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date: 18 February 2020

Index

Index

A
Abbey, A., 356, 357
Abracen, J., 363
Abraham, H. D., 169
Abrams, K., 165, 167
Abrantes, A. M., 64, 66
Abstinence, 395t, 590–591
Alcoholics Anonymous, 584–588
Moderation Management, 5 86, 590
Abstinence self-efficacy (ASE), 467–468, 487–488
Academic performance, 379–382, 387
Acamprosate, 15, 599t, 602–603
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), 532, 550–552
Accidents. See also Injuries
alcohol, 281t, 292–293, 621
alcohol, motor vehicle, 281t, 292–293, 621
drugs, motor vehicle, 294
polysubstance interactions, motor vehicle, 305
Acetaldehyde, 397
Acetaldehyde adducts, 408–410
blood components, 408–410
reactive molecules, 408
salsolinol, 409–410
Acetaldehyde antibodies, 410
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). See HIV/AIDS
Acquired tolerance, 5
Active stage of treatment, 101
Acute respiratory illness, tobacco, 301t, 303–304
Adalbjarnardottir, S., 8
Adaptations of motivational interviewing (AMIs), 525
Addiction. See also specific topics and types
conceptualization, 727–729
dopamine pathway, 595, 596f
neurobiology, 594–598, 595t, 596f (See also Neurobiology, addiction)
nucleus accumbens, 259f, 260f, 595, 596f
ventral tegmental area, 259f, 595, 596f
Addiction Severity Index (ASI), 447
Addiction Technology Transfer Center Network (ATTC), 556
Addictive personality, 5–6
Additive Model of Drug Effects, 33, 54
ADH1B, 4
Adjunctive treatment
alcohol, serotonergic and dopaminergic medications, 603–604
opioids, buprenorphine, 606
opioids, naltrexone, 606–607
Administrative license suspension/revocation, 636t, 639
Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Trial (AAPT), 685t–687t, 705
Adolescent Diagnostic Interview (ADI), 448
Adolescent Misuse Prevention Study (AMPS), 687t–688t
Adolescents
brain maturation, 231–232
definition, 231
dopaminergic system, 232
Adolescent substance use. See also specific substances
alcohol, aggression, 356
consequences, 675–676
crime, 351
economic costs, 676
prevalence, 675
Adolescent substance use, interventions, 681–684
school setting, 675–713 (See also School setting)
Adolescent substance use, on development, 231–241, 676
developmental changes, 231–232
future directions, 242
marijuana, 237–239
MDMA, 239–241
nicotine, 241
polydrug use, 241
stimulants, 240–241
Adolescent substance use, prevention, 12–13
protective factors, 677–681, 678t
school programs, developing, 681–683
school programs, implementing, 683–684
Adoption studies, 188–189
Advertising
alcohol, limiting, 628–629
counteradvertising, 629
Affective functioning, 117
(p. 745) Agarwal, D. P., 288
Aggression, alcohol use
adolescent, 356
general, 359–360
sexual, 360
Aggression, experimental studies, 359–360
Agoraphobia. See Anxiety, SUD comorbidity
Agosti, V., 52, 151–152
Agrawal, A., 47, 49
AIDS. See HIV/AIDS
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 402–403
Alcohol (ethanol), 255. See also Alcohol use disorder (AUD)
advertising, limiting, 628–629
cardioprotective effects, 274
historical aspects, 393
intoxication or inebriation, 255
mechanisms of action, 595f
metabolism, ALDH2, 4
pharmacokinetics, 396–399, 397f, 398f
pharmacology, 599
poisoning, 282t
sales to high-risk groups, preventing, 623
Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), 442, 519
Alcohol availability, limiting, 624–628
alcohol excise taxes, 624–625
definitions, 624
hours of sale, 625
liquor by the drink, 626–627
outlets, 625–626
rationale, 624
responsible beverage service, 627–628
state retail monopolies, 626
Alcohol consumption
adolescent, 231
classification, WHO, 393–394
in dependence, 393
hazardous use, 394–396, 395t, 418, 442
modest, 393
nonhazardous use, 394–395, 395t, 418
other drugs with ( See Polydrug use)
phenotypes, 395–396, 395t
on relative risk, 393, 393f
Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), 397
Alcohol dependence, 116, 255, 278t, 394, 395t
consumption in, 393
quantity consumed, 393
(p. 746) Alcohol dependence, pharmacological treatment, 599t, 600–604
acamprosate, 602–603
baclofen, 603–604
disulfiram, 601
gabapentin, 603
γ-hydroxybutyrate, 604
nalmefene, 602
naltrexone, 601–602
ondansetron, 603
SSRIs, 599t, 603
topiramate, 603
Alcohol excise taxes, 624–625
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy, 279t
Alcoholic gastritis, 280t
Alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome, 256, 261–262
Alcoholic myopathy, 279t
Alcoholic polyneuropathy, 278t
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), 16, 101, 265, 367, 515, 570, 583–586. See also Self-help organizations
change mechanisms, social and psychological, 590–592
effectiveness, 587–588
vs. Moderation Management, 586–587
Alcohol ignition interlocks, 656–657
Alcohol-impaired driving programs and policies, 621–659. See also Impaired driving programs and policies
Alcohol-induced persisting amnesic disorder, 256
Alcohol-induced persisting dementia, 256
Alcohol-induced pseudo-Cushing syndrome, 278t
Alcohol measurement, 437–440
daily estimation methods, 439–440
quantity/frequency approach, 438–439
standard drink, 437–438
Alcohol monitoring system, transdermal, 414–415, 655, 734
Alcohol outlets, 625–626
Alcohol safety laws, enforcement, 622f, 640–646. See also Enforcement laws and practices
Alcohol-tobacco-cannabis polydrug use, 31. See also Polydrug use
Alcohol use
aggression, 356, 359–360
criminal offending, 361
employment, 384–385
intoxication or inebriation, 255
prenatal exposure, 8, 216–226 (See also Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD))
school performance, 381–382
screening and confirmation, biomarkers, 400
sexual assaults and intimate partner violence, 361–362
wages/earnings, 383–384
Alcohol use, adolescent, on development, 231, 232–237
brain abnormalities, functional, 235–237
brain abnormalities, structural, 233–235
neuropsychological, 232–233
Alcohol use, crime, global associations, 361–364
Alcohol use, crime, situational associations, 354–358
aggression, 356, 359–360
environmental differences, 358
individual differences, 357–358
intimate partner violence, 323, 357, 361–362
property crime, 357
sexual assault, 356–357
violent crime, 354–356
Alcohol use, physical health, 273–293. See also specific disorders
accidents, 281t, 292–293, 621
acute health consequences, 292–293
alcohol abuse, 278t
alcohol dependence syndrome, 278t
Alzheimer disease and dementias, 278t, 286
behavioral disorders, 278t
bipolar disorder, 94, 286
cancer and, 276t–278t, 283–285 (See also Cancer, alcohol)
cardiomyopathy, 279t
cardioprotective, 274
cholelithiasis (gallstones), 290
chronic disorders, 275–292, 276t–282t
cirrhosis of liver, 280t, 290
conduction disorders and dysrhythmias, 279t, 288–289
depression, 286
diabetes mellitus, 278t, 285–286
disease categories, 274–275
dose-response relationship, 275
drowning, 282t, 292
epidemiology, 274
epilepsy, 278t, 286–287
esophageal varices, 280t
falls, 281t, 292
fetal alcohol syndrome, 216–226, 281t (See also Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD))
fires and heat injuries, 282t, 292
gallbladder and bile duct disease, 280t
gastritis, 280t
heart failure, 279t
HIV/AIDS, 275, 276t, 282–283
hypertensive heart disease, 279t, 287
ICD-10 classifications, 273–274
injuries, 282t, 292
intentional injuries, 282t, 292
interpersonal violence, 282t, 292
ischemic heart disease, 279t, 287–288
legal interventions, 282t
lifestyle problems, 282t
mental and behavioral disorders, 278t
mental illness, severe, 286
motor vehicle accidents, 281t, 292–293, 621
myopathy, 279t
nervous system degeneration, 278t
organs affected, 274–275
pancreatitis, 280t, 290–291
perinatal conditions, 8, 216–226, 281t, 291–292 (See also Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD))
pneumonia and lower respiratory infections, 280t, 289–290
polyneuropathy, 278t
pregnancy, abortive outcome, 281t
preterm birth complications, 291–292
pseudo-Cushing syndrome, 278t
psoriasis, 281t, 291
as risk factor, 274–275, 274f
schizophrenia, 286
self-inflicted injuries, 282t
stroke, hemorrhagic, 279t, 288
stroke, ischemic, 279t, 288
transport injuries, 281t
tuberculosis, 275, 276t
unintentional injuries, 281t–282t, 293
Alcohol use disorder (AUD), 255, 278t, 395, 395t
acute effects, 256
ADHD with, 62
anhedonia/misery disorder and, 199–200
anxiety with, 88, 149–168, 174–181 (See also Anxiety, SUD comorbidity)
bipolar disorder with, 94, 286
children of parents with, 65–66, 65f
classification, 256
comorbidities, 256–257
definitions, 255, 256
disability-adjusted life years, 3
genetics, 65–66, 65f
negative affect regulation, 141
prevalence, 116
residual effects, 256
risks, 256
“risky drinking,” varieties, 256
self-medication, personality disorders, 130, 157
suicide, epidemiology, 324
suicide behavior risk, 326–327, 331–333, 331t
Alcohol use disorder (AUD), neurological function and disease, 255–266
alcohol-induced persisting amnesic disorder, 256
alcohol-induced persisting dementia, 256
brain damage, general, 257–258
cognitive changes, 261–263
emotional changes, 263–265
(p. 747)
epidemiology, 256
frontocerebellar system, 259–261
future directions, 266
neurobehavior, 261–265
neurotransmitters, brain, 257
reward circuitry, 258–259, 259f, 260f
treatment and recovery, abstinence, 265–266
Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV), 447
Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), 415, 431, 442, 519
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome
allostasis, 597
neurobiology and pharmacology, 596–597, 596f
pharmacological treatment, 600
Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), 4, 397, 598
Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), 4, 598
Alderete, E., 305
Alexandre, P. K., 386–387
Alleviation of symptoms/dysphoria model, 94–95
Allostasis, 5, 597
Almirall, J., 303
Alverson, H., 105
Alzheimer disease, alcohol in, 278t, 286
Amaro, H., 517
Amnesic disorder, alcohol-induced persisting, 256
Amphetamines. See also specific types
adolescents, on development, 240–241
hallucinogenic, 610
mechanisms of action, 595f
pharmacology, 608, 610
treatment, 608
Amygdala, 196
Ananth, C. V., 304
Anderson, E. W., 644
Andréasson, S., 93
Anger, physiology, 191
Anglin, M. D., 350
Anhedonia/misery, 188
alcohol use disorder, 199–200
Animal models, ALDH2 gene, 4
Antagonism, 32f, 33, 34, 54
polydrug use, 32f, 33, 34, 54
Anthony, J. C., 50, 51, 347
Anticholinergics, 610
Antipsychotics, atypical, 599t
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), SUD comorbidity, 125, 126t, 199
behavioral disinhibition liability, 199
deviance proneness, 141
mental illness, serious, 90, 97
Anxiety, physiology, 191
Anxiety, SUD comorbidity, 88
clinical correlates, 156
future directions, 179–181
prevalence, 149–150
treatment, 174–177
Anxiety, SUD comorbidity, epidemiology, 150–154
Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-Being, 153
Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 150–151
International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology study, 152
National Comorbidity Survey, 151–152
National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, 152
National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, 152–153
National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being, 153
overview, 150
summary, 153–154
Anxiety, SUD comorbidity, theoretical models, 157–168
experimental studies, 164–168
fundamentals, 157–158, 157f, 158f
genetic epidemiology, 162–164
independent vs. substance-induced anxiety diagnosis, 161
order of onset, 158–161
self-reported motives, 161–162
self-medication, 151, 157, 157f, 159, 161–162, 167, 168, 174, 177
Anxiety sensitivity
in anxiety-SUD comorbidity, 176
in depression-SUD comorbidity, 178
Anxiolytics. See also specific types
mechanisms of action, 595t
pharmacology, 610
Apolipoprotein J (APO J), 410
Aramakis, V. B., 172–173
Armeli, S., 476, 483–486
Armstrong, T. D., 199
5 As, 520–521
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 402–403
Assault, 323. See also Interpersonal violence (IPV); Violence
sexual, alcohol, 356–357, 361–362
Assessment, 10–12. See also specific types
accurate, 430
age group, 435
computer, 435
consumption, 11
daily diary, 11, 470, 474, 476, 486
diagnostic criteria, 443–446, 444t, 445t (See also Diagnostic assessment)
diagnostic interviews, 10–11
direct, 11–12
drug use, 430–431
ecological momentary, 11, 53, 54, 466–503 (See also Ecological momentary assessment (EMA))
feasibility testing, 436
future developments, 733–734
heavy/binge drinking, 11
language, 435
mental illness, serious, 98–100
reactivity, 435–436
reliability, 434–435
validity, 434–435
verbal report, 430
window of, 401, 401f
Assessment, self-report, 430–455. See also specific topics
framework, overview, 448, 449f
future directions, 454–455
historical perspectives, 448
instruments, selection guidelines, 434–437, 434t
instruments, types, 431–434, 432t
methods, major, 437–448 (See also Assessment methods)
question-answering process, 448–454 (See also Question-answering process)
research traditions, relevant, 448–450
sensitivity, 441
specificity, 441
validity, 434–435, 434t
Assessment instruments, selection guidelines, 434–437, 434t
clinical, 432t, 434t, 436
criteria across clinical and research situations, 434–436, 434t
research, 432t, 434t, 436–437
Assessment instruments, types, 431–434, 432t
approaches, major, 432t, 433
measured constructs, 432t, 433
purpose, 431–433, 432t
task variables, 432t, 433–434
Assessment methods, interviews and psychometric questionnaires, 443–448
adolescents and children, 447–448
diagnostic criteria, 443–446, 444t, 445t
diagnostic instruments, 446–448 (See also specific types)
substance involvement severity, 447
Assessment methods, screening instruments, 440–442
Assessment methods, substance use behavior, 437–440
daily estimation, 439–440
summary measures of consumption, 437–439
A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial (ASSIST), 685t, 706–707
Atenolol, 600
Atherosclerosis, tobacco in, 300–302, 301t
(p. 748) Atkin, C. K., 628
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 60–77
adult typology, severe, 63
alcohol use with, 62
cannabis use with, 62
characteristics, childhood, 60
cocaine and stimulant use with, 62
conduct disorder with, 64–66
definition and diagnosis, DSM-5, 60–61
fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, 69, 224, 225–226
inattention vs. hyperactivity/impulsivity, 66–67
oppositional defiant disorder with, 64–66
self-medication, 69–70
tobacco use with, 61–62
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), prevalence, 60
adult, 63–64
child and adolescent, 62–63
gender, 64
variation across substances, 61–62
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), risk factors
environmental, 71–72
genetic, 67
neurobiological, 67–68
prenatal, 69
substance, 61
trait, 68–69
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), treatment, 72–75
childhood, on later substance use, 70–71
future directions, 76–77
medications, 72–73
nonpharmacologic, 73–75
principles, 72
Attribution, causality, 454
Atypical antipsychotics, 599t
Augustyniak, P. N., 71
Auld, M. C., 384
Austin, S. B., 11
Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS), 12
Autobiographical memory, 469–470
Aversive conditioning approaches, 531, 532, 533, 534–535
Aversive respondent learning, 534–535
Azrin, N. H., 571
B
Babinski, D. E., 64
Baclofen, 599t
for alcohol, 603–604
for cocaine, 607
Baer, J. S., 8
Bag monitoring, 654–656
Baker, T. B., 542
Ball, S. A., 142
Bandstra, E. S., 229
Bandura, A., 533
Barbiturates
crime, 350
pharmacology, 609–610
secobarbital (“reds”), 29, 55
violence, 349
withdrawal syndrome, 596, 610
Barlow, D. H., 194
Barrett, G. F., 384
Barrowclough, C., 103
Barry, K. L., 513–514
Bartl, G., 637
Bateson, G., 585
Battista, S. R., 165, 167
Beck, A. T., 535, 539
Beckham, J. C., 485, 494
Behavior. See also specific types and substances
alcohol use disorder, 261–265
vs. consequences, 729
Behavioral activation system (BAS), 193
Behavioral approach, family therapy, 571
Behavioral Contracting, 576
Behavioral couples therapy (BCT), 14–15, 572–574
for interpersonal violence, 339
Behavioral disinhibition liability
externalizing disorders, 192–194
integrative common liabilities model, 199
Behavioral inhibition system (BIS), 193
Behaviorally inhibited children, 191–192
Behaviorally undercontrolled children, 191–192
Behavioral sensitization, stimulant, 93
Behavior therapy, 531–532. See also Cognitive-behavioral therapy
aversion therapy, 531, 532, 533, 534–535
contingency management, 14, 531–532, 543–550 (See also Contingency management (CM))
relaxation or meditation training, 534
Beitel, G. A., 640
Belenko, S., 367
Bell, R. M., 682, 696t, 704
Bellack, A. S., 103
Benham, A., 381
Benham, L., 381
Bennett, T., 350, 362
Benzodiazepines
aggression, 360
for alcohol withdrawal syndrome, 600
major depressive disorder comorbidity, 169
mechanisms of action, 595t
pharmacology, 609–610
polydrug abuse, 38
SBIRT therapy on, 441
self-medication, personality disorders, 130, 157
withdrawal syndrome, 596
Berg, I. K., 576
Berglund, M., 628
Berkson's bias/fallacy, 93, 150
Bernstein, J., 516
Bertrand, J., 216–217
Beta-adrenergic blocking drugs. See also specific types
for alcohol withdrawal syndrome, 600
Beta-hexosaminidase (β-Hex), 411–412
Betancourt, L. M., 229
Bhat, V. M., 303
Biederman, J., 70
Bien, T. H., 515, 516, 521
Big Book, The, 584
Bigelow, G. E., 543
Bile duct disease, alcohol in, 280t
Binge drinking. See Heavy/binge drinking
Biological markers. See Biomarkers
Biomarkers, 393–419, 734. See also specific types
acceptance, criteria, 400–401
acetaldehyde adducts, 408–410
acetaldehyde antibodies, 410
alanine aminotransferase, 402–403
alcohol phenotypes, 395–396, 395t
aldehyde-reacting blood components, 408–410
aspartate aminotransferase, 402–403
blood proteins, other, 410–412
breath, 412–413
carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, 403–404
cholesteryl ester transfer protein, 410–411
definition, 419
DUI offenders, 656
vs. ecological momentary assessment, 496
ethanol pharmacokinetics, 396–399, 397f, 398f
ethyl glucorinide, 406–407, 413, 414
ethyl sulfate, 406–407, 413, 414
fatty acid ethyl esters, 407–408, 413, 417
5-hydroxytryptophol, 404–405
γ-glutamyl transferase, 401–402
hair, 413
heavy alcohol use, 400
historical perspectives, 393
ideal, 399–400
liver enzymes, 401–403
markers, 399
mean corpuscular volume, 404
meconium, 415
methanol, 408
monoamine oxidase B, 412
multifactor measures and analysis, 415–416
N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase, 411–412
phosphatidylethanol, 405–406
proteomic search, alcohol, 416–418
(p. 749)
quantity consumed vs. beneficial/detrimental effects, 394–396, 394f
reactive molecules, 408
saliva, 413–414
salsolinol, 409–410
sensitivity, 397, 399, 415–416, 419
sialic acid index of apolipoprotein J, 410
specificity, 400, 415–416, 419
state markers, 401, 401f
sweat, 414–415
timeline followback, 399
total serum sialic acid, 411
Bipolar disorder, SUD comorbidity
alcohol, 94, 286
suicidal behavior, 332, 334
Birchler, G. R., 568
Birckmayer, J. D., 622–623, 622f
Black, W. E., 385
Block, T., 393
Blomberg, R. D., 637
Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). See also Impaired driving
binge drinking, 10
daily estimation methods, 439
high, prevalence, 632
legal limits, 621, 639, 658
motor vehicle crash risk, 293
nonlinear, hockey-stick model, 398–399, 398f
single-compartment models, 397–398, 397f
tests ( See Biomarkers)
violent injury risk, 356
women and elderly, 436
Blood-to-breath ratio (BBR), 413
Blose, J. O., 627
Blowers, M. A., 641, 642
Bolton, J., 161–162
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), 89. See also Mental illness, serious
deviance proneness, 141
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), SUD comorbidity, 89, 125–126, 127t–129t
dialectical behavior therapy for, 142
dynamic deconstructive psychotherapy for, 142
suicidal behavior, 334
Borkenstein, R. F., 637, 642
Böttcher, M., 407
Botvin, G. J., 50–51, 52, 692t–693t, 704–705, 709
Bouyer, J., 304
Bovasso, G. B., 169
Brain damage, alcohol use disorder, 257–261
frontocerebellar system, 259–261
fundamentals, 257–258
reward circuitry, 258–259, 259f, 260f
Brain reward circuitry
alcohol use disorder, 258–259, 259f, 260f
dysfunction model, 95–96
Bray, J. W., 382, 384
Breast cancer, alcohol in, 277t, 284
Breastfeeding, 215. See also Prenatal exposure, on development
Breath alcohol analysis, 412–413
Breath biomarkers, 412–413
Breath testers
passive, 644, 644f
preliminary, 645, 645f
Breslau, N., 158, 730
Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), 12
Brief interventions, 13–14, 513–522. See also specific types
alcohol consumption, reducing risky, 631–632
college settings, 517–518
correctional settings, 518
definition, 513–514
emergency room, 516–517
emergency room, DUI offenders, 653–654
evidence base, 514–518
5 As, 520–521
FRAMES model, 520
future research, 526–527
individual counseling, serious mental illness, 103
interaction style, 521–522
primary care, 515–516, 516f
rationale, 513–514
SBIRT (screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment), 441, 517, 518–520, 526–527
transtheoretical model, 100, 521
Brief Strategic Therapy (BSFT), 577
Brief treatment. See Brief interventions
Broderick, J. E., 495
Bronchus cancer, alcohol in, 277t, 284–285
Brown, S., 591–592
Brown, S. A., 232–233, 235, 699t, 709
Brue, V., 499
Brunette, M. F., 103
Bryant, K., 357
Bryant, R. R., 386
Buchmueller, T. C., 386
Buckner, J. D., 159–160, 167–168
Budney, A. J., 539
Buller, D., 712
Buprenorphine
nociceptin receptor, 605
for opioids, 15, 606
Bupropion, 15, 543, 604
Burgess, S. M., 386
Burke, J. D., 66
Burns, M., 643–644
Bushway, S. D., 350
Butler, L. H., 518
C
Caddy, G. R., 393
Caetano, R., 357
Caffeine, 595f, 608–609
CAGE questionnaire, 442, 518–519
Calcium acetylhomotaurine, 15, 599t, 602–603
Campbell, C. A., 626
Campbell, L., 571
Campbell, R., 685t, 706–707
Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-Being (CCHS 1.2), 150
Cancer
marijuana, 296
tobacco, 300, 301t
Cancer, alcohol, 276t–278t, 283–285
breast, 277t, 284
colon and rectal, 276t, 284
epidemiology, 283
esophagus, 276t, 283–284
larynx, 277t, 283–284
liver, 277t, 284
lung, trachea, and bronchus, 277t, 284–285
mortality and morbidity, 283
oral cavity, 276t, 283–284
other, 278t, 285
pancreas, 277t
prostate, 278t, 285
stomach, 276t, 285
Candidate gene studies
alcohol metabolism, ADH and ALDH, 4
anxiety-SUD comorbidity, 163–164
depression-SUD comorbidity, 172
Cannabidol (CBD), 609
Cannabis (marijuana)
edible, 730
legalization, 730
Cannabis (marijuana) dependence, treatment, 609
Cannabis (marijuana) use
adolescent, on development, 237–239
cancer, 296
intoxication, 609
legalization, 417
markers and metabolites, 417
mechanisms of action, 595f
other drugs with, 417–418 (See also Polydrug use)
pharmacology, 609
on prenatal development, 226–228
suicidal behavior, 328
Cannabis (marijuana) use, comorbid personality disorders
ADHD, 62
schizophrenia, 93–94, 96
Cannabis Use Disorders Test (CUDIT), 431, 442
Carbamazepine, 600
Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), 403–404
(p. 750) Cardiomyopathy, alcoholic, 279t
Caris, L., 45
Carney, M. A., 494, 496
Carroll, K. M., 538–539, 541–542
Carter, B. L., 482, 483
Case management, mental illness, serious, 103–104
Caspi, A., 94, 96, 193–194
Causality
attribution, 454 (See also Morbidity)
reverse, occupational performance, 385
Causes. See also specific disorders
illustration, 41
research, 45–48
rubric, 36
CBT4CBT, 539, 541, 542
CDT test, 415–416
Cerdá, M., 163–164, 172
Cerebrovascular disease, tobacco in, 301t, 303
Chafetz, M. E., 521–522
Chaining, 590
Chaloupka, F. J., 625
Chandra, S., 477, 497
Chang, I., 650
Change mechanisms, self-help, 590–592
Chassin, L., 74–75
Chatterji, P., 381–382
Checkpoints, sobriety, 640–642
Chein, I., 48
Chen, C. Y., 44
Chen, C.-Y., 50
Chen, L. H., 633
Chen, W. J., 44–45
Chermack, S. T., 360–361
Chiang, C.-T., 46
Chikritzhs, T., 625
Chilcoat, H. D., 158
Chiriboga, C. A., 229
Cholelithiasis, alcohol in, 290
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), 410–411
Cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 (CHRM2), 198
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tobacco in, 301t, 304
Cimini, M. D., 517
Cinciripini, P. M., 502
Cirrhosis of liver, 280t, 290
Citizen activism, impaired driving prevention, 629–630
Clark, C. P., 237
Classification
alcohol consumption, WHO, 393–394
alcohol use disorder, 256
ICD-10 disease, alcohol and, 273–274
SUDs, future, 731
Cleckley, Hevey, 729
Click It or Ticket campaign, 646
Clinical assessment, 432t, 434t, 436. See also Assessment
Clinically preventable burden (CPB), 515
Cloninger, C. R., 155–156
Clozapine, 104
Cnattingius, S., 304
Cocaethylene (CE), 418
Cocaine
mechanisms of action, 595f
pharmacological treatment, 607–608
pharmacology, 607
Cocaine use
with ADHD, 62
adolescent, on development, 240–241
prenatal exposure, 228–230
prenatal exposure, ADHD, 69
Co-dependency, 570
Cognitive-behavioral mood management training (CBMMT), 538, 541
Cognitive-behavioral skills training (CST, CBT), 532, 533, 536–543
alcohol dependence applications, 537–538
alcohol treatment evidence, 540–541
approach overview, 536–537
cognitive-behavioral mood management training, 538, 541
Communication Skills Training, 533, 535
computerized (CBT4CBT), 539, 541, 542
drug dependence applications, 538–539
drug treatment evidence, 541–542
Problem Drinker Program, 538
relapse prevention training/treatment, 102, 532, 533, 537–541
tobacco dependence applications, 539–540
tobacco treatment evidence, 542–543
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 14, 531–557
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), 532, 550–552
for ADHD with SUD, 73–74
for anxiety-SUD comorbidity, 175–176
aversive conditioning approaches, 534–535
cognitive-behavioral skills training, 536–543 (See also Cognitive-behavioral skills training (CST))
cognitive therapy, 531, 535–536
contingency management, 531–532, 543–550
coping skills training, 532, 533, 536–543
cue-exposure training with response prevention, 532, 533, 552–556
decision theory, 533
for depression-SUD comorbidity, 177–178
functional analysis, 534
future directions, 556–557
mental illness, serious, 102
relapse prevention, 102, 532–533, 537–539
relaxation or meditation training, 534
skills training, 534
social learning theory, 533–534
theory and practice overview, 533–534
Cognitive disruption models, 348–349
Cognitive functioning, 117
alcohol use, 261–263
mental illness, serious, 102
Cognitive therapy, 531, 535–536
Cohen, D., 630–631
College Community Environmental Prevention Program, 648
College programs, impaired driving prevention, 630
Collins, J. J., 355
Collins, R. L., 480–481, 483, 489, 494
Colorectal cancer, alcohol in, 276t, 284
Combined behavioral intervention (CBI), 15
Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions (COMBINE) Study, 15, 437, 601, 603, 736
Common factor models, mental illness and SUDs, 96–97
antisocial personality disorder, 97
bidirectional models, 97
genetic factors, 96–97
Common liabilities model, integrative, 187–203. See also Integrative common liabilities model
Communication Skills Training, 533, 535
Communities Mobilizing for Change Program, 647
Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT), 575
Community reinforcement approach (CRA), 15, 545
Community Reinforcement Training (CRT), 575
Community Trials Program, 647
Comorbidity, 187, 295–296. See also specific types
externalizing/externalizing disorders, 187–203 (See also Integrative common liabilities model)
personality disorders, 119–132 (See also Personality disorders, SUD comorbidity; specific disorders)
prevalence, 89–90
Comorbidity models, serious mental illness and SUD, 92–97, 597–598
Berkson's fallacy, 93
bidirectional, 97
common factor, 96–97
fundamentals, 92–93
(p. 751) secondary psychiatric illness models, 93–94
secondary SUD, 94–96
Compliance, ecological momentary assessment, 494–497
cell-phone assessment, 493
event-based assessments, 470, 489
lengthy monitoring, 491
PDA assessment, 493
substance abuse recording, 495–497
time-based recording, 473t, 494–495
Composite International Diagnostic Interview–Substance Abuse Model (CIDI-SAM), 446
Computerized cognitive-behavioral skills training (CBT4CBT), 539, 542
Catechol-O-Methyltransferas (COMT), 96
Concurrent polydrug use, 31, 34, 39, 50, 52–53, 54
Conduct disorder, 90, 97
with ADHD, 64–66
Conduction disorders, alcohol in, 279t, 288–289
Conklin, C. A., 737
Conner, K. R., 326
Conrod, P. J., 166, 175, 176, 178, 736
Consequences vs. behavior, 729
Consumption, assessment, 11. See also specific substances and assessments
Contingency management (CM), 14, 531–532, 543–550
for ADHD with SUD, 74
alcohol dependence applications, 546
alcohol treatment evidence, 548–549
approach overview, 543–544
concerns, 550
drug dependence applications, 544–546
drug treatment evidence, 547–548
mental illness, serious, 104
tobacco dependence applications, 546–547
tobacco treatment evidence, 549
Contingent reinforcement, serious mental illness with SUDs, 102
Co-occurrence, 37
Cook, P. J., 381, 625
Cooney, N. L., 489
Cooper, M. L., 7, 141, 354
Coping skills treatment (CST), 532, 533, 536–543. See also Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
alcohol dependence, 537–538, 540–541
drug dependence, 538–539, 541–542
evidence, 540–543
overview, 536–537
tobacco dependence, 539–540, 542–543
Corbin, W. R., 11–12
Corbit, J. D., 5
Corcoran, K., 240
Corrao, G., 284
Correia, C. J., 518
Correlates, 36
Cortical stimulation, 735
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), 5, 597
Coskunpinar, A., 6
Costello, E. J., 160, 169
Costello, J., 199
Counteradvertising, impaired driving prevention, 629
Couples-based relapse prevention, 573–574
Course of disease, 3, 305–306
personality changes, 6
personality traits on, 6
role transitions, 7
Court-mandated treatment/education programs, 650–653
DUI/drug courts, 652–653
educational programs, 651–652
intensive supervision probation, 652
model, general, 650
offender screening, DUI, 650–651
offender treatment, 651
post-treatment programs, 651
victim impact panels, 653
Craving, 597. See also Dependence; Drug seeking
bupropion on, 15
cocaine, modafinil on, 607
dopamine system hypersensitization, 5
DSM-5 diagnosis, 9
gambling addiction, lithium on, 611
medications on, 599, 611t
motivation-reward system, 596
neurobiology, 597
Craving, alcohol
acamprosate on, 602
gabapentin on, 603
naltrexone on, 599t, 601–602
olanzapine on, 603
Crime
definitions and measures issues, 347–348
future research, 368–369
prevention strategies, 368
societal costs, 366–367
substance use correlation, 347
treatment programs, 366–367
Crime models, theoretical, 348–354
common causes, 353–354
crime leads to substance use, 352–353
economic, 349–351
generality vs. specificity, problem behaviors, 351–352
psychopharmacological, 348–349
substance use leads to crime, 348–352 (See also Substance use leads to crime theory)
systemic (drug dealing), 351–352
Crime research, empirical, global associations, 361–366
alcohol, 361–364
drugs, 362–366
longitudinal, 364–365
macro, 365–366
Crime research, empirical, situational associations, 354–361
alcohol, 354–358
drugs, 358–359
experimental studies, 359–360
Criminal offending. See Crime; specific crimes
Criteria
assessment instrument selection, 434–436, 434t
biomarkers, 400–401
diagnostic, 443–446, 444t, 445t (See also Diagnostic criteria)
DSM-IV-TR, 443, 444t
DSM-5, 443, 445–446, 445t
screening instruments, 441–442
Cross-tolerance, 50, 54
Crum, R. M., 159, 169
Cue exposure, 14
Cue-exposure training (CET) with response prevention, 532, 533, 552–556
alcohol dependence applications, 553
alcohol treatment evidence, 554–555
approach overview, 552–553
drug dependence applications, 553
drug treatment evidence, 554
evidence summary, by disorder, 555–556
future directions, 556–557
tobacco dependence applications, 553–554
tobacco treatment evidence, 554
virtual reality treatment, 553, 557
web-based treatments, 556–557
Cumulative risk hypothesis, 198
Cunningham, P. B., 576
Cunradi, C. B., 362, 363
Currie, S. R., 155
Curtin, L., 173
Cuthbert, B. N., 195
Cyders, M. A., 6
CYP2E1, 397
Cytochrome P450 enzymes, alcohol metabolism, 397
Cytosolic AST (cAST), 402
D
Daily diaries, 11, 470, 474, 476, 486
Daily estimation (DE) methods, 439–440
timeline followback, 11, 399, 439
D’Amico, E. J., 681–683, 689t–690t, 709–710
Darkes, J., 6
Day, N. L., 227–228
D-cycloserine, 737
De Bellis, M. D., 234
De Boer, M. C., 165
Dechanet, C., 305
(p. 752) Decision theory, 533
Decriminalization, 731
Dedicated patrols, 642
Dee, T. S., 382, 385
Degenhardt, L., 37–38, 46, 153
Del Boca, F. K., 6
Delfino, R. J., 483, 490
De Li, S., 352
Deliberate self-harm, 322
De Lima, M. S., 15
∆-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 417, 609
placental, 226
δ receptor, 605
Dementia, alcohol in, 278t, 286
Dependence. See also specific types
alcohol, 116, 394, 395t
drug, 295
Depression
alcohol in, 286
physiology, 191
Depression, SUD comorbidity
clinical correlates, 156–157
future directions, 179–181
prevalence, 149–150
suicidal behavior, 332
treatment, 177–179
Depression, SUD comorbidity, epidemiological studies, 154–156
Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-Being, 155
Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 154
National Comorbidity Survey, 154
National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, 155
National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, 155
National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey, 154
overview, 154
summary, 155–156
Depression, SUD comorbidity, theoretical models, 168–173
experimental studies, 172–173
fundamentals, 157–158, 157f, 158f
genetic epidemiology, 171–172
independent vs. substance-induced mood disorder diagnosis, 170
order of onset, 168–170
self-medication, 157, 157f, 170–173, 179, 180
self-reported motives, 170–171
Designated driver programs, 634–635
Designer drugs, 729–730
DeSimone, J., 381, 382, 386
Desroches, F., 352
Development, 3
Development, adolescent, alcohol use on, 231, 232–237, See also Adolescent substance use, on development
brain abnormalities, functional, 235–237
brain abnormalities, structural, 233–235
neuropsychological, 232–233
Development, drug exposure on, 215–242
future directions, 242
Development, fetal, alcohol on. See also Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)
brain abnormalities, functional, 221–223
brain abnormalities, structural, 217–221
Developmental associations, crime research, 354, 361–366
alcohol, 361–364
drugs, 362–366
longitudinal, 364–365
macro, 365–366
Deviance proneness, 141
ADHD and conduct disorder, 65–66
antisocial personality disorder, 141
borderline personality disorder, 141
Diabetes mellitus, alcohol in, 278t, 285–286
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version IV (DSM-IV), 9–10
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version IV-TR (DSM-IV-TR), 443, 444t
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version 5 (DSM-5)
addiction vs. word choice, 30–31
diagnostic criteria, 443, 445–446, 445t
phenotypes, 9–10
Diagnostic assessment, 440–448
categorical and polythetic, 445
criteria, 443–446, 444t, 445t
DSM history and changes, 444–445
DSM-IV, 9–10
DSM-IV-TR, 443, 444t
DSM-5, 443, 445–446, 445t
ICD-10, 443
instruments, 446–448 (See also Diagnostic instruments)
interviews and psychometric questionnaires, 432t, 443–445, 444t, 445t
as inventions and tools, 443–444
screening instruments, 432t, 440–442
Diagnostic instruments, 446–448. See also specific types
Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV, 447
Composite International Diagnostic Interview–Substance Abuse Model, 446
Diagnostic Interview Schedule-IV, 446
Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism, 446
Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM, 446–447
Diagnostic interviews, 10–11
Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC), 448
Diagnostic Interview Schedule-IV (DIS-IV), 446
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), 142
Diary methods. See also Ecological momentary assessment (EMA)
daily, 11, 470, 474, 476, 486
electronic, 467, 485–486, 494–495
paper, 495, 500, 502
Dick, D. M., 8
DiClemente, C. C., 100, 521, 585
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)
alcohol use disorders, 257
fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, 219–221
Dill, P. L., 651
Dillman, D. A., 452, 453
Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 610
Dir, A. L., 6
Disability-adjusted life years, 2–3
Disease burden, global, 3
Disney, E. R., 63, 64
Disulfiram, 599t
for alcohol, 601
for cocaine, 607
Dittrich, J. E., 575
Doll, R., 303
Donaldson, S. I., 686t, 705
Donovan, J. E., 10
Dopamine pathway/reward system, 193, 595–596, 596f
addiction, 595, 596f
ADHD, 68
gambling addiction, 610
Dopaminergic (DA) system
ADHD, 68
in adolescence, 232
alcohol use disorder on, 257
craving, 5
stimulants on, 240–241
Dopamine D-2 receptor (DRD2), polymorphism, 67
Dopamine D-3 receptor (DRD3), schizophrenia, 96–97
Dopamine D-4 receptor (DRD4), gene, 67
Drake, R. E., 95, 103–104, 105
Drink, liquor by, 626–627
Drinker's Check-up, 524
Drinking age, minimum (p. 753)
laws, 623–624
laws, associated, 624
Driver education, 633
Driver's license suspension/revocation, 636t, 639
Driving programs and policies, 621–659. See also Impaired driving programs and policies
Drowning, alcohol in, 282t, 292
Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST), 519
Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS), 12
Drug dealing, drug users in, 351–352
Drug dependence, 295. See also specific drugs
Drug development, 734
Drug effects model, crime, 349
Drug seeking. See also Craving
evolutionary behavior, 1
expectancies and motives, 6–8
genetic vulnerability, 4
neurobiology, 5
Drug terminology, 29–30
Drug use
employment, 386–387
school performance, 382
wages/earnings, 385–386
Drug use, crime
global associations, 362–366
situational associations, 358–360
Drug use, physical health, 293–299, 298t–299t
cancer, marijuana, 296
HIV/AIDS, 287, 296, 298t, 299
injuries, 293–294
intentional injuries, 294
mental disorders, 295–296
mortality, 296–297
motor vehicle accidents, 294
noncommunicable physical disease, 294–295
overdose, accidental, 297
personality disorders, 295–296
poisonings, 294
poisonings, fatal, 297, 298t–299t
risk factors, 297, 299
unintentional injuries, 294
Drug use disorder (DUD). See also specific types
anxiety comorbidity, 88, 149–168, 174–181 (See also Anxiety, SUD comorbidity)
depression comorbidity, 149–150, 154–157, 168–173, 177–181 (See also Depression, SUD comorbidity)
prevalence, 116–117
suicide, epidemiology, 324–325
Drug Use Disorders Test (DUDIT), 442
Dual diagnosis. See Mental illness, serious
Dual disorder. See Mental illness, serious
Dual-process models, 7
Duberstein, P. R., 326
DUI (drunk driving). See also Impaired driving
enforcement, traditional, 622f, 642
prevalence, 632
programs and policies, 621–659 (See also Impaired driving programs and policies)
vehicle detection, 643–644
DUI (drunk driving) offenders, driving controls, 654–657
biomarkers, blood, 656
general approaches, 654
monitoring bag, 654–656
rationale, 654
SCRAM, 655–656
transdermal alcohol monitoring, 655
vehicle ignition interlocks, 656–657
vehicle sanction laws, 654
WrisTAS, 655
DUI Phoenix, 651
Dunbar, M. S., 480
Duncan, G., 77
Dupont, R. L., 30
Dutra, L., 14
Dynamic deconstructive psychotherapy (DPP), 142
Dynorphins, 597
Dysfunctional use, 442
Dysrhythmias, alcohol in, 279t, 288–289
Dysthymic disorder. See Depression, SUD comorbidity
E
Earleywine, M., 52
Early Detection of Alcohol Consumption (EDAC), 415–416
E-cigarettes, 730
Eckardt, M., 293
Ecological momentary assessment (EMA), 11, 53, 54, 466–503
antecedent analysis trajectory, 484–485
autobiographical memory and recall limitations, 469–470
case cross-over, 481–483, 482f
cooperation concerns, 492–493
daily diaries, 11, 470, 474, 476, 486
data aggregation, 491–492
definition, 466
designs and approaches, 470–476
duration of study, 491
event-based assessments, 488–490
event-based monitoring, 470–474, 471t–472t
event data characteristics analyses, 478t, 480–481
event occurrence, 477–480, 478t
event- plus time-based assessments, 481–485
hardware and software, 500–502, 501t
individual difference moderators, 485
measures, 498–500
mediation assessment, 486
methodological issues, 488–492
momentary, real-time assessment, 468
outcome analysis, 485–486
paper diaries, 495, 500, 502
practical considerations, other, 502
pre-post (follow-up), 483
principles, 467–469
prospective case cross-over, 483–484
vs. questionnaire data, 497–498
reactivity concerns, 493–494
real-world data, 468
recall use, 475
repeated assessment, 468–469
reporting while intoxicated concerns, 493
research concerns, 492–497
sampling vs. coverage strategies, 475–476
scope and history, 469
self-efficacy, lapses and progression to relapse, 467–468
single episode recording vs. later recall, 498
situational antecedents, smoking, 467
statistical analysis, 486–488
study designs, 477–486, 478t–480t
study suitability, 476–477
summary, 468
time-based assessment analyses, 477t–478t, 481
time-based assessments, 472t–473t, 474–475, 490–491
time-based milestone assessment, 475
time-to-event analyses, 484
for treatment, 502–503
validity, 468, 494, 498, 500
Ecological momentary intervention (EMI), 502–503
Ecological validity, 468, 494
predictive and construct, 498
testing, hardware and software, 500
Economic compulsive violence, 329
Economic model, crime, 349–351
Edelen, M., 689t, 709–710
Edgerton, R. B., 349
Education
court-mandated programs, 650–653 (See also Court-mandated treatment/education programs)
driver, 633
traffic safety, 633–635 (p. 754)
Educational achievement, 379–382, 387
conceptual framework, 380–381
studies, alcohol use, 381–382
studies, drug use, 382
Edwards, G., 9, 515
Eisengart, S., 576
Elder, R. W., 641
Electronic cigarettes, 730
Electronic diary, 467, 485–486, 494–495
Elkins, I. J., 5–6, 64, 65, 66, 199–200
Ellickson, P. L., 682, 696t–698t, 704
Emergency room
brief interventions, 516–517
brief interventions, DUI offenders, 653–654
Emergency room screening, DUI offenders, 653–654
Emotional functioning, 117. See also specific types
alcohol use disorder, 263–265
general emotional liability, 199–200
lability and ADHD, 68
negative emotionality, 189–192
Employment, 384–387
alcohol use, 384–385
drug use, 386–387
supported, serious mental illness, 104
Enabling, 570
Endophenotypes, 4, 189. See also specific types
Enforcement
minimum age drinking laws, 623–624
responsible beverage service programs, 627
Enforcement laws and practices, 622f, 640–646
alcohol safety laws, 622f, 636, 640–642
breath testers, passive, 644, 644f
breath testers, preliminary, 645, 645f
chemistry-based random breath-test programs, 642–643, 643f
DUI, dedicated patrols, 642
DUI, saturation patrols, 642
DUI, traditional, 642
DUI laws, 622f, 642
publicizing programs, 645–646
sobriety checkpoints, 640–642
vehicle detection, DUI offender drivers, 643–644
Engagement, 100
Enhanced test refusal laws, 636t, 638–639
Enkephalinergic system, alcohol on, 257
Environment
genetic moderation, 198–199
influences, 8–9
SUD comorbidities, 200
Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study, 150–151, 154
Epidemiology, 2–3. See also specific disorders and types
polydrug use, 34–37
rubrics, 34–37
Epilepsy, alcohol in, 278t, 286–287
Epstein, D. H., 485, 493
Epstein, E. E., 178
Erickson, D. J., 624
Esberger, R., 637
Escohotado, A., 1
Esophageal varices, alcohol in, 280t
Esophagus cancer, alcohol in, 276t, 283–284
Ethanol. See Alcohol (ethanol)
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), 406–407
hair, 413
sweat, 414
Ethyl sulfate (EtS), 406–407
Etiology, 3–9. See also specific disorders
environmental, 8–9
expectancies and motives, 6–8
future developments, 731–733
genetic vulnerability, 3–5
neurobiology, 5
personality, 5–6
SUDs, 187–188
Etiology, polydrug use
causes, rubric, 36
illustration, 41
research, 45–48
Ettner, S., 385
Evans, W. N., 382
Event-based assessments, 488–490
Event-based monitoring, 470–474, 471t–472t
Event-related brain potentials (ERP), 258
P300, 67–68, 96, 193
Everitt, B. J., 5
Evidence-Based Practices Project (EBPP), 336–337
Excise taxes, alcohol, 624–625
Executive function, 225, 262–263
Expectancies, outcome, 6–7
Expectancy models, crime, 349
Experience Sampling Methods (ESM), 53, 54
Exploratory structural equation modeling, 46
Externalizing disorders
behavioral disinhibition liability, 192–194
comorbid SUD, integrative common liabilities model, 187–203 (See also Integrative common liabilities model)
endophenotype, 4
Extramedical use, 31, 54
Extraversion, ADHD, 68
F
Falls, alcohol in, 281t, 292
Family approaches, 567–579
for ADHD with SUD, 74
barriers, 577–578
behavioral approach, 571
Behavioral Contracting, 576
Brief Strategic Therapy, 577
change, initiating, 575
Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT), 575
Community Reinforcement Training, 575
definitions, 568
efficacy, 567
enthusiasm for, 567–568
family disease approach, 570
family maladjustment, substance use and, 569
family problems comorbidity, 568–569
family systems approach, 570–571
family unit, 568
foundational frameworks, 569–571
future directions, 578–579
interventions, 574–577
JCAHO requirements, 567
mental illness, serious, 104
Multidimensional Family Therapy, 577
Network Therapy, 576
prevention, 574–575
Solution-Focused Therapy, 576
Stanton's Therapeutic Techniques, 576–577
treatment, 575–577
unilateral family therapy, 575
Wegscheider-Cruse's Theory, 577
Family disease approach, 570
Family maladjustment, 569
Family problems, comorbid, 568–569
Family studies
anxiety-SUD comorbidity, 162–163
depression-SUD comorbidity, 171
Family systems approach, 570–571
Family unit, 568
Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), 407–408
hair, 413
meconium, 417
Faupel, C. E., 369
Fear/arousal, 188
Feingold, A., 330
Feinstein, A. R., 202
Fell, J. C., 634, 637, 650
Felson, R. B., 355, 356
Feng, W., 385
Ferguson, E., 483
Ferguson, S., 486
Fergusson, D. M., 170
Fertility, female, tobacco in, 305
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), 216–226, 281t, 292
ADHD, 69, 224, 225–226
behavioral and psychosocial functioning, 226
(p. 755)
brain abnormalities, functional, 221–223
brain abnormalities, structural, 217–221
characteristics, 216
craniofacial abnormalities, 217, 218f
definition, 216
fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, 216
growth deficiency, 217
methodologies, 216
neuropsychological studies, 223–226
prevalence, FASD, 216–217
prevalence, prenatal drinking, 216
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), brain structural abnormalities, 217–221
basal ganglia and hippocampus, 221
cerebellum, 220–221
corpus callosum, 220
frontal and parietal, 218–219
gray and white matter, 219–220
neurocognitive deficits, 221
volumetric, 217–219
Fighting Back Community Program, 647
Fillmore, K. M., 287–288
Financial incentives, 14, 531–532, 543–550. See also Contingency management (CM)
Fires, alcohol in, 282t, 292
Five As, 520–521
Five-Hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), 404–405
Five-Hydroxytryptophol (5-HTOL), 404–405
Fleming, P. J., 305
Flory, K., 64, 65, 66, 72
Food addiction, 728
Forman, V., 347
Forster, J. L., 623
Foster, R. K., 289
FRAMES, 520
Freedman, M., 490, 493, 496
French, M. T., 367, 386–387
Fried, P. A., 241
Friend, K., 646
Friends don't let friends drive drunk campaign, 645
Fromme, K., 11–12
Frontocerebellar system, alcohol on, 259–261
Fudala, P. J., 15
Functional analysis, 534
Functional MRI (fMRI), 257–258
Future, research, 727–730
addiction conceptualization, 727–729
consequences vs. behavior, 729
designer drugs, 729–730
Future developments, 730–738
assessment, 733–734
classification, 731
etiology, 731–733
legalization and decriminalization, 731
user populations, 730–731
G
GABAB agonist. See Baclofen
Gabapentin, 603
Galanter, M., 576
Gallbladder disease, alcohol in, 280t
Gallstones, alcohol in, 290
Gambling addiction (disorder), 728
medications, 610–611
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 4
alcohol use disorder on, 257
in alcohol withdrawal syndrome, 596, 596f
Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha2 subunit (GABRA2), 8
γ-CDT, 415–416
γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), 401–402
γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), 604
Gardner, A. W., 300–302
Gastritis, alcoholic, 280t
Gateway sequence, 45, 46, 48–49, 51
Geerts, C. C., 300
Gene-environment correlations, 198–199
Gene expression chip, 418
Gene identification, 197–198
General emotional liability, 199–200
Generalized anxiety disorder. See Anxiety, SUD comorbidity
Genetic epidemiology
anxiety-SUD comorbidity, 162–164
depression-SUD comorbidity, 171–172
Genetic liabilities, 188–198
cross-factor morbidity, 189
externalizing disorders, behavioral disinhibition, 192–194
gene identification, 197–198
internalizing disorders, 194–195
negative emotionality, 189–192
negative thought processes, 196–197
physiological hyperarousal, 195–196
regulation, 192
twin and adoption studies, 188–189
Genetic vulnerability, 3–5
George, W. H., 360
Gerlach, A. L., 166–167
Gfroerer, J., 42
Giancola, P. R., 349, 359–361
Gilman, S. E., 169
Gingerich, W. J., 576
Gladstone, G. L., 195
Glatt, S. J., 4
Global associations, crime research, 354, 361–366. See also Crime research, empirical, global associations
Glutamate
alcohol use disorder on, 257
in alcohol withdrawal syndrome, 596, 596f
Goldman, M. S., 6
Goldschmidt, L., 227–228
Goldstein, P. J., 329
Goldstein's tripartite framework, 330
Gonzales, D., 15
Gordon, J. R., 535
Gorman, D. M., 366
Gosin, M., 690t–691t, 706
Gossage, J. P., 216–217
Gottfredson, D. C., 350
Graduated driver licensing (GDL) laws, 633
Graduated frequency (GF) method, 11, 438
Graham, J. W., 685t, 705
Grant, B. F., 42, 152–153, 154, 160–161, 169–170
Grant, I., 241
Gray matter, 219
Greenfield, T. K., 11
Grekin, E. R., 68
Grice, H. P., 450
Griffin, K. W., 694t, 704–705
Grimes, J. D., 630
Gross, M. M., 9
Grossman, M., 382–383
Gruenewald, P. J., 51, 626
Gwaltney, C. J., 492
H
Haber, H., 409
Hafsteinsson, L. G., 8
Haglund, B., 304
Hair biomarkers, 413
Hall, S. M., 532, 539
Hallucinogens. See also specific types
mechanisms of action, 595f
pharmacology, 610
Haloperidol, 600
Hamilton, B., 384
Hamilton, V., 384
Handler, A. S., 304
Hansen, T. L., 685t, 705
Harford, T. C., 154
Harmful alcohol consumption, 394–396, 395t, 400. See also Biomarkers
Harmful use, 442
Harm reduction strategies, 101–102
Harrison, I., 95
Hartsough, C. S., 69
Hasin, D. S., 152–153, 155
Hause, J. M., 640, 645
Hayes, S. C., 550, 551
Hazardous use, alcohol consumption, 394–396, 395t, 418, 442. See also Biomarkers
Heart disease
alcohol in, 279t, 287–288
tobacco in, 301t, 302–303
Heath, A., 47
Heat injuries, alcohol in, 282t, 292
Heavy/binge drinking, 10, 395t, 396
assessment, 11
(p. 756)
biomarkers, 400
coping motive, 7
enhancement motive, 7
environmental influences, adolescents, 8
naltrexone on, 15
universal prevention approaches, 12
Hecht, M. L., 690t–691t, 706
Hedberg, A. G., 571
Hedlund, J., 650
Hedonic set point, 5
Heien, D. M., 384
Heim, C., 172
Helander, C. J., 650
Henggeler, S. W., 576
Hennessy, M., 627
Henstridge, J., 637, 640
Heroin
crime, early research, 349–350
self-medication, personality disorders, 130
Herting, M. M., 234–235
Hettema, J. E., 525
Hettema, J. M., 196
Higgins, S. T., 543, 545
High BAC laws, 636t, 639
Higher Power, 585, 586, 587, 595. See also Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
High school substance use programs, 706–708
Project Towards No Drug Abuse, 700t–701t, 707–708
School Health and Alcohol Harm Reduction Project, 701t, 707
A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial, 685t, 706–707
Hingson, R., 647
Hinshaw, S. P., 64
HIV/AIDS, 305–306
alcohol with, 275, 276t, 282–283
course and HIV drug compliance, 305–306
drug use with, 296, 297, 298t, 299
Hoaken, P. N. S., 329
Hobbs, J. D. J., 175, 177–178, 181
Hogue, A., 577
Holder, H. D., 627, 646
Hollis, J. F., 542
Holloway, K., 350, 362, 367–368
Homel, R., 637, 640
Homicide. See also Interpersonal violence
definition, 323
epidemiology, 323–324
epidemiology, SUD and, 325
Hopelessness. See also Introversion/hopelessness
suicidal behavior, 332
Hopper, J. W., 477, 480, 494
Horney, J., 365
Hours of sale, alcohol, 625
Hoyle, R. H., 66
Hoyme, H. E., 217
Huang, B., 153, 155
Huang, C.-Y., 46
Hufford, M. R., 326–327, 494, 500
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). See HIV/AIDS
Humphreys, K., 16, 588, 589
Hurt, R. D., 52
Hussong, A. M., 483–484
5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), 404–405
5-Hydroxytryptophol (5-HTOL), 404–405
Hyperactivity/impulsivity, 60
vs. inattention, 66–67
Hyperarousal, physiological, 192, 194–195
Hyperarousal liability, physiological, 195–196
Hypertensive heart disease, alcohol in, 279t, 287
I
Iacono, W. G., 67–68, 140
Ibogaine, 608
If You Drink Don't Drive campaign, 645
Ignition interlocks, vehicle, 656–657
Illegal per se laws, 636t, 637–638
Illicit drugs. See also Drugs; specific substances
terminology and implications, 29–30, 54
Illnesses, 2
Impact, 2–3
Impaired driving
alcohol-related accidents, 281t, 292–293, 621
causal model, 622f, 623
economic costs, 621
prevalence, 621, 632
Impaired driving programs and policies, 621–659
future directions, 658–659
historical perspectives, 621–622
Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation program, 622
resources, texts, 622
Impaired driving programs and policies, primary prevention, 623–632
alcohol advertising, 628–629
alcohol availability, 624–628 (See also Alcohol availability, limiting)
brief interventions, risky consumption, 631–632
citizen activism, 629–630
college programs, 630
community norms, 629
counteradvertising, 629
minimum drinking age laws, 623–624
minimum drinking age laws, associated, 624
opportunities, 658
opportunities, risky consumption, 632
sales to high-risk groups, 623
serving obviously intoxicated patrons, laws, 624
social availability, 630–631
Impaired driving programs and policies, secondary prevention, 632–648
alcohol safety laws, 640–642
community alcohol safety programs, 646–648
drinking and driving, 635–636
enforcement, 622f, 640–646
impaired driving laws, 636–640 (See also Laws, impaired driving)
opportunities, 658
prevalence, drunk driving, 621, 632
public programs, 645–646
technology, 642–645
traffic safety education, 633–635 (See also Traffic safety education)
Impaired driving programs and policies, tertiary prevention, 648–657
background, 648–649
court-mandated treatment/education programs, 650–653 (See also Court-mandated treatment/education programs)
emergency room screening and brief interventions, 653–654
offenders, DUI, driving controls, 654–657 (See also DUI (drunk driving) offenders, driving controls)
opportunities, 658–659
prosecution, DUI offenders, 649
sanctions, traditional, 649–650
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 733
Implicit measures, 733–734
Impulse control, 117
Impulse control disorders, 728
Impulsivity, 6
ADHD, 68
definition, 6
parents with SUDs, 67
prenatal alcohol exposure, 69
prenatal cocaine exposure, 69
vs. inattention, 66–67
Impulsivity/aggression, suicidal behavior, 332
Impulsivity/disinhibition, 140
Inattention, 60–61. See also Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
parents with SUDs, 67
prenatal alcohol exposure, 69
prenatal cocaine exposure, 69
vs. hyperactivity/impulsivity, 66–67
Incentive salience, 5
Indicated prevention, 684
interpersonal violence, 337t, 338–339
suicide, 336, 337t, 338
Infant, Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL), 230
Inhalants, 610
Injuries (p. 757)
alcohol-related, 282t, 292
alcohol-related, motor vehicle accidents, 281t, 292–293, 621
drug-related, 293–294
intentional, 322–340 (See also Intentional injuries)
Integrated treatment, 98
Integrated treatment, serious mental illness with SUD, 97–102
assessment, comprehensive, 98–100
cognitive-behavioral strategies, 102
comprehensive, 101
definition, 98
harm reduction, 101–102
long-term perspectives, 102
motivation-based, 100–101
parallel approach, 97–98
sequential approach, 97–98
Integrative common liabilities model, 187–203
behavioral disinhibition liability, 199
comorbidity prevalence, 187
environmental mechanisms, 200
environmental mediation and genetic moderation, 198–199
explanations, other, 200–201
explanations, SUDs-PD comorbidity, 199–201
general emotional liability, 199–200
genetic liabilities, common, 188–198 (See also Genetic liabilities)
implications and future directions, 202–203
limitations, 202
principles and overview, 188, 190f–191f
Intensive supervision probation, 652
Intentional injuries, 322–340
alcohol in, 282t, 292
alcohol in, suicidal behavior, 326–327, 331–333, 331t
definitions, 322–323
drugs, 294
future directions, 337t, 338–339
homicide, 323–324
interpersonal violence ( See Interpersonal violence)
Mann's Stress-Diathesis model, 326
prevalence, 322
SUD and, 326
suicidal behavior ( See Suicidal behavior)
suicide ( See Suicide)
suicide attempt, 322, 324
suicide ideation, 322, 327–328, 334, 338
Intentional injuries, prevention, 336–339
indicated approaches, 336, 337t, 338–339
selective approaches, 336, 337–338, 337t
universal approaches, 336–337, 337t, 338
Interactions, polydrug use, 31–34, 32f, 49, 54
Interaction style, brief interventions, 521–522
Interactive methods, adolescents, 683
Internalizing disorders
comorbid SUD, integrative common liabilities model, 187–203 (See also Integrative common liabilities model
liability, 194–195
International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology study (ICPE), 152
Internationally regulated drugs (IRDs), 30, 54
Internet, addiction services, 738
Interpersonal functioning, 117
Interpersonal violence (IPV)
alcohol, 282t, 292
alcohol, epidemiology, 325
alcohol, risk, 328–330
definition,