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date: 27 January 2020

(p. 795) Index

(p. 795) Index

Note: References to figures are denoted by ‘f’ in italics following the page number.

Adams, Carol, 415
advertising, 470–493. See also responsibility
agrarianism, 6, 57–58, 61, 333
contemporary, 61–64
environmentalism and, 256–259
agricultural sciences, 30. See also agriculture
agriculture, 53–65
alternatives in practices of, 46, 44–46, 85
animal-friendly, 242
biomimicry in, 45–46
biotechnology as sustainable, 46–48
conservation, 86
contract, 383–388
conventional, 46, 33, 37, 79
in developing nations, 382–383
factory farming in, 253, 276, 279
and food waste, 314318
global challenges for, 368–370
history of, 61
organic, 69–79, 84–87
philosophy of, 53–58
politics of, 427–446
sustainable, 29–50
waste in, 11, 87
agronomy, 30
Althusser, Louis, 603–604
Anderson, Rohan, 182
animal farming, 79, 44–46, 142n12
and the environment, 243, 246, 296
humane, 8, 171
human consumption and, 241–263
industrial, 78, 87–88, 170, 220–221, 273, 276–281, 296
Animal Liberation, 3
Animal Machines, 23
animal welfare, 79, 139–164, 248, 279–281
animal cognition and, 163–164
animal suffering and, 217–221, 230–231
human food and, 1, 190191
Ankeny, Rachel A., 6
Aquinas, 765–767
Arab Spring, 368
Argentina, 100
Aristotle, 6, 58, 61–62, 322, 748–751, 764–765
Aschwanden, Christie, 176
Atleo, Marlene, 351, 357
Augustine, 764
Australia, 109
Barnhill, Anne, 609
Barry, Brian, 39
Baumrin, Bernard, 321
Beitz, Charles, 76
Bekoff, Marc, 161
Bentham, Jeremy, 55, 217
Berg, Paul, 99
Berry, Wendell, 55, 62, 64, 257
biodiversity, 1, 7, 32, 427. See also environment
biofuels, 2, 72–73
biotechnology, 30. See also technology
Bloch, Ernst, 307
Bloomberg, Michael, 455
Boisvert, Raymond, 62–63
Boorse, Christopher, 566
Bordo, Susan, 560, 563, 570, 574–575
(p. 796) Borlaug, Norman, 76, 88, 98, 427, 431
Bourdieu, Pierre, 515
Bowe, John, 1
Bratman, Steven, 553, 555–558, 564
Bray, Heather J., 6
Brazil, 100
Broom, Donald, 160–161
Brownsword, Roger, 453
Bruckner, Donald, 247
Brundtland, Gro Harlem, 38, 41
Budolfson, Mark, 274, 291, 294
Butz, Earl, 385
Callicott, J. Baird, 256–257
Campbell, T. Colin, 213
Campbell, Thomas, 213
Campos, Paul, 602
Carens, Joseph, 531
Carruthers, Peter, 242, 252–253
Carson, Rachel, 56
Casal, Paula, 21
cattle, 139–164
desire and, 149–156
pain and, 143–149
self-consciousness and, 156–162
Cerulli, Tovar, 172–173, 175, 177, 185–186
Césaire, Aimé, 340
Chavez, Cesar, 56
Chignell, Andrew, 1011, 20, 23, 295
Choudry, Aziz, 420
Christianity, 763, 789. See also religion
climate change, 72–73, 85–86
Cohen, Andrew Jason, 320321
Cohen, Carl, 251
colonialism, 347–349, 354, 358–362
community-supported agriculture (CSA) farms, 30, 34, 49
Comstock, Gary, 9
confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), 35, 54, 56
Conly, Sarah, 16
consequentialism, 6, 57. See also ethics
consumer ethics, 911, 267–285, 404. See also advertising; ethics; responsibility
consumption, 911
ethics of, 50, 487
local, 48–50
sustainable, 29–31
Conway, Anne, 774, 779–783
Conway, Gordon, 87
Cox, Christopher, 248
Crenshaw, Kimberlé, 401, 587
culture
and food messaging, 593–612
food traditions as products of, 338–341
and identity, 462–465
nature and, 31–33
See also ideology; media
Cuneo, Terence, 250–251
Curtin, Deane, 3
Darwall, Stephen, 454
Davis, Steven, 246–247, 259
Deaton, Angus, 77
deep ecology, 67–68, 76. See also environment
deforestation, 7. See also environment
DeGrazia, David, 247
DeLind, Laura, 114–116, 120–121
democracy, 346
deontology, 6, 57, 292, 420. See also ethics
Descartes, René, 776–779
Deschampe, Norman, 346
Desmarais, Annette, 127
Diet for a Small Planet, 34
disgust, 637–653. See also food
divine command theory, 288, 292. See also ethics
Dixon, Beth, 18
Doggett, Tyler, 17, 297
Dombrowski, Daniel, 22
DuBois, W.E.B., 337–338
Dunsmuir, Pamela, 99
Dworkin, Gerald, 453
eating. See consumption
economics, 2, 30
environmental, 81
of industrial agriculture, 4, 573
mainstream, 82
education, 82, 349, 546
Emsley, John, 76
energy, 30, 72, 316. See also fossil fuels
(p. 797) environment
agriculture and the, 1, 4, 31–33, 67–93, 111, 115
animal products and the, 243, 246
change in the, 354
ecosystems and the, 74
harm to the, 71–72, 105, 253–259, 267, 315318, 374, 427
problems for the, 7, 43
stewardship of the, 359
trade-offs and the, 79–84, 93
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 128
Environmental Working Group (EWG), 45
Estabrook, Barry, 494–495
ethics, 2
ancient, 741–756
of eating, 648–653, 767–771
environmental, 31, 68
for fish, 189205
of a foodie, 722–738
and food labor, 501–509
of food policy, 1618
and GM foods, 103–108
immigration, 510
international, 126
medieval, 759–772
and moral character, 680–698
normative, 2
optimality and, 79–84
practical, 2
and religion, 288n3
Europe, 100–101, 109
fairness, 371n30
and food, 367–392
and market fundamentalism, 370–376
See also food justice
Fast Food Nation, 3
feminism
and agriculture, 53
and body image, 18
and diet, 572–584
fertilizers, 7, 69, 85, 315. See also agriculture
Fischer, Bob, 10
fish, 128, 184, 189205
global catch of, 204
wild capture of, 195198
See also fishing; oceans
fishing
collective action and, 201204
communities of, 198201
sustainability of, 201202
See also fish; oceans
Flora, Cornelia, 130
Floros, John, 296
food
aesthetics of, 658–676
alternative systems of, 113, 130
in ancient thought, 741–756
choices of, 113, 116, 680–698
and collective continuance, 355–358
community control of, 113
and cultural practices, 1922, 113
and eating disorders, 580
and etiquette, 700–720
global markets and, 367–392
and identity, 637–653
industrial systems of, 171–172
insecurity and, 572–592
in the Middle Ages, 761–763
and moral character, 680–698
morality of, 658–676
and personal freedom, 449–469
racial imperialism and traditions of, 336–338
and social identities, 1922
sustainable systems of, 69, 112, 353–355
transportation of, 48–49, 116
waste of, 12, 11, 313330, 314f
food activism, 30
multi-issue, 399–420
mutual understanding in, 415–419
solidarity in, 410–415
unity in, 407–410
See also food
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 449, 478. See also governmental agencies
food deserts, 13, 120–121, 333. See also food
food ethics, 54–57, 333
contemporary, 54
(p. 798)
history of, 23, 22
and hunting, 170–187
and local food movements, 113
race and, 14, 333–342
food justice, 1215, 30, 127, 180
and food sovereignty, 345–364
and indigenous peoples, 347–350, 358–364
food justice movement, 1213. See also food justice
food labor
ethics and, 494–515
temporary, 521550
food science, 6, 69. See also food; science
foodshed, 70, 70n4, 77
food sovereignty, 1415, 77–79, 127, 130–131
and food justice, 345–364
and food security, 584–587
and indigenous peoples, 347–350, 358–364
See also food; food justice
fossil fuels, 7, 43, 74, 314, 316, 326. See also environment
Fourier, Charles, 790–791
France, 316
Francione, Gary, 415
free trade, 77–78. See also globalization; neoliberalism
Freyfogle, Eric, 62
Gaarder, Emily, 415
Galvin, Richard, 244
Garrett, Aaron, 23
Garrett, Jeremy, 244
Garry, Ann, 587
Gaus, Gerald, 435–436, 441–443
gender, 1819, 401, 417
genetically modified organisms (GMOs), 4, 34, 36, 46–48, 86, 95–111
the broader food system and, 108–109
ethical debates about, 103–109
food policymaking and, 109–110
history of, 96–101
public attitudes to, 101–102
technologies of, 106
See also technology
geography, 2
geopolitical stability, 78, 78n28
George, Kathryn Paxton, 249–250
Gilbert, Margaret, 225
Gilson, Erinn, 180
globalization, 78, 367–392. See also free trade; neoliberalism
governmental agencies, 113, 449–469. See also food; health
Grandin, Temple, 144
greenhouse gases (GHGs), 78, 318, 328. See also environment
Greenpeace, 100
Green Revolution, 5, 87–88, 98, 107, 125
Grey, John, 23
Grotius, Hugo, 55
guerilla gardening campaigns, 127. See also local food movements
Guptill, Amy E., 20
Guthman, Julie, 614
Hagen, Kristin, 160–161
Halteman, Matthew, 297
Hanson, Victor Davis, 58
Hare, R. M., 245
harm footprint, 67
Harper, A. Breeze, 415–416
Harrington, James, 59
Harris, John, 244
Harvest of Shame (documentary), 23
Hatala Matthes, Erich, 1, 11
Hatala Matthes, Jaclyn, 1, 11
health
animal, 103–104
environmental, 105
ideals of, 570
orthorexia and, 553–571
Heldke, Lisa, 3, 62–63
herbicides, 4, 34–35
Hettinger, Ned, 256
Hobbes, Thomas, 433–434, 783
Holmes, Seth, 17, 500, 513
Holt-Giménez, Eric, 399
Howard, Sir Albert, 46
(p. 799) Howarth, Richard, 39
Hsiao, Timothy, 242
humanity, 68, 74, 104
harm to, 105
suffering and, 173
Hume, David, 472
hunger, 3, 13. See also food
hunting, 170–187, 197
and the biotic good, 183–187
conservation and, 180–183
ethics of, 170n3, 180
humaneness and suffering in, 172–173, 181
and local food, 171–175
and the natural cycle of life and death, 177–179
responsibility, killing, and emotion in, 175–183
transparency and, 173–175
Huxley, T.H., 32
ideology, 33–34
of conventional agriculture, 36–37
dieting as, 572–592
of sustainable agriculture, 34–36
See also culture
immigration, 521550. See also food labor
India, 98
indigenous rights movements, 31, 64, 127–128, 131. See also food justice; food sovereignty
industrial agriculture. See agriculture
integrated pest management (IPM), 35
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 367, 401
Isaacs, Tracy, 18
Islam, 763. See also religion
Jackson, Wes, 55, 62
Jaworska, Agnieszka, 220
Jayaraman, Saru, 494–495
Jefferson, Thomas, 6, 60, 337
Jensen, Derrick, 120, 131
Jensen, Jon, 176
Judaism, 763. See also religion
justice
distributive, 13, 76
global, 6, 73–79
intergenerational, 1314
procedural, 13
Kagan, Shelly, 272
Kahneman, Daniel, 459
Kant, Immanuel, 55, 299305, 307, 334, 337, 711–714, 791
Keith, Lierre, 32
Kelly, Daniel, 20
Kemmerer, Lisa, 290
Keys, Ancel, 578
Kim, Claire Jean, 419
Kingsolver, Barbara, 1, 112, 127n71
Kittay, Eva, 415
Kleinig, John, 453
Kneeland, Jessi, 576
Ko, Aph, 415, 418
Ko, Syl, 415
Kukla, Rebecca, 18, 565
Kutz, Christopher, 279
Lagerlund, Kent, 22
Lamey, Andy, 246–247
LaMott, Anne, 570
Lehman, Hugh, 249–250
Leopold, Aldo, 178, 256–257
Liao, Shen-yi, 2122
Lincoln, Abraham, 60–61
Lipscolm, Benjamin, 257
List, Charles, 9
local food movements, 6, 112–132, 170–187
community-focused sub-movement of, 115, 119, 126–131
and the environment, 112–113
farm-to-table in, 117
and the food industry, 112
and food policy, 112
individual-focused sub-movement of, 115–121
politics of, 124–125, 129–130
and radical social transformation, 113
and social justice, 112–114
systems-focused sub-movement, 122–126
Locke, John, 61, 321
Lowe, M. R., 578
Lugones, Maria, 587
MacClellan, Joel, 243
Macpherson, C. B., 59
Maimonides, 764
malnutrition, 1, 13, 213, 540. See also nutrition
marginalization, 13, 401
Marris, Emma, 171, 176
Mason, Jim, 91n49, 126
Matheny, Gaverick, 246
McBride, Lee A., 1415
McCaulou, Lily, 175, 181
McJetters, Christopher-Sebastian, 417
McPherson, Tristram, 10
McWilliams, Carey, 56
meat, 73–74
animal suffering and, 268–269
factory farms for, 268, 279–280
media, 573–584. See also culture
Mepham, Ben, 3
Merritt, Michele, 608–609
Mertz, Janet, 99
Meskin, Aaron, 2122
Mexico, 98
Meyers, C. D., 248
Michaelson, Elliot, 9, 292
Mill, James, 380
Mill, John Stuart, 59, 380, 454, 732–733, 790
Mohanty, Chandra, 588
monoculture, 5
Monsanto, 100
Montaigne, Michel de, 775–778
Montesquieu, 784–785
moral vegans
arguments for veganism and, 88–93, 164, 243, 417
Black feminist, 415
on the eating of living things, 8
and the environment, 45
the ethical basis of, 10, 209–236, 247, 250, 403, 559, 599
feminism and, 418
See also veganism
Morar, Nicolae, 20
Moskal, L. Monika, 49
Mozi, 288289
multinational corporations, 77
Murrow, Edward R., 56
natural capital, 80, 82
natural resources, 80, 82, 388–392. See also environment; natural capital
Navin, Mark, 126
Nefsky, Julia, 1011
neoliberalism, 15, 77, 114, 370, 401. See also globalization; ideology
New Zealand, 109
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 773
Nolfi, Kate, 21
Noll, Samantha, 6, 9, 124
Norcross, Alastair, 272
Norton, Bryan, 39
nutrition, 90f, 353, 581, 783
footprint of, 88–93
of staples, 89
See also food; malnutrition
Obama, Michelle, 561
obesity, 18, 459, 614–631. See also health
oceans, 29. See also fish; fishing
Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3
O’Neil, Catherine, 128
Orbach, Susie, 574
organics, 69–79, 84–86, 114, 469. See also agriculture; food
Organista, Kurt, 500
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 367
Ortega y Gasset, José, 178
Parfit, Derek, 38
Patel, Raj, 589–590
paternalism, 449–469, 472, 482–484. See also food; health
Patterson, Charles, 415–416
Pellegrini, Georgia, 173, 175, 177, 179
Peragine, Natalie, 418
permaculture, 70–71. See also agriculture; environment
Philippines, 98
philosophy, 2
agrarian, 54, 57–58
industrial, 53–54
of language, 474n12, 475–482
and local food movements, 118–119
political, 2, 428
See also ethics
Plato, 744–748
Pogge, Thomas, 76, 233
political economy, 59–61
Pollan, Michael, 112, 117, 127n71, 175, 178, 222, 242
Portman, Anne, 182
poverty, 367, 548. See also food labor; humanity
Powers, Madison, 15
Powys Whyte, Kyle, 1415, 21
progressivism, 113
public health, 116, 268n3, 354, 375, 399. See also health; obesity
Rachels, Stuart, 221
Rauch, Doug, 329
Regan, Tom, 141–142, 249, 252, 415
Reisner, Andrew, 9
religion, 11, 140, 354
dietary practices and, 287309, 564–567
and ethics, 288n3, 297299
and food, 287292, 762
freedom of, 439
Kantian, 299303
responsibility, 470–493
and character, 595–597
without fault, 475–482
freedom of speech and, 485–490
obesity and, 614–631
See also ethics
Ricardo, David, 59, 372, 380
Richardson, Jeffrey J., 49
rights theory, 142, 149, 242
and animal rights, 249–259
See also ethics
Rinella, Steven, 182–183
Rose, Nikolas, 602
Rougier, Louis, 371
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 787–789
rural life activism, 30
Sagoff, Mark, 320
Salatin, Joel, 242
Salt, Henry, 245
Sandler, Ronald, 20
Savulescu, Julian, 248
Schaefer, G. Owen, 248
Schanbacher, William, 125, 129, 405
science, 102
of DNA experiments, 99
of fish psychology and intelligence, 192195
Scruton, Roger, 243
Sebo, Jeff, 15
Sen, Amartya, 39
Sengupta, Shuddhabrata, 591
Shahar, Dan C., 16
Shattuck, Annie, 399
Shaw, Hank, 174, 186
Shepard, Paul, 176, 178
Shiffrin, Seana Valentine, 16
Shriver, Adam, 248
Sidgwick, Henry, 38
Silent Spring, 23
Singer, Peter, 3, 91n49, 126, 140–141, 222, 251–252, 272, 295, 415
Skeptics, 751–755
Smith, Adam, 372
Smith, Kimberley, 62
social justice, 1215, 417. See also justice
social movements, 30, 115
sociology, 2, 30
soils, 29, 41–42, 70, 79–80, 82. See also environment
Solow, Robert, 38, 41
Sorabji, Richard, 759
speciesism, 253–256, 416
Spelman, Elisabeth, 570, 587
Spiegel, Marjorie, 415–416
Spinoza, Baruch, 301, 304, 307, 778–779
spirituality, 353, 357. See also religion
(p. 802) Steiner, Rudolph, 34
Stiglitz, Joseph, 77
Stohr, Karen, 2122
Stoics, 764, 775–776
Stuart,Tristram, 22
Sunstein, Cass, 452
sustainability, 5, 79–84, 170
of alternative agricultural practices, 44–46
the concept of, 37–44
economic, 42, 44
environmental health and, 6, 105
intensification and, 6, 69, 84–88
myths of, 33–37
as non-depletionary use, 39–41
as prevention of deprivation, 38–39
the triple bottom line and, 43–44
weak, 81–84
See also agriculture
Tannenbaum, Julie, 220
Taylor, Sunaura, 415
Telfer, Elizabeth, 3
Thaler, Richard, 452
Thompson, Michael J., 320321
Thompson, Paul, 23, 6, 31
triple bottom line (TBL), 40–44. See also sustainability
Trosper, Ronald, 350–353, 355–357
Tsuruda, Sabine, 17
Tuttle, Will, 415
Tversky, Amos, 459
United Kingdom, 101, 109, 316317
United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 72
United States, 76, 96, 100–101, 109, 140, 315317, 324, 328329, 346–349, 378, 385, 472, 513, 526
USAID, 383
US Department of Agriculture (USDA), 13, 478
utilitarianism, 38–39, 142, 149
on consuming animal products, 242–248
contrast of rights theory and, 249
See also ethics
van Dyke, Christina, 19
Varga, Márta, 556
Varner, Gary, 145, 156
veganism, 3, 8, 10, 417
arguments for, 88–93, 213–235
ethical, 210–212, 227
the ethical basis of, 209–236
health benefits of, 241
objections to, 88–93, 246
and orthorexia, 560
vegetarianism, 22, 269n5, 275
health benefits of, 241
refusal of meat in, 269, 283–284
See also veganism
Villarejo, Don, 500
virtue theory, 292. See also ethics
Vogt, Katja Maria, 22
Walmart, 114, 116, 121, 125
water, 11, 79–80, 82, 315. See also environment
Welsh, Talia, 608
Werkheiser, Ian, 6, 9, 124
Wertheimer, Alan, 511
Whittman, Hannah, 125
Wilkerson, Abby, 590
Williamson, John, 371
Winne, Mark, 329
Wirzba, Norman, 62
Wolf, Clark, 5
Wolf, Susan, 22
World Bank, 367, 370, 383, 401
World Trade Organization (WTO), 77, 78n28, 367, 372, 377–379, 401
Young, Iris, 400
Yuen, Edward, 555
Zack, Naomi, 334
Zagzebski, Linda, 184
Zeneca, 99