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date: 20 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter connects work conducted among the Tsimane of Bolivia with others and highlights the value and scope of social capital as a driver of competition among women. It further examines proximate and ultimate levels of causation to understand what forces instigate women to seek relationships with certain individuals and what benefits might be reaped through costly investments in maintenance of social status and networks. In particular, women invest in social resources such as friendships, kin-groups, and social status because they may increase inclusive fitness through higher quantity or quality of offspring. Finally, the chapter connects the ultimate effects with their underlying proximate levels of causation, showing that women view cooperators, helpers, and advisors as more interpersonally attractive. The conclusion offers a robust connection between proximate and ultimate causation effects and helps explain in richer theoretical detail the extent, progression, and complexity of women’s same-sex relationships over evolutionary time.

Keywords: competition, cooperation, friendship, Tsimane, social capital

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