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date: 28 February 2020

(p. 685) Index

(p. 685) Index

Note: Page references to tables and figures are indicated by t’s and f’s respectively.

A
Abba Isaiah 155
Abila, Jordan 394
Abruzzo, Italy 77, 210
Abu Mina, Egypt
basilica 676f
pilgrimage center 672, 675
accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) mortar dating 20
Achaea
Christianization of 527–28
church construction in 515, 531
Acts of the Council of Arles 604
ad sanctos burials 75, 94–95, 109, 218, 483, 588
Ad Vicesimum cemetery 77
affusion, baptism 173, 179
Africa
Ammaedara, Tunisia 648–54
Aradi, Tunisia 654–58
catacombs 83
conversion of temples in 263
general discussion 645–47
Henchir Sokrine 658–60
Horrea Caelia 660–62
map of sites and toponyms in 646f
African red slip (ARS) ware 300–1
Agat‘angeghos 452
Aghds‘k‘ tomb complex, Armenia 453–54
Agrigento, Sicily 82
aisles 136, 503
Ammaedara, Tunisia 648, 650, 652
Aradi, Tunisia 654, 656–57
Armenian churches 455, 465
church of Raḥalīya, Iraq 439
Church of St. Stephen, Jordan 402
converted Ionic peripteral temple 505
East Syrian churches 441–42
Henchir Sokrine church, Tunisia 659
Horrea Caelia basilica, Tunisia 661
Monte da Cegonha villa, Portugal 637
Pater Noster church complex in Jerusalem 375
Petra Church, Jordan 399
St. Sophia in Serdica 550
West Syrian churches 437
Alahan baptistery, Turkey 172–74, 173f, 174f
Alassa-Ayia Mavri burial site, Cyprus 111, 112, 116, 119
Alexandria, Egypt 343, 665, 670
Alexandrian Christianity 665–68
Aliki II basilica, Greece 116
al-Naq‘a cemetery 396
alousia 189–90, 201–2
Ambrose of Milan 94, 169, 222, 223, 227
American School of Classical Studies at Athens 6, 50–51, 105
Amfissa, Greece 179, 180f
Ammaedara (Haïdra), Tunisia 648–54
Ammonius 93–94
amphorae 53, 304–5, 308
ampullae 249, 297, 299, 308, 363, 466, 509, 510f, 526, 527, 675, 680
AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) mortar dating 20 (see also radiocarbon dating)
amulets
bronze 356–60
Christian symbols on 356–60
defined 352
emergence with Christian imagery 14
folded-media 360–62
form and function of 352–54
(p. 686)
gnostic 354
magical 352–55
overview 351–52
ritual power of 355–56
veneficiorum amuleta 352
Anastasis, church of, Jerusalem 374, 381
Anatolia (see Asia Minor)
andron 191, 372
Anemurium, Turkey 176, 352, 355–56, 527
Anglo-Saxons 603
conversion of 613–14
influence in southern and eastern Britain 610
influence on burial rites 613, 616
metalwork 618
Annals (Eutychius of Alexandria) 378f
Antinoopolis, Egypt 670, 671
Antiquity of the Jews (Josephus) 127
Apa Jeremias monastery, Egypt 305, 675–76
Aphrodisias, Turkey 334, 500
converted temple of Aphrodite 506f
Hadrianic baths 203
statues 338, 339, 341f, 345
apodyterion 100, 176, 200
Apollo 58, 323, 333, 339, 487, 523, 524, 527
apses 626
in Ammaedara’s basilicas, Tunisia 652
apse burials 110, 111
Constantinian Basilica 96
Henchir Sokrine, Tunisia 659
North African churches 647
Santa Pudenziana church, Rome 283–84
Séviac in Montréal-du-Gers private oratory 594
St. Catherine church, Egypt 285f
in synagogues 139
Apulia, Italy 80, 84, 210, 573
Aqaba church, Jordan 14, 131, 372, 392, 398
Aquileia, church of Fondo Tullio at 572
Aradi (Sidi Jdidi), Tunisia 654–58
Ararat, Mount, in Turkey 463
archaeodiet 120–21
Archaeological Institute of America 6
archaeological method 9–11
aerial reconnaissance 413
chemical analysis 397
climate science 21
excavation standards 396–97
geophysical survey 8, 20
regional survey 8, 10, 40, 53, 55, 58, 107, 141–42, 149, 151, 154–55, 157, 162, 413–15, 428, 474, 507, 516, 598–99 (see also settlement)
remote sensing 20, 53
scientific techniques 20, 106, 121–22, 141–42, 150–51, 162, 397, 558, 581, 627 (see also radiocarbon dating)
stratigraphic excavations 8–11, 14, 15, 42, 397, 474, 542, 557–58, 598, 631, 637, 647, 668
arcosolia 77, 80, 82, 83, 216
Ardwall Isle, Scotland 610
Arianism 286–87, 540, 541f, 571–72
Arius 540, 541f
Armenia
early Christian monuments 453–56
end of antiquity and 18
history of 452–53
map of sites and toponyms in 453f
mosaics 468–69
seventh century churches 456–64
stelae 466–68
Arnobius 540
Arsacid Empire 432–33, 434f, 452, 456
Artemon 333, 344
Ascension Church (Imbomon), Jerusalem 376, 383
Ashkelon, Israel 111, 112, 116, 117, 118
Asia Minor 55–56
bathhouse statues 339–40
burial customs 111
end of antiquity and 18–19
end of paganism 499–501
iconoclasm in 499
map of 496f
Martyrdom of Polycarp 90–93
material culture
Christian contribution to 501–3
fifth century onward 509–10
prior to Constantine 497–98
monastic communities 153–55
(p. 687)
paleodemography 117
rural Christianity 508
sculpture production 334
urban Christianity 504–8
Athanasius 93–94, 157, 666
Athens
Southwest Baths 193, 195f
temple conversion in 526
atria 136
Asia Minor 503, 505
Cyprus 174–75, 477
elite housing 52
Gaul 589
Greece 99
Italy 561
Jordan 399, 400
Palestine 374, 375, 379, 381
Spain 631
Augustus 54, 56, 57, 58
Aurilia Prokla, tomb of, Thessaloniki 521f
Ayios Giorgios tis Peyias, Cyprus 200
B
B100 church, Humayma, Jordan 397
Balkans 193
churches 544–53
map of sites and toponyms in 538f
spread of Christianity in 539–44
baptism (see also baptisteries, fonts, baptismal)
affusion 173, 179
defined 167
immersion 179
Baptism Site, Jordan 395, 401
baptisteries
affusion baptism 173, 179
Amfissa, Greece 180f
apodyterion 100, 176, 200
Balkan churches 546–48
baptismal fonts 167, 170f, 178–79, 180f
materials 171–72
plan of fourth-century squared baptismal font in Barcelona 628f
shapes 170–71
Bir Ftouha, Carthage, Tunisia 662
chrismarion 100, 176, 179
Cyprus 478–79
dedicated 176
freestanding 176–77, 178
function of 176–80
Gaul 587
in Greek provinces 519
Hagia Sophia, Constantinople 180f
Henchir Sokrine, Tunisia 660, 661
Horrea Caelia, Tunisia 661
immersion 179
katechumenon 100
Mértola, Portugal 631, 632f
North Africa 660–62
overview 167–68
photisterion 100
piscina 176, 179
positioning 177–78
preservation efforts 181–83
structure and design 168–76
Alahan, Turkey 172–74
general discussion 168–72
Kourion, Cyprus 174–76
Xanthus, Turkey 180f
Bar Kokhba revolt 369
bar Lipeh, Gabriel 442
Barnabas 54, 475
Barsanuphis 155–56
basilicas 134–41 (see also churches)
Byzantine period in Palestine 381
decoration and furnishings 136, 138
design of 136
function of 136–38
martyria 140
motivations of architectural design 140–41
orientation of in North Africa 646–47
pagan-based imperial cult and 138
Basil the Great (Basil of Caesarea) 153, 221
Bassus, Anicius Auchenius 309
baths
balnea 193
bathhouses 156, 339–40
of Caracalla 192–93, 192f
church and 199–204
in Late Roman cities 190–99
for lepers 201
overview 189–90
in Praetorium Complex 196f, 197f
public 190
of Serdjilla 191f
(p. 688) Bâtn el-Hawa tomb 34
Baudonivia 234
Bazyan, church of, Iraq 437–38, 438f
Beth Alpha synagogue, Israel 279
Bethlehem, Church of the Nativity 140, 376, 377f, 378f, 383
Beth She’an (see Scythopolis)
betyl 107–8
Binbirkilise, Turkey 6
bioarchaeology 21
archaeodiet 120–21
burial customs 108–11
Christianization and 107–8
early Christian sites 112, 113t–15t, 116
health, disease, and lifestyle 118–20
mobility 120–21
paleodemography 116–18
stature 118
taphonomy 112
Bir Ftouha basilica, Carthage, Tunisia 661–62
Bishop Sergius Church, Jordan 396, 402
boat lamps 322–23, 322f
Boharic Coptic 157
Bonaparte, Napoleon 32
Bosio, Antonio 3
bouleuterion
in Corinth 58
at Sagalassus 504f
Bradwell-on-Sea church, England 616
bread stamps 306
Britain and Ireland 603–18
expansion of Christianity in 613–18
burial rites 616–17
church architecture 614–16
material culture and art 617–18
map of sites and toponyms in 606f
post-Roman 609–13
burial rites 612–13
epigraphy 611–12
evidence of churches 610
Roman Britain 604–9
burial rites 608
lead tanks 608–9
material culture and art 606–8
possible churches and baptisteries 604–6
bronze amulets 356–60
bronze lamps
apocryphal scene 321f
boat lamp 322–23, 322f
ecclesiastical lighting 329
burial customs (see also names of specific burial sites)
burial rites
expansion of Christianity in Britain and Ireland 616–17
post-Roman Britain and Ireland 612–13
Roman Britain 608
early Christian burial sites 112, 113t–15t, 116
grave goods 110
in Greek provinces 520–23
Mediterranean region 108–11
Asia Minor 111
Cyprus 110–11
general discussion 108–10
Greece 110
Palestine 111
Pannonia, Balkans 542
Butler, Alfred J. 669
Butler, Howard Crosby 6, 413, 419
Byzantine diet 121
Byzantine period 2 (see also names of specific regions)
Constantinople 108
Egypt 668
iconoclasm 10
Jordan 398–404
Palestine 372–81
architectural plans for churches 381
Constantinian churches 373–79
Galilee 40, 379–80
Gazan monasteries 155
Jewish-Christians 380
overview 372–73
Palaestina Prima 373–79
Palaestina Secunda 379–80
transition between Umayyad period and 155
C
C101 church, Humayma, Jordan 397
Caius and the “trophies” of SS. Peter and Paul in Rome 91, 95
Campanopetra basilica, Cyprus 477, 481, 481f
Cana of Galilee 41
(p. 689) Canosa, church of, Italy 563f
Cappadocia 153–54, 508
Capsella Africana reliquary 225–26, 226f
carbon-14 dating 544–55
AMS mortar dating 20
dendrochronology 20, 151
CARE (Corpus Architecturae Religiosae Europeae) project 558, 573–74, 582
casket mounts 542
caskets 222 (see also reliquaries, early Christian)
Castelvecchio Subequo catacomb, Italy 77
castra
Gaul 591–3
Late Roman castles and churches 566, 568f
catacombs 3, 5, 7, 10, 92, 94–95 (see also cubicula)
of Africa 83
Agrigento, Sicily 82
Castelvecchio Subequo catacomb, Italy 77
of Chiusi, Italy 76
cubicula 71–2, 73
decoration 209–18
cosmic themes 212
Daniel 212, 213
decorated cubicula 210–11, 211f
Jonah 213
Madonna fresco 213–14
Noah 212
overview 209–10
prothesis scene 211
red and green line style, 213
Sacraments in S. Callisto 214, 215f
San Sebastiano, Rome 215f
Santa Maria Maggiore basilica 214
defined 67
of Greece 84, 519, 519f
Grotta Fragapane catacomb, Sicily 82
investigation of 3–4
of Italy 76–80
in Lazio, Italy 77–78
loculi 216
of Malta 82–83
origin of 67–69, 210
in Palermo, Italy 82
Rignano Flaminio, Italy 77, 78f
Roman
cult of martyrs and 74–75
end of 75–76
first half of third century 69–71
during rule of Constantine 71–74
second half of fourth century 74–75
second half of third century 71
of Rome
Catacomb of Priscilla 71, 72f, 214
Crypt of the Popes 70, 210
hypogeum of Aurelii 210–11, 212, 212f
hypogeum of Via Dino Compagni 217f
Pretestato complex 214
San Callisto 73, 73f
Santa Vittoria of Monteleone Sabino 77
Sabratha 83
San Gaudioso, Naples 80
Sant’Antioco, Sardinia, Italy 82
sarcophagus of Lot 215f
of Sardinia 82
of Sicily 80–82
Syracuse 80–82
Venosa, Italy 80
Vigna Cassia, Sicily 81
cathedrals 626
Ammaedara (Haïdra), Tunisia 648, 662
Aradi, Tunisia 657–58
Bosra, Syria 424
Dvin, Armenia 465
in Gaul 584–88
in Italy 557, 560–61
Jerash, Jordan 399
Mérida, Spain 626
Milan, Italy 169
Nea Anchialos Basilica C, Greece 200
Pisidian Antioch 501
Pola, Croatia 223
Poreč, Croatia 545
Saint-Pierre (Geneva), Switzerland 142, 581
Sant’Eufemia in Grado, Italy 224
St. John Lateran 15, 168
St. Leontius Cathedral, France 182f, 183
suburban cathedrals in Spain 634–35
Xanten Cathedral, Germany 131
caves
Cave of the Nativity 376, 378
Christian worship in 130
Mamilla Cave burial site, Jerusalem 111, 117–18, 120
(p. 690) the Cells (Kellia) monastic settlement, Egypt 157–59, 158f
cemeteries (see also names of specific burial sites)
Ad Vicesimum cemetery, Italy 77
al-Naq‘a cemetery, Jordan 396
Elaiussa Sebaste, Turkey 117, 120
Hermes cemetery, Tunisia 83
Iberian Peninsula 624–25
Khan el-Ahmar monastery 111, 120
Massa Martana cemetery, Italy 77
North Cemetery, Paphos, Cyprus 109, 483
San Gennaro cemetery, Italy 78, 79f
San Giovanni cemetery, Sicily 81f
Seven Sleepers coemeterium, Turkey 497–98
Štrbinci, Croatia 542
Swallowcliffe Down, England 616
Centcelles, Spain 281
ceramics (see pottery)
Chalcedonian creed (dyophysitism) 456
Champollion-Figeac, J.-J. 142
chapels 133–34 (see also churches)
charakteres 353, 360
chemical analysis 397 (see also archaeological method)
Chersones, reliquary from 224
Childebert (king) 590
China, spread of Christianity to 435
chi-rho symbol 226, 228, 281, 304, 318, 320, 484, 488, 489, 521, 541–43, 605–7, 607f
on lead tanks 609
Triconch Palace 543f
use in Roman Britain 605–7
Chiusi, Italy 76
chorepiscopi 508
Choricius 291–92
chrismarion 100, 176, 179
Christianization
of Achaea 527–28
of Gaul
challenges to studying 598–99
in cities 583–90
in countryside 590–98
overview 581–83
of Greece 531–33
of Macedonia 524–25
of Palestine 108
rural
Asia Minor 508
Gaul 591
Iberian Peninsula 635–40
Italy 563–71
urban
Asia Minor 504–8
Iberian Peninsula 626–35
Christian triumphalism 262, 268 (see also spolia)
Christ Jesus
with apostles 309, 323, 325, 328, 458, 459, 481
on apse 283, 284f, 285f, 286f, 287
baptism and 177, 189, 210
Baptism Site, Jordan 395, 401
crucifixion 359
death of 89
face of 240, 245, 465
on floor mosaic 281
giving law 228
good shepherd and 281, 417
human versus divine debate 286–87
iconography 246f
icons of 245, 245f, 442–43
life of 214, 232, 249, 313, 323
as light 314, 319, 320, 382
Logos 210
in majesty (Maiestas Domini) 227
with martyrs 223–25
resurrection 213, 661
Second Coming 109, 223, 229
teaching of the Kingdom of God 128
Christograms (see chi-rho symbol)
Christological symbols 318 (see also chi-rho symbol)
Chronicle of Arbela 432
Chronicle of Se’ert 432
Chrysopolitissa basilica, Cyprus 477f, 479, 480f, 487
Chrysostom, John 98–99
church architecture (see also baptisteries; basilicas; cathedrals; martyria)
aisles 136, 503
Ammaedara, Tunisia 648, 650, 652
Aradi, Tunisia 654, 656–57
Armenian churches 455, 465
(p. 691)
Church of St. Stephen, Jordan 402
converted Ionic peripteral temple 505
East Syrian churches 441–42
Henchir Sokrine church, Tunisia 659
Horrea Caelia basilica, Tunisia 661
Monte da Cegonha villa, Portugal 637
Pater Noster church complex in Jerusalem 375
Petra Church, Jordan 399
Rahalïya, Iraq 439
St. Sophia in Serdica, Bulgaria 550
West Syrian churches 437
apses 626
in Ammaedara’s basilicas, Tunisia 652
apse burials 110, 111
Constantinian Basilica 96
Henchir Sokrine, Tunisia 659
in North African churches 647
Santa Pudenziana church, Rome 283–84
Séviac in Montréal-du-Gers private oratory 594
St. Catherine church, Egypt 285f
in synagogues 139
episcopal complexes 559–63
khurus 674
martyria 91–95
narthexes 441, 505, 673
naves
Basilica of Paul, Philippi, Greece 99
Basilica of the Apostles, Rome 93
defined 136
East Syrian churches 441
Kiryat Sefer synagogue, Israel 36
Roc de Pampelune in Argelliers, France 593
Séviac in Montréal-du-Gers private oratory, France 594
single-nave buildings 549–51
West Syrian churches 437
oratories 133–34, 594–95, 635
pastophoria 176, 671
synagogues 34–38, 128, 129f, 139, 279
villas and churches 419, 564–65, 593–96, 636–39
churches (see also basilicas; house churches; names of specific churches)
archaeological approaches to 141–43
Balkans 544–53
baths and 199–204
chapels 133–34
ephemeral meeting spaces 130
fortified 551, 566, 567f, 568f
house churches 128–30
intramural churches, Iberian Peninsula 627–31
Italy
during Justinianic period 563–71
rural construction of 563–71
lighting and 328–29
mosaics in 281–92
oratories 133–34, 594–95, 635
overview 127
private oratories, Gaul 594–95
rectangular halls 130–1
residential structures 128–30
tituli 131–33, 169
Church of Bishop Sergius, Jordan 396, 402
Church of St. Stephen, Jordan 396, 402, 403f, 405f
Church of the East 424
ecclesiastical buildings 436–42
history of 432–36
material evidence 436–47
approaches to images 442–47
ecclesiastical buildings 436–42
overview 431–32
Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem 134
Church of the Lions, Jordan 402
Church of the Nativity, Israel 140, 376, 377f, 378f, 383
Ciampini, G. 127, 141–42
cist graves 116
Classical archaeology 3, 47–48
clay flasks 363
clay lamps 314f, 316–20
ecclesiastical lighting 329
with staurogram 318f
Clement of Alexandria 355
Cleveland Marbles statuettes 335, 509
climate science 21 (see also archaeological method)
Clonmacnoise monastery, Ireland 160
closed-shape metal lamps 320–24
(p. 692) coarse wares (ceramics) 305–6
coins 466, 484, 502, 606
Colossae Turkey 55–56
commerce (see networks; trade)
Concordia Sagittaria, church of, Italy 561f
connectivity (see networks)
conservation and preservation
of baptisteries 181–83
baths of Caracalla 192
of human skeletal remains 112
Petra Church, Jordan 397–98
standards of post-excavation conservation 396
Constans II (emperor) 456, 484
Constantine (emperor)
development of Christian art and architecture and 15
influence on Palestine 372–73
Mamre shrine, Palestine 379
martyria during reign of 93–100
Constantinian churches 373–79
Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey 5
Ayia Sophia church 17, 98, 328–29, 532
Byzantine period 108
councils of 286, 518
statuescape 338
conversion of pagan sanctuaries 262–64, 505, 506f, 527–29f, 531–33, 674
cooking wares (ceramics) 306
copper alloy lamps 320
with Greek inscriptions 323
with handles shaped like griffin’s head 323
with molded forms 323–24
Corinth, Greece 6, 12, 49–58, 118, 193–94, 194f, 298–99, 340, 518, 520–21, 527–32
Corpus Architecturae Religiosae Europeae (CARE) project 558, 573–74, 582
councils 140
Council of Arles 583, 604
Council of Chalcedon 286, 393, 401, 424–27
Council of Constantinople 286, 518
Council of Elvira 171, 625
Council of Ephesus 287
Council of Nicaea 286
Council of Sardica 98, 518
First Council of Nicaea 134, 286, 475, 499
First Council of Toledo 636
Second Council of Nicaea 240
Synod of Laodicea 640
Third Council of Toledo 640
Counter-Reformation 216
Crete, Greece 58–59, 529–30
cross-marking, statues 340–41, 341f
Cross of Justin II 231–34, 233f
cross-stamped pottery 488
CRS (Cypriot red slip) ware 302–3
Crusader Rotunda 374
Crusaders, in Jordan 406
Crypt of the Popes in Rome 70, 210
Cryptoporticus of Priscilla in Rome 212
Ctesiphon, church of 439
cubicula 71–72, 73, 80, 82, 83 (see also catacombs)
cubiculum of Orpheus 210–11, 211f
cubiculum of Susanna 215f
decorated 210
hypogeum of Via Dino Compagni 218
Pretestato catacomb 214
cult statues 338
cultural context, New Testament archaeology 53–54
cumulative cycling, spolia 266–67
Cyclades 516, 528–29
Cyprian of Carthage (bishop) 625
on idolatry 209
martyrium of 90
Cypriot red slip (CRS) ware 302–3
Cyprus 54–55
Ayios Giorgios tis Peyias 200
baptisteries 478–79
basilicas 476–78
bathhouse statues 339–40
burial customs 110–11
coins 484
funerary structures 483
geohistory 474–76
inscriptions 486–88
Kourion
baptistery 174–76
episcopal basilica 478f
mosaic inscription from the House of Eustolios at 487f
lamps 488–49
lead seals 484–85
(p. 693)
map of major sites in early Christian Cyprus 475f
mosaics 479–82
paleodemography 117
pottery 488
religious decor 479–83
Cyprus Treasures 485–86
First Cyprus Treasure 485
Second Cyprus Treasure 485–86
Cyril of Jerusalem 221, 287–89, 291, 373
D
Dakhla Oasis, Egypt 671
Dalton, O. M. 6
Daniel in the lions’ den 445–46, 542
depiction of in Aghds‘k‘ tomb complex 454
depiction of in catacombs 212, 213
depiction of on pottery and lamps 301, 319, 488, 509, 522
depiction of on reliquaries 227–28
Eastern versus Western representations of 446
dating methods 544–45
AMS mortar dating 20
carbon-14 dating 20
dendrochronology 20, 151
Dayr Anba Shenouda (White Monastery), Egypt 673
Deichmann, F. W. 258, 260–61
Deir ‘Ain ‘Abata monastery, Jordan 394–95
Deir e-Nuserat site, Israel 156
Deissmann, Adolph 12
dendrochronology 20, 151
de Rossi, Giovanni Battista 4
Desenzano del Garda–Borgo Regio, villa of, Italy 565
Diocaesarea (Sepphoris), Israel 380
Diocletianic persecution 71
dipinti 157–59
disease
Asia Minor 120
Cyprus 119–20
Greece 118–19
Palestine 120
Plague of Justinian 107
domed churches 550–51
Dominus Flevit tomb in Jerusalem 34
Dominus legem dat 231
domus ecclesiae (see house churches)
Donatism 309, 646–47
Dorotheus of Gaza 155
double churches 549, 550f, 585–86
Dura Europos (see house churches)
Dvin, Armenia 464–66
dyophysitism (Chalcedonian creed) 456
E
Early Byzantine period 106
early Christian archaeology 106
Catholicism and 3–5, 369, 557–58
Constantine and Christian material culture 93–101, 134f, 168–69, 172, 178, 261, 281, 318, 338–39, 372–79, 501, 671
early Christian material before the age of Constantine 13–5, 67–71, 128–34, 398, 497–98, 640
history of 3–9
overview 1–3
Protestantism and 3, 5–6, 240–41
Early Islamic period 404–6
East Baths at Scythopolis, Israel 203–4
East Church at Apollonia 202
Eastern Christian communities 432–36 (see also Church of the East)
East Syrian churches 439–42
ecclesia mater (mother church) 626 (see also cathedrals)
Ecclesiastical History (Bede) 614
Ecclesiastical History (Eusebius) 91, 338
ecclesiastical lighting 328–29
economy, society, and religion 8, 10–11, 18, 21, 38–39, 51, 55, 68–69, 107, 118, 143, 162, 198, 260–61, 297–310, 317, 476, 500, 508, 531–33, 562, 564–65, 574, 674 (see also settlement; trade)
Edict of Milan 134, 499
Edict of Toleration 540
Edicule 374
Egeria (nun) 221
Egnazia, Italy 562
Egypt
conversion of temples in 263
general discussion 665–68
history of 668–70
Kellia monastic settlement 157–59, 158f
map of sites and toponyms in 666f
(p. 694)
material culture 678–80
monastic centers 675–77
monastic communities 156–59
monumental churches 670–74
pilgrimage centers 674–75
Elaiussa Sebaste, Turkey 117, 120
Eleona basilica, in Jerusalem 375, 376f, 383
El Gatillo de Arriba church, Spain 636, 636f
El Tolmo de Minateda, Spain 640f
Encratites (Abstainers) 498
Ephesus, Turkey 56
built environments 51–52
Council of Ephesus 287
epigraphy (see also inscriptions)
in Ammaedara basilicas, Tunisia 648, 650
Basilica 2 651–52
Basilica 3 652
Basilica 7 652, 654
Aradi’s Basilica, Tunisia 1, 655
Balkan churches 548–49, 548f
change in use in Jordan 406
Church of St. Stephen, Jordan 404
Cyprus 486–88
Deir ‘Ayn ‘Abata, Jordan 404
Greece 523
Greek
boat lamp 322–33, 322f
on clay lamps 319, 319f
silver lamps 324f, 325
Henchir Sokrine, Tunisia 659
at Kanisat al-‘Abid, Iraq 439
New Testament archaeology 33–34
post-Roman Britain and Ireland 611–12
Epiphanius 379, 380
episcopal complexes 559–63
Castelseprio and Sirmione, Italy 567f
fortified churches 567f
of Geneva, Switzerland 586f
Late Roman castles 566, 568f, 569, 569f
pastoral care function 566
San Genesio, Italy 569, 570f
suburban 560–63
topography of 560
villa churches 564–65
Epitome Historiarum (Zonaras) 260
Erastus 12, 50
eremitism 596
Ereroyk‘, church of, Armenia 455–56, 455f
erotic scenes, clay lamps 317
Esch, A. 258
Eudocia (empress) 204
euergetism 198–99
Eugenius, Marcus Julius 501
Eunapius 523
Eusebius 133, 370, 376
on construction of Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem 261
early Christian groups in Greece 518
Ecclesiastical History 91, 338
influence of Josephus on 127
Jewish Christians in Golan area 380
The Martyrs of Palestine 372
Praise of Constantine 373–74
on spread of Christianity in the Balkans 540
Eustolios 487
Eutropia 373
Eutychius 285
extramural burials 109
F
F102 church, Humayma, Jordan 397
Farj fragments 380
Festival Hall of Thutmose III, Egypt 674
figural representations, clay lamps 318–19, 319f
fine wares (ceramics) 300–4
African red slip ware 300–1
Cypriot red slip ware 302–3
Phocaean red slip ware 301–2
First Council of Nicaea 134, 286, 475, 499
First Council of Toledo 636
First Cyprus Treasure 485
flasks 308, 363
floor mosaics 275
Cyprus 481
Hinton St. Mary villa, England 281–82
inhabited acanthus scroll 289f
inhabited vinescroll 290f
materials 280
Nile River scene 291f
Florentius, workshop of, Rome 313
(p. 695) folded-media amulets 360–62
fonts, baptismal 167, 170f, 178–79, 180f
materials 171–72
plan of fourth-century squared baptismal font in Barcelona 628f
shapes 170–71
forgery 14
formation processes 9–10, 266
abandonment and post-abandonment 18, 40–41, 157, 193, 203–4, 266–67, 338–39, 371, 484, 505, 544, 565, 593, 637–39, 655–66
recycling of objects, statues, and building material 172, 265–68, 307, 337, 344–46, 499–501, 651–52
reuse of architecture and space 70, 77, 81–82, 108, 156, 257–60, 265–67, 436–37, 499–501, 505–6, 572, 585, 594–96, 613, 631, 637
taphonomy 106, 112, 119
fortified churches 551, 566, 567f, 568f
fossores 74, 210, 214, 215f
Foucault, Michel 250
Fountain of Lamps, Corinth 327
Franciscans 369
freestanding baptisteries 176–77, 178
Frend, William H. C. 2, 3, 31
frescoes 15
Aqaba 131
in baptisteries 171
in catacombs 213, 216
dating by 15
Dura Europos 139, 416–18
Holy Rider 247–48, 247f
liturgy and 138–39
Madonna fresco 213–14
Magdala Synagogue, Israel 37
Mren, Armenia 461
San Gennaro (Naples), Italy 78
Sicily 82
Tituli 131–33
Fthiotides Thives (Thessalian Thebes), Greece 108
funerary rites (see burial customs)
funerary structures (see also martyria)
in Asia Minor 502
Cyprus 483
G
Galatia 54, 56
Galerius (emperor) 134
Galilee 379–80
Galilee Boat (“Jesus Boat”) 53
Gallio Inscription 48, 49
Gamla Synagogue, Israel 35–36, 129f
Gaul
Christianization of
baptisteries 587
castra 591–93
cathedral complex 584–87
challenges to studying 598–99
in cities 583–90
episcopal residences 587–88
funerary basilicas 588–90
mausolea 588
monasteries 596–98
in rural sites 590–98
small towns 591
villa churches 593–96
conversion of temples in 263
map of sites and toponyms in 582f
Merovingians 19
statues 340
Gaza, monastic communities in 155–56
gemstone amulets 232–33, 352, 356–57, 360–63
Géou at Labastide-d’Armagnac, private oratory of, France 594
glass lamps 325–26, 326f
gnostic amulets 354
Golgotha 371, 373–74
Gortyn, Crete 58, 196f, 197f, 530
Grado, reliquary from, Italy 224, 225f
graves (see burial customs)
Great Baths at Cherchell, Algeria 203
Greece 57–58
Achaea 515, 527–28, 531
burial customs 110
catacombs 84
Christianization of 531–33
Cyclades 528–29
early Christian groups 518
(p. 696)
Macedonia 524–25
map of sites and toponyms in 517f
mortuary data 519–23
paleodemography 116–17
Panagia Katapoliani baptistery 528f
Thessaly 525–26
Greek Society of Christian Archaeology 5
Gregory of Tours 590
Grotta Fragapane catacomb 82
gunaikon, Megiddo/Legio church 372
H
Hadrian (emperor)
Mamre shrine 379
renaming of Judaea 370
Hadrianic baths 203
Hagia Sophia in Constantinople 17, 98, 532 (see also Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey)
baptisteries 180f
ecclesiastical lighting 328–29
hagiography 155–56, 189, 333, 344
Haïdra (Ammaedara), Tunisia 648–54
Hakim (caliph) 374
Hamage, monastery of, France 597f
Hammat Gader, Israel 204
Hapitsets (hpytsts) 39–40
Hawwarin, Syria 426, 426f, 427
hazarashen 464
headshaping, practice of 121
health, Mediterranean
Asia Minor 120
Cyprus 119–20
Greece 118–19
Palestine 120
Helena 15, 373
Heliodorus 189
Hellenistic period 41
Henchir Sokrine, Tunisia 658–60, 659f
Heraclius (emperor) 456
and baths in Gortyn, Crete 196 coins 484
inscriptions credited to 486
Hergla (Horrea Caelia), Tunisia 660–2
Hermes, Clodius 211
Hermes cemetery, Tunisia 83
Hermopolis Magna, basilica of, Egypt 672
Herod the Great
Mamre shrine 379
mention of in inscriptions 33–34
heroon, in Philippi, Greece 97–98
Hinton St. Mary villa, England 281–2
Hira, churches of, Iraq 439–40, 441
History of Karka d-Bet Slok 432
History of the Armenians (Agat‘angeghos) 452
History of the Armenians (Khorenats‘i) 453–54
Holy Rider amulet 356–58, 357f, 358f
Holy Rider fresco 247–48, 247f
Holy Zion church in Jerusalem 381
honorific portraits, statues 335, 336f, 337
Horrea Caelia (Hergla), Tunisia 660–62
Hosios David church, Thessaloniki, Greece 283–84
house churches 14, 134, 423
in Asia Minor 498, 502
Dakhla Oasis 671
Dura Europos 14, 129–30, 168, 176, 416–18, 417f, 423
in Greece 52, 518
Iberia 625
in Roman Britain 605
Salona 542
House of Kyrios Leontis, Israel 380
House of Polycharmos (House of Psalms), Macedonia 543–44
hpytsts (Hapitsets) 39–40
Hṙip‘simē, church of, Armenia 457, 458f
Humayma, Jordan 397, 401
huts, Christian worship in 130
hypocausts 202
hypogea (catacombs)
hypogeum of Ampliatus 212
hypogeum of Aurelii 210–12, 212f
hypogeum of the Flavi 212
hypogeum of Via Dino Compagni 216, 217f, 218
Maltese 83
hypostyle design 138–39
I
Iapetra, Crete 58
Iberian Peninsula 623–40 (p. 697)
cemeteries 624–25
church topography of Mérida 630f
map of main cities and sites 627f
plan of fourth-century church structures in Egara 629f
rural Christian landscapes 635–40
churches in settlements 639–40
overview 635–37
villa churches 637–39
sarcophagi 625
urban Christian landscapes 626–35
intramural churches 627–31
overview 626–27
suburban cathedrals 634–35
suburban funerary Christian complexes 631–34
iconoclasm 240, 333
in Anatolia 499
Byzantine period 10
Church of St. Stephen, Jordan 405f
Cyprus 481
early Islamic period in Jordan 404–5
statues 333, 342–43
idolatry 209
Illyricum 515–16
Achaea 527–28
Balkans 538
Crete 529–30
Macedonia 524–25
Thessaly 525–26
Imbomon round church (Ascension Church) 376, 383
immersion baptism 179
Inchmarnock monastery, Scotland 160
indirect conversion, of pagan sanctuaries 505
infanticide 111, 112, 118
inhumation 109
Inishmurray monastery, Ireland 160
inscriptions
in Ammaedara basilicas, Tunisia 648, 650
Basilica 2 651–52
Basilica 3 652
Basilica 7 652, 654
on amulets 355, 357, 359
in Aradi’s Basilica, Tunisia 1, 655
in Asia Minor 6, 497–99, 501, 503
in Balkan churches 548–49, 548f
on baptismal fonts 377
in baths 191, 200–2, 204
Cyprus 486–88
Greek 523
Henchir Sokrine, Tunisia 659
on icons 242
at Kanisat al-‘Abid, Iraq 439
on lamps 315–28
New Testament archaeology 33–34
post-Roman Britain and Ireland 611–12
on reliquaries 222, 224–25, 233
on spolia 267–68
on statues 337–38, 340–44
on tomb stones 394
International Congresses of Christian archaeology 5
intramural churches, Iberian Peninsula 627–31
Iona monastery 152, 153f, 159–60
Ireland 159–61 (see also Britain and Ireland)
Isho’yahb II 436
isotope analysis 397
Israel Antiquities Authority 36, 40–41
Italy (see also Roman catacombs)
catacombs 76–80
ecclesiastical network
construction of churches during Justinianic period 572–73
episcopal complexes 559–63
rural construction of 563–71
Lombards 19
map of sites and toponyms in 559f
Ostrogothic Rule 19, 571–72
itineraria (guide books) 31
J
Jafnid Arab tribal rulers 401
Jebel Sheikh Barakat, Syria 423
Jerome of Stridon 189
Jerusalem Temple 139
Jesus (see Christ Jesus)
(p. 698) “Jesus Boat” (Galilee Boat) 53
Jewish-Christians 380
John Mark (Mark) 55, 475
John the Eunuch 155
Jonah
depiction of in catacombs 213
Jonah group statuettes 336f
Jordan 391–406
area covered 391–93
Byzantine period 398–404
Early Islamic period 404–6
excavation standards 396–97
history of research 393–96
map of sites and toponyms 392f
post-excavation standards 397–98
research methodology 396–98
time period 391–93
Jordan Museum 398
Joseph of Tiberias 379
Josephus 127
Judaea 369–70
Judaism 13, 34, 138
“people of God” concept 128
Julianos (architektōn) 422
Justiniana Prima 551, 552f
Justinian I 107
Justinianic period 563–71
Justin II (emperor) 232–34
K
Kalavasos-Kopetra, Cyprus 17, 111, 112, 117, 119
Kalavasos-Sirmata monastery, Cyprus 483
Kanisat al-‘Abid, church of, Iraq 439, 440f
Karm er-Ras (Vineyard of the Hilltop), Israel 40–41
Karnak Temple, Egypt 674
Kartir (Zoroastrian priest) 433
Katalymata ton Plakoton site, Cypris 136, 137f
katechumenon 100
Kefar ‘Othnay church, Israel 130–31, 131f
Kellia (the Cells) monastic settlement, Egypt 157–59, 158f
Khan el-Ahmar monastery, Palestine 111, 120
Khirbat al-Samra, Jordan 394
Khirbat esh-Sheikh ‘Isa, Jordan 395
Khirbet Qana synagogue, Israel 37, 40–41
Khosrov III (king of Armenia) 464
Khosrow II (king of Armenia) 435
khurus (feature of Egyptian churches) 674
Kiryat Sefer synagogue, Israel 36–37
Knossos, Crete 58, 529–30, 530, 530f
Kourion, Cyprus
baptistery 174–76
episcopal basilica 478f
mosaic inscription from the House of Eustolios at 487f
Kovuklukaya burial site, Turkey 120
L
La Gravette, France 591
lamellae 353, 360–62
lamps 313–30, 488–89, 522f
approaches to study of 314–16
boat lamps 322–23, 322f
bronze
apocryphal scene 321f
boat lamp 322–23, 322f
ecclesiastical lighting 329
clay 314f, 316–20
copper alloy lamps 320
with Greek inscriptions 323
with handles shaped like griffin’s head 323
with molded forms 323–24
Cypriot 488–9
glass 325–26, 326f
Greek 522f
metal 320–25
closed-shape 320–24
open, float-wick 320, 324–25
mold-made 488
overview 313–14
silver 324–25, 324f
Syro-Palestinian 489
use by Christians 326–29
Laodicea 59, 341
Lateran (Basilica Constantiana), Rome 139–40
Lazio, catacombs in, Italy 77–78
lead seals, Cyprus 484–85
lead tanks, Roman Britain 608–9
Legio church, Israel 130–31, 371–72, 383
leper baths 201
leprosy 120
(p. 699) Lerins, monastery of, France 597
Les églises de la Terre Sainte (Vogüé) 32
Libanius 260, 338
Liber Pontificalis 169
Licinius (emperor) 372
Life and Miracles of St. Thecla 201
life-history model, spolia 266–67, 267f
Life of Saint John the Almsgiver 305
limestone massif region, Syria 418–21
Lives of the Artists (Vasari) 257
Lives of the Philosophers and Sophists (Vitae sophistarum) (Eunapius) 523
loca sancta 228–34
loculi 80, 82, 83, 216
Lombards 19, 573
looting
in Jordan 396
in Syria 59, 414, 427
Luxeuil, monastery of, France 597–98
M
Macedonia 57–58
Christianization of 524–25
map of sites and toponyms in 517f
Philippi 52, 57, 97–100, 524–25
Thessaloniki 524, 532, 532–33
Madaba Mosaic map, Jordan 381, 382f
Madaba region, Jordan 394, 396
“Madama Lucrezia” statue 345f
Magdala synagogue, Israel 37–38
Makhairas, Leontios 489
Malta 82–83
Mambre basilica, Jerusalem 134, 135f
Mamilla Cave burial site, Palestine 111, 117–18, 120
Mamre shrine, Palestine 379
Mandylion 240–42
manuscripts, Egyptian 669
Mar Bahnam, church of, Iraq 437
Mar Elian esh-Sharqi, Syria 415
maritime archaeology 53
Mark (John Mark) 55, 475
Mar Mattai, cloister of, Iraq 437
Marmoutier monastery, France 596–7
Maroni-Petrera, Cyprus 111, 112
Mar Saba, Palestine 151–52, 152f
Martellange, É. 141
Martyrdom of Polycarp 90–93
martyria
Ammaedara, Tunisia 648
Balkan churches 550
general discussion 89–90
Katalymata ton Plakoton site, Cyprus 136–37
Martyrdom of Polycarp 90–93
Martyrium basilica on Golgotha 373–77, 375f, 381
in personal dwellings 101
Philippi 97–100
Rome 93–97, 133
Syria 423–24
“the second church” phenomenon 100–1
martyrs
in Balkan region 539
in North African churches 647
portable containers for relics of 223–28
Roman Britain (100–400) 604
Martyrs of Palestine, The (Eusebius) 372
Masada synagogue, Israel 36
Massa Martana cemetery, Italy 77
mausolea
Gaul 588
Mausoleum for Constantina 282
Mausoleum of Galla Placidia 282
Mausoleum of the Julii 282
Maximinus Daia (emperor) 499
Maximus, Nonius Atticus 320
Maximus of Turin 94
medieval archaeology 2, 11, 558
Medinet Habu, pharaonic temple 672f, 674, 680f
Megiddo church (see Legio church, Israel)
Melitian archive of Nepheros 668
Melos catacomb, Greece 84, 84f
Memorial of Moses, Jordan 398, 401
Men Ascaenus, temple of, Turkey 499–500
Menas flasks 308
menorah 380
mensae (stone-built tables) 74
Mephaath of the Old Testament 402
Mérida, Spain 630f, 634
Merovingians 19
Mesopotamia 420, 431
metal, prayers and stories on 360–62
(p. 700) metal lamps 320–25
Miaphysite (Syrian Orthodox) churches 435
miaphysitism 456
mikvot (ritual baths) 40, 183
Miletus archangel inscription 355
Minucius Felix 209
model books, mosaic 279
mold-made lamps 488
monastic communities
Anatolia 153–55
and baths 201
Gaza 155–6
Ireland and Scotland 159–61
Mar Saba 151–52
methodology and archaeology of 148–51
monachos 147
monastic colonization 508
Syrian 421
Monophysitism 286–87
Montanists 6, 91, 498, 501
Monte da Cegonha villa, Portugal 637–38
mosaics 275–92
Aradi basilicas, Tunisia 654, 658
Armenian-inscribed mosaics in Holy Land 468–69
Bishop Sergius Church, Jordan 402
Cave of the Nativity 376–77
Centcelles dome, Spain 281
Church of St. Stephen, Israel 402, 404
Church of the Lions, Jordan 402
conservation and maintenance of 398
Cyprus 479–82, 487
Deir ‘Ayn ‘Abata, Jordan 404
floor mosaics 275, 279–82
Henchir Sokrine, Tunisia 660
Hinton St. Mary villa, England 281–82
historical context 276–77
Horrea Caelia, Tunisia 661
House of Polycharmos, Stobi, Macedonia 543–44
inhabited acanthus scroll 289f
inhabited vinescroll 290f
Madaba Mosaic map, Jordan 381, 382f
materials 280
methodology in study of 277–78
Nile River scene 291f
Palace of Peristerias, Macedonia 543
and patronage 280
pattern books of 279
Shellal Mosaic 468
technology of 278–80
use in Mediterranean region 281–92
vault mosaics 282
wall mosaics 275, 481
mother church (ecclesia mater; cathedral) 626
Mren, church of, Armenia 458–61, 460f
Museifnah, church of, Iraq 437, 438–39, 438f
N
Nag Hammadi codices 14, 666
Naples 78–80
Naqlun, Egypt 677, 677f
narthexes 441, 505, 673
naves
Basilica of Paul, Philippi, Greece 99
Basilica of the Apostles, Rome 93
defined 136
East Syrian churches 441
Kiryat Sefer synagogue, Israel 36
Roc de Pampelune in Argelliers, France 593
Séviac in Montréal-du-Gers private oratory, France 594
single-nave buildings 549–51
West Syrian churches 437
Nazareth
in ancient literature 39
modern excavations in 39–40
Nea Anchialos, Greece 199–200
Nea Herakleia, Greece 227–28, 227f
Nea Theotokos church, Jerusalem 381
necropolis, funerary churches associated with 595–96
Nestorians 424 (see also Church of the East)
New Testament archaeology
approaches and methods 41–42
data sources 33–41
inscriptions 33–34
synagogue excavations 34–38
village excavations 38–41
identifying sites 33
(p. 701)
outside Palestine 47–59
case studies 54–59
overview 47–48
New Testament scenes 16, 211–14, 216, 291, 318–19, 444–45, 521–22, 540–42, 625
in catacombs 213–14
in Centcelles dome, Spain 281
on lamps 313–14
on reliquaries 223–24, 227–28
in Santa Pudenziana church, Rome 283–84
Nicene Creed 433
Nikopolis, Greece 547f
Nile River theme, mosaics 291–2
Nitl, Jordan 401
Noah, depiction of in catacombs 212
North Africa
Ammaedara, Tunisia 648–54
Aradi, Tunisia 654–58
conversion of temples in 263
general discussion 645–47
Henchir Sokrine, Tunisia 658–60
Horrea Caelia, Tunisia 660–62
map of sites and toponyms in 646f
North Basilica at Polis, Cyprus 483
Novatians 498
nymphaea 277
O
octagonal churches
baptisteries 169
Basilica of Paul, Philippi, Greece 99–100, 99f
Byzantine period in Palestine 381
Old Minster church, England 616
Old Testament scenes 212–13
in Centcelles dome 281
depiction of Noah in catacombs 212
Jonah group statuettes 335, 336f
on lamps 313–14
on reliquaries 227–28
in Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome 287
in Santa Pudenziana church, Rome 283–84
opera quadrata building technique 572
oratories 133–34, 594–95, 635 (see also churches)
ossuaries 34, 39, 109, 111, 144
Ostian Road Basilica, Italy 95–97, 96f
Ostrogothic Rule 19, 571–72
Outre Jordain, Jordan 406
Oxyrhynchus Logia 14
P
Paedagogus (Clement of Alexandria) 209
paganism 17 (see also temples)
Augustine’s classification of 138
direct conversion of pagan sanctuaries 505, 506f
end of in Asia Minor 499–501
function of temples 136–37
incompatibility between Christian doctrines and 138
indirect conversion of pagan sanctuaries 505
overlap with Christianity in Pannonian region 542
pagan mythological statuary 334–35
and spolia 260–61
Palace of Peristerias, Stobi, Macedonia 543
palaces, relationship between temples and 139
Palaestina Prima 393
Constantinian churches of 373–79
defined 373
Palaestina Secunda 373, 379–80, 393
Palaestina Tertia 373, 393
Palazzo Pignano, Milan, Italy 564f
paleodemography
Asia Minor 117
Cyprus 117
Greece 116–17
Palestine 117–18
paleoepidemiology 21
Palermo, Italy, catacombs in 82
Palestine
basilicas 134
burial customs 111
Byzantine 372–81
architectural plans for churches 381
Constantinian churches 373–79
Galilee 379–80
Jewish-Christians 380
overview 372–73
Palaestina Prima 373–79
Palaestina Secunda 379–80
Christianization of 108
(p. 702)
early Christian funerary assemblages 116
Gazan monasteries 155
map of locations of synagogue and churches 129f
map of sites and toponyms in the region of 370f
material culture 381–82
origins of Christianity 369–70
paleodemography 117–18
reliquary depicting sacred sites in 231–34
Palestine Exploration Fund 6
Palol, Pere de 624
Panayia Angeloktisti, church of, Cyprus 482f
Panayia Field Baths, Corinth, Greece 193, 194f
Panayia Katapoliani baptistery, Greece 528f
Pannonia, Balkans 539–40, 542
Paphos, Cyprus 54–55, 474–80
papyri 14, 151, 162, 353
Christianity in Egypt and 665–70, 677–78, 680–81
found in Petra Church 399
Oxyrhynchus 669
prayers and stories on 360–62
parchment, prayers and stories on 360–62
parrocias 635, 638f
pastophoria 176, 671
Pater Noster church complex in Jerusalem 375
Patriarchate of Antioch 393
Patriarchate of Jerusalem 393
pattern books, mosaic 279
Paul, apostle
archaeology of Pauline communities 47–59, 518, 525
in Asia Minor 497–98
Basilica of Paul in Philippi, Greece 97–100
Hellenistic heroon and temenos with 98f
Octagonal Church on site of heroon and 99f, 532
Basilica of St. Paul Outside-the-Walls 230
in Cyprus 54–55, 107–8, 475
disagreement with John Mark 55
in Greece 57–58, 518, 525
in Macedonia 57–58
Letter to the Romans 167
martyria of 91–97
Ostian Road Basilica, Italy 95–97
Peter-Paul tomb, Pécs, Hungary 541
represented in art 133, 223–25, 228–29, 283, 309, 322–25, 459, 485, 614
in Syria 411
sites dedicated to 72–73, 82, 91–99, 209, 422, 584
tent making and 130
trophy of 91–93
Paulinus of Nola 222
Pella, Jordan 370, 396–97
periodeutai 508
Peter, apostle 229–30, 232 (see also St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome)
martyria 91–95
House of 379
Peter-Paul tomb, Pécs (Sopianae), Hungary 541
represented in art 133, 223–25, 228–29, 283, 285, 309, 320–23, 325, 459, 485
sites dedicated to 72–73, 209, 402, 541, 584, 614
Treasury of, Vatican 232–33
trophy of 91–93
Peter the Iberian 155
Petra Church, Jordan 397–98, 399, 400f, 401f
petrographic analysis 397
pewter flasks 363
Phazimonitis baths, Pontus, Turkey 201
Philippi, Greece 57, 524–25
built environments 52
martyria 97–100
Phocaean red slip (PRS; PHW) ware 301–2
photisterion 100
photogrammetry 395
Phrygia 55
PHW (Phocaean red slip) ware 301–2
Piacenza Pilgrim 363
Pianosa, Italy 76
Pilate Stone, Caesarea, Israel 49
pilgrims/pilgrimage
Achaea 527–28
ampullae and 308
amulets 353, 355
Egypt 674–75
in Jordan 401–2
souvenirs 362–63
piscina 176, 179
Pisidian Antioch 56, 501
Placcus (bishop) 200
(p. 703) Plague of Justinian 107
Pliny 276, 352–53
Pola (Croatia), reliquary from 223–24, 224f
Polychronios 190
polykandela 326, 327
Pontifical Commission of Sacred Archaeology 5
Pope Callistus 69–70, 210
Pope Clement VI 369
Pope Damascus 74–5, 231
Pope Gregory XVI 4
Pope Hilarius 629
Pope Innocent I 169
Pope Pius IX 4
Pope Sixtus III 287
Pope Zephyrinus 210
Porphyrios (bishop) 98
Porphyry 268
Porta d’Ossuna catacomb, Sicily, Italy 82
Portmahomack monastery, Scotland 161
portrait statues 335, 336f, 337, 345
Augustus 340–41
Livia 340–41
post-Roman Britain and Ireland 609–13
burial rites 612–13
epigraphy 611–12
evidence of churches 610
overview 609–10
pottery 297–310
amphorae 304–5
ampullae 308
ceramic panels 309
coarse wares 305–6
cooking wares 306
cross-stamped pottery 488
Cyprus 488
fine wares 300–4
African red slip ware 300–1
Cypriot red slip ware 302–3
early Christianity and 303–4
Phocaean red slip ware 301–2
Palestine 381–82
Roman 298–99
roof tiles 306–7, 307f
Praetorium Complex, Gortyna, Crete 196f, 197f
Praise of Constantine (Eusebius) 373–74
Pretestato complex, Rome 214
Priscilla, catacomb of, Rome 71, 72f, 214
private oratories, Gaul 594–95
Procopius 268, 285
prothesis scene 211, 212f
PRS (Phocaean red slip) ware 301–2
Ptghni, church of, Armenia 463–64, 464f
public baths 190
Q
Qal’at Sem’an complex, Syria 414f, 415f, 423
Qasr Serij, church of, Iraq 437, 438–39, 438f
Qirq Bizeh, Syria 419–20, 420f, 423
Quartodecimanism 127
Qusair, church of, Iraq 440f, 441–42
R
Rabban Hormuz Monastery, Iraq 436–37
Rabbula Gospels 245
Radegund of Poitiers (saint) 233–34
radiocarbon dating 20, 544–45
Rahalīya, church of, Iraq 439
Ramsay, W. M. 6, 48, 495
Red Monastery, Egypt 673
red slip ware
African 300–1
from Asia Minor 509
Cypriot 302–3
Phocaean 301–2
refrigerium 73–4, 83, 92–3, 95, 214
reliquaries
caskets 222
Greece 522f
loca sancta 228–34
overview 221–23
for relics of martyrs 223–8
Samagher casket 228–30, 228f
Sancta Sanctorum box 249–50, 250f, 251, 251f
residential structures (see settlement)
Rhodian amphorae 305
Rignano Flaminio catacomb, Italy 77, 78f
Rihab, Jordan 394
ritual baths (mikvot) 40, 183
Robinson, Edward 6, 32, 36
Roc de Pampelune, France 592f, 593
Roman Britain
burial rites 608
lead tanks 608–9
material culture and art 606–8
possible churches and baptisteries 604–6
(p. 704) Roman catacombs (see catacombs)
Roma sotteranea (Bosio) 3
roof tiles 306–7, 307f
Rossi, Giovanni Battista de 210
Roujan-Medilianum, church of, Gaul 591
rural Christianization 9, 17, 21–22, 119, 142–43, 153–55, 422 (see also Christianization; churches; villas)
Asia Minor 508
Balkans 544
Cyprus 477–8
Egypt 665, 670
Iberian Peninsula 635–40
Syria 411–12, 422
S
Sabinus (bishop of Canosa) 562, 563f
Sabratha catacomb 83
Sagalassus, basilica of, Turkey 339, 504f
Salamis, Cyprus 54
Salona martyria, Croatia 539
Samagher casket 228–31, 228f, 229f
Samah, Jordan 395
Sanatorium basilica, Crete 530f
Sancta Sanctorum box 249–50, 250f, 251, 251f
Sanctuary of Demeter, conversion of, Naxos, Greece 529f
San Gaudioso catacomb, Naples 80
San Genesio, church of, Italy 569, 570f
San Gennaro cemetery, Italy 78, 79f, 216
San Giovanni cemetery, Canosa, Italy 81f
San Martino di Ovaro, church of, Italy 564f
San Sebastiano, Rome, Italy 215f
San Severo, church of, Italy 562f
Santa Maria Maggiore basilica, Rome 214, 287
Sant’Antioco catacomb, Sardinia, Italy 82
Sant’Apollinare Nuovo at Ravenna 572
Santa Pudenziana church, Rome 283, 284f
Santi Quattro Coronati, Rome 169
San Vitale church, Ravenna 283
San Vittorino catacomb, Italy 77
sarcophagi
in Asia Minor 502–3, 502f
development of Christian art and architecture 16
in Greek provinces 521
in Iberian Peninsula 625
sarcophagus of Lot 215f
Sardinian catacombs 82
Sasanian Empire 432–33, 434f, 435–36, 452 (see also Church of the East)
Sasanian seals 445, 446f
Saulcy, Félicien de 32
Saul of Tarsus 411 (see also Paul)
Sayings of the Desert Fathers (Ward) 157, 159
Scotland
evidence of early churches 610
inscriptions 611–12, 611f
Iona monastery 152, 153f, 159–61
monastic communities 159–61
Scythopolis, Israel 381
Beth She’an synagogue 279
East Baths at Scythopolis 203–4
seals
church of Zvart‘nots‘, Armenia 462
Cyprus 484–85
Sasanian 445, 446f
secondary burials 109, 110
“the second church” phenomenon 100–1
Second Council of Nicaea 240
Second Cyprus Treasure 485–86
Sector M Basilica, Gortyna, Crete 530
settlement (see also suburbs, churches, and Christianity; rural Christianization; urban Christianization)
cities 504–8
countryside 590–98
farms 508
residential structures 128–30
villages 508
Seven Sleepers coemeterium 497–98
Severus catacomb, Rome 83
Séviac in Montréal-du-Gers, private oratory of, France 594–95, 595f
Shapuhr I (king) 433
Shapuhr II (king) 433
Shapur I (king) 452
Shellal Mosaic, Gaza 468
Shenoute (saint) 342–43, 673
Sidi Jdidi (Aradi), Tunisia 654–8
silver flasks 363
silver lamps 324–25, 324f
skeletal remains 106 (see also taphonomy)
evidence of disease in 119
soil type and 112
Skellig Michael monastery, Ireland 160
Smyrna, Turkey 90–93
Society of Biblical Archaeology 6
Soloi, Cyprus 478, 486
Son Pereto settlement, Balearic Islands 640f
South Basilica at Polis, Cyprus 483
Southwest Baths, Athens, Greece 193, 195f
Spain (see also Iberian Peninsula)
Centcelles dome 281
Christian cemeteries 625
Christian quarter of Tarragona 631–32, 633f
suburban cathedrals 634–35
spolia 257–69
Christian 260–62
Christian