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date: 29 May 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter first defines philosophy of biology as a field of inquiry. It then briefly surveys the history of the field. It next presents the traditional core issues in philosophy of biology: the units of selection debate, fitness and the nature of selection, the species problem, systematics, adaptationism, and human nature. It then details some recent expansions of the field. One recent expansion has been to encompass molecular biology. Another has been to encompass ecology and conservation biology. The chapter concludes by identifying challenges at some of the field’s current frontiers: understanding the evolution of cooperation and the nature of biological individuality.

Keywords: adaptationism, units of selection, biological individuality, ecology, philosophy of biology, evolution of cooperation, systematics

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