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date: 16 February 2020

(p. 449) Index

(p. 449) Index

A
ability(ies)
described, 111
international perspective on workplace diversity related to, 283–284
abominations of the bodies
stigmas as, 358
accent
as factor in in-group identification in ITT, 164–165
acceptance
social
discrimination as threat to, 315
accommodations
work–family
as remedy for bias in performance management, 398, 400t
acculturation
described, 163–164
factors impacting, 163–164
acknowledgement
of uncontrollable and visible stigmas
in reducing workplace discrimination, 361–363, 361f
action(s)
righteousness of, 61
ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA), 119, 259
advancement
workplace discrimination impact on, 342–343
affirmative action mandates
in establishing legal compliance, 51
Affordable Care Act (ACA), 119, 437–438
African Americans (Blacks)
as targets of race discrimination, 95–96
age
as factor in workplace discrimination, 129–141 (see also age discrimination at workplace)
international perspective on workplace diversity related to, 284–285
of workforce
increase in, 129
age discrimination at workplace, 129–141
age-diversity climate, 135–136
delineating worker age categories, 131–132
EEO laws related to, 260–261
effects of, 132–134
factors precipitating, 134
hiring-related, 133
implicit stereotypes effects on, 137–138
interpersonal mistreatment–related, 133–134
intervention research related to, 138
introduction, 129–130
layoffs-related, 133
metastereotyping, 134–135
multiple category issues, 136
performance appraisal–related, 133
prescriptive stereotypes, 136–137
recent approaches to, 134–138
reemployment-related, 133
relevant age categories, 137
research paths related to, 134–138
stereotypes of workers of different ages, 131–132
theoretical approaches to workplace age stereotypes, 130–131
training-related, 133
against younger workers, 138
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), 132, 254–256, 255t, 260, 284, 315, 330
age-diversity climate, 135–136
age metastereotyping, 134–135
age-related stereotypes, 130–138
Ahmadinejad, M., 283
Alaskan Natives
as targets of race discrimination, 97
Albemarle Paper Company v. Moody, 257
allies
as antiprejudiced, 377
in confronting others’ biases, 377–381
defined, 373
described, 374
as discrepancy-prone, 375
in reducing employment discrimination, 373–386
introduction, 373–374
in reducing prejudices, 374
research on
future directions for, 382–383
in supporting targets of discrimination, 381–382
altruistic citizenship behavior
in prescriptive gender stereotypes, 80
ambient discrimination, 34–35
ambiguity
clarity of evaluative criteria–related, 77
evaluative structure–related, 78
legal
religious rights of employees and, 148
as moderator of descriptive bias, 77–78
quantity and quality of information–related, 77
source of performance–related, 78
types of, 77–78
ambivalent prejudice, 12
ambivalent sexism, 12–13, 222
American Atheists, 151
American Community Survey, 114
American dilemma, 94
American Indians/Alaskan Natives
as targets of race discrimination, 97
American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS), 143, 151
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 113, 114, 118–119, 255–256, 255t, 315, 330
lawsuits related to, 116–117
antidiscrimination legislation
in mitigating discriminatory behavior, 178f, 180–181
anti-Semitic attitudes, 149–150
anti-Semitic jokes
in workplace, 150
anxiety
intergroup, 160f, 161
in ITT, 160f, 161, 169–170
appraisal(s)
of modern discrimination
negative, 226
of modern discrimination
cognitive, 226–227
primary vs. secondary, 226–227
performance
age stereotypes effects on, 133
racial discrimination in, 100
Asians
as targets of race discrimination, 96–97 (p. 450)
assessment(s)
group differences in scores on
workplace discrimination related to, 242–244
assessment center ratings
workplace discrimination related to, 243
assimilation theory
described, 171
Atheists
evaluated negatively, 151
attention
stereotype-based expectations resulting in, 75
unwanted sexual, 222, 301
attitude(s)
anti-Semitic, 149–150
gender identity–related, 177
sexual orientation–related, 177
societal
toward LGBT workers, 178f, 179–180
attribution(s)
causal
in modern discrimination, 228–229
motivation for, 228
attributional ambiguity theories
in predicting individual outcomes of workplace discrimination, 316
attributional errors
focus of, 45
group-based
in group-based discrimination, 26–27
attribution process
cognitive biases during, 229
attribution theory, 228
audit(s)
internal
as remedy for bias in selection, 390, 400t
job content
as remedy for bias in career development, 393, 400t
aversive prejudice, 31
aversive racism, 12
described, 31
effect on quality of interracial interactions, 219–220
in modern discrimination, 219–220
B
Bandura’s social cognitive theory, 62
behavior(s)
altruistic citizenship, 80
discriminatory
antidiscrimination legislation in mitigating, 178f, 180–181
beneficial vs. detrimental, 8
expectation-consistent, 75–76
leadership
male vs. female, 79–80
stereotypical female
in prescriptive gender stereotype, 80–81
unethical
employment discrimination as, 59–69 (see also unethical behavior, employment discrimination as)
behavioral constructs
workplace discrimination–related, 300–301
behavior from intergroup affect and stereotypes (BIAS) map, 130
belief(s)
religious
defined, 148
status
stereotypes related to, 44–45
belonging
discrimination as threat to, 315
benevolent prejudice, 13
benevolent sexism, 222, 309
(self-)-objectification and, 309
Best Buy
ROWE initiative of, 399
bias(es)
in career development, 392
organizational remedies for, 393–395, 400t
cognitive
during attribution process, 229
defined, 43–44
employment discrimination and inequality in organizations related to, 43–45
confronting others’, 377–380
practical suggestions for, 380–381
descriptive
moderators of, 76–78 (see also descriptive bias, moderators of)
gender
race as factor in, 396
group-based
ideology in masking, 30–31
implicit
modern discrimination driven by, 218
in-group
employment discrimination and inequality in organizations related to, 45–46
institutional
workplace discrimination and, 373
in performance management, 395–397
organizational remedies for, 397–399, 400t
prescriptive
moderators of, 82
racism and, 92
in recruitment, 388–389
organizational remedies for, 389, 400t
second-generation
in shaping organizational processes, 388–397
in selection, 389–390
organizational remedies for, 390, 400t
subtle forms of, 387
in terms of employment, 391
organizational remedies for, 391, 400t
bisexual(s)
defined, 179
Biwako Millennium Framework, 121
“Black lesbian woman”
cultural meaning associated with, 290
Blacks (African Americans)
as targets of race discrimination, 95–96
black sheep effect, 171
blatant discrimination, 8
subtle discrimination vs., 299, 300t
Bloomberg Bureau of National Affairs (BNA)
Employment Discrimination Verdicts and Settlements database of, 268
bottom-up pressure for inclusion
intraorganizational pressures related to, 50–51
“bridge employment,” 129
Bureau of Labor, 412
Bureau of Labor Standards
on wage discriminations, 239
Burlington Northern and Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway Co. v. White, 261
Bush, G.W., Pres., 259
Business Source Complete database, 320
Business Source Premier, 112
Businessweek, 367
bystander harassment, 34–35
C
Canada
persons with (dis)abilities in
workplace discrimination faced by, 119–120
“can fei,” 122
“canji ren,” 122
care
ethics of, 61
career development
biases in, 392–393
organizational remedies for, 393–395, 400t
career outcomes
family responsibilities’ impact on, 197–214 (see also family responsibilities, impact on career outcomes)
Carey, J., 365–366
caste
international perspective on workplace diversity related to, 288 (p. 451)
categorization processes
stereotyping resulting from, 316
Caucasians
as targets of race discrimination, 97–98
causal attribution
in modern discrimination, 228–229
Census Bureau, 412
on race discrimination, 95–98
Center for Human Rights and Global Justice
at New York University’s School of Law, 288
Channing, C., 366
character
blemishes in individual
stigmas as, 358
chief executive officers (CEOs)
female
discrimination against, 33
China
persons with (dis)abilities in
workplace discrimination faced by, 122–123
China Association for the Blind and Deaf, 122
China Disabled Persons’ Federation (CDPF), 122
China Welfare Fund for the Handicapped, 122
Christians
denominations of, 150
discrimination against, 150–151
chronic illness (dis)abilities
workplace discrimination against persons with, 116–117
citizenship behaviors
altruistic
in prescriptive gender stereotypes, 80
Civility, Respect, and Engagement in the Workplace (CREW), 221
Civil Rights Act of 1964, 1, 3, 62, 93–94, 180, 265, 268, 340, 345, 421, 425
on discrimination against Nones, 151
organizations founded prior to
discrimination in, 48
social justice progress since, 411–418 (see also social justice, progress since Civil Rights Act of 1964)
Title VII of, 25, 143, 185, 253, 254, 265, 266, 315–316, 330
Executive Order (EO) 11246 after, 254, 255t
vague in establishing legal compliance mandates, 51
climate
age-diversity, 135–136
Clinton, H., 363
coaching
subtle discrimination related to, 16
codes of conduct
in employment discrimination management, 65
coercion
sexual, 222, 301
cognitive ability tests
in employment selection, 94
cognitive appraisal
of modern discrimination, 226–227
cognitive bias(es)
during attribution process, 229
defined, 43–44
employment discrimination and inequality in organizations related to, 43–45
cognitive moral development
employment discrimination and, 63–64
collaboration
in prescriptive gender stereotypes, 81
colorblind ideology, 30
colorblindness, 29
colorism, 90
Columbia University, 283
Comisión Mexicana de Defensa y Promoción de los Derechos Humanos, 283–284
commitment(s)
perceived, 208
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 198f, 200, 204–206, 208, 210t
communication styles
male vs. female, 79
competence
as factor in stereotypes, 10
perceived
impact on career outcomes, 198f, 205, 206, 210t
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 198f, 200–201, 209
in understanding basis of stereotypes in age discrimination at workplace, 130
competitive pressures
environmental, 53
concealing strategy
of controllable and invisible stigmas
in reducing workplace discrimination, 366–367
conduct
codes of
in employment discrimination management, 65
conflict(s)
intergroup
in ITT, 160f, 161, 166
social categorization and, 27–28
intragroup
social categorization and, 28
confrontation
discrimination
defined, 363
of uncontrollable and visible stigmas
in reducing workplace discrimination, 361f, 363
Confronting Prejudiced Responses (CPR) model, 363
consciousness
legal
workplace discrimination–related, 265–276 (see also legal consciousness)
metastereotype
defined, 134–135
conservatism
in subtle discrimination in workplace, 18–19
construct(s)
behavioral
workplace discrimination–related, 300–301
modern discrimination–related, 218–223
differences between, 223–224
similarities among, 223
contact(s)
intergroup
as remedy for bias in career development, 394, 400t
in ITT, 160–163, 160f
contemporary discrimination
as subtle, 221, 445–446
contract(s)
employment
biases in, 391, 400t
control
cues for
over future prejudiced responses, 375
controllability
described, 359
of stigmas, 359–360
controllable stigmas
strategies for dealing with, 361f, 363–368
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), 426
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
of UN, 2, 118, 121, 284
Cook, T., 367
coping strategies
for modern discrimination, 227–228
Coptic Christians
Nones against, 147
Corporate Equality Index
of HRC, 182
corporate reputation
workplace discrimination impact on, 345–346
Council on Contemporary Families, 412
counterfactual test for discrimination
in employment discrimination management, 66–67 (p. 452)
covert discrimination, 8
microaggressions and, 429–430
cues for control
over future prejudiced responses, 375
cultural context
described, 279–280
culture
as factor in in-group identification in ITT, 163–164
D
Declaration on the Full Participation and Equality of People with Disabilities in the Asia Pacific Region, 121
Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), 178
Supreme Court on, 443
demographic groups
tests and assessment scores of various
workplace discrimination related to, 242–244
demography
relational
in understanding basis of stereotypes in age discrimination at workplace, 130
“denial of continued discrimination,” 222
denial of discrimination
by perpetrators, 330–335
Department of Justice (DOJ)
on EEO issues, 256
Department of Labor (DOL)
OFCCP of, 256
deprivation
relative, 378
descriptive bias
moderators of, 76–78
ambiguity, 77–78 (see also ambiguity)
degree of stereotype activation, 76
gender-type of job, 76–77
motivation, 78
descriptive gender stereotypes, 74–78
consequences of stereotype-based expectations, 75–76
attention, 75
interpretation, 75–76
recall, 75
described, 74
moderators of descriptive bias, 76–78
theoretical perspectives on, 74–75
development
career
biases in, 392–393
cognitive moral
and employment discrimination, 63–64
identity
group-base discrimination related to, 29
difference dilemma, 400–401
disability(ies). see also specific type and persons with (dis)abilities
defined, 118, 437
described, 111
obesity as
European Court of Justice on, 1
prevalence of
World Health Organization on, 118
types of
research implications related to, 118
workplace discrimination related to, 113–118 (see also specific types and persons with (dis)abilities, workplace discrimination faced by)
usage, meaning, and effect of term, 112–113
workplace discrimination against persons with
chronic illness–related, 116–117
hearing-related, 115–116
mobility-related, 114
psychological-related, 117
visual-related, 114–115
(dis)ability(ies)
defined, 437
international perspective on workplace diversity related to, 283–284
disability discrimination. see also persons with (dis)abilities, workplace discrimination faced by
described, 111
disability issues
EEO laws related to, 259–260
Disability Rights International, 283–284
disclosure of minority sexual orientation and gender identity
against LGBT workers, 186–187
discreditable stigmas, 359
discredited stigmas, 359
discrepancy-prone individuals, 375
discrimination
ambient, 34–35
behavioral constructs related to, 300–301
blatant, 8
vs. subtle, 299–300, 300t
causes of, 309
changes over time, 217
consequences of
discrimination-type–related, 321–322
nuances and boundary conditions, 322–324
process related to, 322–324
recent articles on, 320–324
underrepresented samples, 321
contemporary
as subtle, 445–446
contemporary forms of, 217–236 (see also modern discrimination)
contemporary theories of, 12–13
counterfactual test for
in employment discrimination management, 66–67
covert, 8
microaggressions and, 429–430
defined, 7, 41, 237, 298–301, 299f, 300t, 315
denial of
by perpetrators, 330–335
“denial of continued,” 222
described, 45
disability
described, 111
everyday, 220–221
explanations for, 6–69
against female CEOs, 33
forms of, 257–258
gender identity, 179
group-based
experiences of, 25–39 (see also group-based discrimination)
ideology in masking, 30–31
harassment vs., 300
identity and perceptions of, 34
against immigrants
paucity of research on, 170–171
individual-level
LGBT workers–related reduction in, 192
against individuals vs. class of potential victims, 257
inequality in organizations related to, 43–45
intentional, 240, 257
interpersonal (see interpersonal discrimination)
introduction, 297–298
levels of, 8
against LGBT workers
perceptions of, 178f, 185, 187–188
modern, 217–236 (see also modern discrimination)
organizational remedies for, 387–407 (see also organizational remedies for discrimination)
overt
prevalence of, 217–218
vs. modern discrimination, 218
prevalence of, 7, 297
racial/ethnic, 222
racism and, 92
reducing
effective strategies for, 446
HRM function in, 47
against religious groups, 143–158 (see also religious group discrimination)
reverse, 98
second-generation, 217–236 (see also modern discrimination)
sexual orientation, 179
prohibiting in states and cities, 177
social categorization and, 28
some groups being treated more fairly than others due to, 7
stereotyping, prejudice, and, 9
subtle, 8, 387 (see also subtle discrimination in workplace)
contemporary discrimination as, 445–446
features of, 221
vs. blatant, 299, 300t
targets of
supporting, 381–382
as threat to social acceptance and belonging, 315
types of
relevance of coping strategy to, 323
wage
for LGBT workers, 178f, 181–182
U.S. Bureau of Labor Standards on, 239
workplace-related (see workplace discrimination)
discrimination and diversity management (DDM), 423–434
defined, 427–429
historical background of
stages of development of, 425–427
HRM in, 423–424
in workplace, 423–431
discrimination confrontation
defined, 363
discriminatory behavior(s)
antidiscrimination legislation in mitigating, 178f, 180–181
beneficial vs. detrimental, 8
discriminatory pressures
in organizations, 64–65
disengagement
moral
and employment discrimination, 62–63
disparate treatment, 257
racial discrimination in organizations and, 93–94
disparity(ies)
measurement of, 258
dispute(s)
employment
stretching out life cycle of, 438–439
distributive justice, 60–61
diTomaso, N., 340
diverse inclusive workplaces
preliminary construct articulation and future directions related to, 431, 432f
diversity
defined, 427–429
diverse inclusive workplaces
preliminary construct articulation and future directions related to, 431, 432f
emerging group- and macro-level theories of, 429–431
microaggressions and covert discrimination, 429–430
White privilege, 430–431
frameworks of, 429–431
gender identity
impact on employment experiences of LGBT workers, 178f, 183
international perspective on, 277–296 (see also workplace diversity, international perspective on)
managerial
intraorganizational pressures related to, 49–50
mitigating role of organizational climate for, 346–347
within national context
at regional, local, and organizational levels, 289–290
sexual orientation, 178f, 183, 191
SHRM on, 427
theories of, 429–431
Diversity and Equal Opportunity Centre, 122
diversity ideology, 29
diversity management (DM), 423–424
business case, 426–427
defined, 427–429
diversity management (DM) development, 424–427
stages of, 425–427
business case DM, 426–427
inclusion, 427
legislative imposition, 425–426
diversity management practices
for perpetrators of workplace discrimination, 334–335
division of labor
mobility effects of, 46
organizational
employment discrimination and inequality in organizations related to, 46–47
Doerr, J., 445, 446
Dolezsar, McGrath, Herzig, and Miller meta-analysis
of individual-level discrimination outcomes, 318t, 320
“Don’t Ask Don’t Tell,” 178
double jeopardy, 436
E
earning(s)
men’s vs. women’s, 42
economic imperatives
for organizational support of LGBT workers, 183–184
education
executive
as remedy for bias in career development, 394–395, 400t
egalitarianism
in subtle discrimination in workplace, 19
Ellen Pao v. Kleiner Perkins, 3, 443–446
emotion(s)
male vs. female, 80
emotional reactions
to modern discrimination, 227–228
empathy
in subtle discrimination in workplace, 19
employee discrimination. see workplace discrimination
employee recruitment
workplace discrimination impact on, 341–342
employee referrals
as remedy for bias in recruitment, 389, 400t
employment
“bridge,” 129
terms of
biases in, 391, 400t
employment contracts
biases in, 391
organizational remedies for, 391, 400t (p. 454)
employment discrimination. see also workplace discrimination; specific types, e.g., age discrimination in workplace
cognitive moral development and, 63–64
counterfactual test for, 66–67
ethical individual-difference variables and, 62–64
ethical interventions in, 65–67
codes of conduct, 65
counterfactual test for discrimination, 66–67
fair treatment as moral imperative, 65–66
explanations for, 6–69
introduction, 1–3
moral disengagement and, 62–63
reducing
formalization of HRM function in, 47
selection of
cognitive ability tests impact on, 94
through lens of ethical approaches, 60–62
Employment Discrimination Verdicts and Settlements database
of BNA, 268
employment disputes
stretching out life cycle of, 438–439
Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA), 178
employment settings
Empty Closets, 368
“English-only” policies
in workplace, 164–165
environmental pressures
in shaping inequality in modern society, 43, 51–53
competitive pressures, 53
direct and indirect pressures, 52–53
organizational uncertainty, 51–52
EO 11246, 259
EO 13665, 258–259
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 25, 50–52, 93, 94, 147, 148, 239, 266–268, 275, 297, 315, 440, 444
establishment of, 387
on Filipino American hospital employees in California ability to speak English, 165
lawsuits related to, 116–117
primer on, 256
on religious discrimination, 144
2012 EEO-1 National Aggregate report, 239
equal employment opportunity (EEO) enforcement agencies
primer on, 256–257
equal employment opportunity (EEO) issues
DOJ on, 256
Supreme Court on, 253–263
Equal Employment Opportunity Law (EEOL), 426
equal employment opportunity (EEO) laws
described, 253–254
equal employment opportunity (EEO) legislation and enforcement
introduction, 253–254
primer on, 253–263
ADA, 255–256, 255t
ADEA, 254–256, 255t
age issues, 260–261
described, 254–256, 255t
disability issues, 259–260
EEO enforcement agencies, 256–257
EO 11246, 254, 255t, 259
EPA, 255t, 256
measuring disparities, 258
pay equity, 258–259
retaliation issues, 261
understanding different forms of discrimination, 257–258
equal employment opportunity (EEO) topics
contemporary
age issues, 260–261
disability issues, 259–260
pay equity, 258–259
primer on, 258–261
retaliation issues, 261
Equal Pay Act (EPA), 255t, 256
Equal Pay Report (EPR), 259
ethic(s)
of care, 61
distributive justice and, 60–61
employment discrimination through lens of, 60–62
protestant work, 30–31
righteousness of actions and, 61
utilitarianism, 60
virtuousness and, 61
ethical individual-difference variables
employment discrimination and, 62–64
ethical interventions
in employment discrimination, 65–67
ethical issues
employment discrimination–related, 59–59 (see also unethical behavior, employment discrimination as)
ethnicity
international perspective on workplace diversity related to, 282
ethnocentrism, 279
European Court of Justice
on obesity as disability, 1
European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia, 146
evaluation(s)
performance management–related
biases in, 395–396
evaluation decisions
stereotypes in, 44
evaluator gender
gender discrimination in workplace and, 83–84
everyday discrimination, 220–221
everyday racism
defined, 101
executive education
as remedy for bias in career development, 394–395, 400t
Executive Order (EO) 11246
after Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964, 254, 255t
expectation(s)
stereotype-based
consequences of, 75–76
expectation-consistent behaviors, 75–76
F
Facebook
CEO of, 443
fairness
in workplace discrimination, 238–239
fair treatment
in employment discrimination management, 65–66
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), 438
family-friendly policies
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 198f, 206–209, 210t
Family Medical Leave Act, 287
family responsibilities
impact on career outcomes, 197–214
conceptual model of mechanisms linking, 198–202, 198f
discriminatory mechanisms, 198f, 200–201
empirical evidence review, 198f, 202–209, 210t
family-friendly policies, 198f, 206–209, 210t
future directions in, 209–212, 210t
gender differences, 198f, 201–202
ideal worker norm and, 198f, 200 (p. 455)
introduction, 197–199, 198f
justice theory and, 198f, 200
marital status, 198f, 202–203, 210t
nondiscriminatory mechanisms, 198f, 199
parental status, 198f, 203–205, 210t
perceived commitment, 198f, 200, 204–206, 208, 210t
perceived competence, 198f, 200–201, 205, 206, 209, 210t
perceived need, 198f, 200
perceived warmth, 198f, 200–201, 205, 206, 209, 210t
pregnancy, 198f, 205–206, 210t
primary breadwinner status, 198f, 202–203, 210t
productivity and, 198f, 199
social role theory and, 198f, 200–201
faultlines
between people of different ages, 129
in understanding basis of stereotypes in age discrimination at workplace, 130–131
favoritism
in-group, 279
federal laws
governing workplace discrimination
fundamental theory underlying, 238
feedback
subtle discrimination related to, 16–18
female behaviors
stereotypical
in prescriptive gender stereotypes, 80–81
Filipino Americans hospital employees in California
ability to speak English
EEOC on, 165
flexplace
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 208
flextime
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 208
force(s)
in shaping employment discrimination and inequality (see also specific types, e.g., inertia, in shaping inequality in modern society)
“forgotten”
immigrants as, 159
formal discrimination, 218–219
defined, 184
described, 298, 300t
interpersonal discrimination vs., 298, 299t, 300t
against LGBT workers, 184–185
prevalence of, 217–218
racial, 99–101
formal organizational policy and practice
employment discrimination and inequality in organizations related to, 47–48
formal relationship–building programs
as remedy for bias in career development, 393–394, 400t
Freedom from Religion Foundation, 151
G
Gallup International Millennium Survey
on religion, 143
Gallup Poll
on percentage of Americans believing that immigration hurts U.S. economy, 159
gateway(s)
defined, 13
subtle discrimination at, 13–14
gateway opportunities, 13
gay(s)
defined, 179
“Gay and Proud,” 180
gay students
in Massachusetts
SSP for, 183
gender
evaluator
gender discrimination in workplace and, 83–84
as factor in personal networks, 388
international perspective on workplace diversity related to, 280–281
intersection with other social categories, 84
gender bias
race as factor in, 396
gender differences
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 198f, 201–202
gender discrimination in workplace, 73–88
consequences for men, 82–83
defined, 73
evaluator gender, 83–84
future research related to, 82–85
gender stereotypes, 74
descriptive, 74–78 (see also descriptive gender stereotypes)
prescriptive, 78–82 (see also prescriptive gender stereotypes)
intersection of gender with other social categories, 84
introduction, 73–74
issues related to, 82–85
tracking changes, 84–85
gender harassment, 222, 301
gender identity
attitudes toward, 177
defined, 281
international perspective on workplace diversity related to, 280–281
of minorities
disclosure of, 186–187
wage differences based on, 178f, 181
gender identity discrimination, 179
gender identity diversity
impact on employment experiences of LGBT workers, 178f, 183
gender stereotypes, 74
described, 74
descriptive, 74–78 (see also descriptive gender stereotypes)
prescriptive, 78–82 (see also prescriptive gender stereotypes)
gender-type of job
as moderator of descriptive bias, 76–77
generalized threat, 167–168
Generation Y, 132
Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act (GINA), 438
Germany
persons with (dis)abilities in
workplace discrimination faced by, 120–121
Global Gender Gap Report
of World Economic Forum, 280
Good Morning America, 367
Gratz v. Bollinger, 254
Griggs v. Duke Power, 257
Griner, B., 367
Gross v. FBL Financial Services, Inc., 260
group-based attributional errors
in group-based discrimination, 26–27
group-based discrimination, 25–39
being multicultural while maintaining group identity, 35
CEOs–related, 33
colorblindness impact on, 29
contextualizing identity and, 28–29
expanding singular identities in, 32–34
experiences of, 25–39
identity and perceptions of, 34
identity development impact on, 29
intersectionality in, 32–34
introduction, 25–26
LGBTQ–related
research on, 32–33
privilege and, 29–31 (see also privilege)
social identity explanations for, 26
categorizing explanations, 27
group-based attributional errors, 26–27
research using, 27
SCT, 26
SIT, 26
social categorization outcomes, 27–28
group-based disparities
in education and training, employment, health, and income
discrimination related to, 25–39 (see also group-based discrimination)
(p. 456) group identity
being multicultural while maintaining
group-based discrimination related to, 35
Grutter v. Bollinger, 254
H
“half-blindness to privilege,” 30
harassment
bystander, 34–35
discrimination vs., 300
gender, 222, 301
racial/ethnic, 222
sexual
defined, 300
discrimination and, 300
same-sex, 185–186
Harris Interactive Poll, 119
hate crimes
against Jewish people, 150
Hazelwood School District v. United States, 257
health
defined, 437
hearing (dis)abilities
workplace discrimination against persons with, 115–116
hearing loss
disabilities related to, 115–116
World Health Organization on, 115
heterosexism
defined, 179
hiring
age stereotypes effects on, 133
subtle discrimination related to, 13–14
Hispanic immigrants
self-reported ability to speak English
Pew Hispanic Research Center on, 164
Hispanics/Latinos
as targets of race discrimination, 98
HIV status
international perspective on workplace diversity related to, 288
homosexuality
defined, 179
hostile prejudice, 12–13
hostile sexism, 13, 222
human resource management (HRM)
in DDM, 423–424
in reducing discrimination, 47
human resource management (HRM) outcomes
racial differences in, 99–101
human resource processes
workplace discrimination impact on, 341–346
advancement and retention, 342–343
attraction and recruitment, 341–342
performance, 344–345
performance management, 343–344
reputation, 345–346
Human Rights Campaign (HRC)
Corporate Equality Index of, 182
I
IBM, 283, 289
ideal worker norm
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 198f, 200
identification
in-group
identifier(s)
personal, 290
identity(ies)
contextualizing
group-based discrimination related to, 28–29
gender (see gender identity)
group
being multicultural while maintaining, 35
in group-based discrimination, 34
within national context
at regional, local, and organizational levels, 289–290
parental status as
cultural considerations related to, 288
preferred methodology for studying, 290
religious, 147
sexual
of minorities, 186–187
in workplace, 32–33
singular
expanding, 32–34
identity-blind interventions
identity-conscious interventions vs., 400
identity combinations, 290
identity-conscious interventions
identity-blind interventions vs., 400
identity development
group-based discrimination related to, 29
identity politics
UN as unifying force for, 290–291
identity-related outcomes at work
national context in, 289–290
ideology
colorblind, 30
in masking group-based privilege, biases, and discrimination, 30–31
“I Have a Dream” speech, 7
ill will
discrimination due to, 240
immigrant(s)
as “forgotten,” 159
Hispanic
Pew Hispanic Research Center on self-reported ability to speak English, 164
introduction, 159–160
prototype of, 162
shifting attitudes toward, 160
stereotyping of, 159–175
studies of
difficulties inherent in, 161–162
and “multiple category problem,” 170
view of other immigrants
research on, 170–171
“visible” vs. “invisible” characteristics of, 171
workplace discrimination against, 159–175
future research on, 170–171
introduction, 159–160
immigrant status
features of
in workplace discrimination, 170
immigration
U.S. as nation built on, 159
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 131, 377
implicit bias
modern discrimination driven by, 218
implicit stereotypes, 131
impact on discrimination, 137–138
incivility
selective, 221
inclusion
bottom-up pressure for
intraorganizational pressures related to, 50–51
inclusive job postings
as remedy for bias in recruitment, 389, 400t
India
persons with (dis)abilities in
workplace discrimination faced by, 121–122
individual-level discrimination
reduction in
LGBT workers–related, 192
individual-level strategies
in reducing workplace discrimination, 357–371
individual outcomes
of workplace discrimination, 315–328 (see also workplace discrimination, individual outcomes of)
individuating information
in reducing workplace discrimination, 364–365
(p. 457) individuation
of controllable and visible stigmas
in reducing workplace discrimination, 364–365
inequality(ies)
defined, 41
status
in ITT, 160f, 161, 166–167
inertia
defined, 42
organizational founding and, 48
in shaping inequality in modern society, 42–48
cognitive and organizational sources of, 43–48
cognitive bias and discrimination, 43–45
formal organizational policy and practice, 47–48
in-group bias, 45–46
organizational divisions of labor, 46–47
organizational founding, 48
in-group(s)
out-group vs., 230
in subtle discrimination in workplace, 9–10
in-group bias
employment discrimination and inequality in organizations related to, 45–46
in-group favoritism, 279
in-group identification
in ITT, 160f, 161, 163–166
accent, 164–165
culture, 163–164
language, 164–165
religion, 165–166
institutional bias
workplace discrimination and, 373
integrated threat theory (ITT), 160–167, 160f
antecedent factors in, 160–167, 160f
contact, 160–163, 160f
in-group identification, 160f, 161, 163–166
intergroup conflict, 160f, 161, 166
knowledge, 160, 160f, 162
perceived threats relative to, 160f, 161
status inequalities, 160f, 161, 166–167
individual status of
awareness of, 162
mediating factors in, 160f, 161, 167–170
intergroup anxiety, 160f, 161, 169–170
realistic threats, 160f, 161, 167–168
stereotypes, 160f, 161, 168–169
symbolic threats, 160f, 161, 168
moderating factors in, 161
prototype of immigrant in, 162
segregation in, 163
in understanding prejudice and discrimination toward immigrants in workplace, 161
“visible” vs. “invisible” factors in, 161
integrative model
of LGBT individuals’ workplace experiences, 178–188, 178f
intentional discrimination, 240, 257
intergroup anxiety
described, 160f, 161
in ITT, 160f, 161, 169–170
intergroup conflict
in ITT, 160f, 161, 166
social categorization and, 27–28
intergroup contact
as remedy for bias in career development, 394, 400t
internal audits
as remedy for bias in selection, 390, 400t
internalized racism, 90
International Brotherhood of Teamsters v. United States, 257
International Clarification of Impairment, Disability and Handicap
by World Health Organization, 119
International Labor Law (ILO) Convention, 143
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 286
international perspective on diversity, 277–296. see also workplace diversity, international perspective on
interpersonal discrimination, 218–219
described, 298, 300t
formal discrimination vs., 298, 299t, 300t
against LGBT workers, 185
racial, 101–102
target meaning-making of
model of, 224–226, 225f
interpersonal dynamics
LGBT workers–related
research related to, 191–192
interpersonal justice
in prescriptive gender stereotypes, 81
interpersonal mistreatment
age stereotypes effects on, 133–134
interpretation
stereotype-based expectations resulting in, 75–76
interracial interactions
aversive racism effects on quality of, 219–220
intersectionality, 290, 436–437
in group-based discrimination, 32–34
of workforce
international perspective on, 277–278
intragroup conflict
social categorization and, 28
intraorganizational pressures
in shaping inequality in modern society, 43, 49–51
bottom-up pressure for inclusion, 50–51
managerial diversity, 49–50
organizational demography and relative power and, 49–51
invisible stigmas, 179
strategies for dealing with, 361f, 366–368
Islam
as fastest-growing religion, 149
Islamophobia, 146
discrimination against Muslims related to, 148–149
J
Jewish people
discrimination against, 149–150
hate crimes against, 150
Orthodox
accommodations requested by, 150
Secular, 150
Jim Crow laws, 62, 411
job-age stereotypes, 131
job attraction
workplace discrimination impact on, 341–342
job content
in career development
biases related to, 392
job content audits
as remedy for bias in career development, 393, 400t
job founding
employment discrimination and inequality in organizations related to, 48
job postings
inclusive
as remedy for bias in recruitment, 389, 400t
joint evaluation
as remedy for bias in selection, 390, 400t
joke(s)
anti-Semitic
in workplace, 150
Jones, Peddie, Gilrane, King, and Gray meta-analysis
of individual-level discrimination outcomes, 318t, 319
Journal of Applied Psychology, 420
justice
distributive, 60–61
interpersonal
in prescriptive gender stereotypes, 81
(p. 458) justice theory
described, 200
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 198f, 200
K
King George VI, 365
King, M.L., Jr., 7
Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Buyer, 443–446
knowledge
in ITT, 160, 160f, 162
Ku Klux Klan, 411–412
L
labor
division of
employment discrimination and inequality in organizations related to, 46–47
mobility effects of, 46
organizational divisions of
employment discrimination and inequality in organizations related to, 46–47
language
as factor in in-group identification in ITT, 164–165
Latinos
as targets of race discrimination, 98
law(s)
governing workplace discrimination
fundamental theory underlying, 238
Jim Crow, 62, 411
Lawrence, J., 363
layoff(s)
age stereotypes effects on, 133
leadership behaviors
male vs. female, 79–80
leadership categorization
in subtle discrimination in workplace, 11
Lean In, 444
learning
organizational
promoting, 348–350
workplace discrimination and, 348–350
leave taking
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 207
Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., 258
Lee and Ahn meta-analysis
of individual-level discrimination outcomes, 318–319, 318t
legal ambiguities
religious rights of employees and, 148
legal claims
quantitative analysis of workplace context of, 268–269, 269t
legal consciousness
workplace discrimination–related, 265–276
analysis of, 268–273, 269t
context of, 267
individual factors in, 267
introduction, 265
origins of disputes and, 265–266
legal issues
most relevant to industrial/organizational psychologists in U.S., 253–263 (see also equal employment opportunity (EEO) legislation and enforcement)
legality
in workplace discrimination, 238–239
legislation
antidiscrimination
in mitigating discriminatory behavior, 178f, 180–181
protective
for LGBT workers, 178f, 180–181
LGBT workers–related research on, 190
legitimacy
in workplace discrimination, 238–239
lesbian(s)
defined, 179
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) couples
against marriage licenses for, 1
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals
introduction, 177–179, 178f
research related to
implications for, 190–192
individual-level discrimination reduction–related, 192
lack of, 189–190
protective legislation–related, 190
sexual orientation diversity climate–related, 191
supportive policies– and practices–related, 190–191
work groups–related, 191–192
work-family experiences of, 178f, 187
workplace experiences of, 177–195
disclosure of minority sexual orientation and gender identity, 186–187
discussion, 188–192
formal discrimination, 184–185
individual level of analysis, 178f, 187–188
integrative model of, 178–188, 178f
interpersonal discrimination, 185
interpersonal dynamics–related, 191–192
interpersonal levels of analysis, 178f, 184–187
introduction, 177–179, 178f
lack of research on, 189–190
moral and economic imperatives, 183–184
organizational climate effects, 183
organizational factors impacting, 178f, 182–184
protective legislation, 178f, 180–181
same-sex sexual harassment, 185–186
societal attitudes toward, 178f, 179–180
societal levels of analysis: attitudes and protective legislation, 178f, 179–180
terms and concepts related to, 179
timeliness in considering, 178
wage differences, 178f, 181–182
work-family experiences, 178f, 187
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) workers, 177–195. see also lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, workplace experiences of
lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) research
on sexual identity in workplace, 32–33
lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB) individuals
international perspective on workplace diversity related to, 282–283
lesbian students
in Massachusetts
SSP for, 183
Lewis, D.L., 373
Lincoln Memorial, 7
location
as factor in personal networks, 388
Lockheed Martin, 96
Los Angeles Clippers, 333
M
macro legacy effects, 29
male behaviors
stereotypical
in prescriptive gender stereotypes, 79–80
male-type positions
female stereotypes conflicting with perceived requirements of, 76
managerial diversity
intraorganizational pressures related to, 49–50
marital status
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 198f, 202–203, 210t
marriage licenses
for LGBT couples
prison time for denying, 1
Matlin, M., 366
McDonald’s
spilled coffee case, 439
McDonnell-Burdine scenario, 257
McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green, 257
Meacham v. Knolls Atomic Power Lab, 260
“melting pot” of world
U.S. oft-referenced as, 159
Men and Women of the Corporation, 49
men’s network structures
subtle discrimination related to, 15–16
mental illness
World Health Organization on, 117
mentor(s)
defined, 393
mentorship(s), 16
Merrill Lynch
racial discrimination case against, 1
meta-analysis(es)
of individual-level discrimination outcomes
Dolezsar, McGrath, Herzig, and Miller meta-analysis, 318t, 320
findings from, 317–320
Jones, Peddie, Gilrane, King, and Gray meta-analysis, 318t, 319
Lee and Ahn meta-analysis, 318–319, 318t
Pascoe and Richman meta-analysis, 317–318, 318t
Schmitt, Branscombe, Postmes, and Garcia meta-analysis, 318t, 319–320
metastereotype consciousness
defined, 134–135
metastereotyping
age-related, 134–135
microaggression(s)
categories of, 220
covert discrimination and, 429–430
in modern discrimination, 220
microassault(s)
defined, 220
microinsult(s)
defined, 220
microinvalidation(s)
defined, 220
micro legacy effects, 29
middle-aged workers, 132
Millennials, 132
Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment
in India, 121
minority(ies)
disclosure of gender identity of
against LGBT workers, 186–187
disclosure of sexual orientation of
against LGBT workers, 186–187
religious
religious discrimination against, 145
sexual
defined, 179
minority stress theory, 321
in predicting individual outcomes of workplace discrimination, 316
mistreatment
interpersonal
age stereotypes effects on, 133–134
mobility (dis)abilities
workplace discrimination against persons with, 114
modern, aversive, and symbolic (MAS) racism
described, 92–93
RWA and, 93
theories of, 92–93
modern discrimination, 217–236
aversive racism, 219–220
characteristics of, 218
cognitive appraisal of, 226–227
constructs of, 218–223
differences between, 223–224
similarities among, 223
described, 217–218
emotional reactions and coping strategies for, 227–228
everyday discrimination, 220–221
future research directions in, 230–232
implicit bias and, 218
interpersonal discrimination, 218–219
introduction, 217
microaggression, 220
negative appraisal of, 226
overt discrimination vs., 218
primary vs. secondary appraisal of, 226–227
selective incivility, 221
social psychological factors in, 228–230
causal attribution, 228–229
social identity comparison, 230
stereotypes and prejudice related to, 218
streams of research related to, 218–223
subtle discrimination, 221, 445–446
target meaning-making of, 224–226, 225f
target outcomes of, 228
modern racism
defined, 222
modern sexism
old-fashioned sexism vs., 222
moral development
cognitive
and employment discrimination, 63–64
moral disengagement
employment discrimination and, 62–63
moral imperatives
for organizational support of LGBT workers, 183–184
motivation
for denying workplace discrimination, 330–331
as moderator of descriptive bias, 78
workplace discrimination–related, 373
Mubarak, H., 147
multicultural
while maintaining group identity
group-based discrimination related to, 35
“multiple category problem”
study of immigrants and, 170
multiple races
people of
as targets of race discrimination, 98
Muslim(s)
discrimination against, 148–149
Islamophobia and, 148–149
increasing presence of
in U.S. and Europe, 146–147
negative stereotypes associated with, 149
religious discrimination against
in U.S. and Europe, 146–147
religious practices of, 149
Muslim Brotherhood, 147
N
National Center for Transgender Equality, 281
National Centre for Promotion of Employment for Disabled People, 121
National Disability Network, 121
National LGBT Task Force, 281
National Opinion Research Center
on where we stand today with regard to Whites’ stated attitudes toward Blacks, 412
National Trust for Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disability Act of 1999, 121
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders
as targets of race discrimination, 97
need(s)
perceived
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 198f, 200
negative affect reactions, 330, 332–333
negative appraisal
of modern discrimination, 226
negotiation
clear standards for
as remedy for bias in terms of employment, 391, 400t
male vs. female, 80
neosexism, 222
network structures
subtle discrimination related to
women’s vs. men’s, 15–16
New America Foundation, 443
New York University’s School of Law
Center for Human Rights and Global Justice at, 288
1986 Equal Employment Opportunity Law (EEOL), 426
1990 Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Disabled Persons, 122
(p. 460) 1990 Law to Protect Disabled Persons, 122
Nones
against Coptic Christians, 147
defined, 151
described, 151
discrimination against, 151
Civil Rights Act of 1964 on, 151
evaluated negatively, 151
prevalence of, 146, 151
nonheterosexual(s)
defined, 179
Non-Retaliation for Disclosure of Compensation Information, 258–259
Nordstrom store, 98
normalizing strategy
for uncontrollable and visible stigmas
in reducing workplace discrimination, 365
Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), 259
O
Obama, B., Pres., 258–259, 444
Oberon, M., 366
obesity
as disability
European Court of Justice on, 1
Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP), 52, 256, 258–259, 269
Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) Compensation
Standards and Voluntary Guidelines of, 259
Ohio Civil Rights Commission, 267
older workers
categories of, 131–132
stereotypes of, 132
old-fashioned racism
SDO and, 93
old-fashioned sexism
modern sexism vs., 222
organization(s)
age-related stereotypes in, 132–134
discrimination in
discriminatory pressures in, 64–65
policies and practices of
impact on employment experiences of LGBT workers, 178f, 182–183
racial discrimination in, 89–109 (see also racial discrimination in organizations; racism)
in shaping employment discrimination and inequality, 41–57
forces in, 42–53, 42f (see also specific types, e.g., inertia, in shaping inequality in modern society)
inertia and, 42–48
intraorganizational pressure, 43, 49–51
introduction, 41–43, 42f
organizational model of, 42, 42f
workplace discrimination impact on, 339–353
directions for future research, 350
human resource processes–related, 341–346 (see also human resource processes, workplace discrimination impact on)
introduction, 339–340
as learning opportunity, 347–350
organization processes–related, 340–341
redemptive potential, 347–348
organizational climate
defined, 346
for diversity
mitigating role of, 346–347
impact on employment experiences of LGBT workers, 183
organizational demography
in shaping inequality in modern society, 49–51
organizational departmentalization
employment discrimination and inequality in organizations related to, 47–48
organizational divisions of labor
employment discrimination and inequality in organizations related to, 46–47
organizational learning
promoting, 348–350
workplace discrimination and, 348–350
organizational policies and practices
formal
employment discrimination and inequality in organizations related to, 47–48
impact on employment experiences of LGBT workers, 178f, 182–183
organizational pressures
employment discrimination as unethical behavior due to, 65
organizational process(es)
career development and performance management biases in, 391–399, 400t
recruitment, selection, and terms of employment
biases in, 388–391, 400t
organizational psychology
social justice research and, 413–415
organizational remedies for discrimination, 387–407
career development–related, 393–395, 400t
future research related to, 390–401, 400t
introduction, 387–388
overview of, 400t
performance management–related, 397–399, 400t
recruitment-related, 389, 400t
selection-related, 390, 400t
testing efficacy of, 401
organizational uncertainty
environmental pressures related to, 51–52
organizational variables
employment discrimination and, 64–67
organization processes
workplace discrimination impact on, 340–341
Orthodox Jews
accommodations requested by, 150
Oslo Declaration on Freedom of Religion and Belief, 143
Other Race
as targets of race discrimination, 98
Out & Equal Workplace Advocates, 283
out-group(s)
in-groups vs., 230
in subtle discrimination in workplace, 9–10
overt discrimination
modern discrimination vs., 218
prevalence of, 217–218
overt racism, 240
overt sexism, 240
P
Pacific Islanders
as targets of race discrimination, 97
Page, E., 367
Pao, E., 443
parental status
as identity
cultural considerations related to, 288
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 198f, 203–205, 210t
Pascoe and Richman meta-analysis
of individual-level discrimination outcomes, 317–318, 318t
pathway(s)
features of, 14–18
subtle discrimination along, 14–18 (see also subtle discrimination in workplace, along pathways)
pathway processes
features of, 14–18
pay equity
EEO laws related to, 258–259
Pearce, D., 366
perceived commitment
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 198f, 200, 204–206, 208, 210t
perceived competence
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 198f, 200–201, 205, 206, 209, 210t (p. 461)
perceived needs
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 198f, 200
perceived threat
described, 163
perceived warmth
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 198f, 200–201, 205, 206, 209, 210t
perception(s)
of discrimination against LGBT workers, 178f, 187–188
in group-based discrimination, 34
performance
group differences in
workplace discrimination related to, 244
workplace discrimination impact on, 344–345
performance appraisal
age stereotypes effects on, 133
racial discrimination in, 100
performance management
biases in, 395–397
workplace discrimination impact on, 343–344
perpetrator(s)
of workplace discrimination, 329–338
perpetrator(s) of workplace discrimination
affective and cognitive outcomes for, 332–333
avoiding interactions with stigmatized individuals, 331
denial by, 330–335
desires and motivation in, 330–331
DM practices for, 334–335
impact of
research on, 330
perspective of, 329–338
introduction, 329–330
prodiversity management programs for, 334–335
research on
implications for practice, 334–335
personal identifier, 290
personal identity layer, 290
personal networks
stratified along lines of race, location, and gender, 388
personal threat, 167–168
Personnel Psychology, 420
personnel recruitment. see also recruitment
racial discrimination in, 99
personnel selection
racial discrimination during, 99
persons with (dis)abilities. see also disability(ies); (dis)ability(ies); disability discrimination
defined, 118
described, 112–113
research implications related to, 118
workplace discrimination faced by, 111–127
in Canada, 119–120
in China, 122–123
chronic illness (dis)abilities, 116–117
in Germany, 120–121
global view of, 118–123
hearing (dis)abilities, 115–116
in India, 121–122
introduction, 111–112
mobility (dis)abilities, 114
national and cultural context research implications related to, 123
with psychological (dis)abilities, 117–118
types of, 113–118
in U.S., 118–119
visual (dis)abilities, 114–115
Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 121
Pew Hispanic Research Center
on Hispanic immigrants’ self-reported ability to speak English, 164
Pew Research Center
on religious restrictions, 147
politics
identity
UN as unifying force for, 290–291
power
in shaping inequality in modern society, 49–51
pregnancy
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 198f, 205–206, 210t
prejudice
ambivalent, 12
aversive, 31
benevolent, 13
contemporary theories of, 12–13
described, 8–9
group-based
ideology in masking, 30–31
hostile, 12–13
levels of, 90–92
modern discrimination and, 218
personality traits associated with, 91
reducing
allies in, 374
self-regulation of, 374–376
social categorization and, 28
in subtle discrimination in workplace, 8–9
theories of, 90–92
prejudiced responses
future
cues for control over, 375
prescriptive bias
moderators of, 82
prescriptive gender stereotypes, 78–82
described, 78–79
engaging in stereotypically male behaviors, 79–80
failing to engage in stereotypically female behaviors, 80–81
moderators of prescriptive bias, 82
success as violation in, 81
theoretical perspectives on, 79–81
prescriptive stereotypes
in age discrimination at workplace, 136–137
pressure(s)
environmental
in shaping inequality in modern society, 43, 51–53 (see also environmental pressures)
intraorganizational
in shaping inequality in modern society, 43, 49–53 (see also environmental pressures)
Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, 443
primary appraisal
of modern discrimination
vs. secondary appraisal, 226–227
primary breadwinner status
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 198f, 202–203, 210t
privilege
benefits of, 30
described, 29–30
failing to confront, 31
group-based
ideology in masking, 30–31
group-based discrimination related to, 29–31
invisible aspect of, 30
legitimizing myths and social dominance related to, 31
those without
terminology related to, 30
privilege recognition
described, 19
in subtle discrimination in workplace, 19
prodiversity management programs
for perpetrators of workplace discrimination, 334–335
productivity
group differences in
workplace discrimination related to, 244
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 198f, 199
promotion(s)
biases in, 396–397
decisions related to
racial discrimination in, 101
subtle discrimination related to, 14
proscription(s)
written into statutes, 261
protective legislation
for LGBT workers, 178f, 180–181
research on, 190 (p. 462)
protestant work ethic
described, 30–31
prototype(s)
in subtle discrimination in workplace, 10–11
PsychInfo database, 320
psychological (dis)abilities
workplace discrimination against persons with, 117–118
psychology
organizational
social justice research and, 413–415
R
race(s)
as factor in gender bias, 396
as factor in personal networks, 388
multiple
as targets of race discrimination, 98
race discrimination. see also racial discrimination
defined, 94
targets of, 94–98
American Indians/Alaskan Natives, 97
Asians, 96–97
Blacks (African Americans), 95–96
future research recommendations related to, 103t
Hispanics/Latinos, 98
multiple races, 98
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders, 97
Other Race, 98
U.S. Census Bureau on, 95–98
Whites, 97–98
race/ethnicity
international perspective on workplace diversity related to, 282
Racial and Ethnic Microaggression Scale (REMS), 220
racial discrimination. see also race discrimination
formal, 99–101
future research recommendations related to, 103t
interpersonal, 101–102
in performance appraisal, 100
in personnel recruitment, 99
during personnel selection, 99
in promotional decisions, 101
targets of, 94–98
types of, 99–102
formal discrimination, 99–101
future research recommendations related to, 103t
interpersonal discrimination, 101–102
racial discrimination case
against Merrill Lynch, 1
racial discrimination in organizations, 89–109. see also racial discrimination; racism
disparate treatment in, 93–94
introduction, 89
racial discrimination theory, 89–90
future research recommendations related to, 103t
racial/ethnic harassment and discrimination (REHD), 222
racial slurs
as formal discrimination, 217
racism
as American dilemma, 90
aversive (see aversive racism)
bias and, 92
defined, 90
discrimination and, 92
disparate treatment and adverse impact of
theories of, 93–94
everyday
defined, 101
as global phenomenon, 90
internalized, 90
manifestations of
changes over time, 92–93
modern
defined, 222
old-fashioned
SDO and, 93
overt, 240
prejudice and, 90–92
SCT and, 92
SIT and, 92
stereotypes and, 92
symbolic, 12
defined, 222
theories of disparate treatment and adverse impact of, 93–94
realistic threats
described, 160f, 161
in ITT, 160f, 161, 167–168
recall
stereotype-based expectations resulting in, 75
recognition
privilege
in subtle discrimination in workplace, 19
recruitment
biases in, 388–389
organizational remedies for, 389, 400t
personnel
racial discrimination in, 99
workplace discrimination impact on, 341–342
Reddit, 444
reduced hours policies
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 207–208
reemployment
age stereotypes effects on, 133
referral(s)
employee
as remedy for bias in recruitment, 389, 400t
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 254
Rehabilitation Act
changes to, 260
Rehabilitation Council of India Act 1992, 121
relational demography
in understanding basis of stereotypes in age discrimination at workplace, 130
relationship(s)
in career development
biases related to, 392–393
relative deprivation, 378
religion
international perspective on workplace diversity related to, 285–286
religion(s)
ARIS on, 143
as factor in in-group identification in ITT, 165–166
fastest-growing
Islam as, 149
Gallup International Millennium Survey on, 143
as stigmatized characteristic, 144–145
as unique characteristics, 145–146, 145t
religiosity
variability in, 147
religious beliefs
defined, 148
religious discrimination. see also religious group discrimination
contributors to, 146–148
EEOC on, 144
future research related to, 151–154
global increases in, 147
increasing presence of Muslims in America and European countries and, 146–147
against Muslims
in U.S. and Europe, 146–147
negative consequences of, 144
against religious minorities, 145
religious expression
in workplace
rise of, 147–148
religious group(s)
discrimination against, 148–151
Christians, 150–151
Jewish people, 149–150
Muslims, 148–149
Nones, 151
prevalence of, 148
religious group discrimination
contributors to, 146–148 (p. 463)
future research related to, 151–154
implications of, 154
introduction, 143–144
religious expression in workplace and, 147–148
in workplace, 143–158 (see also religion(s); religious discrimination)
Christians, 150–151
defined, 143
Jewish people, 149–150
Muslims, 148–149
Nones, 151
religious identification, 147
religious minorities
religious discrimination against, 145
religious restrictions
Pew Research Center on, 147
rise of, 147
religious rights of employees
legal ambiguities related to, 148
religious stigmas, 144–145
reputation
corporate
workplace discrimination impact on, 345–346
responsibility(ies)
family
restriction(s)
religious
Pew Research Center on, 147
rise of, 147
Results Only Work Environment (ROWE) initiative
of Best Buy, 399
retaliation issues
EEO laws related to, 261
retention
workplace discrimination impact on, 342–343
revealing/disclosing strategy
of controllable and invisible stigmas
in reducing workplace discrimination, 367
reverse discrimination, 98
reward(s)
biases in, 397
righteousness of actions, 61
rights mobilization
quantitative accounts of, 269–273
expectations of, 273
obstacles to, 272–273
past experience with discrimination, 270
workplace composition, 270–271
workplace culture and managerial discretion, 271–272
workplace discrimination–related, 265–276
analysis of, 268–273, 269t
claiming process, 266–267
context of, 267
individual factors in, 267
introduction, 265
Rights of Persons with Disabilities
United Nations Convention on, 2
right-wing authoritarianism (RWA)
characteristics of, 18
described, 91
MAS racism and, 93
in subtle discrimination in workplace, 18
traits associated with, 91
Roberts, R., 367
S
Safe Schools Program (SSP)
for gay and lesbian students in Massachusetts, 183
same-sex sexual harassment
of LGBT workers, 185–186
Sandberg, S., 443, 444
schema theory, 113
Schmitt, Branscombe, Postmes, and Garcia meta-analysis
of individual-level discrimination outcomes, 318t, 319–320
scholarly
defined, 419
scholarly works on employment discrimination
accessibility of, 420
evolving, 1–2
improving relevance of, 420–421
influence on practice, 419–421
scope of, 420
secondary appraisal
of modern discrimination
vs. primary appraisal, 226–227
second-generation discrimination, 217–236. see also modern discrimination
Secular Jews, 150
segregation
in ITT model, 163
selection
bias in, 389–390
organizational remedies for, 390, 400t
selective incivility, 221
self-categorization theory, 130
(self-)-objectification
benevolent sexism and, 309
self-promotion
male vs. female, 80
self-regulation
of prejudice, 374–376
self-regulatory skills
practical suggestions for improving, 376–377
self-stigma
defined, 117
sexism
ambivalent, 12–13, 222
benevolent, 222, 309
(self-)-objectification and, 309
hostile, 13, 222
old-fashioned vs. modern, 222
overt, 240
sexual attention
unwanted, 222, 301
sexual coercion, 222, 301
sexual harassment
defined, 300
same-sex
of LGBT workers, 185–186
types of, 301
workplace discrimination and, 300–301
sexual identity
of minorities
disclosure of, 186–187
in workplace
LGBTQ research on, 32–33
sexual minorities
defined, 179
sexual orientation
attitudes toward, 177
defined, 179
international perspective on workplace diversity related to, 282–283
wage differences based on, 178f, 181
sexual orientation discrimination, 179
prohibiting of
in states and cities, 177
sexual orientation diversity
climate of
LGBT workers–related research on, 191
impact on employment experiences of LGBT workers, 178f, 183
Should-Would Discrepancy Questionnaire, 375
signaling
in controllable and invisible stigmas
in reducing workplace discrimination, 367–368
similarly situated employee groupings (SSEGs), 259
Slaughter, A.M., 443
slur(s)
racial
as formal discrimination, 217 (p. 464)
Smith v. City of Jackson, 258, 260
social acceptance
discrimination as threat to, 315
social categorization
intergroup conflict due to, 27–28
intragroup conflict due to, 28
outcomes of, 27–28
reasons for, 27
in subtle discrimination in workplace, 9–11
in-groups and out-groups, 9–10
leadership categorization, 11
subtypes and prototypes, 10–11
social categorization theory (SCT), 25–26
in group-based discrimination, 26
in predicting individual outcomes of workplace discrimination, 316
racism and, 92
“social closure,” 388
social cognitive theory
Bandura’s, 62
social dominance orientation (SDO), 18
described, 18, 31, 91
old-fashioned racism and, 93
traits associated with, 91
social exclusion
workplace discrimination and, 423
social identity categories
international perspective on workplace diversity related to, 280–289
abilities, 283–284
caste, 288
(dis)abilities, 283–284
gender, 280–281
gender identity, 280–281
HIV status, 288
LGB individuals, 282–283
religion, 285–286
sexual orientation, 282–283
socioeconomic status, 286–287
veterans, 288
work–family issues, 287–288
social identity comparison
in modern discrimination, 230
social identity theory (SIT), 25–26, 130, 230
described, 163
in group-based discrimination, 26
racism and, 92
social justice
progress since Civil Rights Act of 1964, 411–418
described, 412–413
introduction, 411–412
research related to, 413–415
social justice research
organizational psychology and, 413–415
social networks
subtle discrimination related to, 15–16
social psychological factors
in modern discrimination, 228–230 (see also specific types and modern discrimination, social psychological factors in)
social role theory
described, 200–201
in linking family responsibilities to career outcomes, 198f, 200–201
societal attitudes
toward LGBT workers, 178f, 179–180
Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM)
on diversity efforts, 427
Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), 420
Society of Human Resource Management (SHRM), 154
on secular culture of workplace, 148
on workplace accommodations for religious observances, 150
socioeconomic status
international perspective on workplace diversity related to, 286–287
Standards and Voluntary Guidelines
of OFCCP Compensation, 259
status beliefs
stereotypes related to, 44–45
status incongruity hypothesis (SIH), 13
status inequalities
in ITT, 160f, 161, 166–167
stereotype(s)
age-related, 130–138
defined, 8
described, 8, 92
discrimination due to, 240–241
in evaluation decisions, 44
gender (see gender stereotypes)
implicit, 131
impact on discrimination, 137–138
in ITT, 160f, 161, 168–169
job-age, 131
middle-aged workers, 132
modern discrimination and, 218
Muslim-related, 149
older worker, 132
prescriptive
in age discrimination at workplace, 136–137
racism and, 92
reasons for, 8
status beliefs and, 44–45
in subtle discrimination in workplace, 8–9
theories of, 92
of workers of different ages, 131–132
younger worker, 132
stereotype activation
degree of
as moderator of descriptive bias, 76
stereotype-based expectations
consequences of, 75–76
stereotype content, 10
stereotype content model, 10, 168
stereotypical female behaviors
failing to engage in
in prescriptive gender stereotypes, 80–81
stereotypical male behaviors
engaging in
in prescriptive gender stereotypes, 79–80
stereotyping
categorization processes and, 316
defined, 131
described, 160f, 161
of immigrants, 159–175
Sterling, D., 333
stigma(s)
as abominations of the bodies, 358
as blemishes in individual character, 358
categories of, 358
characteristics of, 145–146, 145t
controllability of, 359–360
controllable and invisible
strategies for dealing with, 361f, 366–368
controllable and visible
strategies for dealing with, 361f, 363–365
course and fluidity of, 368–369
defined, 117, 358–359
discreditable, 359
discredited, 359
features of
reactions related to, 359–360
invisible, 179
strategies for dealing with, 361f, 366–368
religious, 144–145
tribal, 358–359
uncontrollable and visible
strategies for dealing with, 361–363, 361f, 365–366
visibility of, 360–361
stigma dimensions
on various stigmatizing characteristics, 145–146, 145t
stigma lens
in reducing workplace discrimination, 361–371, 361f (see also stigma(s))
controllable and invisible stigmas, 361f, 366–368
controllable and visible stigmas, 361f, 363–365
uncontrollable and visible stigmas, 361–363 361t, 365–366
stigma theory, 179
subtle discrimination, 8, 387
blatant discrimination vs., 299, 300t
contemporary discrimination as, 445–446 (p. 465)
described, 299, 300t
features of, 221
subtle discrimination in workplace, 7–24, 387
along pathways, 14–18
feedback-related, 16–18
mentorship- and coaching-related, 16
social networks–related, 15–16
at gateways, 13–14
hiring, 13–14
promotions-related, 14
individual-level factors and processes, 7–24
conservatism, 18–19
contemporary theories of prejudice and discrimination, 12–13
egalitarianism, 19
empathy, 19
fundamental concepts, 8–9
at gateways vs. pathways, 13–18
privilege recognition, 19
RWA, 18
SDO, 18
social categorization, 9–11
stereotype and prejudice, 8–9
individual-level predictors of, 8
introduction, 7–8
social categorization
hiring-related, 13–14
types of, 7, 10
success as violation
in prescriptive gender stereotypes, 81
supportive policies and practices
LGBT workers–related research on, 190–191
Supreme Court
on DOMA, 443
on EEO issues, 253–263
symbolic racism, 12
defined, 222
symbolic threats
described, 160f, 161
in ITT, 160f, 161, 168
T
Tanenbaum Center for Interreligious Understanding, 154
target meaning-making
of modern discrimination, 224–226, 225f
test(s)
group differences in scores on
workplace discrimination related to, 242–244
“Texan and Proud,” 180
Texas Dept. of Community Affairs v. Burdine, 257
The American Non-Dilemma: Racial Inequality Without Racism, 340
The King’s Speech,