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date: 26 February 2021

Index

Index

A
Abroms, L., 105, 109
Absorption, routes of administration on, 30
Access
physical, 603
social, 603
Acculturation, level, 484, 520, 522
Acetylcholine (ACh)
cannabinoids on, 139
gene studies, 232–235
MDMA on, 141
Acetylcholine (ACh) receptor genes
muscarinic, 234–235
nicotinic, 232–234
Acquired tolerance, 5
Action tendencies, 323
Adalbjarnardottir, S., 8
Addiction. See also specific substances and topics
brain reward circuitry, 43
compulsive disorder cycles, 167, 168f
concept, discovery, 33
conceptualization, 653–655
cross-cultural terms, 37
cycle, 167
definition and characteristics, 166
DSM-5, 41
etymology, 312
food, 654
impulse control, 167, 168f
motivation, 167
route, 30
terminology issues, 41
Addictive personality, 5–6
Adenosine, caffeine, 153
Adenylyl cyclase, alcohol, 136
ADH1B, 4
Administration
on absorption, 30
routes, 30
Adolescents, 77, 526–536. See also specific substances and topics
continuity and discontinuity, 528–529
dependence, 59, 60
developmental perspective, 527–531
developmental transitions, 529–530
individual characteristics, 532–533
peer pressure, 532
peer relations, 526–527
peer selection and socialization, 534–536
peers vs. family, 533–534
positive influences, 536
risk taking, 542–543
schools and peer crowds, 531–532
social contexts, 531–534
theoretical perspectives, specific, 530
Adolescents, race and ethnicity, 501–507
alcohol, 501, 504t, 506t
Adoption studies, 193–194
alcohol, 213–214
antisocial behavior and substance use, 222
multivariate genetic analysis, 196, 196f
polydrug use and comorbidity, 221
substance use and comorbid psychopathology, 221
tobacco, 197
Adrenergic receptors, 150–151
Adulthood. See also specific substances and topics
early (emerging), 77
later, 77
Adulthood, transition to, 536–541. See also Transition to adulthood.
college students, 538, 540–541 (See also College students)
Advertising. See also Marketing
expenditures, ecological studies, 632–633
restriction, effects, 638
Affect regulation, 359–361
Age of onset
alcohol, 80–82, 81f
alcohol, risk factors, 83–85
cannabis, 89–91
cannabis, risk factors, 89–91
other illicit drugs, 90
smoking/tobacco, 86
smoking/tobacco, risk factors, 88–89
Agrawal, A., 218
Agreeableness, 352
Alcohol, mechanisms of action, 135–138
Alcohol availability approach, 592–594
Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), 136–137
gene studies, 226
Alcohol dependence
age of onset, 80–82, 81f
chronicity, 83
genetics, 85
(p. 671)
progression, 82
subtypes, research, 35–36
Alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS), 34–35
Alcohol deprivation effect (ADE), 293–294
Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ), 387
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), 235
effectivenesss 16
online affiliation, 664
Alcohol, individual trajectories, 98–104
identification, 98–101
risk factors and outcomes, 101–104
Alcoholism. See also Alcohol use disorders (AUDs)
DSM-I, 34
DSM-II categorization, 34
DSM-III discontinuation, 35
subtypes, 35–36
subtypes, Jellinek’s, 34, 37
terminology, origins, 33–34
Alcohol marketing. See also Marketing; Media
codes, 626
co-promotion, tobacco, 628
edutainment, 631–632
expenditures, 626–627
mixed messages, 632
new strategies, 628–632
Alcohol metabolism
ALDH2, 4, 226, 273–274
gene studies, ADH, 226
gene studies, CYP2E1, 227
Alcohol policies, 606–610, 608–609t, 611f
Alcohol-savings discretionary expenditure (ASDE), 433
Alcohol seeking, 292. See also Craving; Dependence
dependence, 287
Alcohol use
animal models, 292–294
biological markers, 44
drinking level, race and ethnicity, 493–496, 495t
drinking on the job and working with hangover, 582–583
drinking on the job, impairment, 594
drinking status, race and ethnicity, 493, 494t
driving after drinking, race and ethnicity, 498, 500t
epigenetics, 251
(p. 672)
intoxication, 135
with marijuana, 31
motivation, 359–361
motivation, four factors, 378–382, 379t, 381f
on-the-job, and impairment, 582–583, 594
overview, 135–136
parenting factors, 203, 213
personality change, 362–363, 366
personality traits, 353–354
prenatal exposure, 451–452
race and ethnicity, 493–500 (See also Race and ethnicity)
race and ethnicity, time trends, 508–509
social lubrication, 135
with tobacco, 31
tolerance, 137–138
toxicities, 135
withdrawal, 138
Alcohol use, adolescents, 70–71
gender, 516, 517t
race and ethnicity, 501, 504t, 506t
race and ethnicity, time trends, 509–511, 510f, 511f
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs)
adolescence and young adulthood, 70–71
availability on, 77
developmental consequences, 77–78
as developmental disorder, 274
development of, over lifetime, 78
disability-adjusted life years, 3
early onset, associations, 80–81
extended family, on offspring substance use, 450
parental, on offspring substance use, 450–451
risk factors, 78
vulnerable period, 80
Alcohol use, epidemiology, 67–72
adolescence and young adulthood, 70–71
age-graded pattern, 67–70, 68f–70f
gender/ethnic groups, 71–72
Alcohol use, genetic epidemiology
adoption studies, 213–214
developmental context, 218–219
twin studies, 203–214, 204t–208t
Alcohol use, motivational models
expectancies, 386–387
outcome effects, 397t, 401
Alcohol use, natural course, 80–86
epidemiology, 67–72, 68f–70f (See also Alcohol use, epidemiology)
genetics, 85–86
onset, 80–82, 81f
progression, 82–83
risk factors, 83–85
Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)
Asians, 32
genetic studies, 4, 226, 273–274
Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), 4, 226, 273–274
Alkaloids, opioid, 147
Alkyl nitrates, volatile, 142
Allen, J. P., 533
Allostasis, 5, 180, 182f
in transition to addiction, 180, 182f
Allostatic load, 180, 182f
Allostatic state, 180, 182f
Amato, P. R., 562
Ames, G. M., 582–583, 586, 590, 592–593
Amphetamines
CNS effects, 151–152
death, premature, 57–58
genetic epidemiology, twin studies, 216
health risks, 57–59
mechanisms of action, 152
morbidity, 58–59
motor vehicle accidents, 58, 59
overdose, 57–58
prevalence, global, 52
sensitization, 152
synthetic, forms, 151
tolerance, 152
trauma, 58, 59
Amplitude, demand, 431
Amygdala
extended, neuroadaptations, 179–180, 181f
positive reinforcement, 179
Amyl nitrate, 143
Anandamide (AEA), 235
Andrews, J. A., 539
Anesthetics, volatile, 142–143
Animal models, genetic, alcohol dependence, 273–296
alcoholism, 294–295
ALDH2 gene, alcohol metabolism, 4, 226, 273–274
environmentally oriented research, 295–296
future promises and caveats, 294–296
genetic methods, 277–285 (See also Genetic methods, animal models)
history and fundamentals, 273–275
improvements, 295
invertebrates, 276–277
modeling processes and stages of addiction, 285–294 (See also Modeling processes and stages of addiction, animal models)
primate, nonhuman, 276
rodent, 275–276
rodent, evolutionary ancestry, 273
Animal models, genetic, illicit drugs
cocaine, 276, 277, 282, 284, 287, 291
heroin, 291
methamphetamine, 280–281
opioids, 276, 282, 291
Anthony, J. C., 90
Antireward system, 167
Antisocial behavior, substance use and, genetic epidemiology, 222–224
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), parental, on offspring substance use, 453–454
Antistress systems, brain, in addiction, 176–178
neuropeptide Y, 176–177
nociceptin/orphanin FQ, 177–178
Anxiety disorders, parental, on offspring substance use, 454
Appetitive drinking, 399
Appetitive system, 313, 358
Approach-avoidance motivation, automatically activated, 323–324
Approach Avoidance Test (AAT), 324
craving, 330
Approach tendencies, 323–324
Approach vs. avoidance, 377
a process, 167, 180, 182f
2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), 235
Arnett, J. J., 532, 535, 537
Arousal associations, 322–323
Ask, H., 557
Assessment, 2, 10–12
biomarkers, 660
consumption, 11
daily diary, 11
diagnostic interviews, 10–11
direct, 11–12
ecological momentary, 11
future, 659–660
implicit cognition, 659–660 (See also Implicit Association Test (IAT))
Association studies. See also Genetic epidemiology; specific types
candidate genes, 192
Associative memory, 318–324. See also Memory associations
changing/erasing, 338
Associative processes. See Impulsive (implicit) processes
Assortative mating, 556–557
Asymmetry, 427
Attachment, parent-child, offspring substance use, 456–457
Attentional bias, 316–318, 329
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). See also Externalizing psychopathology
behavioral disinhibition and vulnerability, 225, 226
latent response inhibition, 225–226
reflective system, 335
as risk factor, 335
smoking, 108
stimulants for, 150, 153
Attitudes, parental, offspring substance use, 462, 464
(p. 673) Audrain-McGovern, J., 107, 108, 111–112
Austin, S. B., 11
Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS), 12
Authoritarian parenting, 453, 458
Authoritative parenting, 453, 458
Automaticity, 312–313
Aversive system, 358
B
Baade, P. D., 86–87
Babor, T. F., 36, 78
Bachman, J. G., 554
Backinger, C. L., 73
Badiani, A., 287
Baer, J. S., 8
Bagging, inhalants, 142
Baik, I., 240
Bandura, A., 540
Barbiturates, 149
Barnes, G., 361
Barr, C. S, 276
Bauer, D. J., 97
Bauman, K. E., 535, 536
Baumrind, D., 453, 458
Begleiter, H., 224
Behavior. See also specific types and disorders
addiction, vs. consequences, 655
etiology, 375–376
manipulations, economics, 426–427
Behavioral couples therapy (BCT), 14–15
Behavioral economics, 422–436. See also specific topics
clinical evidence, 431–433
competing neurobehavioral decision systems hypothesis, 436–438
definitions, 422–423
delay discounting, 423, 437–440
excessive valuation, 423–430, 423t, 424f (See also Excessive valuation)
full cost model, 604
Law of Demand, 423–425, 424f
loss of control, 433–436
preference reversals, 423, 434–435
purchase tasks, 430–431
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 486, 487t, 490. See also Race and ethnicity
Behavior approach system (BAS), 358, 377
Behavior inhibition system (BIS), 358, 377
Behrendt, S., 91
Beliefs, parental, offspring substance use, 462, 464
Belknap, J. K., 280
Bennett, J. B., 586
Bennett, M. E., 103, 104, 551
Benzodiazepines, 149–150
Bernat, D. H., 105
Berrettini, W., 234
Berry, J. G., 580
Between-system neuroadaptations, 168, 181f
Beyer, C. E., 143
Bickel, W. K., 428–429
Bidirectional effects, 458–459
Big Five, 352, 389, 397–398
Big Three, 352
Binge drinking. See Heavy/binge drinking
Binge/intoxication stage, 167, 168f, 181f
Biological markers, 44
Biomarkers, 660
Biopsychosocial models, intergenerational transmission
deviance proneness model, 357, 450, 453, 461, 658
stress and negative affect pathway, 450, 453, 461–462, 658
substance use effects pathway, 453
Birchler, G. R., 560
BK channels, alcohol, 137–138
Blane, H. T., 568
Bleich, S., 251
Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs)
animal models, 293–294
binge drinking, 10
children and adolescents, 77
motor vehicle accidents, 56
prevention, 607
sedative hypnotic effects, 135
transdermal ethanol sensors, 660
workplace injuries, 586
Bloom, F. E., 168
Blum, T. C., 590
Boardman, J. D., 247
Boettiger, C. A., 439
Bogart, L. M., 552
Bönsch, D., 251
Borsari, B., 540
Bot, S. M., 532
Boye-Beaman, J., 557
b process, 167, 180, 182f
Brain antistress systems, addiction, 176–178
neuropeptide Y, 176–177
nociceptin/orphanin FQ, 177–178
Brain reward system, 168–169, 169f, 171t
alcohol, animal models, 292–293, 295
Brain stress systems, addiction, 169–175
corticotropin-releasing factor, 171–174, 172t
dynorphin, 172t, 175
HPA axis, 169–171
neuroadaptation, 178–180, 181f
norepinephrine, 172t, 174–175
Bray, R. M., 581, 582t
Breslau, N., 553, 656
Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), 12
Brief interventions, 13–14
Bronfenbrenner, U., 617
Brook, J. S., 90, 106, 107, 108, 109
Brooks, S. D., 587
Brown, T. L., 110
Bruce, M. L., 560
Buck, K. J., 137
Bullers, S., 539
Bupropion SR, 15
Burden of disease
cannabis, 56–57
dependence, 56
heroin, cocaine, and amphetamines, 57–59
illicit drug use, 56, 60
Bushman, B. J., 566
Button, T. M. M., 223–224
C
Cadoret, R. J., 222
Caenorhabditis elegans models, genetic, 276–277
Caffeine
adenosine, 153
dependence, 152
effects, 152
genetic epidemiology, developmental context, 219
mechanisms of action, 153
tolerance, 152, 153
withdrawal syndrome, 152–153
Calahan, D., 550
Caldeira, K. M., 110, 111
Cancer, cannabis and, 57
Candidate gene studies, 226–236
acetylcholine, 232–235
alcohol metabolism, ADH and ALDH, 4, 226, 273–274
alcohol metabolism, CYP2E1, 227
chromosome locations, 231f
dopamine, 228–230
drug metabolism, primary, 226–227
endocannabinoid system, 235–236
fundamentals, 226–227
gamma-aminobutyric acid, 230
glutamate, 230–231
nicotine metabolism, CYP2A6, 227–228
nicotine metabolism, CYP2E1, 227
opioid system, 235
Cannabidiol, 138
Cannabinoid receptor, 235–236
Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), 138–139
Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), 138
Cannabinoids
mechanisms of action, 138–139
overview, 138
Cannabinol, 138
Cannabis (marijuana)
alcohol use with, 31
dependence, 56, 60
edible, 656
four factors, motivation, 379t, 381f, 382–384
(p. 674)
genome-wide association studies, 232f–233f, 240–241
health risks, 56–57
mechanisms of action, 139
mortality, 57
motor vehicle accidents, 56, 59
overview, 138
personality traits, 354
prevalence, global, 52
schizophrenia risk, 56
suicide, 56–57
trajectories, individual, 109–112
Cannabis (marijuana), dependence, 56, 76
age of onset, other illicit drugs, 90
age of onset, prevalence, 90–91
genetics, 93
transition to, 91
Cannabis (marijuana), epidemiology, 74–76
adolescents, 74–75, 75f
age-graded pattern, 67–70, 68f–70f
dependence criteria, 76
gender, ethnic groups, age cohorts, 76
worldwide, 75–76
Cannabis (marijuana), genetic epidemiology
developmental context, 218–219
family studies, 214
twin studies, 209t–212t, 214–215
Cannabis (marijuana), motivation, 360, 402–403
four factors, 379t, 381f, 382–384
models, 408
models, expectancies, 387–388
trait and disposition on use/abuse, 407
Cannabis (marijuana), natural course, 89–92
epidemiology, 74–77
gateway hypothesis, 91–93
genetics, 93
onset and progression, 89–91
unique features, 91
Cannabis (marijuana), trajectories, individual, 109–112
identification, 109–110
risk factors and outcomes, 110–112
Capaldi, D. M., 84, 97
Carey, K. B., 540
Carroll, M. E., 286
Catalano, R. F., 612, 617
Catecholamines, 150
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, 439
Cathinone, 151. See also Amphetamines
CB1 receptor, 235–236
CB2 receptor, 235
Challenges, future, 653–656
addiction, conceptualization, 653–655
consequences vs. behavior, SUD, 655
delivery systems, new, 666
designer drugs, 655–666
Chandler, L. J., 137
Chassin, L., 73, 81, 87–88, 103, 107, 108, 111, 450, 453, 464, 543
Chen, B. T., 661
Chen, K., 91, 109
Chen, M. -J., 591
Chen, P., 69, 71
Chen, R. S., 536
Chilcoat, H. D., 553
ChIP-seq, 285
Choice, genetic neuroeconomics, 438–440
Choi, W. S., 87
Chou, C.-P., 80
Chromatin, 250, 284
Chromosome locations, gene studies, 231f–232f
Classification
personality disorders, 355
psychoactive drugs, 30
SUDs, 352–353
SUDs, future, 657
Cleary, P. D., 86
Cleary, S. D., 535
Cleckey, H., 655
Cleveland, H. H., 531
Cloninger, C. R., 35–36, 78
CNR1, 235–236
CNR2, 235
Cocaine use
animal models, genetic, 276, 277, 282, 284, 287, 291
death, premature, 57–58
effects, 150
epigenetics, 251
forms, 150
health risks, 57–59
mechanisms of action, 151
monoamines, 150–151
morbidity, 58–59
motor vehicle accidents, 58, 59
overdose, 57–58
personality traits, 354
prenatal exposure, 452
prevalence, global, 52
sensitization, 152
tolerance, 152
trauma, 58, 59
treatment, HDAC activators, 284
Cocaine use, genetic epidemiology
developmental context, 218
twin studies, 215
Codeine, 147. See also Opioids
Cognitive appraisal, 95
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 14
Cognitive motivational constructs, 325–327
Cognitive processes, 311–339. See also specific types
dual-process models, 311, 312–316 (See also Dual-process models)
dual-process models, updated, 330–332, 331f
as enslaving, 312
expectancies, 312, 318, 320, 321, 322
future directions, 338–339
impulsive processes, 311, 312, 316–324 (See also Impulsive (implicit) processes)
motives, coping, 323, 326, 334
motives, drinking, 315, 323, 325–327, 332, 333f, 334, 335
reflective processes, 311, 312, 324–330 (See also Reflective processes)
willpower, 311–312, 325, 329–330, 332
Colder, C. R., 97, 105
Cold-to-hot empathy gap, 315
College students, 538, 540–541
fraternities and sororities, 79, 358, 413, 540–541
social aspects, environment, 540
structural and administrative effects, peer influence, 540
Collins, R. L., 563
Combined behavioral intervention (CBI), 15
Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions (COMBINE) Study, 15, 662
Committed relationships, 549–572. See also Marriage effect; Relationships, committed
Commodities
consumed, 423
reinforcing, 423–425, 425f
Common disease–common variant hypothesis, 238
Communication, parent–child, 463
Communities That Care (CTC), 612, 617
Community-based prevention, 600–619
definition, 601–603
efficacy trials, 611–617
efficacy trials, alcohol prevention worldwide, 612, 613t–616t
efficacy trials, Communities That Care, 612, 617
efficacy trials, overview, 611–612
environmental prevention, four domains, 603
environmental prevention, structural impacts, 603–606
environmental strategies, 606–611, 608t–609t, 611f
fundamentals, 600–601
future directions, 618–619
goals, 602
vs. individual approaches, 600
Community reinforcement approach (CRA), 15, 431–432
Community reinforcement and family therapy (CRAFT), 432–433, 468
Community systems theory, 600–602. See also Community-based prevention; Environmenal prevention
(p. 675) Comorbidity, polysubstance use
adoption studies, 221
genetic epidemiology, 219–221
Comorbidity, substance use
adoption studies, 221
familial factors, 450
family studies, 221, 223–224
genetic epidemiology, 222–224, 237
Comorbidity, SUDs
among SUDs, 96, 353, 356
antisocial behavior, 224–225
psychiatric, 36, 96, 339
Competing neurobehavioral decision systems hypothesis, 436–438
Compulsive disorder cycles, 167, 168f
Concentration, 31
Conceptualization, addiction, 653–655
Concordance, 555–556
Conditional activation, 282
Conditional inactivation, 282
Conditioning, 663
Conduct disorders, 55, 59. See also Externalizing psychopathology
DRD2-A1 and DRD4-I variants, 439
genetic epidemiology, 222–224
latent response inhibition, 225–226
nicotine dependency, 106, 108
P3 amplitude, 225
parent–child attachment, 456
prenatal alcohol exposure, 452
reflective system, 335
Congenic strains, 279
Conklin, C. A., 663
Connell, A. M., 98
Conrod, P. J., 662
Conscientiousness, 352
Conscious processes, 314–316
Consequences, addiction, vs. behavior, 655
Consomic strain, 279
Consumed commodities, 423
Consumer advocacy lobbying, 639
Consumption, assessment, 11
Contemplation ladder, 87
Contingency management (CM), 14, 431–432
Continuity, 528–529
developmental transitions, 529–530
heterotypic, 528–529
homotypic, 528–529
ontogenic, 528, 534
Controlled processes. See Reflective processes
Controlled use, in recovery, 94
Control, loss of, 433–436
Controversy, 29
Convergence, 557–559
definition, 557
shared environment, 557, 559
spousal influence, 557–558
Cooper, H. M., 566
Cooper, M. L., 7, 359–361, 377, 378–380, 387, 398, 399, 401–402, 408
Coping motives, 323, 326, 334
Corazza, O., 655–656
Corbin, W. R., 11–12, 464
Corbit, J. D., 5, 167–168, 182f
Corporate image, 628
Correlated response to selection, 279
Cortical stimulation, 661
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), 5, 171–174, 172t, 181f, 660
Coskunpinar, A., 6
Cost
benefits and, 426–427
drug dependence, 423
full cost model, 604
military, 580–582, 582t
workplace, 580, 581f
Costanzo, P. R., 100
Costello, D. M., 107
Cotman, C., 30
Counter-media literacy education, 639–640
Course
life, 67, 77–79
natural, 67–113 (See also Natural course)
personality traits, 6
role transitions, 8
substance use disorders, age differences, 3
Covert commercials, 640
Cox and Klinger’s incentive motivation model, 376–377. See also Motivational models
Cox, W. M., 376–377. See also Motivational models
Craving, 328–330. See also Cognitive processes
alcohol cues, 431
approach tendencies, 323–324, 336
assessment, 659
attentional bias, 317, 329, 337
behavioral approach system, 358
bupropion on, 15
dopamine system hypersensitization, 5
DSM-5 diagnosis, 9, 39t, 40, 41, 353, 423t, 657
dual-process model, 316, 330–332, 331f (See also Dual-process models)
free will, 328
ICD-10 diagnosis, 38
incentive salience, 43
intrusive, 330
motive measures, 380t
nicotine, 144, 145f, 404–405
nicotine, varenicline on, 154
sensitization, 291
stimulants, 150
transcranial direct current stimulation on, 336
Cronbach, L. J., 412
Cross-price elasticity, 427–429
polydrug abuse, 429
Cross-price index, 427
Cudeck, R., 98
Cued-recall, extralist, 318
Cue-exposure, 14
Cues. See Situational cues
Cui, X., 107, 108, 109
Cultural norms, 32
Cultural perspectives, 36–38
patterns of use, 32
Culture, 32
Cunradi, C. B., 591
Curran, P. J., 85, 97
Cyders, M. A., 6
Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) model, 276
CYP2A6, nicotine metabolism, gene studies, 227–228
Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), gene studies
alcohol, 227
nicotine, 227
D
D1 receptor, 228–229
D2 receptor, 228
D3 receptor, 229
D4 receptor, 229
D5 receptor, 229
Daily diary, 11
D’Amico, E. J., 98, 103
Darkes, J., 6
DAT1, 229–230
Dawson, D. A., 80, 96
D-cycloserine, 663
Death. See Mortality
Decisional balance inventory, 87
Decision, motivational models, 377
Decriminalization, drug, 657
Degenhardt, L., 76
De Houwer, J., 659
Delaney, W., 591
Delay discounting, 423, 437–440
Del Boca, F. K., 6
De Leeuw, R. N. H., 463
De Lima, M. S., 15
Delinquency research, 530
Delivery systems, new, 666
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 138, 214. See also Cannabis (marijuana)
Demand curves
vs. expenditure curves, 425, 426f
facets, 425–426, 426f
Demand, persistence and amplitude, 431
Dependence. See also specific topics and types
adolescents, 59
alcohol dependence subtypes, research, 35–36
alcohol dependence syndrome, 34–35
biological markers, 44
(p. 676)
caffeine, 152
cannabis, 56
cross-cultural variations, 37
definition, 166–167, 352
drugs on, specific, 54
DSM-III, 35
DSM-III-R, 35
DSM-IV, 38, 39–40, 39t
DSM-5, dropping of term in, 41
globalization and risk, 44
health effects, adverse, 56
ICD-10, 38
modern understanding, 43
morbidity, 58
natural history, 54
noncriterion features, 42
prevalence, developed world, 52–54, 53t
research, future, 60
terminology issues, 41
use vs., 54
withdrawal with, 287
Depression, genetic epidemiology, 223
Descriptions, SUD, historical
alcohol dependence syndrome, 34–35
DSM-I and DSM-II, 34
DSM-III, 35
DSM-III-R, 35
earliest, 33
Jellinek’s alcoholism syndromes, 33–34
Designer drugs, 655–666
Developing world, 44
Development, 3
Developmental framework, 67, 77–79. See also Life course framework; Natural course; specific substances
personality–SUD relation, 361–364
personality–SUD relation, integrating, 366–367
SUDs, 217–219
trajectories, individual, 96–113 (See also Trajectories, individual)
Developmental framework, alcohol
age of onset, 80–82, 81f
genetics, 85–86
progression, 82–83
risk factors, onset and progression, 83–85
Developmental framework, cannabis
age of onset and progression, 89–91
course, unique features, 91
gateway hypothesis and heavy drug use, 91–93
genetics, 93
Developmental framework, peers, 527–531
continuity and discontinuity, 528–529
ecological niches, selected, 527
person–context match, 527
selection and socialization, 526, 530–531
theoretical, 530
transitions, 529–530
Developmental framework, smoking/tobacco
age of onset, 86
genetics, 89
progression, 86–88
risk factors, onset and progression, 88–89
Developmental transitions, 529–530
marriage, 550
Developments, future, 656–664. See also specific types
assessment, 659–660
classification, SUD, 657
cultural changes, norms, 656–657
etiology, 657–659
treatment, 660–664 (See also Treatment, future)
Deviance proneness model, offspring substance use, 357, 450, 453, 461, 658
Deviant drinking, 591
DeWit, D. J., 91
Diagnosis. See also specific types and disorders
dependence, DSM-IV-TR, 274
SUDs, 39t, 422, 423t
SUDs, future, 657
syndromal, 32
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version 1 (DSM-I), 34
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version 2 (DSM-II), 34
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version 3 (DSM-III), 35
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version 3 Revised (DSM-III-R), 35
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version 4 (DSM-IV),
criteria, 38, 39t
diagnostic algorithm limitations, 39–40
drug classes, 29
phenotypes, 9–10
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version 4 (DSM-IV-TR), mental disorder definition, 33
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version 5 (DSM-5), 40–42
craving diagnosis, 9, 39t, 40, 41, 353, 423t, 657
criteria, 39t, 422, 423t
phenotypes, 9–10
terminology, 41
Diagnostic interviews, 10–11
Diagnostic systems, current SUD, 38–42
DSM-IV, 9–10, 38, 39–40, 39t
DSM-5, 39t, 40–42, 422, 423t
ICD, 32, 38
Diary, daily, 11
Dick, D. M., 8, 230, 247, 460–461, 571
Differential association theory, 530
Dir, A. L., 6
Disability-adjusted life years, 2–3
Discontinuity, 528–529
developmental transitions, 529
unctional, 528–529
ontogenic, 528
Disease burden, global, 3
Disinhibitory psychopathology. See also Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); Conduct disorders; Externalizing psychopathology
vulnerability, genetic epidemiology, 224–226
Disulfiram reaction, 274
Divorce, offspring substance use, 454–456
Dizygotic (DZ) twins, 194
DNA methylation, 250, 284–285
Dobkin, P. L., 535
Dodge, K. A., 534
Domart, M. C., 231
D’Onofrio, B. M., 455
Donovan, J. E., 10, 112
Dopamine
cannabinoids on, 139
gene studies, 228–230
Dopamine neurotransmission
amphetamines on, 152
cocaine on, 152
Dopamine receptors. See also specific receptors
neuroeconomics of choice, 438–439
Dopaminergic receptors, 150–151
Dopamine system
hypersensitization, craving, 5
inhalants on, 143
MDMA on, 140
Dot-probe test, 337. See also Attentional Bias
DRD1, 228
DRD2, 228
DRD2 TaqI A polymorphism, 438–439
DRD3, 229
DRD4, 229
DRD4 VNTR polymorphism, 438
DRD5, 229
D (dopamine) receptors, neuroeconomics of choice, 438–439
Drinking. See Alcohol use
Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R), 378–380, 414n4
Drink, standard, 31
Drosophila models, genetic, 276–277
(p. 677) Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS), 12
Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988, 592
Drug metabolism. See also specific drugs
primary, gene studies, 226–227
Drug policies, 610–611
Drug seeking, 166. See also Craving; Dependence
addiction, 166–167
behavioral economics, 425, 426f
cannabis, 214, 384
cortical stimulation on, 661
CRF, 173–174
dynorphin, 175
evolutionary behavior, 1
expectancies and motives, 6
genetic vulnerability, 4
incentive salience, 43
motivation, 167
neuroadaptation, 180
neurobiology, 5
nociceptin, 175
sensitization, 291
Drug use. See also specific drugs
adolescent, race and ethnicity, 501–505, 504t–506t
personality traits, 354–355
Dual-process models, 7, 311, 312–316
attributes, 312–313
conscious processes, 314–316
impulsive (implicit) processes, 311, 312, 316–324 (See also Impulsive (implicit)
processes)
preconscious vs. postconscious processes, 313
process names, 312
reflective processes, 311, 312, 324–330, 335 (See also Reflective processes)
subjective states and free will, 311–312, 314–316
unconscious processes, 312–314
Dual-process models, updated, 330–332, 331f
craving, 330–332, 331f
predictions and preliminary evidence, 332–335, 333f
Dufour, M., 77
Duncan, A. E., 74, 84
Dutra, L., 14
Dwyer, D. S., 88
Dynamic inconsistency, 434
Dynorphin, 172t, 175
E
Early (emerging) adulthood, 77
E-cigarettes, 656
Eckhardt, C. I., 567–568
Ecological momentary assessment (EMA), 11
Ecological niches, selected, 527
Ecological studies, advertising expenditures, 632–633
Edenberg, H. J., 242
Edutainment, 631–632
Edwards, G., 9, 34–35
Eiden, R. D., 557
Elaboration Likelihood Model, 636
Elasticity, 425, 426f
cross-price, 427–429
Elkins, I. J., 5–6
Embedded messages, 628–629
Emerging adulthood, theory of, 537
Emerging drugs, 44
Emotional antecedents, drinking motives, 399–400
Emotion motivation theory, 323
Employee drinking behavior. See also Workplace
economic consequences, 587–589
Endocannabinoid system. See also Cannabis (marijuana)
gene studies, 235–236
Endophenotypes, 4, 438
Engels, R. C., 637
Ennett, S. T., 532, 535, 536
Enoch, M. A., 230
ENU mutagenesis, 282–283
Environment. See also Gene–environment interaction (G×E); specific environments
drinking motives, 399
familial, influences, 465–467
family influences, 466–467
influences, 8–9
work, employee drinking behavior, 589–595
Environmental adversity, on gene–environment interaction, 243t–244t, 248–249
Environmental parents, 193
Environmental prevention
four domains, 603
research, 603
Environmental prevention, structural impacts, 603–606
direct effects, on problems, 605–606
direct effects, on substance use, 604–605
indirect effects, on problems, 604
moderating relationships, use and problems, 606
principles, 603–604
Environmental selection, personality, 357–358
Environmental strategies, 606–611
alcohol, 606–610, 608t–609t, 611f
illegal drugs, 610–611
Ephedrine. See also Amphetamines
Ma huang, 151
Epidemiology, 2–3. See also Illicit drug use; specific substances
alcohol, 67–72 (See also Alcohol use, epidemiology)
cannabis, 67–70, 68f–70f, 74–76
dependence, 54
genetic, 193–226 (See also Genetic epidemiology)
National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, 486–489, 487t
National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey, 486
Epigenetics, 250–251
animal models, alcoholism, 284–285
Equifinality, 101
Erikson, C. K., 41
Escohotado, A., 1
Estaugh, V., 552
Ethanol sensors, transdermal, 660
Ethnicity. See Race and ethnicity
Etiology, 3–9. See also specific substances
behavioral, 375–376
environmental, 8–9
expectancies and motives, 6–8
future developments, 657–659
genetic vulnerability, 3–5
neurobiology, 5
personality, 5–6 (See also Personality)
personality–SUD relation, 355–367 (See also Personality–SUD relation)
Euphoria, 180, 182f
Everitt, B. J., 5
Evocative effects, 458–459
Excessive valuation, 423–430. See also Behavioral Economics
behavioral and pharmacological manipulations, 426–427
consumed commodities (reinforcers), 423
costs and benefits, 426–427
cross-price elasticity, 427–429
demand curves, facets, 425–426, 426f
demand vs. expenditure curves, 425, 426f
inelasticity vs. elasticity, 425, 426f
Law of Demand, 423–425, 424f
polydrug abuse, 429
reinforcer consumption, 423, 427–428, 428f
substitute-complement continuum, 427–430, 428f
unit price, 426, 427
Exchange diffusion, 152
Executive control (functions), 324–325, 331f
drug-seeking behavior, 333–335
impulsivity, 327–328
neuroeconomics, 436
reflective processes, 324–325, 327–328, 335–336
stress, 334–335
working memory training, 335–336
Expectancies, 6–7, 376
cognitive motivational constructs, 325–327
(p. 678)
cognitive processes, 312, 318, 320, 321, 322
craving, 328 (See also Craving)
definition, 326
dual-process model, updated, 332–334, 333f
Implicit Association Test, 320
memory associations, 318, 321
vs. motives, 386
origins, concept, 325–326
outcomes, 6–7, 325
outcomes, research, 322–323
reflective system, 325, 335–336
research, 322–323
valence and arousal, 322
Expectancies, motivational models, 376, 386
alcohol, 386–387
fundamentals, 385–386
marijuana, 387–388
tobacco, 388
Expenditure curves, vs. demand curves, 425, 426f
Exposure-mediated model, 533
Expression, gene. See Gene expression, animal models
Expression QTLs, 283–284
Extended amygdala, neuroadaptations, 179–180, 181f
Extended twin designs, 196, 196f
Externalizing psychopathology, 658. See also specific types
alcohol, early-onset, 81, 84, 91
alcohol, trajectory, 102
cannabis, 91
endophenotype, 4
familial factors, 450
familial factors, on offspring, 450
future developments, 658
genetic epidemiology, 222, 224–226
life course framework, 77
nicotine, 91
offspring substance use, 450
Extralist cued-recall, 318, 319
Extraversion, 352
Extraversion/sociability, 352
Extrinsic Affective Simon task (EAST), 321
F
Faden, V. B., 71
Falk, D. E., 72
Familial factors, on offspring, 449–469, 450. See also specific topics
attachment, parent-child, 456–457
attitudes and beliefs, 462
broader family environment, 465–467
death, parental, 456
deviance proneness model, 450, 453, 461
divorce, 454–456
externalizing spectrum, 450 (See also Externalizing psychopathology)
fundamentals, 449–450
future research, 468–469
intergenerational transmission, 450, 453
maltreatment, 457
marital/interparental conflict, 456
mediators and moderators, 461–462
parenting practices, 457–461
parenting practices, substance use–specific, 462–464
on prevention and treatment, 467–468
psychopathology, parental, 450–454
sibling influences, 464–465
single-parent families, 454–456
social contexts, 449
stress and negative affect pathway, 450, 453, 461–462, 658
substance use effects pathway, 453
Family history, alcoholism/problem drinking, race and ethnicity, 498, 500t
Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009, 627, 637
Family studies, 193
alcohol, 203, 213
cannabis, 214
substance use and comorbid psychopathology, 221, 223–224
tobacco, 197
Famous name memory paradigm, 318–319
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), 235–236
Feighner, J. P., 34
Fergusson, D. M., 92
Finlay, A. K., 110
Fischer, H. S., 149
5-HTTLPR, 141, 152, 231
Fixed-ratio (FR) requirement, 423, 424f
Flay, B. R., 87, 88
Fleeson, W., 411
Fletcher, A. C., 460
Flory, K., 104, 110, 111
Food addiction, 654
Foran, H. M., 568
Forthofer, J. S., 552
Four-factors model, motivation
alcohol, 359–360, 378–382, 379t, 381f
marijuana, 379t, 381f, 382–384
overview, 378–380, 379t–380t
tobacco, 379t–380t, 381f, 382–385
Fowler, T., 218
Franklin, Benjamin, 30
Fraternities, drinking, 79, 358, 413, 540–541
Free will, 311–312, 314–316
craving, 328
Frequency, 31
Fromme, K., 11–12
Frone, M. R., 583, 590
Frosch, Z. A. K., 105, 106
Fruitfly models, genetic, 276–277
Fudala, P. J., 15
Fuels, volatile, 142–143
Full cost model, 604
Fuller, R. K., 77
Functional discontinuity, 528–529
Fu, Q., 223
Future developments, 656–664. See also specific types
assessment, 659–660
classification, SUD, 657
cultural changes, norms, 656–657
etiology, 657–659
treatment, 660–664 (See also Treatment, future)
G
GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid), 4, 137
GABAA receptors
alcohol, 136, 137
barbiturates on, 149
benzodiazepines on, 149–150
GABRA2, 8, 571
genes, 230
inhalants on, 143
Galen, 32
Gambling disorder, 654
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 4, 137
genes, 230
Gateway hypothesis, 91–93
Gee, G. C., 99, 100
Gender
alcohol and binge drinking, adolescents, 516, 517t
alcohol and binge drinking, adults, 511–516, 513t–515t
illicit drugs, adolescents, 517t
Gene–environment correlations (rGE), 249
Gene–environment interaction (G×E), 242–249
animal models, 295–296
definition, 242
environmental adversity, 243t–244t, 248–249
vs. familial substance use, 452–453
inbred strains, 278
inferred genotype, 242, 243t–244t
measured genotype, 242, 245t–246t
offspring substance use, 460–461
processes, 242, 246
social constraints, 243t–244t, 246–247
Gene expression, animal models
DNA methylation, 284–285
future studies, 294–295
HDAC, 284
invertebrate, 276–277
microRNAs, 285
primate, nonhuman, 276
QTL mapping, 283–284
with QTL, for candidate genes, 293
(p. 679)
single genes, 282
tolerance and sensitization, 290
withdrawal, 292
Gene mapping, genome-tagged mice, 279
Gene mutation strategies, animal models, 281
Gene network studies, 284
General factors models, 352
General growth mixture models (GGMMs), 97
Gene targeting, animal models, 281–282
Genetic analysis
multivariate, 196, 196f
univariate, 196, 196f
Genetic animal models, 273–296. See also Animal models, genetic, alcohol dependence
Genetic diathesis, SUDs, personality, 356–357, 364, 366–367
Genetic epidemiology, 193–226
adoption studies, 193–194
alcohol, adoption studies, 213–214
alcohol, twin studies, 203–214, 204t–208t
amphetamines, twin studies, 216
cannabis, family studies, 214
cannabis, twin studies, 209t–212t, 214–215
cocaine, twin studies, 215
developmental studies, SUDs, 217–219
extended twin designs, 196
externalizing behaviors and disinhibitory psychopathology, 224–226 (See also Externalizing psychopathology)
family studies, 193
illicit drugs, other, twin studies, 215–217
methods, 193
multivariate genetic analysis, 196, 196f
polysubstance use and comorbidity, 219–221
principles and goals, 193
stimulants, twin studies, 215–216
substance use and comorbid psychopathology, 222–224
tobacco, adoption studies, 197
tobacco, family studies, 197
tobacco, twin studies, 197–203, 198t–202t
twin studies, 194–195
univariate genetic analysis, 196, 196f
Genetic methods, animal models, 277–285
congenic strains, 279
ENU mutagenesis, 282–283
epigenetics, 284–285
expression QTLs, 283–284
fundamentals, 277–278
gene expression, 284
gene mutation strategies, 281
gene targeting, 281–282
inbred strains, 278–279
quantitative trait locus mapping, 283
selective breeding, 279–281
Genetic neuroeconomics, choice, 438–440
Genetic parents, 193
Genetics
alcohol, 85–86
candidate gene studies, 226–236 (See also Candidate gene studies)
cannabis, 93
relationship issues, 571
smoking/tobacco, 89
Genetic vulnerability, 3–5
Genome-tagged mice (GTM), gene mapping, 279
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS), 238–242
cannabis, 232f–233f, 240–241
common disease–common variant hypothesis, 238
definition, 192
future directions, 241–242
heroin, 232f–233f, 240
methamphetamine, 232f–233f, 240
methods, 238
Gervais, A., 87
Giancola, P. R., 224
Gilpin, E. A., 86
Glatt, S. J., 4
Gleser, G. C., 412
Glutamate
genes, 230–231
serotonin, 231
Glycine receptors
alcohol, 136
cannabinoids, 139
Goldman, D., 276
Goldman, M. S., 6
Golub, A., 76
Gonzales, D., 15
Goodnow, J., 462
Gorenstein, E. E., 224
Gotham, H. J., 83
Graduated frequency approaches, 11
Graham, N. J., 293
Grant, B. F., 72, 80, 85, 86
Grant, V. V., 413
Gray, J., 377
Greek system, college, drinking, 79, 358, 364, 540–541
Green, A. S., 293
Greenbaum, P. E., 103
Greenfield, T. K., 11
Green, L., 434
Gross, M. M., 9, 34–35
Growth mixture modeling, 97–98
Grube, J. W., 582–583, 592–593
Gruber, E., 80
Grucza, R. A., 71
Grunberg, L., 590–591
Grusec, J., 462
Guerra, L. M., 92
Guo, Q., 104, 108
H
Haber, J. R., 562
Hafsteinsson, L. G., 8
Halford, W. K., 562
Hall, R. L., 556
Hallucinogens, 139. See also specific types
Hallucinogens, mechanisms of action, 139–141
general, 140
LSD, 140
MDMA, 140–141
PCP, 141
Hangover, working with, 582–583
Harden, K. P., 225
Harford, T. C., 79, 587
Hariri, A. R., 437
Harmful drug use, 38, 39, 53–54, 611
Harmful dysfunction, 33, 43
Harris, G. T., 568
Harris, R. A., 137
Hashish, 138. See also Cannabinoids; Cannabis
Hash oil, 138
Hasin, D. S., 41, 83
Hawkins, J. D., 612, 617
Hayatbakhsh, M. R., 456
HDAC activators, 284
HDAC inhibitors, 284
Health consequences, 56
Health disparities, 484, 522. See also Race and ethnicity
racial/ethnic, substance abuse outcomes, 520, 521, 522
Health risks. See also specific substances and types
heroin, cocaine, and amphetamines, 57–59
Healthy migrant, 522
Heavy/binge drinking, 10
addiction stages, 287
adolescents, 68, 68f, 69–71, 70f
adolescents, gender, 516, 517t
adolescents, time trends, race and ethnicity, 509–511, 510f, 511f
aggression at work, 586
approach tendencies, 323–324
assessment, 11
attentional bias, 316–317
blood test, 44
cognitive motivational constructs, 326
cohabitation, 555
college students, 538, 540–541
colonial life, American, 30
community-based program, 613t–615t
conjoint substance use, 111
coping motive, 7, 360, 361, 400
craving, 330
definition, 489
in depression, as causal, 59
developmental course, 101–104
(p. 680)
divorce, 563–564
before divorce, women, 553–554
economic consequences, 587–589, 589t
enhancement motive, 7, 360, 397t, 402, 406, 409, 409f
environmental influences, adolescents, 8
environmental prevention, 604, 608t
familial factors, 450, 455
four-factor structure, 380
gender/ethnic group, 71, 72
Greek societies, 79, 358, 364, 540–541
impulsive behavior, 362–363
impulsive system, 332, 337
individual factors, 591
intimate partner violence, 568
job stressors, 591
marijuana use and, 110–111
marital role, 553
marital satisfaction, 560–562
marriage effect, 550–552
marriage on, 83
married vs. single and divorced, 549–550
media campaigns against, 641
memory associations, 320–322
military, 580–582, 582t, 583
motives, 397t, 400–402
motor vehicle accidents, 58
naltrexone on, 15
natural course, 68–69, 68f, 70–71, 70f
natural recovery, 93–96
neuroadaptation, 43
on personality, 363
R1876831, C-allele, 173
race and ethnicity, 496, 497t
race/ethnicity, acculturation, 520
race/ethnicity, adolescents, 504t–505t
race/ethnicity, age and time trends, adolescents, 509–511, 510f, 511f, 517t
race/ethnicity, age and time trends, adults, 507–509, 508f
race/ethnicity, country of origin, 516, 518t
relationships, committed, 549–550
relationships, shared environment, 559
smoking vs., 108–109
spousal abuse, 586
spousal influence, 558
subculture on, 413
surveys for, 487t
taxes on alcohol on, 366
trajectory models, 98–101
universal prevention approaches, 12
victimization, workplace, 586
women, 82
workplace, 281f, 580
Heavy episodic drinking (HED)
adolescence and young adulthood, 70–71, 70f, 98, 491, 506t
definition, 68
military, 583
prevalence, 68, 68f
race/ethnicity, adolescents, 517t
Heberlein, U., 277
Hedonic set point, 5
Heffernan, K., 555
Helzer, J. E., 219
Hemby, S. E., 276
Henggeler, S., 468
Henly, S. J., 98
Hepatitis B, 59
Hepatitis C, 59
Heritability. See Genetics
Heroin
animal models, genetic, 291
death, premature, 57–58
development, 147
genome-wide association studies, 232f–233f, 240
health risks, 57–59
HIV/AIDS, 58–59
morbidity, 58–59
motor vehicle accidents, 58, 59
overdose, 57–58
personality traits, 354
prevalence, global, 52
trauma, 58, 59
Herzog, T. A., 88
Hesselbrock, V. M., 556
Heterotypic continuity, 528–529
High drinking in the dark (HDID), 294
Hill, K. G., 103, 104
Hippocrates, 32
Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS), 486, 487t, 492. See also Race and ethnicity
Histone acyltransferases, 284
Histone deacetylases (HDAC), 284
Histones, 250
acetylation, 250
methylation, 250
phosphorylation, 250
Historical perspectives, 1, 29–36. See also specific topics
alcohol use epidemics, 1
controversy, 29
evidence and references, 29–30
magnitude of problem, 1
patterns, 30
Historical perspectives, SUDs, 32–34
description, 33
Jellinek’s alcoholism syndromes, 33–34
mental disorders, understanding and classifying, 32–33
HIV/AIDS, 58–59
Hodgins, D. C., 593
Holahan, C. J., 402
Holder, H. D., 617
Homeostasis, transition to addiction, 180, 181f
Homila, M., 549
Homish, G. G., 560, 571–572
Homogamy, social, 556
Homotypic continuity, 528–529
Hope, S., 552
Horizontal transmission, sibling, 465
Houben, K., 321
5-HTTLPR, 141, 152, 231. See also Serotonin
Huffing inhalants, 142
Hughes, J. R., 94
Hu, M. C., 106–107
Humphreys, K., 16
Huss, Magnus, 33
Hussong, A., 82
Huver, R. M. E., 463
Hydrocodone, 147
Hydromorphone, 147
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). See Serotonin
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, 138, 167, 169–171, 170f, 660
I
Identical-by-descent (IBD), 194
Illicit drug use, 50–60. See also specific drugs and topics
burden of disease, 60
dependence, 52–54, 53t
estimation criteria, 51
fundamentals, 50–51
future directions, 60
gender, adolescents, 517t
health consequences, 56
health risks, cannabis, 56–57
health risks, heroin, cocaine, and amphetamines, 57–59
morbidity, 58–59
motivations, 51
natural history, 54
prevalence, by drug, 52
prevalence, developed world, 54, 55t
prevalence, estimation, 51–52
race and ethnicity, adolescents, 517t
race and ethnicity, adult, 500–501, 502t–503t
risk factors, for harms, 59–60
risk factors, for use, 54–56
Illnesses, 2
Illusory memory, 318
Immigration (immigrants), 484, 520, 522, 606
Impact, 2–3
Implicit assessment, 659–660
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 318, 319–323, 320f, 659
brief, 322
personalized, 321
recoding-free, 321
salience asymmetry, 321
Implicit processes. See Impulsive (implicit) processes
Impulse control disorders, 167–168f, 654
addiction, 167
gambling disorder, 654
Impulsive (implicit) processes, 311, 312, 316–324 (p. 681)
approach tendencies, 323–324
attentional bias, 316–318
influencing, 336–338
memory associations, 318–323, 320f
models, 313–314
subsystems and triggers, 313
Impulsive system, neuroeconomics, 436
Impulsivity, 6. See also Dual-process models
affective instability, 355
alcohol, 362–363
animal models, 285–286
definition, 6, 327
development, 363–364
reflective processes, 324–325, 327–328, 335
vulnerability, genetic epidemiology, 224–226
Impulsivity/disinhibition, 352
alcohol, 353, 354
nicotine, 354
SUDs, 354, 355, 356, 364
Inbred strains, 278–279
Incentive, 376
Incentive motivation model, Cox and Klinger’s, 376–377
Incentive salience, 5, 167
sensitization, 43
Indeterminacy, developmental course, 528
Indirect effects, 376
Individual-based approaches, prevention, 600–601
Indoleamine, 150
Inebriety, 33
Inelasticity, 425, 426f
Inhalants
bagging, 142
effects, 141
huffing, 142
sniffing, 141–142
tolerance, sensitization, and withdrawal, 143
toxicities, 141–142
Inhalants, mechanisms of action, 141–143
nitrous oxide, 142
overview, 141–142
volatile alkyl nitrates, 142
Initiation, substance use. See Age of onset; specific substances
Injection drug use. See also specific drugs
hepatitis B and C, 59
HIV/AIDS, 58–59
prevalence, 52
Instrumental effects, 376
Intemperance, 33
Intergenerational transmission, 450, 453
Internalizing, 658
etiology, 339
familial factors, 450, 456
media messages, 636
symptom measures, 103
International Classification of Diseases (ICD), 32, 38
Internet
marketing, 630
treatment delivery, 664–665
Interventions. See also Volume 2; specific types
family-based, 468
Interviews, diagnostic, 10–11
Intimate partner violence, 560–561, 564–569
Intoxication, alcohol, 135. See also Alcohol use; Heavy/binge drinking
Invertebrate models, genetic, 276–277
Ironic monitoring process, 330
Ironic process theory, 330
Irvin, J. E., 14
J
Jackson, K. B., 72, 74, 82–83, 98, 100, 103, 111
Jacobson, K. C., 69, 71
Jacob, T., 97, 100, 560, 562, 567
Janes, C. R., 590
Jellinek, E. M., 33–34, 35
Jessor, R., 224
Jessor, S. L., 224
Johnson, E. O., 88
Johnson, K. A., 407
Johnston, K., 611
Johnston, L. D., 527
Jorm, A. F., 229
K
Kaestner, R., 563
Kairouz, S., 382, 383f, 413
Kandel, D. B., 87, 91, 109, 534–535, 557, 563
Karcz-Kubicha, M., 153
Karkowski, L. M., 220
Karp, I., 106
Keller, M., 1
Keller, P. S., 566
Kendler, K. S., 81, 93, 215, 217–218, 219, 221, 222, 223, 240, 553–554
Kerr, M., 459
Kerr, W. C., 70, 83
Keyes, K. M., 71, 451
Keyes, M., 197
Khat, 44, 151. See also Amphetamines
Kihlstrom, J. F., 314
Kindling, 291
King, K. M., 81, 94
Kirisci, L., 224
Kiuru, N., 535
Klinger, E., 376–377. See also Motivational models
Knockin strategy, 282
Knopik, V. S., 224
Kobus, K., 532
Koob, G. F., 168, 170f, 660
Kraepelin, Emil, 32–33
Krank, M. D., 319
Kranzler, H. R., 231
Krueger, R. F., 110, 223
Kuntsche, E., 386, 387
L
L1 cell adhesion molecule, 137
Laborda, M. A., 663
Labouvie, E. W., 106, 557
Larger later (LL) choice, 434–435
Larson, S. L., 583–584, 584f
Latent growth model (LGM), 97
Later adulthood, 77
Laucht, M., 229
Laughing gas, 142
Law of Demand, 423–425, 424f
Leadley, K., 568
Lee, C., 72, 76, 83, 102
Lee, C. M., 384, 413
Legalization, drug, 657
Legrand, L. N., 248
Lehman, W. E. K., 586
Leigh, B., 386
LeMasters, E. E., 593
Lembke, A., 16
Le Moal, M., 660
Leonard, K. E., 556–561, 563–568, 571–572
Lerman, C., 229
Lessov-Schlaggar, C. N., 89
Leventhal, H., 86
Life course framework, 67. See also Development
adolescence and early adulthood, 77
historical basis, 78
implications, 79
later adulthood, 77
prospective data, 78–79
rationale, 77–79
Lifestyle Management Class, 12–13
Linkage studies, 226, 232f–233f, 236–238. See also Molecular genetic studies
genome-wide, 192
nonparametric, 236–237
parametric, 236
Li, T. K., 41
Liu, I. C., 85–86
Lloyd-Richardson, E. E., 87
Lobbying, consumer advocacy, 639
Loperamide, 147
Loss of righting reflex (LORR), 288–289
Lubman, D. I., 143
Luczak, S. E., 4
LUSH, 137
Lynskey, M. T., 93, 214, 215, 222
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 140
M
MacLeod, C., 336–337
Maes, H. H., 85, 89, 216
Maggi, S., 97, 105
Maggs, J. L., 543
Mahalik, J. R., 69
Ma huang, 151. See also Amphetamines
(p. 682) Maisel, N. C., 15
Ma, J. Z., 231
Maloff, D., 549
Maltreatment, child, offspring substance use, 457
Mannello, T. A., 593
Margolin, G., 568
Marijuana. See Cannabis (marijuana)
Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire (MEEQ), 388
Marital conflict, offspring substance use, 456
Marital interactions, 561–562
Marital role, 551, 553
Marital satisfaction, 560–563
Marital stability, 562–563
Marital status, drinking level, 549–550
Marketing, 626–632
advertising expenditures, ecological studies, 632–633
advertising restriction, effects, 638
alcohol, codes, 626
alcohol, expenditures, 626–627
co-promotion, alcohol and tobacco, 628
corporate image, 628
edutainment, 631–632
embedded messages, 628–629
Internet, 630
mixed messages, 632
movies, 629–630
music and music videos, 630
new strategies, 628–632
product placement, 628–629
social media, 630–631, 640–641
television programming, 629
tobacco, codes, 627
tobacco, expenditures, 627–628
Marlatt’s cognitive-behavioral model, relapse, 328
Marriage effect, 550–555. See also Relationships, committed
cohabitation, 554–555
committed relationships, 550–555
definition and fundamentals, 550–551
engaged couples, 554
same-sex couples, 555
selection into, 550–553
selection out of, 551
transition into, 551–553
transition out of, 553–554
Marriage, substance use on, 561–569
intimate partner violence, 560–561, 564–569
marital interactions, 561–562
marital satisfaction and stability, 562–563
Marriage, transition into, 551–553
developmental stage, 550, 551
marital role, 551, 553
selection into marriage, 550–551, 552–553
Marshal, M. P., 562
Martin, C., 41–42
Martin, G. E., 137
Martin, J. K., 590
Martino, S. C., 102
Martin, T., 655
Mass selection, 280
Masten, A. S., 79
Master Settlement Agreement of 1998, 627, 628, 629
Mating, assortative, 556–557
Maturing-out, 82–83, 96, 362
Maturity principle, 361–362
Maume, M. O., 571
Mazur, J., 435, 437
McCabe, K., 436
McClure, S. M., 437
McCollum, E. E., 561
McGaugh, J., 30
McGue, M., 81, 85, 194, 213, 465
MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine), 140–141
Mechanisms of action, 135–155. See also specific substances
alcohol, 135–138
amphetamines, 152
barbiturates, 149
caffeine, 153
cannabis and cannabinoids, 138–139
cocaine, 151
future directions, 154–155
hallucinogens, 139–141
inhalants, 141–143
nicotine, 143–145
opioids, 145–148, 145f
prescription drugs, 152–153
sedative hypnotics, 148–150, 148f
stimulants, 150–154
Media, 8, 625–642. See also Marketing
advertising expenditures, 632–633
audience vigilance, 639–641
future research, 641–642
health information source, 625
marketing, 626–632 (See also Marketing)
media literacy, 639–640
parental guidance, 640
social marketing, 640–641
warning messages, 640
Media effects, 632–637
advertising expenditures, 632–633
cross-sectional surveys, 633–634
experimental studies, 636–637
longitudinal survey studies, 634–636
mixed evidence, 637
Media literacy education, 639–640
Media regulation, substance use in, 637–639
advertising restriction effects, 638
consumer advocacy lobbying, 639
Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009, 627, 637
product placements, disclosures, 639
self-regulation, drug and alcohol industry, 638–639
U. S. Surgeon General and Congress, 637
Memory associations, 318–323
arousal associations, 322–323
extralist cued-recall, 318, 319
famous name memory paradigm, 318–319
illusory memory, 318
Implicit Association Test, 318, 319–323, 320f (See also Implicit Association Test (IAT))
negative reinforcement, 323
priming paradigms, 318–319
reaction time paradigms, 318, 319–323
relative cognition, 319
word association tests, 319
Memory, illusory, 318
Mental disorders. See also specific types
definition, 33
historical, understanding and classifying, 32–33
Mental operations, reflective processes, 325
Meperidine, 147
Mephedrone, 44
Mercken, L., 532
Merikangas, K. R., 220, 451
Merline, A., 83
Metabolism. See also Mechanisms of action; specific drugs
monoamine oxidase, MDMA on, 141
Methadone, 147–148
Methamphetamine
animal models, genetic, 280–281
genome-wide association studies, 232f–233f, 240
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 140–141
Methylxanthines, 152
Metzger, A., 463
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), 285
Midanik, L. T., 31
Mihic, L., 382, 383f
Miles, D. R., 224, 248, 460
Milestones, 87
Military substance use, 579–595
drinking on the job and working with hangover, 582–583
drinking on the job, impairment, 594
economic consequences, 587–589
environmental, social, and individual interactions, 594–595
fundamentals, 579–580
health and social consequences, 586
illicit drugs, 583–584, 585t
interventions, future, 594–595
interventions, site-specific, 595
mortality consequences, 587
on-the-job drinking and impairment, 594
(p. 683)
prevalence, consequences, and costs, 580–582, 582t
research, future, 594–595
stress, work, 595
work environment and employee drinking behavior, 589–595 (See also Work environment, employee drinking behavior)
Miller, W. M., 41
Milner, P., 169
Mixed messages, media, 632
Mixture modeling, 97–98
Modeling processes and stages of addiction, animal models, 285–294
alcohol-seeking, 292–294
fundamentals, 285–288
initial sensitivity, 288–290
tolerance and sensitization, 290–291
withdrawal, 291–292
Moderation Management (MM), effectiveness, 16
Moeller, F. G., 568
Moffitt, T. E., 97
Mohr, C., 399, 412
Molecular genetic studies, 226–252. See also specific types
candidate gene studies, 226–236
epigenetics, 250–251
future directions, 251–252
gene–environment correlations, 249
gene–environment interaction, 242–249
genome-wide association studies, 238–242
linkage studies, 226, 232f–233f, 236–238
Monitoring the Future (MTF), 486, 487t, 491–492. See also Race and ethnicity
Monoamine neurotransmission, amphetamines on, 152
Monoamine oxidase, MDMA on, 141
Monoamines, brain, 150
Monoamine transporters, cocaine on, 151
Monoglyceride lipase (MGLL), 235–236
Monozygotic (MZ) twins, 194
Mood, alcohol and
avoiding negative, 375, 386, 389, 399–400
enhancement, 379t–380t, 387, 389, 400
future research, 412, 413
Mood, marijuana enhancement, 403, 407
Mood and anxiety disorders. See also specific types
parental, on offspring substance use, 454
Moore, T. M., 564
Moran, J. R., 632
Morbidity. See also specific substances
heroin, cocaine, and amphetamines, 57
illicit drug use, 58–60
Morley, K. I., 218
Morphine, 147. See also Opioids
Morral, A. R., 93
Morsella, E., 315
Mortality, 60
cannabis, 57
ever use, 52
heroin, cocaine, and amphetamines, 57–58
substance use, 2
tobacco, 2
workplace and military, 587
Motivation (motives), 6–8, 167, 315–316, 331f. See also Craving; Dual-process models; Expectancies
approach-avoidance, automatically activated, 323–324
change, 95
cognitive constructs, 325–327
coping, 323, 326, 334
craving and addictive behavior, 329
definition, 375
drinking, 315, 323, 325–327, 332, 333f, 334, 335
emotion motivation theory, 323
etymology, 375
vs. expectancies, 386
four factors, 378
implications, 375–376
impulsive processes, 312 (See also Impulsive (implicit) processes)
incentive-motivational processes, 329
interventions, 336
loss, 312
personality traits, 359–361 (See also Personality)
preconscious processing, 323
reflective system, 325
self-focused approach, 378
self-focused avoidance, 378
social approach, 378
social avoidance, 378
theoretical typology, 377–378
Motivation (motives), drinking, 315, 323, 325–327, 332, 333f, 334, 335
emotional antecedents, 399–400
situation, 399
trait and disposition, alcohol outcomes, 406–407
trait correlates, 389, 390t–396t, 397–398
use and abuse patterns, 397t, 400–402
Motivational models, 375–414
behavior etiology, 375–376
caveats and limitations of literature, 408–411
decision, 377
expectancies, 376
four factors, 378
incentives, 376
indirect or instrumental effects, 376
issues and future research, 411–414
motivation, 375
needs, pathways to use/abuse, 408, 409f
premises, evidence, 378–408, 378t (See also specific premises)
reinforcement history, 376
self vs. other, 377
situational factors, 376
theoretical background, 377–378
theoretical typology 377–378
Motivational models, drinking, 408
Cox and Klinger’s incentive motivation model, 376–377
Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised, 378–380, 414n4
vs. marijuana and tobacco, 408
Motivational models, marijuana, 387–388, 408
Motivational models, opioids, 408
Motor vehicle accidents
alcohol, 520, 604, 606
alcohol advertising, 632, 638
cannabis, 56
heroin, cocaine, and amphetamines, 58, 59
Mouse
evolutionary ancestry, 273
models, alcohol dependence, 275–276 (See also Animal models, genetic)
Mouse Phenome Database (MPD), 278
Movie marketing, 629–630
Mudar, P. J., 556, 557–559
Multifinality, 101
alcohol, trajectory, 102
trajectory models, 98
Multiple-choice procedure (MCP), 430
Multisystemic therapy, 468
Multivariate genetic analysis, 196, 196f
Munafò, M. R., 228
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) genes, 234–235
Music marketing, 630
Music video marketing, 630
Mutagenesis
ENU, 282–283
targeted, 281–282
Mutation strategies, animal models, 281
Muthén, B., 97
N
nAChR genes, 4
Nagin, D. S., 97, 98
Naïve view, 314
Narcotics Anonymous (NA), online affiliation, 664
Nash, S. G., 461–462
National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), 486–489, 487t. See also Race and ethnicity
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), (p. 684) 486, 487t, 490. See also Race and ethnicity
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 486, 487t, 490–491. See also Race and ethnicity
National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey (NLAES), 486
National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 486, 487t, 489–490. See also Race and ethnicity
National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS), 12
National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign (2012), 640–641
Natural course, 67–113. See also specific substances
alcohol, 80–86
alcohol, epidemiology, 67–72
cannabis, 89–92
cannabis, epidemiology, 74–76
illicit drugs, 54
life course framework, 67, 77–79
recovery from heavy/problem use, natural, 93–96
smoking/tobacco, 86–89
smoking/tobacco, epidemiology, 72–74
trajectories, individual, 96–113
Needs, pathways to use and abuse, 408, 409f
Negative reinforcement, 167, 181f
extended amygdala, between-systems neuroadaptations, 179–180
memory associations, 323
motivation, 167, 168f
neurocircuitry, 168f
opponent process theory, 167–168, 180, 182f
within-system and between-system changes, 178, 180, 181f
Negative urgency, 398
Neglectful parenting, 453, 458
Neighborhoods, family influences, 466–467
Nelson, J. P., 632
Nematode worm models, genetic, 276–277
Neo-Kraepelinian tradition, 33
Neuroadaptation, 43
between-system, 168
between-system, extended amygdala, 179–180, 181f
reward and stress systems, 178–180, 181f
in transition to addiction, 180, 181f
within-system, 168, 181f
Neurobiology, 5
Neurocircuitry
antireward, 167
antistress sytems, 176–178
negative reinforcement, 167, 168f, 181f, 323
neuroadaptation in addiction, 178–180
opponent process theory, 167–168, 180, 182f
positive reinforcement, 169, 181f
reward, 167–169, 169f, 171t, 178–180, 181f
stress systems, 169–175
Neuroeconomics, 436–440
competing neurobehavioral decision systems hypothesis, 436–438
definition, 436
genetic, choice, 438–440
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), 176–177
Neurotransmitters. See also specific types
alcohol, 136–138
cannabinoids, 138–139
hallucinogens, 140–141
inhalants, 142–143
nicotine, 144–145, 145f
opioids, 145–147, 146f
sedative hypnotics, 148–150
stimulants, 150–153
Neuroticism, 352
Neuroticism/negative emotionality, 352
alcohol, 354
development, 363
drugs, 354
nicotine, 354
SUDs and, 355, 356
Newcomb, M. D., 388, 560
Newman, J. P., 224
Niaura, R., 404–405
Nicotine. See also Smoking/tobacco
mechanisms of action, 144
overview, 143–144
personality traits, 354
tolerance and withdrawal, 144–145, 145f
Nicotine metabolism, gene studies
CYP2A6, 227–228
CYP2E1, 227
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes, 4, 232–234
Nishimoto, R. H., 561
Nitrous oxide, 142
NMDA receptors. See also Glutamate
alcohol on, 136, 137
genes, 230
inhalants on, 143
PCP on, 141
Nociceptin, 177–178
Noguti, V., 636
Norepinephrine, 172t, 174–175
Norepinephrine transporters, amphetamines on, 152
Novak, S. P., 88
Nucleus accumbens
amphetamines, 359
between-system neuroadaptation, 179, 181f
cocaine, 251