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date: 19 September 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Scientific knowledge is based on induction, ampliative inferences from experience. The chapter gives an overview of the problem of induction and the responses that philosophers of science have developed over time, focusing on attempts to spell out rules of inductive inference, and to balance attractive theoretical principles with judgments and intuitions in particular cases. That this is not always easy is demonstrated by challenges such as the paradox of the ravens, the problem of irrelevant conjunctions, and Goodman's new riddle of induction. The chapter then focuses on explications of the degree of confirmation of a hypothesis and compares various Bayesian measures of confirmation, as well as the Bayesian and frequentist approaches to statistical inference.

Keywords: confirmation, degree of confirmation, induction, probability, inductive logic, Bayesianism, statistical inference

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