Abstract and Keywords
Exposure to alcohol or other drugs during the prenatal or adolescent stage of life is associated with harmful consequences to cognition, behavior, or brain structure and function of the developing child or adolescent. Resulting impairment, when it exists, can be subtle to severe depending on several moderating factors, such as dose, timing, and frequency of exposure, polysubstance exposure, environmental influences, and genetic predispositions. This chapter reviews the relevant literature to date on the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal alcohol/drug exposure and adolescent substance use. Neuropsychological, neurobehavioral, and neuroimaging studies utilizing a variety of methodological designs are included to illustrate the wide-ranging impact of early substance exposure on subsequent developmental changes across childhood, adolescence, and young-adulthood.
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