controls 16–17, 17t
birthweights, synthetic cohorts, estimate linking across life cycle 18, 19t
instrumental variable estimates, HAZ or stunting at 24 months, adult life cycle stages 18–20, 19t
longitudinal associations, birthweights 15, 16t
longitudinal associations, growth faltering and later life outcomes 15, 16t
simplifying assumptions 14
Growth reference 267
Growth standard 267
Gruber, J. 174
Guatemala 718, 719, 720, 721
Guntupalli, A. M. 288
Guo, G. 351
Guo, M. H. 270–271
Gustafsson, P. E. 327
Haas, J. D. 327
Haddad, L. J. 417
Hahn, J. 115, 127n5
Haines, M. R. 735, 736, 736f, 739f, 746nn10–11, 756, 758, 760
Hainmueller, J. 123
Hajat, A. 547
Hajnal, J. 221–222
Halpern, C. T. 568
Hamermesh, D. S. 503, 507
Hammarström, A. 327
Han, E. 319, 320, 322, 323, 330n4, 527t, 529t, 532t, 535, 538, 540n2
Hansen, B. E. 350
Happiness 48
height, wages and 514
Happiness paradox 568
(p. 812) Hardy, R. 327
Härkönen, J. 530t
Hatemi, P. K. 352
Hatton, T. J. 186, 284, 285f, 508
Haushofer, J. 341
Hausman, J. 115, 127n5
Hausman-Taylor estimator 507
Hausman test 118
Hawkesworth, S. 409
Hayden, G. F. 267, 269
HDL cholesterol 478–479n3
Head circumference, children, later disease 613
Headey, D. D. 673
Health. See also specific topics
definition 246
as health capital 730
height
female 233–235, 234f
wages 513
household production 565–566
outcomes vs. health behaviors 357n22
status, psychosocial factors 486
Health behaviors, vs. health outcomes 357n22
Health capital 730
Health capital, family 565–568
household's production of health 565–566
obesity 567–568
Health inequality
economic and natural shocks 423–424
nutrition 420–424
Health insecurity 591
Health promotion opportunity costs, family economics 564
Heaver, R. 446
Hebebrand, J. 576
Heckman, J. 10, 10f, 349, 352, 406, 424n1, 517
Height. See also specific topics
antebellum, long-term trends 42–44, 43f, 282
biological standard of living 754
biology 210
black-white height gap 508
coronary heart disease 608–609
Croatia 788
cross-country work, problems 420–421
diabetes type 2 610
economic development 458–459
economic dimension 501
economic output distribution 754
endogeneity 28n7
environmental factors 71
France, South 785–786
genes 210–211
genetic potential 267–269
Greece 787
growth finalization 92n7
health and 210
Imperium Romanum 71–72, 91nn4–5
income 39–41, 40f
Italy, North 784–785
malnutrition 39
mid-parental 268
native populations, adult 195t–196t, 201–204 (See also Native populations, adult height)
nutritional status 37–41, 38f, 40f
boys, GDP 40, 40f
boys, growth velocity, good conditions 37–38, 38f
nutrition investment 415–418
Portugal 786–787
productivity 415–418
schooling 413
self-confidence and leadership 515
Spain 787
stroke 609
target 267–268, 270
Turkey 787–788
Height-by-age patterns, American slaves 212–218, 213t–214t
Height, childhood
coronary heart disease 609–610, 609f, 610f
diabetes type 2 610–611
later disease 608–611, 609f, 610f
Height, female 226–238
affluence on 228
average, long-term 227
Barker hypothesis 233, 236
child health 236–237
fetal growth and newborn length 235–237
health 233–235, 234f
hidden penalties, gender inequality 235–236
importance 226
maternal, birthweight 623
studies, early 226–228
technophysio evolution 233–234
thrifty-gene hypothesis 236
Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) 230
24 months, adult life cycle stage outcomes 18–20, 19t
Africa 673, 674f, 684n7
calculation 238n1
catch-up growth 22–24
cognitive achievement 24–25
definition 684n7
FTD growth faltering and later life outcomes 15, 16t
Height inequality 179–189
birth cohort 179
coefficient of variation 288–290, 290f, 293n5
distributions 180–183, 181f, 181t, 182f
ethnic groups 185–186
Gini coefficients 289–290, 291t, 293n7
global 288–292, 290f, 291t, 293n7
as human and health capital proxy 179
institutional and political differences 188
macroeconomics 183–185, 183f
marriage success 180
productivity, adult 180
public goods provision 179
regional differences 186–187
schooling 179–180
selection mechanisms 180
social class and birth cohort, Germany 180–182, 181f, 181t
social differences 185
urban vs. rural differences 187
Height trajectory, Europe, 8th century BCE to 18th century CE 82–89
archeological remains 73, 74t, 92–93nn10–14
archeological remains, new estimates 73, 74t, 92–93nn10–14
cattle plague 87t, 88
cattle share 87, 87t, 94nn23–24, 97–98n52
climatic temperature 87t, 89
counterbalancing effects 89
data sources and methods 82–85, 83f, 96–97nn45–50
genetic factors 89, 99nn58–59
lactose intolerance 77–78, 89, 94n66
land per capita 87t, 88, 98–99n56
method and data 72–82
plague 87t, 88
Roman impact 87t, 88, 98n54
three-field rotation 87t, 89, 99n57
urbanization rate 87–88, 87t, 98n53
war/persecution 87t, 89
Height, wages and 501–517
age effects 509, 510t–511t
ambiguous causality 513–514
causes 501–502
discrimination, short people 515–516
dominance, interpersonal, tall people 515
education 513
fundamentals 501–502
future studies 517
happiness 514
height premium, basic estimates 508–509, 510t–511t
industries, differences 516
men vs. women 509–512, 510t–511t, 512f
methodological aspects 506–507
modeling and theoretical considerations 502–505, 506f
nutrition and health 513
open questions 517
physical capacity 513
regional differences and long-run developments 507–508
wage-height equation 502–503
four-equation model extension 504–505
Sohn and Hübler modification 503
Thomas and Strauss extension 503
Vogl extension 503
weight 514–515
Heineck, G. 507
HemoCue photometer 468
(p. 814) Henderson, R. M. 135
Herrmann, M. 339
Heston, A. 40
Heterogeneous treatment effects 123–126
endogenous stratification 126
finite mixture models 124–125
intent-to-treat-type effect 126
quantile regression model 124, 125
selection bias 125–126
Hiermeyer, M. 284
Hira, S. 697
Hirvonen, K. 680, 681
Historical Statistics of the United States 37
A History of the Study of Human Growth 37
HIV/AIDS epidemic 59–60
Hoddinott, J. 18–20, 21, 28n2, 409, 413
Hofferth, S. L. 168–169
Hoffman, M. 340
Hohmann, N. 339
Homogamy. See Assortative mating
Hopfensitz, A. 501–502
Horden, P. 765
Hormone-market stress hypothesis 135, 145–146n3
Hormones. See also specific types
biological time-varying markers 341–343
Horrell, S. 230, 232–233
Horton, S. 411
Household. See also Family
economics 566
environment, on poverty–obesity link 329
Household income inequality (HII) index 490
House, J. S. 486
Houser, D. 662
Houweling, T. A. 258
Hryshko, D. 501
Hsiang, S. M. 61
Hsin, A. 638
Huang, W. 507
Huang, Y. 284
Hübler, O. 503, 506, 507
Huizink, A. 342
Human capital. See also specific topics
childhood nutrition investment 412–415
weight, native populations 200–201
Hyperbolic discounting 585
Hypertension
birthweight, low 624
economic development 461–464, 463f
measurement, field 461–462, 478n1
Hypertensive, percent, body mass index 475f, 476
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, stress 487
Ichino, A. 339
Ill-health insecurity 591
Imbens, G. 109, 116, 119
Imperium Romanum 71–72, 91nn3–4
Income 544–545. See also specific topics
vs. biological measures 33–34
distribution, health and mortality 485–486
effects 55–56
height 39–41, 40f
measurement, developing countries 672, 684n5
obesity 584
overweight and obesity 443 (See also Obesity; Overweight and obesity)
trends, long-run 152
wealth and 545
weight, body 156–157
weight, body, and food intake 152
Income–height relationship, African enigma 673–680
catch-up growth 678–680, 679f, 680f, 684nn12–15
children 673–674, 674f
microlevel 671–673, 672t
women and children
vs. GDP per capita, African countries 674, 675f
vs. GDP per capita, non-African countries 674, 675f
multivariate regression 675–678, 678t, 684n11
non-African countries 675, 677f
without Sahel countries 674–675, 676f, 684nn8–10
Income inequality
antebellum puzzle 758–760
body mass index, U.S. 490
cardiovascular disease 490
(p. 815) health and mortality 486
sedentary lifestyle 490
weight status 490–491
Income inequality, child health
family life and relationships 254–255
high-income countries 248–251, 249f, 250f
low- and middle-income countries 251–252
social gradients 252–253
Income, obesity 167–171
adult 169–170
causal effects 170–171
children 168–169
endogeneity and measurement issues 167–168
income insecurity 591
Indian Ocean Tsunami (Indonesia, 2004) 61
Individualism, methodological 584
Industrialization, on height
declines 755–757, 756f
global 282–283
Inequality. See also specific types
definition 246
height 179–189 (See also Height inequality)
income (See Income inequality)
socioeconomic, children's health 244–259 (See also Children's health, socioeconomic inequality)
Inequality traps 422–423
Infant mortality. See Mortality, infant
Inflammation
body mass index 477, 477f
economic development 473–475, 474f
Inflammation markers
body mass index 477, 477f
C-reactive protein 468, 473–475, 474f
obesity epidemic 475
Influenza pandemic (1918) 60, 65n10
Institutions, height inequality 188
Instrumental variables. See also specific variables
regressions 671, 683n2
Insulin 134
Insulin resistance 134
Intake, nutrient. See also specific types
age of menarche 418, 425n13
productivity 417–418
Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) 447
Intent-to-treat-type effect 126
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) 272
Iodine fortification, maternal 411
Iron deficiency, productivity 418
Iron supplementation, infant and maternal mortality 411
Italy
1700-1850 777t, 778–780, 779f, 780f
height, long-run 775, 776f
Italy, North
1850-1980 781f, 782
GDP per capita 790
height, historical estimates 784–785
Izquierdo, C. 197
Japan, anthropometrics 693–706. See also Anthropometrics, East Asia
Japan, anthropometrics, post–World War II 699–705
adolescents, 1955-2005 701, 702t
adults, 2000 701–703, 703t
children, 1985-2005 700t, 701
data sources 699
data stratification 699
protein, calorie, and fat consumption 703–705, 704t
Japan, anthropometrics, pre–World War II 696–697
high imperialism era 696–697
militia recruits 696–697
Jayachandran, S. 62
Jee, H. 135–136
Jeffrey, R. W. 571
Job promotion discrimination 318, 321
Job security 592t
Johansson, E. 321, 530t, 537
Johar, M. 530t–531t, 535, 537–538
Johnson, M. J. 743
Johnson, S. 420
Johnston, D. W. 547, 553
Jolliffe, D. 328
(p. 816) Jones, R. 95n29
Just-identified system 115, 127n4
Kaestner, R. 117
Kagel, J. 657
Kahn, H. S. 490
Kalemli-Ozcan, S. 59
Kandasamy, N. 343, 656
Kantor, S. 742
Katan, M. B. 345
Katayama, H. 530t–531t, 535, 537–538
Katz, L. 759
Kawachi, I. 488–489
Kayla, M. A. 660–661
Kebede, B. 672, 683–684n4
Kelly, I. 126
Kendler, K. S. 358n32
Kenworthy, L. 595–596
Kerr, D. A. 202
Khanam, R. 328
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. 571
Kimura, M. 698
King-Casas, B. 659, 660
King, M. H. 39
Kinsey, W. 409
Kirsch, P. 661
Kishida, K. T. 656–657
Kitchens, C. 742
Knaul, F. M. 418, 425n14
Knoch, D. 654, 655
Kochanska, G. 349
Koepke, N. 71, 76, 82, 93n18, 227, 279–280, 279f
Kolsteren, P. W. V. J. 198
Komlos, J. 40, 139, 182, 182f, 186, 188, 212, 282–283, 292n1, 301, 306, 321, 508, 757–760, 785
Köpke, N. 186
Korea, anthropometric history 693–706. See also Anthropometrics, East Asia
Korea, anthropometrics, pre–World War II 696, 698–699
late 1800s 698–699
militia recruits 696, 698–699
Korenman, S. 525t, 577n10
Kortt, M. 531t
Koscik, T. R. 660
Kosfeld, M. 661
Koszegi, B. 174
Koupil, I. 328–329
Krajbich, I. 660
Kristof, N. 339
Kriwy, P. 188, 508
Krueger, F. 659
Kudmatsu, M. 61
Kuh, D. 327
Kuhnen, C. M. 345
Kuhn, P. 504
Kunst, A. E. 258
Kuznets, S. 752–753, 759
Lab-on-a-chip devices 48
Labor market
height bias, global 281
obesity and earnings 318–321
Labor security 592t
Lactose intolerance, height 77–78, 89, 94n66
LaFave, D. 416
Lakdawalla, D. 159, 164, 166, 169, 171, 572, 573
Land per capita
biological standard of living 78–79, 95nn28–30
height trajectory, Europe, 8th century BCE to 18th century CE 87t, 88, 98–99n56
Laron syndrome 273
Latin America 710–723. See also specific countries
contemporary 718–722
economic development 713–718
Argentina 716–717
Brazil 717–718
Colombia 717
Guatemala 718
Mexico 715–716
epidemics and demographic collapse, 16th century 712–713
inequality studies 710
obesity, Hispanic immigrants to U.S. 719–720
pre-Columbian era 711–713
themes and logic 710
Lauderdale, B. E. 508
Lauharatanahirun, N. 662
Lawton, E. L. 267
(p. 817) Leadership, tall people 515
Lee, S. 353
Lee, W.-S. 322, 515
Lee, Y. K. 446
Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) 655–656
Leg growth 293n4
Leg length, children, later disease 613–614
Legumes 93–94n21
Lehrer, S. F. 323, 346, 351, 353, 354
Leibenstein, H. A. 415
Leibtag, C. S. 328
Leigh, A. 531t
Lemieux, T. 119
Leptin 135
Lew, E. A. 152–153
Lhila, A. 117
Life cycle framework, growth faltering, first 1000 days 11–14, 12f
Life expectancy at birth 35, 91n6
GDP per capita 456, 457f
height, adult male, 1980s Europe 768, 769t–770t, 772f
Life expectancy at birth, U.S. racial differences
2011 731, 732t
blacks
1900-1902, data issues 734–735
improvement 741–744
long-run trends 736, 737f, 738t
Life expectancy improvement, U.S. blacks 741–744
disease eradication, in South 742
earnings and educational attainment 743–744
Great Society programs 742, 744
income and mortality 742
infant mortality 744
malaria control 742
migration out of South 742–743
urban mortality penalty 742
Life satisfaction equation 505
Life tables 34–36
cohort 34
period 34–35
Lillard, D. R. 527t
Limited information maximum likelihood (LIML) 115
Lin, C.-Y.C. 61
Lindeboom, M. 322–323
Lindgren, B. 577n5
Lindqvist, E. 516
Linnemayr, S. 414
Liu, F. 572
Liu, H. 441–442
Lleras-Muney, A. 55–56, 743–744
Llobrera, J. 328
Local average treatment effect (LATE) 117
Logan, E. S. 327
Lorenz, T. M. 653
Low birthweight. See Birthweight, low
Lucas, A. M. 60
Lumey, L. H. 284
Lundborg, P. 322–323, 513, 531t, 535, 539, 577n5, 662
Lusk, J. 328
Lutter, C. K. 414
Macroeconomics. See also specific topics
height inequality 183–185, 183f
Macrosimulation models, nutrition investment 419–420
Macrosomia, fetal 641–642
Maddison, A. 35
Maestripieri, D. 340, 341–342
Majumder, A. 532t, 535
Malani, A. 59–60
Malanima, P. 783
Malina, R. M. 203
Malnutrition. See also Nutrition; Undernutrition
age at menarche 222
height 39
obesity with (See Malnutrition, double burden)
policy implications 445–446
Malnutrition, childhood. See also specific topics
health outcomes 309–310
prevalence 438, 438f
prevalence, preschool 298–299
Malnutrition, double burden 434–448
causes 435–436
challenges 436
consequences 435–436
(p. 818) definition 434
determinants
overnutrition 442–444
undernutrition 441–442
epidemiology 435
household 435, 440
individual 435, 437
measuring 436–437
policy implications 445–448
population/group level 435
prevalence 437–440, 438f, 439f, 448n1
synonyms 434
United States 435
Malnutrition duality 720
Malthusian trap 98n56
Malthus, T. 59
Mamabolo, R. L. 673
Manning, J. T. 340
Manski, C. 352
Margo, R. 418, 759
Marital status, birthweight 625
Market failures, childhood obesity 573–575
Market integration
heights, global 282–283
native populations, adult weight 201
Market liberal countries 586–588, 589t–591t, 594
Market proximity, native population weight 201
Markowitz, S. 574
Marmot, M. 422
Marriage
body mass index 570
success, height inequality 180
Marriage, obesity 323–324, 568–571
assortative mating 567, 568–569, 576, 576n2
complementary traits 569–570, 576n3
conflict 571
formation 568–570, 576n2
socioeconomic status 577n10
spousal concordance by weight 570–571
Martínez-Carrión, J.-M. 187
Martin, H. 157
Martorell, R. 9–10, 435
Marx, Karl 758
Material pathways, children's health 253–254
Maternal factors
on birthweight
height and ethnicity 623
nutrition 625
social position 624–625
on poverty–obesity link 328
Mating, assortative 567, 568–569, 576, 576n2
Matsa, D. 117, 164
Maya civilization 711–713
Mazumdar, D. 415
Mazzocchi, M. 547
McCabe, K. 651, 659
McEnvoy, B. P. 282
McEvedy, C. 95n29
McKeown, T. 35–36
McKnight, R. 747n21
McLaren, L. 318, 328, 488
McLean, R. A. 318, 531t, 536
Mean-differencing 112–113, 127n1
Measurement error 113
Meat
height, adult male, 1980s Europe 769t–770t, 770
slave diets 218–220, 220t
Medical care 81, 96nn38–41
Medications, growth and maturation 273
Mediterranean. See also specific topics
anthropometric history 765–793 (See also Anthropometrics, Mediterranean history)
Europe 93n12
Menarche, age at
malnutrition 222
nutrient intake 418, 425n13
slaves, childbearing and 221–223
Mendelian randomization 25, 346, 357nn20
Meng, X. 58
Menstrual cycle 339–340
Mental disorders, stress 596–597
Metabolic diseases. See also Diabetes mellitus type 2
birthweight, children 614
Metabolism and body weight, fetal/developmental programming 308
Methodological individualism 584
Mexico 721
(p. 819) economic development, 1850-1950 715–716
Meyerhoefer, C. D.