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date: 16 June 2019

(p. 517) Index

(p. 517) Index

abdominal breathing, 500, 501
Abrahams, Daniel, 22
Abrahams, Frank, 26–27, 69, 212–15
a cappella, 48
amateur German choir literature for, 269
contemporary, 35, 37–38, 39, 42, 61
intonation and, 99–100
Kodály on, 99, 102nn17–18
student engagement in, 62
at The University of Delaware, 61
The A Cappella Book (Chin and Scalise), 38, 39
A Cappella Education Organization (ACEO), 35
A Cappella Pop (McDonald), 37–38, 39
accent, 137–38. See also pronunciation
acceptance, 467
accessibility, 310–11
accompaniment, 285, 440–41
achievement, 463–64
acoustics, 181n15
active-apprenticeship, 112–14, 210–11. See also passivity
active musical experiences, 90–91, 92
activism
inclusion, musical quality, and, 369–70
LGBTQ choruses and, 369–72
musical quality, repertoire, and, 371–72
Ádám, Jenő, 99
Adams, John, 289
adult community choruses, 346–47, 348–49, 368
adult learning, 351–54, 357
adult music, 345–46, 355, 359
adult music participation, 351
benefits of, 347–48
enrollment issues and, 350
research on, 348, 349, 350
school music education and, 358–59
adults, changing needs of, 355
cognition changes and, 356–57
physical and general, 356
voice changes and, 357–58
aesthetic empathy, 324
affective learning, 189
African American, 450n1
African American professional choirs, 403
age distribution, cathedral choirs, 170–71, 175, 181nn9–10
agency, 15
becoming agentive, 117–18, 123
co-construction of, as singer and conductor, 123–24
collective, 210
conductors and, 108–9
constructivism and, 111
critical pedagogy issues of, 20–21
ownership and, 210
personal and musical, 118–19
teacher-conductors and, 108, 124
vocal, 155–56
airflow, 499, 502
Aithchison, R., 153
Alaska All-State, 301
Alder, Alan, 36, 37
Alexander, Karl, 456
allegory, 306
ALL Northwest HS Festival, 295–96
Allsup, R. E., 17, 19
Alma Redemptoris Mater (Ockeghem), 284, 294
alternative models, 13–14
alto voices, 421, 423
America (Peterson, V.), 289
American Choral Directors Association (ACDA), 32–33, 230, 288
American Idol, 31, 34
anatomy and physiology. See also breath support; phonation; resonance; specific anatomy
of male voice change, 152–56
of young female voices, 172–74, 175
of young male voices, 152–56, 172–74
Anatomy of the Human Body (Gray), 505f
andragogy, 351, 352
angel paradigm, 426–27
Anglican choral tradition, 169, 181n4, 221, 228, 457
Anna Crusis Women’s Choir, 365
Ansdell, G., 368
antiresonance, 511, 512f
antiwar musical works, 306–7
apartheid, 246–47
Apfelstadt, H., 20
Apology (Plato), 115
appoggio (to lean), 502
Arasi, M. T., 209
Arestinga (Grau), 290, 299
Armstrong, Scott, 339
arrangements, 321
art worlds, 252
arytenoids, 496 [link] –497f, 498, 501
Ashley, M., 152, 154t, 155–56, 157–58
aspirate onset, 495
assessments, 312, 420
Assistant Director of Music, 172, 181n14
Association of Professional Vocal Ensembles (APVE), 405, 410. See also Chorus America
athletes, 39–41, 150, 157
attendance, 229. See also enrollment issues
audience
musical elite and, 93, 97
participation, 285, 290–91, 437
aural rehearsal, 329, 338, 349
Austin, S. F., 511, 512, 513
authenticity
in diverse music, 322
in English choral tradition, 224–25
Kodály, Hungarian peasant songs, and, 102n2
of learning experience for music from other cultures, 240–41
in teaching music from other cultures, 239, 242–46
authority, 17
autonomous professional choirs, U.S., 405
autonomy
in informal music learning study, 70, 72, 74–75, 76, 77, 80, 82
musical, 69, 79
as theme of informal music learning study, 78–79
Ave Maria (Verdi), 56
AWKapella, 72–73
Bach, Johann Sebastian, 95–96, 288, 297, 306, 316. See also Six Degrees From JS Bach concert
Badger, E., 456
Baird, M., 350–51
balanced onset, 495
Baltimore City, Maryland, 456
banker-teacher model, 187, 202n2
Bannerji, H., 385–86, 390, 395, 396, 397n2
Baptist lining hymns, 447
barbershop movement, 135
Bárdos, Lajos, 96, 99–100
Barnwell, Ysaye, 290–91
Baroody, M., 357–58
Barrier, J., 358
Bartlett, Eric, 19
Bartók, Béla, 88
Baumeister, Roy, 461–62
Beauvoir, Simone de, 129
Becker, H., 252, 253
Beethoven, Ludwig van, 23
bel canto, 332, 333
Belenky, M., 187–88
Bell, C., 346
The Bells (Rachmaninoff), 23
(p. 519) belting, 33, 36, 38, 40, 41, 447
Bernstein, Leonard, 290
Best of Collegiate A Cappella (BOCA), 39
Bilingualism and Biculturalism Commission, 383
Billboard magazine, 34
Billings, William, 118–19
Bingham, J., 467
Black, 450n1
Black gospel music (BGM)
accompaniment for, 440–41
audience participation in, 437
in classroom and secular settings, 436–37
conducting, 441
deity referenced indirectly in, 436, 450n3
eras of, 433
feel in, 440
key terminology for, 447–49
as minority community, 369
movement in, 442, 443t, 444, 450n5
overview of, 433–34
practical suggestions when teaching, 438–44
rhythm in, 439, 441
text in appropriate repertoire for, 441–42
voice in, 441–42
Black Skin, White Masks (Fanon), 391
Black South African choral music, 237
call-and-response in, 243
Chicago Children’s Choir and, 238–39
conductor role in, 244–45
drums in, 245
introducing movement to students of, 243–44
introducing pieces to students of, 242–43
key center and pitch in, 245
movement, cross-rhythms, and, 241
piano in, 243
pronunciations in, 243, 244
providing context to students of, 245–46
resources for, 241–42, 247
syncopation in, 241, 243–44
teaching cultural history with, 246
teaching toward authenticity in, 242–46
translations of, 243
vibrato in, 244
Western notation and, 240–41
Blair, D. V., 15, 118, 120, 210
bleating, 333
blend
intonation and, 310
in The King’s Singers, 410
in LGBTQ choruses, 374–75, 376, 377
B Minor Mass (Bach), 316
books
on conducting, 1, 109–10
on historical performance practices, 316
Bourdieu, P., 131–32
Bowles, C., 355
The Boy and His Gang (Puffer), 457
boychoir pedagogy, 418, 419, 424
boychoirs, 417, 429. See also male youth choirs; male youth choruses
alto voices of, 421, 423
angel paradigm, transgression, and, 426–27
assessments and, 420
challenges of historical repertoire for, 423
church music and, 419
community of, 427–28
critical pedagogy, repertoire, and, 422
hand-raising in, 425
interior voices of, 421
movement in, 425
as multigenerational phenomenon, 418, 421
music literacy resources for, 425
non-singers and, 428
part-switching and octave displacement in, 424
passaggio in, 421
power hierarchy in, 427–28
programming repertoire for, 426–27
recruitment for, 428
registers in, 418–19
rehearsing repertoire for, 423–26
selecting repertoire for, 420–23
standing order in, 425–26
tessitura in, 421
touring and, 428
trebles in, 420–21, 423
tuning for, 423 (p. 520)
vocal outliers in, 421–22
vocal timbre variations in, 427
voice part assignment for, 420–21, 423–24
warm-up exercises for, 424
Boyle, J. D., 355
Brahms, Johannes, 58, 60
Brazilian Indian ritual, 337f
breathing, 496f
abdominal, 500, 501
chest, 500, 501, 502
visual vocal exercises for, 473–75
breath support
expiratory force in, 500–501
glottal resistance in, 499, 501, 502
vocal exercises for, 478, 501–3
Bright, John, 306
bright-dark. See chiaroscuro
British traditional choirs, 136, 145n8. See also English choral tradition
Britten, Benjamin, 306–7
brokers, knowledge, 113, 115
Brookfield, S., 354
Bruckner, Anton, 60
Bruffy, Charles, 412
Bruner, J., 111–12, 117, 118, 125n1, 210
budget, 285–86, 365. See also economics
Burke, D., 357
Burr, Vivien, 206–7
Burton, B., 325
Butler, J., 130–31
Caldwell, R., 357
call-and-response, 243
Cambiata approach, 155
Canadian Liberal party, 383
Canadian Multiculturalism Act, 381, 382. See also multiculturalism, Canada
Canadian music education, 396. See also youth choirs, Canadian community
Canterbury Choral Society, 309
Cape, J., 209
Cappella Perfecta, 472
care homes, UK, 368
Carmina Burana (Orff), 287, 288, 296
Carol of the Bells, 74, 78, 80–81
Carrington, Simon, 408–10
Caruso, Enrico, 511
catalytic validity, 70, 80
Catch Me Being Good rehearsal strategy, 24
cathedral choirs, 168, 234. See also church choirs
age distribution in, 170–71, 175, 181nn9–10
Anglican choral tradition in, 169, 181n4, 228, 457
directors and gender differences in young voices in, 174–76
female population in, 171–72, 180
gender in, 169–72, 177, 178, 180n1, 181n6
non-musical identity, gender, and, 179
UK schools for, 228
Cathedral Choir School of Delaware
Anglican choral tradition and, 457
Food Bank of Delaware partnership with, 459
sense of job security in, 460
cathedral formation, 426
Catholicism
chants in, 304
German church choruses and, 266
The Center for Critical Pedagogy at Westminster Choir College, 84n1
A Century Apart concert, 299–300
chameleon effect, 141, 145n22
change, 251
in notational meanings, 316
in student perception, 72, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 82, 83
in teacher perception, 75, 76, 78, 80, 81–82
Chansons françaises (Poulenc), 59
chants, 304, 305, 315
chest breathing, 500, 501, 502
Chester (Billings), 118–19
chest voice, 418, 481, 483
chiaroscuro (bright-dark), 491–92, 503–4
resonance and, 509–14
Chicago Children’s Choir, 238–39
(p. 521) Chicago Symphony Chorus, 405
Chichester Psalms (Bernstein), 290
childhood, comportment and, 393
A Child of Our Time (Tippett), 306
children, choral music for, 102n3
education and, 89–92
Kodály on value of, 92–93
“Children’s Choir” (Kodály), 90
“Children’s Choruses” (Kodály), 89
Chin, Bill, 238
Chin, Mike, 38, 39
Chinese choral scores, 330f
choir parents, 428
choirs. See also corporate choirs, Brazil
amateur, 413–14
lives of singers outside of, 251–52, 261n3
need for love and belonging met by, 461–63
physiological needs met by, 459–60
relationships in, 413–14
safety needs met by, 460–61
self-actualization needs met by, 466–68
self-esteem needs met by, 463–66
choirs, amateur German, 267
a cappella literature in, 269
conductor payment in, 268
declining membership in, 270, 271–72
quantity of rural, 268
choirs, professional, 401, 413–14
African American, 403
European, 403–4
European results for early American, 402–3
full-time, 406–7
German, 270–71, 404
history of, 402–6
part-time, 407–8
radio choirs, 270–71, 403–4
rehearsal pedagogy for, 408–10
U.S. autonomous, 405
U.S. residential, 405–6
U.S. touring and recording, 404
choirs, traditional, 135, 136, 145n8
Choirs Ontario (website), 386–87, 397n3
Choral Conducting: A Symposium (Decker and Herford), 4
Choral Director magazine, 32
choral directors, 168. See also Assistant Director of Music; Director of Music
choral pop music knowledge gaps of, 43
gender and assignment of, 172
on pop choral television shows, 32, 38–39
results for gender differences in young voice, 174–76
choral ensembles. See also specific types of choral ensembles
assessing strengths and weaknesses of, 312
questions for, 57, 58, 59–60, 72
social media for written interaction with, 72
written interaction with, 55–61
chorales, 305
The Choral Experience: Literature, Materials, and Methods (Robinson and Winold), 48–49
choral landscape, changing, 2–3
Choral Method Series (Kodály), 96–98
choral movements, new
critique of traditional choirs by, 135
non-singers and, 135–36
choral music, 250–51, 261nn1–2. See also specific types of choral music
ChoralNet online discussion group, 41
choralography, 289–90
choral pedagogy. See specific topics
Choral Public Domain Library (CPDL), 231, 422
The Choral Rehearsal: Volume 2— Inward Bound (Jordan), 21
choral singing
in community of practice, 207
as lifestyle sector, 132, 136
choral sound. See also sound concept
focused, 478–79, 482
German, 272–73
pop choral television shows and healthy, 32, 33, 36
choral training practical methods, 144n2
choral voice training (Stimmbildung), 273
chorolography, 314
(p. 522) choruses. See also male youth choruses
adult community, 346–47, 348–49, 368
conductor centered, 13
choruses, professional, 413–14
compared to educational ensembles, 413
etiquette in large, 413
finding ensemble in large, 412–13
rehearsal pacing in large, 412
sight-reading and musicianship expectations in large, 411–12
U.S. symphonic, 404–5
vocal production in large, 410–11
warm-up exercises in large, 411
Christian Rap, 444, 448. See also church music
Christmas carols, 221
church choirs, 408. See also cathedral choirs
church choruses, Germany, 265
Catholic and Protestant, 266
declining membership in, 273–74
economic results for, 266
musicals and, 266–67
church music. See also Protestant church music; Royal School of Church Music
boychoirs and, 419
in LGBTQ choruses, 372
Circle All Around rehearsal strategy, 24
clarifying, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216
clarity, 353–54
Clash of the Choirs, 31, 32, 34, 38–39
class
immigrants, integration, and, 388–89
race, Canadian community youth choirs, and, 389–90
race and, 389
classroom, 274–75, 436–37
Clausen, René, 482–84
Cleveland, T., 394
clinicians, 242
closed voice (voce chiusa), 491–92, 503–4
Cloudburst (Whitacre), 285, 293
clutch exercise, 481–82
co-construction, 14, 123–24
Coffman, D., 349, 355, 356
cognition changes, 356–57. See also metacognition
collaboration, 109
conductor overview of methods for, 192
conductor philosophy of, 191–92
between conductors and singers, 20
confidence and, 195
discussion invitation method of, 192–93
in feminist pedagogy, 189
mental engagement and, 194
method using questions, 193–94, 196
musicianship and, 196–97
ownership and, 195–96
selection of repertoire and rehearsal, 52–53
singer results of, 194–97
singers on, 192–94
collegiate men’s choruses
balancing challenge with patience in, 472
disparity of musical skills in, 471–72, 485–86
diversity in, 485
non-music majors in, 471–72, 485–86
register transition in, 482
vocal pedagogy in, 472–73
colonialism
Canadian multiculturalism and, 383, 384–85
Canadian music education, terminal naivety, and, 396
Canadian youth choir repertoire, comportment, and, 392–93
diversity, Canadian community youth choirs, and, 396–97
colonization, 320
color-blind racism, 391, 392, 396
Come, Sweet Death (Bach), 288, 297
communication, 260
communities of practice, 129, 205, 208
choral singing in, 207
knowledge brokers in, 113, 115
multiplicity of, 113, 114–15
practitioners in, 114
community. See also adult community choruses
BGM as minority, 369
of boychoirs, 427–28
music as, 484
community music, 368
competition, 38–39, 43, 226
Complete Treatise on the Art of Singing (Garcia), 494, 501
comportment, 392–93
composers, 57, 303–4. See also specific composers
composition, 53–54
(p. 523) compositions, diverse cultures, 321
compositions, pedagogical
antiwar musical works as, 306–7
chants as, 304
chorales as, 305
entertainment works as, 307–8
intention of composer in repertoire of, 303–4
by Kodály, 97, 98
passion settings as, 305–6
politically motivated, 307
concert bands, classroom, 274
concerted cultivation, 389–90
conducting, 231
for BGM, 441
books on, 1, 109–10
constructivist strategies applied to teaching, 111–17
courses in, 234
gestures, 233, 234
graduate program for, 239
conducting pedagogy, 25, 119–23
conductors. See also directors; teacher-conductors
agency and, 108–9
agency co-construction with singers, 123–24
as benevolent dictators, 47
choruses centered around, 13
collaboration between singers and, 20
collaboration philosophy of, 191–92
consensus, The King’s Singers, and, 409–10
credentials of UK, 229, 230
critical thinking and, 17–18
elements of effective, 231–34
as facilitators, 49, 54–55, 331–32, 422
of female adult choirs, 202
in feminist pedagogy choral rehearsal case study, 191–92, 197–98, 202
historical role of, 48–52
as leaders, 107, 210
on meaning making and multiplicity, 197–98
on metaphysics, 50
in music ensemble meaningfulness research, 209–10
as organists, 168, 169, 181nn13–14, 225, 229
Orpheus Chamber Ensemble and, 18–19
overview of methods for collaboration by, 192
passion and enthusiasm of, 233–34
payment of, in amateur German choirs, 268
questions for ears of, 482
replication of, by students, 13
requirements of, for implementing critical pedagogy, 25
responsibilities of, in Brazilian corporate choirs, 256–57
role in Black South African choral music, 244–45
role in sharing diverse music for IVE, 336
scaffolding, sociotransformative apprenticeship, and, 211
singer relationships with, 413–14
successful conductors on qualities of, 49–50
as teachers, 107
undergraduate curricula for, 109–10
confidence, 195
connecting, 22
in applied sociotransformative apprenticeship, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216
in unexpected ways while programming, 282–83
consensus, 409–10
consonants
female youth voice and, 177
resonance and, 513
constructivism, 205
agency and, 111
conducting taught with strategies of, 111–17
creativity and, 113
learning theory of, 110–11
passivity and, 206
as sociotransformative, 206–8
Contemporary A Cappella (CAC) ensemble, 35, 37–38, 39
A Contemporary A Cappella Selection, 42
Contemporary A Cappella Society of America (CASA), 61
Contemporary Commercial Music (CCM), 39, 43
vocal exercises for, 40, 41
warm-up exercises for, 40
context. See also recontextualizing
for diverse music, 245–46, 322–23
of learning, 353 (p. 524)
in programming, 284
social, 363
song meanings and, 372
conversation, 22, 25
education as, 14–15
in Orpheus Chamber Ensemble, 18–19
in rehearsal, 18
Convery, Robert, 289
Cooksey, John
on range, 159
on register transition, 162
on voice change, 153, 154t, 155, 375, 417, 418, 419
Voice Transformation in Male Adolescents by, 154t
Coombs, Timothy, 406, 411, 412
Cooper, David, 349
coordinated onset. See balanced onset
core, 477–78
Cornford, I., 354
Coros Sacros, 249
corporate choirs, Brazil, 261
communication in, 260
conductor responsibilities in, 256–57
French historical precedence for, 253–54
non-singers in, 255, 256
positive attitude in, 260
power in, 254
public performance by, 255–56
rehearsal, prosumers, and, 255
rehearsal in, 259–60
repertoire for, 257–59
role of prior experience in, 256
singer motivation in, 254–56
corporate identity, 140–43
Corporon, Eugene Migliaro, 21
coup de la glotte, 495–96, 498
plosive onset compared with, 495–96, 513–14
resonance and, 513–14
creativity, 113
credentials, 229, 230
cricothyroid (CT) muscles, 494, 498
critical consciousness, 15, 22, 24
critical pedagogy
agency issues of, 20–21
boychoirs, repertoire, and, 422
conductor requirements for implementing, 25
critical theory and, 14
democracy in, 18
five tenets in, 14–15, 23
marginalization and “othering” issues of, 16
power issues of, 17–19
rehearsal strategies of, 21–25
teacher evaluations and, 19–20
template for, 19, 26–27
critical theory, 14
critical thinking, 17–18
critique, 135, 384–86
cross-rhythms, 241
cross-training, 32
Crowell, Allen, 406, 411, 412
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, 313
CT muscles. See cricothyroid muscles
cultural hierarchies, 137–38
cultural responsiveness, 354
cultures. See also ethnocentrism; multicultural education; multiculturalism, Canada; sociocultural bias; sociology
compositions of diverse, 321
definition of gay, 373
privilege of, in repertoire, 19
repertoire of individuals in diverse, 338
theory, history, and, 5
cultures, music from other. See also diverse music; multicultural octavos; specific cultures
authenticity in teaching, 239, 242–46
authenticity of learning experience for, 240–41
benefits of learning, 239, 247
distinguishing techniques inappropriate for, 242
recommendations for teachers regarding, 237–38
teaching cultural history with, 246
Western notation and, 240–41
curriculum
for conductors, 109–10
informal music learning, 68–69 (p. 525)
spiral, 111–12, 117
Curwen, John, 136, 222
The Da Capo Book of American Singing Groups (Warner), 34–35
Dale Warland Singers, 404
Damrosch, Frank, 402–3
“Dark Night Of The Soul” (Gjeilo), 290
Davidson, J., 133
Da Vinci Vitruvian Man, 474–75, 486n6
Davis, G. A., 369
The Death Of An Angel (La Muerte Del Ángel) (Piazzolla), 288–89, 297
Decker, Harold, 4
Dei, George, 381
de Kock, L., 363
democracy
in critical pedagogy, 18
in feminist pedagogy choral rehearsal case study, 192–93
in Orpheus Chamber Ensemble, 18–19
deprivation
consequences of, 462
partial, 462–63
design, of printed program, 287
Deutscher Chorverband, 269
developing plan for success, 121
Dewey, John, 14, 15, 52, 115–16, 210, 211
dialogue. See conversation
diaphragm, 473, 474, 500, 501, 502
dictators, benevolent, 47
differences, respect for, 197
diphthongs, 244
Director of Music, 172, 181n13
directors, 353–54, 367–68
discipline, 55–56
discussion board, 23
discussion invitation, 192–93
diverse music, 320, 339–40. See also cultures, music from other; informants, diverse music
alternative notation systems for, 330, 330f, 331f
authenticity in, 322
context for, 245–46, 322–23
facial engagement and, 324
GTA choirs and, 394–95
limitations of Western notation and, 322
lyrics in teaching, 327, 328
matching vocal timbres of, 332–34
movement in, 334, 335f
notated scores with audio recordings of, 321
re-creating and recontextualizing, 322–25
refashioning rehearsal procedures for, 328–29
special vocal techniques in, 333
technology for teaching, 327–28
transcriptions of, 241, 321–22
translations for learning, 243, 327, 328, 329f
video projections for teaching, 329f, 330
video recordings for teaching, 327–28
warm-up exercises for, 334
diversity. See also multicultural education; multiculturalism, Canada
Canadian community youth choirs and, 389–90, 396–97
in collegiate men’s choruses, 485
colonialism, Canadian community youth choirs, and, 396–97
discourse of, 385–86
of GTA, 387
White norms and, 396
Dolby, N., 324
Dolloff, L., 185–86
dome, 479–81, 482
Domingo, Katherine, 335f
Dorsey, Thomas A., 433
Dougherty, 407, 408, 411, 413
Dream of Gerontius (Elgar), 222–23
drums, 245
Duchan, Joshua, 62
Durrant, Colin, 231, 233
East Germany, 264
Eastman School of Music, 347
economics, 266, 387–89. See also budget
education. See also school music education
broadening view of reality with, 15
choral music for children and, 89–92
as conversation, 14–15
as empowerment, 15
as political, 15–16
problem-posing, 22
as transformative, 15
(p. 526) educational ensembles, 413
efficacy, 15
eight-handed breathing exercise, 473–74
Elgar, Edward, 222–23
Elijah (Mendelssohn), 56
elite, musical, 93, 97
Elliott, David J., 319–20
empathy, 322, 324, 353
empowerment
education as, 15
of musicianship in informal music learning, 82–84
Énekszó (Singing Word), 89, 102n4
engagement
collaboration and mental, 194
facial, 314, 324
flow, pedagogical programming, and, 313–15
reflection, openness, and, 109
student, 51, 52–54, 62
English choral tradition, 221. See also United Kingdom
British choirs in, 136, 145n8
competition in, 226
female youth choirs in, 167
German choral tradition and, 224–25
international perspectives on, 223–26
male youth choirs and, 224
mediocrity and renaissance in, 222
musical challenges in new music of, 222–23
Netherlands choral tradition and, 226
Protestantism in, 222
sight reading in, 223–24, 226
Singaporean choral tradition compared to, 225–26
style and authenticity in, 224–25
Swedish choral tradition compared with, 225
U.S. choral tradition compared with, 224, 225
vibrato in, 224, 225
enrollment issues. See also membership
adult music participation and, 350
of attendance, 229
pedagogical programming and, 310–11
pop choral television shows and, 31, 38–39, 42–43
ensemble, finding, 412–13
Ensemble Rehearsal Plan, 26–27
entertainment, 307–8
enthusiasm, 233–34, 353
Entwisle, Doris, 456
environmental customs, 311–12
Eric Ericson Choir, 404
Erickson, J., 357
Ericson, Eric, 273
Ernst, Roy, 347, 356
ethnocentrism, 319. See also sociocultural bias
etiquette, 413
Europe. See also specific countries
American results of professional choirs from, 403
history of LGBTQ movement in, 365–66
Kodály on, 88–89, 95–96
professional choirs in, 270–71, 403–4
Excellence in Singing Volume 2 (Caldwell and Wall), 357
expectations
of large professional choruses, 410–11
pop choral television shows and unrealistic, 33, 35–36, 37, 43
expertise, 353
expiratory force, 500–501
extracurricular activities, 463
extracurricular choirs, 229
eye contact, 121–22
Fach system, 139, 145n16
facial engagement, 314
diverse music and, 324
facilitators, 49, 54–55, 331–32, 422
Facing the Music (Schippers), 322
Falby, Doreen, 456
falsetto, 418–19, 448, 481
Fanon, Frantz, 391
Farrell, P., 209
Farrow, Yvonne, 290
feedback, 141–42
feel, 440
fellowship, 368
female adult choirs. See also feminist pedagogy choral rehearsal case study
advice for conductors of, 202
female population, cathedral choirs, 171–72, 180
(p. 527) female youth choirs, 167, 180
in English choral tradition, 167
introduction of, 171–72
vocal sound of, compared to male youth choirs, 167–68, 173–74
female youth voice
anatomy and physiology of, 172–74, 175
consonants and, 177
sound compared between male and female youth choirs, 167–68, 173–74
vocal production of, 175
vowels and, 176–77
warm-up exercises for, 177
feminist, 185
feminist pedagogy
affective learning in, 189
characteristics of, 188–89
collaboration in, 189
definitions of, 188, 190
equalization of power in, 189
inception of, 186–88
respect for differences in, 197
feminist pedagogy choral rehearsal case study, 190
conductor on meaning in, 197–98
conductor overview of method for collaboration in, 192
conductor philosophy on collaboration in, 191–92
democracy in, 192–93
singer advice to conductors in, 202
singer perspective on collaboration in, 192–94
singer results of collaboration methods in, 194–97
singers and meaning in, 198–201
fields, 131–32
Fifer, Julian, 18
Figueiredo, Carlos Alberto, 250, 261n2
first among equals (primus inter pares), 20
First Peoples of Canada, 382, 384–85
flow
airflow and, 499
feedback and, 141–42
pedagogical programming, engagement, and, 313–15
rehearsal requirements for, 141–42
Flow (Csikszentmihalyi), 313
flux, 142–43
focused choral sound, 478–79, 482
Food Bank of Delaware, 459
form, 258
formal music learning, 67
formants, 506, 507 [link] –508f
Fort Worth Symphony, 316
forward placement, 476, 482, 483
Fosnot, C. T., 205
Foucault, M., 143, 384
France, 253–54
fratriarchy, 157–58
Fred Waring and The Pennsylvanians, 411–12
The Fred Waring Show, 35
Freer, P., 347
Freire, Paulo, 14, 15, 22, 24, 202n2
Freundschaftssingen (friendship singing), 269
friendship singing (Freundschaftssingen), 269
Fulcher, J., 253–54
full-time choirs, professional, 406–7
functional voice training, 273
G 8, 265, 271
GALA Choruses, 365
repertoire of, 373
gangs
choirs and mentality of, 457–58
hierarchy of needs and, 458
GarageBand, 66
Garcia, Manuel, 494, 495–96, 501
The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Online (website), 325
Gates, J. T., 349–50, 351
gender. See also specific genders
cathedral choir directors and voice differences of, 174–76
cathedral choirs, non-musical identity, and, 179
in cathedral choirs, 169–72, 177, 178, 180n1, 181n6
choral director assignment and, 172 (p. 528)
differences in young voice, 172–74, 175, 176–78
in Hungarian choral music, 92
marginalization by, 16
repertoire and, 178
sight reading and, 178
of singing, 156
singing development, singing competency, and, 173, 175–76
of treble lines, 169–70, 171, 172, 175, 178, 180
Gender or Queer Studies, 364
generating theory, 83–84
geography of approaches, 4
German Associations Law, 269
German Choral Association (DCV), 268, 269
German Volkslied, 263
Germany
amateur choirs in, 267–70, 271–72
choral sound in, 272–73
choral tradition of England compared with, 224–25
church choruses in, 265–67
classroom concert bands in, 274
classroom singing in, 274–75
current choral trends in, 273–75
high school music education in, 265, 274–75
high school music education in U.S. compared with, 265
intonation in, 273
musicals in, 266–67, 274
professional choirs in, 270–71, 404
rehearsal in, 273
school music education in, 263–65, 271
state youth honor choirs in, 272
after World War II, 263–64
gestures, conducting, 233, 234, 260
Giddens, A., 131–32
Ginastera, Jeremiah Alberto, 290, 300
Gjeilo, Ola, 290
Glee, 31–32, 33, 34
repertoire of, 41–42
unrealistic expectations and, 35–36, 37, 43
glee clubs, 35
history of, in Germany, 268
Glenn, C., 49–50
Gloria (Vivaldi), 232
glottal “chink” (medial compression), 496f, 497, 501
glottal closure, 495–96, 497f, 498, 501. See also coup de la glotte
resonance and, 512, 513–14
vocal exercise for firm, 514f
glottal resistance, 499, 501, 502
glottis, three-fifths, 497
Glover, Sarah, 136, 222
goals, 121
desired learning, 348–49
learning, 26
pedagogical programming and ensemble, 284, 308–10
setting, 120, 122–23
God, 450n3
God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen, 74–75, 78
Gordon, Edwin, 438
gospel music, hard, 442. See also Black gospel music
Gospel vibrato manipulations, 449
Grabowski, Diana, 406, 413
Grau, Alberto, 290, 299
Gray, H., 505f
Greater Toronto Area (GTA). See also youth choirs, GTA
Canadian community youth choirs in, 386–87
White population and diversity of, 387
Green, Lucy, 67
on informal music curriculum, 68–69
on informal music learning, 65–66, 68
on musical autonomy, peer-directed learning, and leadership, 69
on musical autonomy in informal music learning, 79
group cooperation, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 80, 82
group intelligence, 329
Gudmundsdottir, H., 349
Gustafson, R., 392
(p. 529) habitus, 131, 134
Hadebe, Muziwandile, 335f
Halperin, David, 373
Handel, George Frideric, 232
hand-raising, 425. See also eight-handed breathing exercise
Harrison, S. D., 157
Hart, Colleen, 35–36
Head Boy, 427–28
Head Chorister, 427–28
head voice, 418–19, 448, 481, 483
health. See vocal health
healthcare, 368, 460
hearing. See also listening skills
loss of, 356
repeated, 338
singing and inner, 93–94
hegemony, 17
Hegyi, Erzsébet, 98
Henley, Homer, 514f
Herford, Julius, 4
heteronormative re-use, 372–73, 374
Hiemstra, R., 352
hierarchy of needs, 355. See also power
gangs and, 458
need for love and belonging in, 356, 461–63
physiological needs in, 356, 459–60
safety needs in, 356, 460–61
self-actualization needs in, 459, 466–68
self-esteem needs in, 356, 463–66
visualized, 458f
high school music education, 265, 274–75. See also informal music learning study
Hill, Paul, 407
Hillis, Margaret, 286, 405
history
books on performance practices throughout, 316
of Canadian multiculturalism, 382–84, 397n2
challenges of boychoir repertoire of, 423
conductor role throughout, 48–52
cultures, theory, and, 5
French precedent for Brazilian corporate choirs in, 253–54
of glee clubs in Germany, 268
of immigrants and Canadian multiculturalism, 383
of LGBTQ choral movement, 365–66
music from other cultures for teaching cultural, 246
notation meaning changes in, 316
of people of color and Canadian multiculturalism, 383, 397n2
of pop vocal groups, 34–35
of professional choirs, 402–6
Holly and the Ivy (AWKapella), 72–73
honor choirs, 272
Howe, S., 185–86
How Popular Musicians Learn (Green), 69
How To Be Gay (Halperin), 373
human-antagonistic, 233–34
human-compatible, 233–34
human kinship, 467
Hungarian choral music, 92
Hungarian music culture
Bartók and, 88
Kodály and, 87–88
Hungarian peasant songs, 88, 95, 102n12
Kodály on authenticity and, 102n2
Hungarian primary schools, 90–91
“Hungarians in Music” (Kodály), 95–96
hybrid singers, 40–41
Hylton, J. B., 209
IA muscles. See interarytenoid muscles
identification of problematic situation, 120–21, 122
identity. See also self, loss of; self-evaluative statement; self-expression
cathedral choirs, gender, and non-musical, 179
choir mythologies and narrative of, 140–41, 145n21
in flow, 141–42
in flux, 142–43
formation of, 129–30
interpenetration of musical and social, 136–40 (p. 530)
listening skills and corporate, 141
loss of self and corporate, 140–43
male youth choruses and male, 150
non-singers, new choral movements, and, 135–36
as performative, 130–31
possible selves framework of, 422
reflexive maintenance of, 131
self-identification as singer, 255
singers, non-singers, talent, and, 132–34, 144n5
imagery exercises. See visual vocal exercises
immigrants
class, integration, and, 388–89
in history of Canadian multiculturalism, 383
improvisation, 53–54
inclusion
activism, and musical quality, 369–70
in Canadian community youth choirs, 390–91, 395–97, 397n1
Canadian Multiculturalism Act and, 382
in language of GTA youth choirs, 390–91, 395–96
in LGBTQ choruses, 364, 366–69
independence, 464–65
Indiana University International Vocal Ensemble (IVE), 339, 340
alternative notation systems explored by, 330, 330f, 331f
Brazilian Indian ritual informance by, 337f
conductor role in sharing diverse music for, 336
movement of, 334
music sharing by, 336
purpose of, 320–21
rehearsal in, 328–29
“The Influence of Participation in the International Vocal Ensemble of Indiana University on Music Teacher’s World Music Choices and Attitudes” (Armstrong), 339
informal music learning, 65, 66, 67
curriculum of, 68–69
empowerment of musicianship in, 82–84
generating theory for, 83–84
informal music learning study, 65
autonomy as theme of, 78–79
autonomy in, 70, 72, 74–75, 76, 80, 82
conclusions drawn from, 79–83
group cooperation in, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 80, 82
leadership in, 72, 74, 75, 77, 80
peer-directed learning in, 71–72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 80, 82, 83
personal musical identity in, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 80, 82
presentation, analysis, and discussion of data for, 70–78
replication of, 84
research protocol for, 69–70
research questions for, 66–67
student change in perception in, 72, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 82, 83
teacher change in perception in, 75, 76, 78, 80, 81–82
theoretical framework for study of, 68–69
transcription in, 70–78
informances, 336, 337f
informants, diverse music, 325, 338
choosing repertory with, 326–27
using technology with, 327–28
infrahyoid muscles, 504, 505f, 506
In Quest of Answers: Interviews with American Choral Conductors (Glenn), 49–50
integration, 388–89
interarytenoid (IA) muscles, 496, 497f, 501
intercostal muscles, 500
interdisciplinary approaches, programming, 287–88
interdisciplinary field of study, 2
Internal Mission of Music (Kodály), 89
International Championship of Collegiate A Cappella (ICCA), 39, 61
international music organizations, 326
international perspectives, 223–26
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), 327, 328
Internet resources
for Black South African choral music, 242
for boychoir repertoire, 422
for communicating with diverse music informants, 327
for diverse music, 326, 340n1
(p. 531) intervals, 56, 99–100
intonation, 178. See also pitch, sense of
blend and, 310
a cappella and, 99–100
in Germany, 273
invisible instrument, 473
iPod generation, 51–52
“I Sing in a Choir but I Have ‘No Voice’ ” (O’Toole), 2, 17
Japan, sight reading in, 223
jaws, 504, 505f, 506
jaw-shaking, 442
Jazz Singing: Developing Artistry and Authenticity (Spradling), 38
Jellison, J., 358
Jesus Christ, 436
Jeyaraman, Srividhya, 337f
John, R., 26–27
John Cooksey’s “eclectic” scheme (Ashley), 154t
Jordan, James, 21
Jorgensen, Estelle, 358, 426–27
Joropo, 290
journal entries, 73
Joyce, V. M., 255, 256
A Jubilant Song (Clausen), 482–84
A Kaleidoscope of Choirs concert, 289
Kegerreis, R., 402–3
Kestenberg, Leo, 263
key center
in Black South African choral music, 245
in pedagogical programming, 313–14
programming questions regarding, 282, 285
Khöömii (overtone singing), 333
kinaesthetic learning, 158–59
kinaesthetic vocal exercises, 473–77, 479–80
Kingsbury, H., 144n4
The King’s Singers, 409–10
Knowee (Leek), 288, 298
knowledge brokers, 113, 115
knowledge co-construction. See co-construction
Knowles, M. S., 351–52
Knox, A., 352, 354
Kodály, Zoltán, 425
on active musical experiences, 90–91, 92
on authenticity, 102n2
on a cappella, 99, 102nn17–18
“Children’s Choir” article by, 90
“Children’s Choruses” article by, 89
Choral Method Series by, 96–98
on Europe, 88–89, 95–96
first choral pieces for children by, 102n3
Hungarian music culture and, 87–88
on Hungarian peasant songs, 88, 102n2
“Hungarians in Music” article by, 95–96
on inner hearing, 93–94, 102nn10–11
Internal Mission of Music by, 89
Let’s Sing Correctly by, 99, 100
“Musical Life in a Provincial Town” article by, 91, 97
on musical taste, 94–95
on music teachers, 101, 102n20
on pentatonic scales, 100
on polyphony, 96
Psalmus Hungaricus by, 89
on rehearsal focuses, 161
on relative solmization, 98–99
on rhythm, 99
on school music education, 90–92, 100–101, 102n8
on semitones, 100
on singing and passivity, 90–91
on social solidarity, 92
on spiritual nourishment, 89–90, 101, 102n7
on value of choral music for children, 92–93
variety of pedagogical compositions by, 97, 98
Korn, Michael, 405, 406, 408
Koza, J. E., 156
Krueger, George, 35
Kruse, N. B., 352
Kunstwerk (masterwork), 264
Lakoff, G., 324
Lakschevitz, Arthur, 249–50
Lakschevitz, Elza, 251, 258, 259, 261nn3–4
Lamb, R., 185–86
Lamentations— O vos omnes (Ginastera), 290, 300
(p. 532) Lamperti, Francisco, 501–2
Lamperti, Giovanni, 502
Landesjugendchor (state youth honor choirs), 272
Lareau, A., 389
Larsen, Libby, 349
larynx
ideal tone quality and lowered, 503–4
in male voice change, 152–53
position in bel canto and diverse music, 332, 333
raised soft palate and lowered, 506, 508
relaxation and lowered, 504, 505f, 506
source-filter theory, vowels, and, 506, 507 [link] –508f
vocal exercises for lowering, 506, 508–9
vocal onset and, 495, 496t, 501
lateral crico-arytenoid (LCA) muscles, 496 [link] –497f, 501
Lawrence University Concert Choir, 288, 298–99
lay choirs. See choirs, amateur German
Leach, A. T., 439–40
leadership, 69
of conductors, 107, 209
in informal music learning study, 72, 74, 75, 77, 80
in LGBTQ choruses, 367–68
learning
adult, 351–54, 357
adult music, 355
participation and, 353
learning theories
adult, 351–53
constructivist, 110–11
informal music learning, 83–84
learning-to-learn skills, 354
Leary, Mark, 461–62
LeBorgne, Wendy D., 39–41
Leck, Henry, 155–56, 419
Leek, Stephen, 288, 298
legato, 233, 494
Leonardo Dreams of His Flying Machine (Whitacre), 60
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer (LGBTQ), 363, 364. See also LGBTQ choral pedagogy; LGBTQ choruses
Let’s Sing Correctly (Kodály), 99, 100
LGBTQ choral movement, 365–66
LGBTQ choral pedagogy, 378
questions regarding, 364, 377–78
transgender, resonance and, 376–77
LGBTQ choruses. See also programming, LGBTQ choral
activism and, 369–72
belonging in, 366–69
blend in, 374–75, 376, 377
budget of, 365
church music in, 372
director and leadership in, 367–68
inclusion in, 364, 366–69
as minority community, 368
minority status of, 363–64
transgender visibility in, 369, 377
transgender voice changes in, 375–77
lifespan view of music, 346–47, 349, 358, 359
lifestyle sector, 131, 132, 136
lighting, 288, 289
Lincoln Park, 75
Lisk, E. S., 20–21
listening skills, 82, 141. See also hearing
literacy, 160, 349, 425, 477–78
logistics, 287, 288–89
Los Angeles Master Chorale, 405
Los Angeles Philharmonic, 405
love and belonging, need for, 356, 461–63
Luther, Martin, 305
Lutheran Church, 305
Lutheran college choirs, 47
lutte vocale (vocal struggle), 501
lyrics. See also song meanings; text; translations
in teaching diverse music, 327, 328
MacKay, D. G., 357
Mackey, E., 383, 384–85
Maclachlan, H., 373, 374
(p. 533) madrigals, 311
male youth choirs. See also boychoirs
English choral tradition and, 224
vocal sound of, compared to female youth choirs, 167–68, 173–74
male youth choruses, 163. See also boychoirs
kinaesthetic learning in, 158–59
male identity and, 150
missing members of, 149, 156
musical skills in, 159–61
range in, 153, 155–56, 159
reasons for running, 149–51
rehearsal in, 161
repertoire for, 151
role models in, 157–58
subculture of, 150
voice change in, 152–56, 159–60
warm-up exercises for, 162, 177
male youth voice. See also gender
anatomy and physiology of, 152–56, 172–74
sound compared between male and female youth choirs, 167–68, 173–74
vocal production of, 175
Manchester Cathedral, 169, 180n1
Manchester Cathedral Voluntary Choir, 169
Mancini, G., 494
Mandl, Louis, 501
Mantie, R., 353
marginalization, 16
markings, 411–12
mask, singing in, 479, 513
Maslow, Abraham, 355–56. See also hierarchy of needs
Motivation and Personality by, 457–58, 459, 460, 463, 466, 467
Mass in G major (Schubert), 24–25
masterwork (Kunstwerk), 264
mastery, 464
Matiure, Sheasby, 328, 331f
McDonald, Brody, 37–38, 39
McFerrin, Bobby, 290, 298
McGee, I. R., 403
McLin, Lena, 439–40
meaning, making and multiplicity of. See also constructivism
conductors on, 197–98
improved performance experiences and, 200–201
questions for, 198
relationships and, 201
self-expression and, 199–200
singers and, 198–201
meaningfulness in music ensembles, research on, 209–10. See also feminist pedagogy choral rehearsal case study
meanings, notational, 316
medial compression (glottal “chink”), 496f, 497, 501
megaphone shape, 510f, 511f
Megill, Andrew, 406, 408, 411, 412, 413–14
member checks, 70
membership. See also enrollment issues
declining, 270, 271–72, 273–74
fees, 388, 389
memory decline, episodic, 357
Mendelssohn, Felix, 56
mental engagement, 194
Merriam, S., 353
Messiah (Handel), 232
metacognition, 122, 123, 211, 354
metacurricular approach, 354
metaphysics, 50
meter, 316
Metropolitan Opera Chorus (the MET), 407, 412, 413
microphones, 33
middle school male voice pedagogy, 418, 419, 424
middle voice, 481
midwife-teacher model, 187, 188
military choral groups, U.S., 407, 412, 413
Miller, R., 150
Miller, Richard, 492, 498, 508, 513
minorities, visible, 397n2
minority community
BGM as, 369
LGBTQ choruses as, 368, 369
minority status, 363–64
Miranda, Marlui, 337f
Mirrored Messages concert, 287, 288, 296–98
mirror neurons, 141, 145n22, 324
monotone, 133
(p. 534) motivational teaching, 353–54
Motivation and Personality (Maslow), 457–58, 459, 460, 463, 466, 467
movement. See also logistics
in BGM, 442, 443t, 444, 450n5
Black South African choral music, cross-rhythms, and, 241
in boychoirs, 425
in diverse music, 334, 335f
introducing to students of Black South African choral music, 243–44
programming, 289–90, 314
La Muerte Del Ángel(The Death Of An Angel) (Piazzolla), 288–89, 297
Mulroney, Brian, 385
multicultural education, 319. See also diversity
multiculturalism, Canada, 381
biculturalism and, 383
colonialism and, 383, 384–85
critique of policies of, 384–86
history of, 382–84, 397n2
inclusion in language of GTA youth choirs and, 390–91, 395–96
paradox of, 385, 395
people of color in, 383, 397n2
racism and, 384–85
stereotypes and, 385–86
vocal health in youth choirs and, 393–94
multicultural octavos, 321–22
multigenerational phenomenon, 418, 421
Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy (Green), 69
Musical Art Society, 402–3
musical challenges, 222–23
musical forces, 174–75, 181n16
“Musical Life in a Provincial Town” (Kodály), 91, 97
musical moment, 464
musical quality
activism, inclusion, and, 369–70
activism, repertoire, and, 371–72
in pop choral television shows, 32
musicals, 266–67, 274
musical skills
in collegiate men’s chorus, 471–72, 485–86
developed with Choral Method Series, 98
ensemble skills as, 413
in male youth choruses, 159–61
pop choral television show results for, 43
musical taste, 94–95
music as community, 484
musicianship
collaboration and, 196–97
expectations in large professional choruses, 411–12
musicking, 368, 434, 450n2
music literacy, 160, 425
Music Participation: Theory, Research, and Policy (Gates), 349–50, 351
Music Rules at Home and in Life (Musikalische Haus- und Lebensregeln) (Schumann), 94
music schools, specialist, 170, 181n7
Musikalische Haus- und Lebensregeln (Music Rules at Home and in Life) (Schumann), 94
mutational voice, 154t, 417
Myers, D., 346–47, 358, 359
mythologies, choir, 140–41, 145n21
Nally, Donald, 406, 411, 413
nasal cavity, 511, 512f, 513
National Association for Music Education (NAfME), 50, 53–54, 444
National Association for Music Merchants (NAMM), 347
National Endowment for the Arts, 405
National Gay and Lesbian Choral Festival, U.S., 365
“The Need to Belong: Desire for Interpersonal Attachments as a Fundamental Human Motivation” (Baumeister and Leary), 461–62
Netherlands, choral tradition of, 226
Netherlands Radio Choir, 404
Neuen, D., 513
(p. 535) New Horizons International Music Association (NHIMA), 347, 355
New School for Social Research, 14
New York, 406–7, 411
non-music majors, 471–72, 485–86
non-singers
boychoirs and, 428
in Brazilian corporate choirs, 255, 256
in different cultures, 144n3
new choral movements and, 135–36
singers, talent, and, 132–34, 144n5
notation
alternative systems for, 330, 330f, 331f
Black South African choral music and Western, 240–41
diverse music and limitations of Western, 322
historical changes in meanings of, 316
in scores with audio recordings of diverse music, 321
Nussbaum, M., 324
Ockeghem, Johannes, 284, 294
octave displacement, 424
Office of Standards in Education for England and Wales, 227–28
Oklahoma Symphony Orchestra, 309
onset, vocal
larynx and, 495, 496t, 501
phonation relationship to, 498
three main types of, 495
vocal folds and, 495, 496 [link] –497f, 498
On The Transmigration Of Souls (Adams), 289
“On the Voice: Working with the Senior Adult Choir” (VanWeelden), 355, 356, 357
openness, 109, 286–87
opera choirs, 270, 271
opposition, 442
optimal experience. See flow
oratorios, 305, 306
Orff, Carl, 287, 288, 296
organists, 168, 169, 181nn13–14, 225, 229
Ormandy, Eugene, 47
ornamentation, vocal, 333
Orpheus Chamber Ensemble, 18–19
O Schöne Nacht (Brahms), 58
oscillation, 493f
Os Justi (Bruckner), 60
“othering,” 16
O’Toole, Patricia, 2, 16, 17, 394
overtone singing (Khöömii) (Xöömei), 333
ownership
agency and, 210
collaboration and, 195–96
transfer of, in rehearsal, 21
Oxford Movement, 221
Oxford University Press database, 1
pacifism. See antiwar musical works
pacing, rehearsal, 412
Page, Nick, 291
Palestrina, G. P., 95–96
Palmer, A. J., 321–22
Palumbo, Donald, 412, 413
participation, 2
audience, 285, 290–91, 437
learning and, 353
partnering, 27
part-switching, 424
part-time choirs, professional, 407
church choirs as, 408
supplemental income for members of, 408
passaggio, 155, 162, 421, 482
passion
of conductors, 233–34
settings as pedagogical compositions, 305–6
passivity, 107
constructivism and, 206
singing and, 91
Peabody Conservatory Children’s Chorus, 456, 468
peak experiences, 468
Pearson, Lester B., 383
Pearson Commission, 384
peasant songs. See Hungarian peasant songs
pedagogues, contemporary singing, 40. See also specific pedagogues
pedagogy. See also compositions, pedagogical; conducting pedagogy; critical pedagogy; feminist pedagogy; performance-pedagogy paradox; programming, pedagogical; radical pedagogy (p. 536)
andragogy and, 352
for rehearsal of large professional choruses, 410–14
for rehearsal of professional choirs, 408–10
pedagogy of resistance, 25
peer-directed learning, 69
in informal music learning study, 71–72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 80, 82, 83
Peisner, Aaron, 18
pentatonic scales, 100
people of color, 383, 397n2
perception, change in student, 72, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 82, 83
perception, change in teacher, 75, 76, 78, 80, 81–82
percussion instruments, 439, 450n4
“Perfect Harmony: How Singing in a Choir Can Make Us More ‘Moral’ ” (Bingham), 467
performance, 27
books on historical practices of, 316
improved experiences of, 200–201
pedagogical programming and practices for, 315–16
public, 255–56, 352
performance-pedagogy paradox, 347
performative, identity as, 130–31
personal identity theory, 5
personality, 138–40
personalizing, 27
personal musical identity, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 80, 82
Peterson, C., 144n5
Peterson, Vince, 289, 293
The Philadelphia Singers, 405
Philippines
sight reading in, 223
Tinikling from, 335f
Phillips, K., 153
phonation
principles of, 492–99
vocal exercises for, 475
vocal onset relationship to, 498
physiological needs, 356, 459–60
physiology. See anatomy and physiology
piano, 243
piano, 233
Piazzolla, Astor, 288–89, 297
Pietistic poetry, 305
pitch, sense of, 99–100, 178, 245. See also intonation
Pitch Perfect, 33, 34, 42
Planning instruction in music: Writing objectives, assessments, and lesson plans to engage artistic processes (Abrahams, F. and John, R.), 26–27
Plato, 115
plosive onset, 495–96, 513–14
poetry, 284, 305
point, 478–79, 482
politics, 19–20
education as, 15–16
in LGBTQ programming, 371–72, 373–74
polyphony, 96
pop choral music, 31, 43. See also television shows, pop choral
pop singing, 37–38
popular music, 258
pop vocal groups, 34–35
portamento, 494–95, 509
positive attitude, 260
possible selves framework, 422
postmutational voice, 154t, 417
postwar era, 47
Poulenc, Francis, 59
power, 17–19
in Brazilian corporate choirs, 254
equalization of, in feminist pedagogy, 189
flux, relationships, and, 142–43
hierarchy in boychoirs, 427–28
practice
contemporary topics in, 6
theory and, 4, 143
practicum, 113
practitioners, 3, 114
predicting, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216
premutational voice, 154t, 417
presenting, 27
primus inter pares (first among equals), 20
printing considerations, programming, 287
prior experience, role of, 117, 256
(p. 537) privilege. See also whiteness
colonization and, 320
of cultures, in repertoire, 19
statistics of, 455–56
problem centering, 467
problem-posing education, 22
problem solving, 115–16
process, learning, 353
proctor, 428
proficiency theory of adult learning, 352
programming. See also repertoire
accompaniment considerations in, 285
for Alaska All-State, 301
for ALL Northwest HS Festival, 295–96
audience participation, 285, 290–91
budget considerations for, 285–86
for A Century Apart concert, 299–300
context in, 284
grouping pieces in, 282–83, 285
interdisciplinary approaches to, 287–88
for A Kaleidoscope of Choirs concert, 289
for Lawrence University Concert Choir, 288, 298–99
length of pieces, 290
lighting, 288, 289
logistics in, 287, 288–89
for Mirrored Messages concert, 287, 288, 296–98
movement, 289–90, 314
musical risks in, 284–85
openness to suggestions for, 286–87
poetry and, 284
printing considerations with, 287
questions for preliminary, 282
rehearsal time and, 284
repertoire for boychoirs, 426–27
resources for, 282, 286
for A River Runs Through Us concert, 285, 292–93
selection questions for, 283–85
selection synthesis questions for, 287, 288, 289, 290
shortcomings in, 281
shuffle mode and, 51–52
for Six Degrees From JS Bach concert, 293–95
for Spirit, Moving Over Chaos concert, 292
synthesis of selections in, 286–91
of talking, 288, 314–15
themes in, 287
video projections, 289
for Whispers concert, 300–301
programming, LGBTQ choral. See also repertoire, LGBTQ choral
politics in, 371–72, 373–74
song meanings in, 372
programming, pedagogical
enrollment issues and, 310–11
ensemble goals and, 284, 308–10
environmental customs and, 311–12
flow, engagement, and, 313–15
key center in, 313–14
ontological experience of time in, 313–14
performance practices and, 315–16
visual stimulation in, 314–15
“Projeto Villa-Lobos,” 261n4
Prokofiev, Sergey, 307
pronunciation. See also accent
in Black South African choral music, 243, 244
prosody, 259
prosumers, 255
Protestant church music, 222, 249, 266, 305
proximal development, zone of, 205, 206
Psalmus Hungaricus (Kodály), 89
Puffer, Joseph, 457
pulsations, 333
Queer Musicology, 364
Queer Studies. See Gender or Queer Studies
questions, LGBTQ choral pedagogy, 364, 377–78
questions, sociological, 252
questions for choral ensembles, 57, 58, 59–60, 72
regarding collaboration, 193–94, 196
questions for conductors, 482
regarding programming, 282, 283–85, 287, 288, 289, 290
(p. 538) questions for learning
in informal music learning study, 66–67
regarding multiple meanings and meaning making, 198
in reciprocal teaching, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216
race. See also racism
class, Canadian community youth choirs, and, 389–90
class and, 389
Rachmaninoff, Sergei, 22–23, 212–15
racism
Canadian multiculturalism and, 384–85
color-blind, 391, 392, 396
radical pedagogy, 25
radio choirs, 270–71, 403–4
Radocy, R., 355
range, 154t
in diverse music, 332
in male youth choruses, 153, 155–56, 159
of popular repertoire, 41, 42
reciprocal teaching, 22–23. See also sociotransformative apprenticeship
applied components of, 212–16
components of, 211–12
recontextualizing, 322–25
re-creating music, 322–25
recruitment, 428. See also enrollment issues
reflection, 109, 115, 116, 117, 121, 123
reflexive identity maintenance, 131, 211
Reformation, 221, 305
Regelski, T., 17
registers. See also chest voice; head voice; middle voice
in boychoirs, 418–19
in middle school male voice pedagogy, 418, 419
resonance and navigating, 477
register transition
in collegiate men’s choruses, 482
vocal exercises for, 162, 481–82, 483–84
rehabilitation, vocal, 493–94
rehearsal. See also feminist pedagogy choral rehearsal case study; vocal exercises; vocal pedagogy in choral rehearsal
aural, 329
in Brazilian corporate choirs, 259–60
challenges to traditions of, 5
conversation in, 18
efficient and effective, 233
focuses of, 161
focus on repertoire in, 17
in Germany, 273
of A Jubilant Song, 482–84
in male youth choruses, 161
ownership transfer in, 21
pacing of, 412
pedagogy for large professional choirs, 408–10
pedagogy for professional choruses, 410–14
portamento exercises in, 495
programming and time available for, 284
prosumers, Brazilian corporate choirs, and, 255
refashioning procedures for diverse music, 328–29
of repertoire for boychoirs, 423–26
repertoire selection and collaborative, 52–53
repetition in, 161
requirements for flow, 142–43
resonance in, 482, 484, 512–14
reverse engineering in, 54–55, 60–61
strategies for, 21–25
Reimer, Bennett, 107
relationships, 142–43
in choirs, 413–14
meaning multiplicity, meaning making, and, 201
between vocal onset and phonation, 498
relaxation, 504, 505f, 506
religion, 60
repertoire. See also diverse music; programming
accessibility of, 310–11
activism, musical quality, and, 371–72
boychoirs, critical pedagogy, and, 422
boychoir selection of, 420–23
of Brazil, 249, 257–59
Canadian youth choir, 392–93
choosing with diverse music informants, 326–27
collaborative rehearsal and selection of, 52–53
contemporary, 41–42, 43 (p. 539)
cultivation of musical taste through, 94–95
cultural privilege in, 19
of GALA Choruses, 373
gender and, 178
of GTA youth choirs, 394–95
of individuals in diverse cultures, 338
intention of composer in pedagogical, 303–4
for male youth choruses, 151
mediocrity and renaissance in English, 222
pedagogical, 317
pedagogical compositions in, 97, 98, 304–8
of pop choral television shows, 41–42, 43
programming boychoir, 426–27
range of popular, 41, 42
rehearsal focus on, 17
rehearsing for boychoir, 423–26
searching for diverse music, 321–22
text in appropriate BGM, 441–42
voice impact and,