- Oxford Library of Psychology
- The Oxford Handbook of Workplace Discrimination
- About the Editors
- Subtle Discrimination in the Workplace: Individual-Level Factors and Processes
- Group-Based Experiences of Discrimination: Moving Beyond Cognitive Theories
- Organizations, Employment Discrimination, and Inequality
- Employment Discrimination as Unethical Behavior
- Gender Discrimination in the Workplace
- Racial Discrimination in Organizations
- Persons With (dis)Abilities
- Age Discrimination at Work: A Review of the Research and Recommendations for the Future
- Religious Group Discrimination
- Immigrants in the Workplace: Stereotyping and Discrimination
- LGBT Workers
- Family Responsibilities and Career Outcomes: Discriminatory and Nondiscriminatory Explanations
- Modern Discrimination
- Discrimination in Employment Settings
- A Primer on Equal Employment Opportunity Law and Contemporary Enforcement
- Legal Consciousness, Mobilization, and Discrimination Disputes at Work
- International Perspective
- Measuring and Defining Discrimination
- Individual Outcomes of Discrimination in Workplaces
- Impact on Perpetrators
- Impact on Organizations
- A Stigma Lens for Considering What Targets Can Do
- What Can Allies Do?
- Organizational Remedies for Discrimination
- How Much Has America Changed in 50 Years?: An Organizational Psychologist’s Take on Social Justice Progress Since the Civil Rights Act of 1964
- Can Scholarly Works on Discrimination Make a Practical Difference?
- Moving Forward from Inequality and Discrimination: Historical Global Perspectives
- Looking Forward: What Lies Ahead in Employment Discrimination Research?
- In Conclusion: Workplace Discrimination in Context
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter reviews the conditions and processes that give rise to gender discrimination in the workplace, impeding women’s career advancement. It explores how descriptive and prescriptive gender stereotypes—through distinct mechanisms—promote inequities in the selection, promotion, and evaluation of women. The paper examines how descriptive gender stereotypes, which describe what men and women are like, encourage gender discriminatory behavior by contributing to the expectation that women are ill equipped to succeed in traditionally male positions. It also considers how prescriptive gender stereotypes, which prescribe what men and women should be like, encourage gender discriminatory behavior by spurring disapproval and social penalties for women who behave in stereotype-inconsistent ways—whether explicitly or by merely being successful in roles considered to be male-typed. The chapter discusses existing research, considers the conditions that minimize or exacerbate gender discrimination, and identifies questions for future study.
Madeline E. Heilman Department of Psychology New York University New York, NY, USA
Suzette Caleo EJ Ourso College of Business Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA, USA
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